WorldWideScience

Sample records for dutch energy sector

  1. China. Top Sector Energy. Sustainable Building. Opportunities for Dutch companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    For China, sustainable design is necessary for controlling energy usage in crowded and constantly expanding urban areas. It is well known that China is the world's biggest construction market. Nearly half of the new buildings annually constructed worldwide are located in China by 2015. However, only about 4% of these are built according to energy efficiency standards. China's construction market will by 2020 account for 40% of the country's total energy consumption. While it contributes 15% of the world's GDP, China consumes 30% of the earth's steel and half its concrete. On top of which, buildings in China consume a third of the country's increasingly endangered water supplies. Recent research showed that almost half of the national energy consumption has been used for construction related purposes. Of existing buildings, a huge amount needs sustainable redesign and retrofitting technologies.Chinese government has recognized the urgency of widely implementing sustainable buildings. As a result, a national 3-star China National Green Building rating system has been launched in 2006. Yet the Chinese green building revolution is still in its infancy. Main problems are, amongst others, low level of regulations and standards, problematic implementations at local level, lack of awareness and transparency in related public and private sector, lack of expertise of integrated sustainable building design and construction among engineers, designers and constructors. It is also to be expected that more aggressive energy saving and environmental protection targets will be set by the 12th Five Year Plan. Promote green buildings will be one of the top priorities in China's swift urbanization process with focus on saving land, energy, water and materials. Chinese government has recognized the urgency of widely implementing sustainable buildings. Yet the Chinese green building revolution is still in its infancy. Under this framework, the

  2. Energy monitor of the Dutch mushroom sector 2011; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Paddestoelensector 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J.; Promes, E. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The targets of the long-term agreement on energy efficiency between 2007-2011 between the mushroom sector and several ministries in the Netherlands are: 14.5% energy efficiency improvement compared to 2005; and increased use of sustainable energy. For the annual monitoring of the energy use of the mushroom sector in 2011 108 businesses were approached. 53 businesses sent back filled in questionnaires [Dutch] De doelstellingen van de Meerjarenafspraak energie voor 2007 t/m 2011 (de MJA-e 2007-2011), gemaakt tussen het ministerie van LNV (het tegenwoordige ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI)) en de Paddenstoelensector (Vakgroep Paddenstoelen van de LTO, het Productschap Tuinbouw, en de deelnemende bedrijven) zijn: Een verbetering van de Energie-Efficientie (EE) van 14,5% t.o.v. 2005, d.w.z. een reductie van 2% in het energieverbruik per eenheid product in 2006 en van 2007 t/m 2011 van 2,5 % per jaar. Daarnaast wordt het toepassen van duurzame energie als speerpunt gesteld. Volgens deze afspraak worden de vorderingen op dit gebied jaarlijks gemonitord. Voor de monitoring van het energieverbruik door de paddenstoelensector in 2011 zijn 108 bedrijven aangeschreven. Van 53 bedrijven zijn volledig ingevulde vragenlijsten ontvangen.

  3. Geothermal energy sources as opportunity for Turkish greenhouse horticulture and the Dutch commercial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify the opportunities offered by exploration of geothermal energy sources, and to specify actions to be taken by Dutch governmental bodies and private companies in collaboration with Turkish partners.

  4. Geothermal energy sources as opportunity for Turkish greenhouse horticulture and the Dutch commercial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify the opportunities offered by exploration of geothermal energy sources, and to specify actions to be taken by Dutch governmental bodies and private companies in collaboration with Turkish partners.

  5. Energy monitor of the Dutch mushroom sector 2010; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Paddestoelensector 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J.; Smits, A. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    For the monitoring of the energy use of the mushroom sector in 2010 92 businesses were approached. 61 businesses sent back filled in questionnaires. Compared to 2009, all types of businesses show a decrease in their energy use per kilogram. The most frequently used energy saving measure is frequency control (93% of the businesses). More than half of the (51%) uses a high efficiency boiler. In the category of energy efficient climate control systems, the moisture deficit regime was most frequently used (41%). The share of sustainable energy (including green electricity) is 7.8%. The avoided CO2 emission in 2010 is 4.970 tons. The CO2 emission per kilogram of mushrooms in 2010 amounted to 171g CO2/kg, which is a decrease of 15% compared to 2005 and 3% lower than in 2009 [Dutch] Voor de monitoring van het energieverbruik door de paddenstoelensector in 2010 zijn 92 bedrijven aangeschreven. Van 61 bedrijven zijn volledig ingevulde vragenlijsten ontvangen. In vergelijking met 2009 is er voor alle bedrijfstypen een afname van het energieverbruik per kilogram. Van de energiebesparende maatregelen worden frequentieregelaars het meest toegepast (93% van de bedrijven). Meer dan de helft (51%) van de bedrijven maakt gebruik van een HR-ketel. Van de energiezuinige klimaatregelingen wordt de vochtdeficitregeling het meest toegepast (41%). Het aandeel duurzame energie (inclusief groene stroom) is 7.8%. De vermeden CO2 uitstoot is in 2010 berekend op 3.970 ton. De CO2 uitstoot per kg paddenstoelen is in 2010 uitgekomen op 171g CO2/kg t.o.v. 2005 een daling van 15%, en 3% lager dan in 2009.

  6. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  7. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2010; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    1313 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2010. The response rate was 60%. Compared to 2008, the energy use per hectare decreased with 6.6% in 2010. The energy use per 1000 forced bulbs has decreased with 18.0%. Energy saving measures were implemented at a larger scale compared to 2009. What is most striking is the strong increase in deployment of a lower circulation standard and multi-layer cultivation. The purchase of green electricity is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable energy for electricity (9.2% of the businesses). Deployment of hot air from the greenhouse for drying purposes is the most frequently used deployment of sustainable thermal energy (18.1% of the businesses). The share of sustainable energy amounts to 2.2%. The CO2 emission from direct use of fossil fuels has decreased with 11.8% compared to 2008 [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2010 zijn 1313 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 60%. T.o.v. 2008 is het energieverbruik per hectare in 2010 met 6,6% afgenomen. Het energieverbruik per 1000 stuks broeibollen is met 18,0% afgenomen. Energiebesparende maatregelen werden iets meer toegepast dan in 2009. Opvallend is de sterke toename van het toepassen van een lagere circulatienorm en van meerlagenteelt. Aankoop van groene stroom is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame energie voor elektra (9,2% van de bedrijven). Het toepassen van warme kaslucht voor het drogen is de meest toegepaste benutting van duurzame thermische energie (18,1% van de bedrijven). Het aandeel duurzame energie komt op 2,2%. De CO2-uitstoot door het directe verbruik van fossiele brandstoffen is t.o.v. 2008 met 11,8% afgenomen.

  8. Energy monitor of the Dutch flower bulb sector 2008; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse Bloembollensector 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildschut, J. [Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving PPO, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij en Fruit, Lisse (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    1450 flower bulb businesses were approached for the Dutch Energy Monitor 2008. The response rate was 56%. A comparison with the energy use of 2007 or 2006 proved to be of little use due to the differences between the various databases. The calculated energy use data per crop in 2008 are suitable as reference values for the monitoring up to 2011. The Energy Efficiency Index of 2008 was set at 100. 25 energy saving measures have been examined in the monitoring to see to what extent they are used. Strikingly, only 11% of the businesses used the ethylene analyzer. Insulation of the cold store, frequency-controlled ventilators and rounded outlets in the system wall were used relatively often (by respectively 70%, 50% and 38% of the businesses). In forcing, energy shields, façade insulation and pre-growing/multi-layer cultivation score relatively high (respectively 55%, 53% and 24%). Deployment of the climate computer in growing and forcing also scores relatively high at 65%. The most frequently used measure is deployment of a high efficiency condensing boiler (77%). Sustainable energy is used in nearly 20% of the businesses, deployment of hot greenhouse air for drying being the most frequently used measure (76 businesses). Green electricity is the second sustainable energy source (purchased by nearly 5% of businesses). The share of sustainable energy is thus 2.3%. The CO2 emission resulting from direct use of fossil fuels at 495 of the monitored businesses was calculated to amount to 30,541 tons in cultivation (drying and storage) and 25.002 in forcing (greenhouse heating). The total amount is thus 55.544 tons. [Dutch] Voor de Energiemonitor 2008 zijn 1450 bloembollenbedrijven aangeschreven. De response was 56%. Een vergelijking met het energieverbruik in 2007 of in 2006 is door de afwijkende samenstellingen van de verschillende databases weinig zinvol gebleken. De berekende energieverbruikscijfers per gewas van 2008 zijn wel goed bruikbaar als referentiewaarden voor

  9. Dutch business opportunities in the Turkish biodiesel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Yilmaz, G.

    2009-01-01

    To research possibilities for Dutch businesses to be involved in the Turkish biodiesel sector, a short literature study and unstructured interviews with sector stakeholders were performed. Turkey is interested to develop its biofuel sector particularly to improve its security of energy supply, more

  10. Dutch business opportunities in the Turkish biodiesel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Yilmaz, G.

    2009-01-01

    To research possibilities for Dutch businesses to be involved in the Turkish biodiesel sector, a short literature study and unstructured interviews with sector stakeholders were performed. Turkey is interested to develop its biofuel sector particularly to improve its security of energy supply, more

  11. Modes of Governance in the Dutch Social Housing Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, P.H.M.; Bruil, J.; Dix, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We describe and analyze five consecutive modes of governance in the Dutch social housing sector. We compare these institutional forms with the five policy values that the sector was assumed to realize. For that purpose we propose and use a new, analytical framework based on a separation pr

  12. The Sectoral Innovation System of the Dutch Vegetable Breeding Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Jongsma, M.A.; Huang, Caicheng; Dons, J.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    In a number of studies, the Dutch vegetable breeding industry has been described as a highly innovative sector, but the root causes for its innovativeness have not yet been analysed systematically. In order to understand the factors that affect innovation and business performance, the Sectoral Innov

  13. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  14. Divorce comes at a price. An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nooij, Michiel; Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price. (author)

  15. Divorce comes at a price: An ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooij, Michiel de, E-mail: m.denooij@seo.n [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baarsma, Barbara [SEO Economic Research, Roetersstraat 29, 1018 WB, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure investment. While this European unbundling debate has not ended yet and most countries still do not have an independent transmission system operator (TSO), the Dutch government has already taken one step further. In 2008, it decided that distribution companies should be completely separated from commercial activities that are part of the same holding (generation, trade and supply). This governmental decision has been fiercely debated. Although the goal is to improve competition as well as security of supply, these benefits are uncertain. Nevertheless, it is certain that ownership unbundling comes at a cost. In this paper we present an ex ante cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch unbundling act. We conclude that it is unlikely that this act is welfare enhancing: divorce comes at a price.

  16. Prospects for Ukraine's agrifood sector; Implications for Dutch trade relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Berkum, van S.; Rau, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    A free trade agreement between the EU and Ukraine would help accelerate institutional improvements that are needed in Ukraine to better use the agri-food sector's potential. An improved business environment would support Dutch companies to explore the many opportunities offered by the present state

  17. Dutch NGOs and Private Sector Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Heul (Anke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNGOs are increasingly working with the business sector as partner for enhancing the effectiveness of their own development projects and vice versa. This results in an increasing amount of Profit-Nonprofit Partnerships (PNPs). In her research project, Anke van der Heul aimed to better und

  18. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  19. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  20. Environmental Performance and firm strategies in the Dutch automotive sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how automotive firms positioned their portfolio since the introduction of energy labels for cars. Using data on product characteristics of automobiles offered on the Dutch market over the period 2001-2010, we analyse how car manufacturers' product portfolios have changed. Portfol

  1. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  2. The marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean: a comparison between EEZ sectors, contrasts and concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Witte, R.H.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-01-01

    We here provide a synoptic overview and preliminary update of the marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean EEZ based on 279 cetacean sighting and stranding records. The Dutch Caribbean EEZ is composed of two distinct sectors. One is centered around the leeward Dutch islands of Aruba, Bonaire and

  3. The marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean: a comparison between EEZ sectors, contrasts and concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Witte, R.H.; Scheidat, M.

    2011-01-01

    We here provide a synoptic overview and preliminary update of the marine mammals of the Dutch Caribbean EEZ based on 279 cetacean sighting and stranding records. The Dutch Caribbean EEZ is composed of two distinct sectors. One is centered around the leeward Dutch islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaça

  4. Effects of energy saving investment in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands. An analysis of the evaluation of the Dutch General Accounting Office; Effecten van energiebesparende investeringen in de glastuinbouw. Een analyse van de evaluatie door de Algemene Rekenkamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Cate, A.; Mulder, M.; Stolwijk, H.

    2003-10-01

    The key question in the evaluation of the title analysis is whether the main conclusion is justified given the methods and data used. The AR (Dutch Accounting Office) has concluded that most investments in energy saving by horticultural firms are ineffective, in the sense that they do not have a significant effect on energy efficiency. In addition, the AR recommends aiming government policies at the behaviour of growers in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving techniques. We substantiate that the conclusion of the AR is contrary to many indications from several other sources. The past development of the Dutch horticulture under glass shows a sector operating on a highly competitive market. If firms would have invested significant amounts of money without realising any economic effect, they would probably not have survived. Instead, they have shown a remarkable strong economic growth in the past decades. Moreover, such an irrational behaviour conflicts with basic notions of economic theory. Finally, the literature on this topic comprises a large number of studies showing effects of investments in energy saving techniques on energy efficiency at a level of the individual firm. We conclude that the somewhat striking conclusion of the AR is the result of a number of inadequacies in the method of research: the level of aggregation of the data is too high; errors have been made in calculating the primary energy use of electricity and heat; no attention has been paid to the simultaneous relations between energy efficiency and investments; the estimation procedure does not pay sufficient attention to differences among firms. Finally, the AR has interpreted statistical results not correctly. Estimation results which are 'statistically insignificant' have been viewed by the AR as indications for the absence of any effect. However, 'insignificant' estimation results imply that no explicit statement can be made about the value of the effect

  5. The international competitive position of the Dutch top sectors; De internationale concurrentiepositie van de topsectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspe, O.; Weterings, A.; Thissen, M.

    2012-03-15

    Creating an excellent investment climate for the Dutch top sectors; that is the strategy of the Dutch government to improve the economic competitiveness of the Netherlands. In this endeavour, the Dutch cabinet is advised by ten top teams. With this study, the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) aims to supplement the action agendas of the top teams, which mainly involve generic and sector-specific measures. Based on empirical know-how and quantitative analysis of the competitive position of the top sectors within Europe, PBL shows that characteristics of the regional business climate are particularly important for the international competitiveness of the top sectors. A benchmark of 250 European regions shows how the Dutch regions score as compared to their most important competitors in Europe. This benchmark shows that drawing up the investment agenda for the Dutch top sectors is tailored work. For example, for the top sector energy in South Holland, it is important to invest in a strong private knowledge base (research and development by businesses). For the top sector logistics in North Holland, on the other hand, a better connectivity by road is important. For the high-tech businesses in Noord-Brabant, strengthening the high-tech cluster in this region would be beneficial. Therefore, PBL recommends a spatial-economic vision on the competitive powers of the top sectors. This vision should focus on priority areas North Holland and South Holland, and on crucial connections such as Schiphol and the highways 'Triple A', A2, A4 and A12. [Dutch] Een excellent vestigingsklimaat creëren voor de topsectoren. Dat is de strategie van het kabinet-Rutte om de economische concurrentiekracht van Nederland te verbeteren. Het kabinet laat zich daarbij adviseren door tien topteams. Met deze studie wil het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) een aanvulling bieden op de actieagenda's van de topteams, die vooral generieke en sectorspecifieke maatregelen betreffen

  6. Divorce comes at a price: an ex ante welfare analysis of ownership unbundling of the distribution and commercial companies in the Dutch energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2009-01-01

    Vertical unbundling in the electricity sector is a hot political topic in the European Union. The European Commission has decided that the ownership unbundling of transmission networks from other stages in the value chain is the most effective way to ensure fair network access and infrastructure inv

  7. Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement w

  8. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been ...

  9. Energy and Climate Monitor Agricultural Sector 2011; Energie- en klimaatmonitor Agrosectoren 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerkerken, A.; Gerlagh, T.; De Jong, G.; Both, D. [Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Verhoog, D. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI-WUR, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Segers, R. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    This report contains the results of the Innovation and Action program Dutch Agricultural sectors, showing a total overview of energy and climate in the agricultural sectors, detailed results of the agricultural, horticultural -open cultivation, and cattle farming sectors and the forestry and wood sectors, as well as several highlights of the sectors that already have their own monitor (greenhouse horticulture, flower bulbs, mushrooms and agricultural industry) [Dutch] Resultaten van het Innovatie- en actieprogramma Agrosectoren met een totaaloverzicht van energie en klimaat in de agrosectoren, gedetailleerde resultaten van de ATV-sectoren (akkerbouw, tuinbouw open teelt en veehouderij) en de bos- en houtsector, en enkele highlights van de sectoren die al een eigen monitor hebben (glastuinbouw, bloembollen, paddenstoelen en agro-industrie)

  10. The Relation Between Market Forces and Employee Motivation : Consequences of the Introduction of Market Forces in the Dutch Childcare Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam; Plantenga, Janneke; Siegers, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch childcare sector has undergone a transition from a welfare sector into a market sector. The final step in this transition process was taken with the introduction of a new Dutch Childcare Act on 1 January 2005. In discussions about the introduction of market forces, the possible effects on

  11. Enabling and disabling: disability in the British and Dutch construction sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.; van der Meer, M.; Bingham, C.; Michielsens, E.; Miller, S.

    2009-01-01

    Though the British and Dutch approaches to disability in the construction sector exhibit common features, Britain tends towards a capabilities model compared with the Netherlands which is closer to a social model. The construction sector is considerably more regulated in the Netherlands but is in

  12. Towards chain wide business intelligence - Business intelligence in the Dutch retail sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    In sectors like the Retail, where margins are small and the turnover rate is high, information is necessary in order to have competitive advantage. Business Intelligence can deliver such information in time. This research focuses on the use of Business Intelligence in the Dutch Retail sector. The ma

  13. Enabling and disabling: disability in the British and Dutch construction sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Clarke; M. van der Meer; C. Bingham; E. Michielsens; S. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Though the British and Dutch approaches to disability in the construction sector exhibit common features, Britain tends towards a capabilities model compared with the Netherlands which is closer to a social model. The construction sector is considerably more regulated in the Netherlands but is in bo

  14. The New Oil Sector and the Dutch Disease: the Case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Nchor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the new oil sector on the economic performance of major traditional sectors of the Ghanaian economy. The discovery of resource booming sectors in most countries often comes with several opportunities as well as challenges. Ghana discovered oil in 2007 and started subsequent commercial production and export in 2010. The results from the study show that, there is no clear case of declining performance of sectors in terms of output, growth and export earnings as a result of the oil production. The study could also not establish a sustained appreciation in the real effective exchange rate since commercial oil production commenced which is an indicator of the presence of the Dutch Disease phenomenon. The real effective exchange rate was also found to be highly influenced by oil production, oil prices, total exports and remittances. The study applied an autoregressive distributed lag model due to differences in the level of integration of variables. The data was obtained from the Bank of Ghana, the Ministry of Finance in Ghana and the Energy Information Administration.

  15. UK energy sector indicators 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of the United Kingdom's energy policy is to ensure secure, diverse and sustainable supplies of energy to UK businesses and consumers at competitive prices. The indicators in this publication are designed to throw light on the extent to which this objective is being achieved. The indicators are grouped into 12 sections covering different aspects of the energy sector, namely energy in the economy; investment and productivity; resources; primary energy supply; capacity utilisation; conversion efficiencies; energy use indicators; fuel prices; fuel poverty; competition in energy markets; international comparisons of energy production and use; energy and the environment; and standards of service. The document has been published in parallel with The energy report 1999 (ISBN 0-11-515470-1) formerly published as volume 1 of the 'Energy report'). 119 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Shifting back in the Dutch social housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Gruis, V.

    2011-01-01

    Since the financial and administrative liberalisation from the government in the late 1980s and the 1990s, the Dutch housing associations have been very dynamic, regarding the considerable extension of both commercial and social activities, the increased reliance and dependence on market circumstanc

  17. The economic value of the Dutch geo-information sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, W.T.; Bregt, A.K.; Pluijmers, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the geo-information sector and estimating its economic value on a national level is difficult and standard methodologies are not available. The aim of this paper is to clearly define the geo-information sector and to measure its economic value in terms of turnover, employment, activities an

  18. The economic value of the Dutch geo-information sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, W.T.; Bregt, A.K.; Pluijmers, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Defining the geo-information sector and estimating its economic value on a national level is difficult and standard methodologies are not available. The aim of this paper is to clearly define the geo-information sector and to measure its economic value in terms of turnover, employment, activities

  19. The impact of computers on productivity in the trade sector : Explorations with Dutch microdata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; McGuckin, R.H.; Timmer, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of computers on productivity in the Dutch trade sector during the period 1988-1994 is examined. The analysis is based on a panel data set derived from the Production Survey of Statistics Netherlands, which includes data on output, employment, wages, and various types of investment. A new

  20. Do stakeholder groups influence environmental management system development in the Dutch agri-food sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Haverkamp, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey that included 492 companies in the Dutch agri-food sector with respect to the influence of stakeholder groups on the companies' level of environmental management system (EMS) implementation. It is concluded that primary stakeholders (government, clients) a

  1. Overweight and obesity among Dutch workers: Differences between occupational groups and sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different occupational groups and sectors in a representative sample of the Dutch working population, and to test whether these differences still exist after adjustment for socio-demographic variables. Methods Cross-sectional data am

  2. Overweight and obesity among Dutch workers: differences between occupational groups and sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different occupational groups and sectors in a representative sample of the Dutch working population, and to test whether these differences still exist after adjustment for socio-demographic variables. Methods: Cross-sectional data

  3. Stochastic simulation of catastrophic hail and windstorm indemnities in the Dutch greenhouse sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A risk analysis was performed to examine the effect of changes in the Dutch greenhouse sector on the probability of occurrence and magnitude of indemnities induced by catastrophic natural hazards. Analyzed historical indemnities, which included direct and consequential losses resulting from severe h

  4. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This

  5. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector, revisions and updates related to the Dutch NIR 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyngaert, van den I.J.J.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains a full description of revisions and updates of the Dutch Greenhouse gas calculations and reporting of the LULUCF sector used for the 2009 submission. Parts were earlier described in Nabuurs et al. (2003, 2005), De Groot et al (2005), Kuikman et al. (2003; 2005) and Van den Wynga

  6. Marketization in the Dutch vocational education and training sector: hybrids and their behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, M.; Karsten, S.

    2007-01-01

    Significant educational reforms have resulted in Dutch schools for vocational education and training having to operate in a complex, more market-oriented environment, as if they were entrepreneurial organizations while remaining in the public sector. That makes these schools hybrid organizations. To

  7. The contextual meaning of sustainable development: the case of the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klostermann, J.E.M.; Cramer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development means different things to different people in different contexts, leading to 'strong' and 'weak' versions of sustainability. This article addresses the question of which meaning of sustainability is given by the Dutch drinking water sector and its main

  8. Stochastic simulation of catastrophic hail and windstorm indemnities in the Dutch greenhouse sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A risk analysis was performed to examine the effect of changes in the Dutch greenhouse sector on the probability of occurrence and magnitude of indemnities induced by catastrophic natural hazards. Analyzed historical indemnities, which included direct and consequential losses resulting from severe h

  9. Insight into contractors’ competitiveness at Most Economically Advantageous Tenders in the Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrind, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased application of Most Economically Advantageous Tenders (MEAT) in the Dutch construction sector changes contractors’ tender processes. They are no longer requested to execute fully specified projects for the lowest price, but contractors are asked to come up with solutions themselves. This o

  10. Stochastic simulation of catastrophic hail and windstorm indemnities in the Dutch greenhouse sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A risk analysis was performed to examine the effect of changes in the Dutch greenhouse sector on the probability of occurrence and magnitude of indemnities induced by catastrophic natural hazards. Analyzed historical indemnities, which included direct and consequential losses resulting from severe

  11. Triggering transitions towards sustainable development of the Dutch agricultural sector: TransForum's approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.; Altvorst, Van A.C.; Eweg, R.; Jacobsen, E.; Kleef, Van A.; Latesteijn, Van H.; Mager, S.; Mommaas, H.; Smeets, P.J.A.M.; Spaans, L.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    TransForum is an innovation program which aims to make a substantial contribution to the transition towards more sustainable development of the Dutch agricultural sector. This article describes the scientific foundation and architecture of this program. TransForum operates on the basis of five

  12. Accountability in the public sector: The Dutch experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Hoek, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, a new system of policy budgeting and accounting (VBTB was put in practice in 2002, linking goals, budgets, means, instruments and performance. This paper analyzes both the early experience of the VBTB system and the more recent experience. Although the government monitors the progress in carrying out its policy program, it appears to have problems in developing performance indicators that are closely related to their policy goals. A compelling problem in the budgeting process is that too many policy goals are formulated in vague and/or abstract terms rather than measurable and concrete terms. The paper also identifies three lessons that can be learned from the Dutch experience.

  13. Third oil field just on stream in Dutch sector of North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Three oil-producing fields are now onstream in the Dutch sector of the North Sea, an area which until about three years ago produced only natural gas. Union Oil Company of The Netherlands and Nedlloyd Energy B.V. are partners in the three fields, located in Block Q/1. Union is operator. Oil was first discovered in 1979 in an exploratory well about 40 km west of Den Helder. Confirmation drilling established the Helm field. About a year later, Helder field was discovered 6 km northwest of Helm. Production licenses for the two fields were granted in mid-1981 and production began from both fields in late September 1982. A third field in the Q/1 block, Hoorn, was discovered in 1980 and went onstream at the end of July 1983. In late summer 1983, Helm and Helder were producing a total of about 15,000 b/d, and Hoorn output was up to about 20,000 b/d one month after coming onstream. Development of the finds moved fast; for example, Hoorn field was put onstream 37 days ahead of schedule, according to a Union spokesman. Several factors were responsible for meeting--or beating--construction and development schedules, including: Cooperation of the Dutch government made permitting and other procedures move quickly. An integrated deck concept was used for platform design, reducing fabrication time and offshore construction time. Platforms for all three fields were identical, with only minor modifications made to handle different throughputs. Full approval to proceed with the development of Helm and Helder was obtained in July 1981, jackets and deck were delivered 1 year later and installed in August 1982. The Hoorn platform deck was delivered in June 1983, and started up at the end of July.

  14. Boards of public sector organizations: a typology with Dutch illustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, S. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this study is to present two heuristics for researchers to identify different types of boards in public sector organziations, and thus enable exchange of research findings and comparative research. - Design/methodology/approach - Based on existing knowledge, two typologies

  15. The power of Dutch greenhouse vegetable horticulture : an analysis of the private sector and its institutional framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, A.; Hietbrink, O.; Ruijs, M.N.A.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the structure and characteristics of the Dutch greenhouse vegetable sector and its regulatory and institutional frame$work. It also discusses how sector characteristics and the institutional frame$work relate to the performance of the sector in the international m

  16. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Energy List for 2013; Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA). Energielijst 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) is a tax system by means of which the Dutch government supports companies with investments in energy-saving equipment and renewable energy. This brochure explains the assets eligible for EIA and how the scheme works [Dutch] De Energie-investeringsaftrek (EIA) is een fiscale regeling waarmee de overheid ondersteuning biedt voor bedrijven bij investeringen in energiebesparende bedrijfsmiddelen en duurzame energie. In deze brochure wordt uitgelegd welke bedrijfsmiddelen in aanmerking komen voor EIA en hoe de regeling werkt.

  17. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is

  18. Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care : The effects of the Introduction of Market Forces on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on employee governance, motivation and performance. The Dutch child-care sector is transitioning from a welfare sector into a market sector. The transition process in child care is co

  19. The lesser of two evils? The killing of day-old male chicks in the Dutch egg sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.; Blok, V.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of killing day-old chicks in the Dutch egg sector is a recurrent subject of societal debate. Preventing the killing of young animals and in ovo sex determination are the two main alternatives for this problem available. An online questionnaire was held to ask the opinion of the Dutch pu

  20. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Kramer, H.; Kuikman, P.J.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissi

  1. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector : Empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Ramsis; Krabbe, Yvonne; Mikkers, Misja

    2017-01-01

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a

  2. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.R.; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y.J.F.M.; Mikkers, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThere is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be

  3. Energy sector transition problems - Croatian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, G.; Pesut, D.; Jelavic, B.; Vuk, B.; Jandrilovic, N. [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Ltd. (Croatia)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyses the development of energy demand in Croatia in its transition process. It also analyses economic relations and parameters of the energy sector as well as their influence on energy consumption. Possible dynamics of Croatian development and the dynamics of transition are estimated. The development, conditions and relations within the energy sector of Croatia till the year 2010 are also estimated. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. International industrial sector energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2000-01-01

    Over 40 percent of the energy consumed globally is used in the industrial sector. In China, this sector consumes an even larger proportion, reaching nearly 70 percent in 1997. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been instituted in both industrialized and developing countries in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of the industrial sector. There are very few comprehensive evaluations of these industrial sector energy efficiency policies; however a number of recent workshops and conferences have included a focus on these policies. Three important meetings were the International Energy Agency's Industrial Energy Efficiency: Policies and Programs Conference in 1994, Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure - A Workshop Organized by the International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector in 1998, and the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 1999 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry. Man y articles from these meetings are included as attachments to this memo. This paper provides a brief description of each of seven categories of individual industrial energy efficiency policies and programs, discuss which industrial sectors or types of equipment they apply to, and provide references for articles and reports that discuss each policy or program in more detail. We begin with mandatory-type policies and move to more voluntary-type policies. We then provide a brief description of four integrated industrial energy efficiency policies and provide references for articles and reports that describe these policies in greater detail.

  5. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C

    2017-01-03

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.

  6. Greenhouse gas reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol : background to the Dutch NIR 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Arets, E. J. M. M.; Hoek, van der, D.J.; Kramer, H.; P. J. Kuikman; J. P. Lesschen

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a complete description and background information of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector and the Dutch LULUCF submission under the Kyoto Protocol for the 2013 submission of The Netherlands. The 2013 submission reports greenhouse gas emissions over the year 2011. It includes detailed description of the methodologies used to calculate activity data and emissions and it gives the full text of the NIR-II for KP-LULUCF, as well as a desc...

  7. Management changes in the Lithuanian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclovas Miskinis; Rimantas Deksnys [Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). Lithuanian Energy Institute

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania was invited at the end of 2002 to become a member of the European Union and to join NATO. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state. In order to transform the management in the energy sector, it was necessary to perform a lot of significant changes. Positive changes are based on the implementation of experience in other Central and Eastern European countries and many studies prepared by national specialists in cooperation with foreign experts. This paper describes the main alterations in management of the Lithuanian economy and energy sectors and recent changes in the power sector. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and necessary improvements in the near future. (author)

  8. Risk management in the energy sector; Energiesector verplicht tot risicomanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzorenova, I.

    2006-06-15

    Within the framework of The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) since January 1, 2005, energy companies are obliged to give account of their system of risk management. This tool can be used to monitor the new developments in this sector and to control the consequences. Deloitte studied how the risk management tool is used in 16 energy companies. [Dutch] In het kader van de International Financial Reporting Standards zijn energiebedrijven sinds 1 januari 2005 verplicht externe verantwoording af te leggen over het systeem van risicobeheersing, staat risicomanagement hoog op de agenda. Risicomanagement kan worden ingezet als een middel om deze ontwikkelingen en de consequenties ervan te inventariseren en beheersbaar te maken. Deloitte onderzocht bij 16 energiebedrijven hoe dit middel wordt ingezet.

  9. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...

  10. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on

  11. Employee motivation and employee performance in child care : the effects of the introduction of market forces on employees in the Dutch child-care sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Employee Motivation and Employee Performance in Child Care: The Effects of the Introduction of Market Focus on Employees in the Dutch Child-Care Sector Mirjam Plantinga (RUG) This research describes and explains the effects of the introduction of market forces in the Dutch child-care sector on emplo

  12. UKRAINIAN FUEL AND ENERGY SECTOR: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Azarenkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis of Ukrainian fuel and energy sector (FES. The number of risks that threaten the stable supply of energy sources is growing. A high proportion of the energy intensity of developing economies in conjunction with their growing GDP leads to increased competition on world primary energy markets and causes significant fluctuations in energy prices, which negatively affect the global economy. There is also an important issue for world energy - limited use of non-renewable energy resources. Considering the prospects of development of Ukrainian FES, it is important to pay attention to patterns and trends of the global and national power. We have studied the basic trends of Ukrainian FES. It is the most important sector of the economy, and therefore its reform for market economy creation, price liberalization is a very important process. The current task of the energy sector of Ukraine is to be able to consistently produce and use energy to promote economic growth and improve quality of life.

  13. The renewable energy sector. A Flemish socio-economic analysis; De hernieuwbare energiesector. Een Vlaamse socio-economische analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutsebaut, E.; De Decker, M. (eds.)

    2010-10-15

    This study examines the most important characteristics of the renewable energy sector in Flanders, Belgium, based on interviews held with the sector. The addressed parameters include turnover, employment, Financial ratios, the characteristics of the sector such as Legal form, year of establishment, geographical location, and so on. [Dutch] Op basis van een bevraging van de sector en een analyse van de jaarrekeninggegevens, worden in deze studie de belangrijkste kenmerken van de hernieuwbare energiesector in Vlaanderen bekeken. De parameters die aan bod komen zijn de omzet, de tewerkstelling, de financiele ratio's, de kenmerken van de sector zoals de rechtsvorm, het oprichtingsjaar, de geografische ligging, enzovoort.

  14. Energy production and use in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.A.; Lange, J.M.; Wit, de C.T.

    1974-01-01

    Energy relationschips in the agriculture of one of the most densely populated areas of the world, the Nether lands, are described. The Netherlands appear selfsupporting in food energy. However, if one takes account of energy consumption in horticulture, the direct and indirect fossil energy cost exc

  15. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Wong, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established chrono-st

  16. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R. [University of Cuenca (Ecuador). Faculty of Chemical Sciences; Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Garcia-Perez, M. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Cortez, L.A.B. [Energy Systems Planning, FEM, UNICAMP (Brazil); Oscullo, J. [National Center for Energy Control - CENACE (Ecuador); Olmedo, G. [Polytechnic School of the Army - ESPE (Ecuador)

    2007-08-15

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  17. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T. [Capacity for Sustainable Development CAP SD, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  18. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management....... or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end...

  19. Physical indicators as a basis for estimating energy efficiency developments in the Dutch industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, M.; Ramirez, A.; Patel, M.

    2004-08-15

    This study aims to develop an approach for the calculation of developments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector in the Netherlands using activity indicators based on physical production. The approach should fit in the calculation routine of the protocol monitoring energy savings and should be based on data available from Statistics Netherlands or from open literature. More specifically, the scope of the study is: To develop a spreadsheet tool for the calculation of energy efficiency developments in the Dutch industrial sector; To apply this tool for the period 1993-2001 with 1995 as the base year of analysis; To compare the tool with the method applied until now for the industrial sector in the PME (Protocol Monitoring Energy savings), which was mainly based on the LTAs (Long Term Agreements); To assess the uncertainties involved. The methodology of the PME and this study will in detail be discussed in chapter 2, followed by chapter 3 on the data availability and the use of the spreadsheet tool for future studies. The analyses and results for the sectors distinguished in chapter 2 are discussed in chapter 4-10, followed by a chapter in which the main conclusions of this study are given and in which recommendations are given.

  20. Subsidization in China's Renewable Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese government's decision to push for large-scale build up of renewable energy capacity was followed by a range of industrial policies to support this change of track. Most importantly, various forms of subsidies were launched to support both industries and markets. While important new...... of subsidies as an institutionalized norm helps us understand both an important factor shaping China's renewable energy sector and the wider dynamics of state capitalism in China....

  1. E-commerce in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics (MEE), Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-09-18

    E-commerce and e-business are now part of the lexicon of modern business everywhere. The energy industry is no exception, although it is somewhat of a latecomer to the field, trailing a number of others. This article, which is based on a multi-client study titled 'E-commerce in the Energy Sector', is focused on the business applications of e-commerce in the energy sector, broadly defined to include oil, electricity, and natural gas industries. The study was conducted by Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) in collaboration with Global Business Network (GBN). (orig.) [German] E-commerce und E-business gehoeren heute im Geschaeftsleben zum guten Ton. Obwohl ein Nachzuegler auf diesem Gebiet, macht die Energiewirtschaft hier keine Ausnahme. Der Artikel, der auf einer von Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) und Global Business Network (GBN) durchgefuehrten Studie zum Thema 'E-commerce im Energie-Sektor' beruht, beschreibt die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten fuer E-commerce im Energie-Sektor worunter hier Oel-, Elektrizitaets- und Erdgaswirtschaft zu verstehen sind. (orig.)

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment & The Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    on strategic decision-making provides a strong framework for enhancing insight into how decisions are made. - Sense-making theory is a pertinent frame for increasing insight into how we create meaning of information, which is crucial for how we perceive strategic choices and determine relevant alternatives...... in its infancy in the Danish energy sector, but SEA is achieving increased attention in the sector. - The change agent research approach used in the project is relevant medium for a critical interdependence between theory and practice that at the same time promotes more sustainable decision-making...... strategic decisions are made is a prerequisite for achieving this target, and the thesis therefore explores the strategic decision-making processes of contemporary energy infrastructure developments. The highlights of this thesis are: - A combination of disciplines in a continuum of perspectives...

  3. Subsidization in China's Renewable Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    research has added to our understanding of China's state capitalism by documenting the depth and breadth of subsidies to solar PV manufactures, very little attention has been paid to how subsidies are determined and how companies influence these processes. This article takes a neo-institutional perspective...... of subsidies as an institutionalized norm helps us understand both an important factor shaping China's renewable energy sector and the wider dynamics of state capitalism in China....

  4. Energy Neutral Districts in 2050. The Dutch Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Roossien, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    According to the EPBD, from the end of 2020 on all new buildings should be built as nearly zero energy buildings. Instead of focusing on buildings only, a district approach to energy supply and consumption can be advantageous as regards the energy performance and economics. The potential of renewable energy technologies can be utilized to a larger extent while fewer energy generators are needed. An example is a so called energy-hub, in which exchange, conversion and seasonal storage of energy can lead to energy neutral districts before 2050. The Dutch study Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development (Transep-DGO), financed largely by the AgentschapNL, has shown that this is possible. For energy neutral district development in 2050, six innovative energy concepts have been elaborated and the extent of energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 calculated. Three concepts are based on an idea of an energy hub - bio hub, geo hub and a solar hub. Other concepts are all-electric, conventional and hydrogen concepts. Calculations show that implementation of each of the concepts can lead to energy neutral districts in 2050 or even earlier. When personal transport is included, energy neutrality in 2050 is not feasible. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for four Dutch cities have been elaborated as pilots, in close cooperation with municipality representatives. Solar hub has been dynamically simulated in order to show the added value of the exchange, conversion and storage of energy flows on a district scale. Energy Pattern Generator (EPG) has been applied for simulation of a virtual district with 1,000 dwellings of various categories. A solar hub with collective heat storage can reduce the demanded storage capacity by 26%, and the total required solar collector surface by 30% at maximum compared to individual seasonal heat storage capacity in dwellings that are not connected in an energy hub. Energy hub

  5. Does the energy sector call for reform?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, Goran; Pesut, Damir; Jandrilovic, Nada; Jelavic, Branka; Zeljko, Mladen

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework, such as: increasing members of the european Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries or potential candidates), and changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in a new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability. (auth)

  6. Roadmap VNMI (Association of the Dutch Metallurgical Industry). Input of renewable energy; Roadmap VNMI. Inzet van hernieuwbare energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, A.J.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    To reach energy efficient production of metals and metal products, the Dutch metal manufacturers are considering using renewable electricity in the production processes, as part of their agreement (Covenant) with the Dutch government to introduce more efficient and sustainable production processes. Use of renewable electricity is a part of this Covenant. The Dutch association of metals industry (VNMI) commissioned ECN to provide insight in the expected cost and benefit developments of a switch to the renewable electricity options solar, wind and biomass in both the short term and the long term. In addition, a new concept for subsidising renewable electricity, the so-called 'DAAN' concept, has been analysed. Results of this research show that until 2020, apart from profitable conditions for onshore wind and co-firing of biomass, the production costs of renewable electricity are higher than the electricity price, resulting in higher costs than benefits. Though uncertainty increases, extrapolation of the results shows that for the period 2020-2030 the production costs of onshore wind will be lower than the expected electricity price. Until that time, subsidies will remain necessary to bridge the gap between costs and benefits. A successful switch to renewable electricity depends on these subsidies and their conditions. A new concept for subsidising renewable electricity, which has been proposed by individual companies within the sector, i.e. the 'DAAN' concept, has been analysed and quantified with scenario modelling. In this concept, the current premium feed-in tariff structure is combined with a long-term, fixed power sales price, which effectively results in a feed-in tariff variant. The potential increasing costs for the Dutch government depend on the applied power sales price in combination with the applied price scenarios and are mitigated by the participating companies by offering the so-called Carbon Leakage compensation. In this analysis

  7. Sustainable energy in the flower bulb sector; Duurzame energie in de bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study is to get a clear view on the technical and economic options for the deployment of sustainable technologies in the flower bulb sector. It subsequently addresses the energy demand of the sector and its distribution across various company processes. Next it addresses the penetration degree of sustainable techniques in use. After this, the opportunities for new sustainable techniques are elaborated. The most appealing techniques are calculated: wood-fired boiler (base load), gas-fired boiler (peak load) and the use of surface water; bio-CHP; PV modules and/or sustainable electricity [Dutch] Het doel van deze studie is de technische en economische mogelijkheden voor de toepassing van duurzame technologieën in de sector helder te krijgen. Hierbij is achtereenvolgens ingegaan op de energievraag van de sector en de opdeling daarvan over de verschillende bedrijfsprocessen. Vervolgens is ingegaan op de penetratiegraad waarin duurzame technieken zijn toegepast. Daarna zijn de mogelijkheden voor nieuwe duurzame technieken uitgewerkt. De meest aantrekkelijke technieken zijn doorgerekend: Houtketel (basislast), gasketel (pieklast) en het gebruik van oppervlaktewater; Bio-WKK; PV-panelen en/of duurzame elektriciteit.

  8. Pension fund investments in Dutch sustainable energy. A quick scan; Beleggingen van pensioenfondsen in Nederlandse duurzame energie. Een quick scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gelder, J.W.; De Wilde, J. [Profundo, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    It was examined whether Dutch pension funds invest (part of) their private investments in sustainable energy in the Netherlands. If possible, investments in private renewable energy are specified as much as possible [Dutch] Er is onderzocht of Nederlandse pensioenfondsen (een deel van) hun private beleggingen in duurzame energie in Nederland beleggen. Indien mogelijk zijn de investeringen in private duurzame energie zoveel mogelijk gespecificeerd.

  9. Sustainability reporting in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the concepts of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility has a great impact on reporting in companies. The increase of their importance has resulted in a need to create a reporting system that would provide information on not only the methods but also the results of implementation of those concepts in companies. Globally, there are many organizations that promote and support companies in the area of integrated reporting. The most popular standard for reporting non-financial data that is used by a number of companies worldwide is the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI Guidelines. The main objective of the GRI is to support the development of sustainable economy in which companies take responsibility for the economic, social, and environmental consequences of their operations, manage that responsibility, and report all their actions. An example of a sector where the concept of sustainable development and its transparent reporting has an impact on the formation of values is the energy sector, which creates value for stakeholders and, together with the financial sector, has the greatest impact on national economies.

  10. The Swiss Energy Sector. Innovation landscape and chances for the Netherlands; De Zwitserse energiesector. Innovatielandschap en kansen voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ewijk, S. [Innovatie Attache Netwerk, Ambassad Berlijn, Berlin (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    An overview is given of innovation in the Swiss energy sector and the following research question will be answered: what are the characteristics of the Swiss innovation landscape in the energy sector and what opportunities are there for the Dutch energy sector? The emphasis is on themes that occur in the Dutch top sector policy, such as natural gas and energy conservation. The aim is to encourage cooperation between the Netherlands and Switzerland in the field of energy and provide inspiration for investment, policy solutions and markets in the field of energy. Each chapter contains references to Swiss authorities for more information and further steps [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van innovatie in de Zwitserse energiesector en probeert de volgende onderzoeksvraag te beantwoorden: wat zijn de kenmerken van het Zwitserse innovatielandschap in de energiesector en welke kansen zijn er voor de Nederlandse energiesector? De nadruk ligt daarbij op thema's die ook in het Nederlandse topsectorbeleid voorkomen, zoals aardgas en energiebesparing. Het doel is om de samenwerking tussen Nederland en Zwitserland op energiegebied te stimuleren en informatie te bieden als inspiratie voor investeringen, beleidsoplossingen en afzetmarkten op energiegebied. Ieder hoofdstuk bevat verwijzingen naar Zwitserse instanties voor meer informatie en verdere stappen.

  11. Subsidization in China's Renewable Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese government's decision to push for large-scale build up of renewable energy capacity was followed by a range of industrial policies to support this change of track. Most importantly, various forms of subsidies were launched to support both industries and markets. While important new re...... of subsidies as an institutionalized norm helps us understand both an important factor shaping China's renewable energy sector and the wider dynamics of state capitalism in China....... research has added to our understanding of China's state capitalism by documenting the depth and breadth of subsidies to solar PV manufactures, very little attention has been paid to how subsidies are determined and how companies influence these processes. This article takes a neo-institutional perspective...

  12. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  13. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, L. P. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Cuidad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Carneiro, S. [Instituto de Física, Uníversídade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  14. Innovation management in renewable energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2017-08-01

    As a result of the globalization of knowledge, shortening of the innovation cycle and the aggravation of the price situation, the diffusion of innovation has accelerated. The protection of innovation has become even more important for companies in technologyintensive industries. Legal and actual patent right strategies complement one another, in order to amortize the investment in product development. Climate change is one of today’s truly global challenges, affecting all aspects of socio-economic development in every region of the world. Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. At the global level, the last decades have seen a continuous expansion of inventive activity in renewable energy technologies. The growth in Renewable Energy (RE) inventions has been much faster than in other technologies, and RE today represents nearly 6% of global invention activity, up from 1.5% in 1990. This paper discusses about global innovation activity in the last five years in the renewable energy sector and describes the Innovation and Technology Management process for supporting managerial decision making.

  15. Energy in the Netherlands. Optimized pathways to CO2 reduction in the Dutch context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This document reports the findings of research undertaken by the Energy Forum NL (EFNL) which consists of companies active in different parts of the energy sector. The group strives for a more long-term, stable energy policy and investment climate in the Netherlands, one that will help realize overall climate ambitions. This report is part of the group's contribution to the energy debate in the Netherlands; it lays out a fact-based, objective analysis of the potential energy mix if one assumes a continued focus on carbon abatement. In this report, the Energy Forum NL provides pathways that show how the Netherlands can best contribute to the EU target of 80% CO2e emission reduction by 2050 compared to 1990. They particularly focus on the goal for the next 20 years: reducing CO2e emissions by 40% by 2030 compared to 1990. The Forum selected 40% as a midway target for 80% in 2050; this falls within the EU ambition of 40%-44% in 2030.1 The period beyond 2030, which is much more uncertain, is modeled in less detail. However, the Forum took care to not let the choice of any pathway during 2010-2030 lock a pathway after 2030 in or out. A 'least cost' approach, which works across sectors, is used to reduce emissions. In a 'least cost' approach, all emission reduction measures are ranked on costs and implemented progressively (starting from the cheapest) until the targeted abatement level is reached. In addition, a few developing technologies are implemented even if they are more expensive than alternatives. This choice prevents technology lock-in, ensures a more versatile, resilient energy system and provides a reasonable starting position for the period post-2030. The report assumes a pan-European approach for the power sector, which is the key sector in the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS); in this case, Dutch abatement options 'compete' with those in other EU countries. For the other sectors it uses a national approach. Non-cost factors

  16. Returns on investments in energy-saving technologies under energy price uncertainty in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, P.J.M.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Veen, van der H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional net present value calculations evaluating the profitability of investments in energy-saving technologies in Dutch horticultural outlays predict a much higher rate of adoption of these technologies than is actually observed. This paper tries to explain this gap by applying a real options

  17. Sustainable energy options in the mushroom sector [in the Netherlands]; De mogelijkheden van duurzame energie in de paddestoelensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, M.J.J. [C Point, DLV Plant, Horst (Netherlands)

    2004-07-15

    The mushroom sector is running behind the schedule of the Long-Term Agreement on Energy efficiency with regard to the aspect of sustainable energy. The conclusion of this report is that the option of (joint) purchase of green electricity is the best feasible option. Other options for sustainable energy, such as thermal energy storage combined with heat exchangers, are interesting from a business-economic perspective in new constructions [Dutch] De champignonsector ligt achter op het schema van de Meerjarenafspraak Energie voor het aspect duurzame energie. De conclusie van dit rapport is dat de optie van (gezamelijke) inkoop van groene stroom de meest haalbare is. Opties voor duurzame energie zoals koude- en warmteopslag in combinatie met een warmtewisselaar zijn bij nieuwbouw bedrijfseconomisch interessant.

  18. Quick scan energy conservation investments in the social rental sector; Quick scan investeren in energiebesparing sociale huursector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    Through a brief examination it is inventoried to what extent Dutch government policy affects the number of projects and investment with regard to energy conservation in the social rental sector. June 2013, a brief questionnaire was sent by email to contacts of the Energy Team of the Dutch 'Woonbond' (association of (potential) tenants) to gain insight into the present situation. This report presents the results [Dutch] Via een kort onderzoek is geinventariseerd in hoeverre het kabinetsbeleid invloed heeft op het aantal projecten en investeringen in energiebesparing in de sociale huursector. In juni is via een korte vragenlijst per email onder contacten van het Energieteam van de Nederlandse Woonbond bij woningcorporaties gepeild wat de situatie is. In deze rapportage worden de resultaten weergegeven.

  19. Efficiency of Energy Consumption as a Base for Sustainable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anicetas Ignotas; Viktorija Stasytytė

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania, as many other EU countries, encounters key challenges in three energy sector fields: energy independence, energy sector competitiveness and sustainable energy sector development. Such situation is determined by historical and political conditions, as well as by limited internal energy resources. In such context an importance of energy consumption efficiency pursuing country energy sector sustainability is highlighted. By implementing the long-term goals and tasks a country may seek...

  20. The innovation system for the Dutch greenhouse sector in 2020; Het innovatiesysteem voor de glastuinbouw in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.; Farla, J. [Universiteit Utrecht, Copernicus Instituut, Innovatiewetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    InnovationNetwork and SIGN want to obtain insight into the changes that are necessary in the greenhouse innovation system to guarantee a vibrant sector in the long term. Accordingly, the primary research question is: What should an effective Dutch greenhouse innovation system look like in 2020? Attention is paid to the greenhouse sector's current stage of development as well as the current focus of innovation within the sector. The analysis showed that the existing innovation system in the greenhouse sector mainly facilitates process innovations, and largely neglects other innovation strategies. Two other innovation strategies that are important in the mature stage of a sectors' development involve (1) initiating new life cycles through product innovation and (2) realizing higher margins through product differentiation based on marketing innovations. Strategy 1 is a niche strategy and can only be pursued successfully by a small number of entrepreneurs. Encouraging this type of innovative behaviour can best take place by building a new innovation system outside of existing institutions and structures. If effective, this new innovation system will help to bring about a cultural change in the entire greenhouse sector. Unlike strategy 1, strategy 2 is suitable for the entire greenhouse sector. It offers a means of shifting away from cost competition towards product competition, both internationally and within the Dutch greenhouse sector. Though challenging, this strategy can be realized by adjusting the current innovation system. Process innovation will always remain important. Both with strategy 1 and strategy 2 the evolution path of process innovations will be influenced by the selected product or marketing innovation strategy. Another vital factor for the innovation system which applies for both strategy 1 and 2, is the reduction of the distance between the primary entrepreneur and end consumer [Dutch] InnovatieNetwerk en SIGN hebben behoefte aan inzicht

  1. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R

    1998-11-01

    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  2. Dutch Energy Investment Allowance (EIA). Annual report 2012; Energie-Investeringsaftrek (EIA). Jaarverslag 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    By means of the Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) the Ministry of Economic Affairs supports investments of businesses, industrial associations and other parties in accelerating innovative, energy saving sustainable initiatives and technologies. In this report the results for 2012 are presented [Dutch] Met de EIA ondersteunt het Ministerie van Economische Zaken bedrijven bij het investeren in innovatieve, energiebesparende en duurzame technieken. In dit verslag over 2012 worden resultaten weergegeven.

  3. Energy consumption in the transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plouchart, G

    2004-07-01

    During the 20. century, transport sector demand in the OECD countries boomed. The main drivers for growth were road transport and, more recently, air transport. As emerging countries continue to develop and the world faces the threat of climate change, this sector represents a major long-term challenge.

  4. Structure of financing investments in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The article shows how the financing structure of the companies from the fuel and energy sector, listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, has evolved over the years. The authors also estimated the cost of equity. The results were compared with the chosen mining companies in Poland. Companies from the energy sector have lower investment risk than companies from the fuel sector. Looking at the profitability of investments it should be emphasized that the financing by outside capital is more advantageous than equity financing.

  5. ‘Oil-Qaeda’: Jihadist Threats to the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Pippard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The West's and the Saudi's dependence on oil has made the energy sector a target for Al-Qaeda. The article discusses past and current threats to the energy sector and the motives, capabilities and limitations of Al-Qaeda in the Arab Peninsula and beyond.

  6. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially the si...

  7. The Distribution of Energy-Intensive Sectors in the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, T.O.

    2011-01-01

    We study the in uence of energy endowments on the location of energy-intensive industries. We use data on manufacturing sectors in 50 US states from 2002 until 2008, with detailed information on state endowments of coal, natural gas, oil and hydropower and sectoral fuel and electricity intensities.

  8. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat......This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  9. Assessing Dutch ambitions : Towards large scale ICT uptake in public sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, L.; Lieshout, M.J. van

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government has introduced a new policy instrument to promote and disseminate societal relevant ICT-applications that have proven to be successful on a small scale. It has invited social actors to disseminate their successful innovations on a larger scale. To this end, an innovation program

  10. Dutch social housing sector reforms: Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income grou

  11. Productivity growth and inter-sector spill-over in Dutch horticulture, 1976-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bezlepkin, I.

    2006-01-01

    This article calculates nonparametric measures of total factor productivity growth on Dutch horticultural firms in the period 1976¿1995. Individual components of total factor productivity growth, i.e., efficiency change and technical change are regressed on socioeconomic factors reflecting the effec

  12. A review on energy saving strategies in industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, E.A.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mekhilef, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    An industrial sector uses more energy than any other end-use sectors and currently this sector is consuming about 37% of the world's total delivered energy. Energy is consumed in the industrial sector by a diverse group of industries including manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and construction and for a wide range of activities, such as processing and assembly, space conditioning, and lighting. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review about industrial energy saving by management, technologies and policies. Latest literatures in terms of thesis (MS and PhD), journal articles, conference proceedings, web materials, reports, books, handbooks on industrial energy management, policies and energy savings strategies have been compiled. Energy saving by management including energy audit, training programs and housekeeping beside some energy management practices in the world has been reviewed. Energy saving technologies, such as use of high efficiency motors (HEMs), variable speed drives (VSDs), economizers, leak prevention and reducing pressure drop has been reviewed. Based on energy saving technologies results, it has been found that in the industrial sectors, a sizeable amount of electric energy, emissions and utility bill can be saved using these technologies. Payback periods for different energy savings measures have been identified and found to be economically viable in most cases. Finally, various energy-saving policies for few selected countries were reviewed. (author)

  13. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  14. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German energy service companies sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D.; Schleich, J.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research conducted in the German energy service sector to assess to what extent energy service companies (ESCOs) can help overcome the barriers to energy in the higher education, brewing and mechanical engineering sectors. This report complements the sector for Germany within the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000; Schleich/Boede 2000a; Schleich/Boede 2000b; Schleich et al., 2000). The report characterises the German energy service sector, contains a description and analysis of four case studies in the energy service sector, identifies the main barriers and chances for ESCOs in the higher education, brewery and mechanical engineering sectors, and concludes with brief recommendations on how these barriers may be overcome. The results of the study are summarised here under the following headings: Characterising the energy service sector in Germany; - Case studies of energy service companies in Germany; - The role of ESCOs in the case-study sectors; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  15. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy

  16. An outline of the Dutch Waste sector and its market structure; Een verkenning van de Nederlandse afvalbranche en haar marktstructuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reezigt, M.J.A.

    2009-03-15

    The research question of this study is: is the current situation in the waste industry in the Netherlands reason to implement new regulations to improve the market in this sector? After the introduction and a view on the governmental policy follows a survey of the market and an overview of recent developments in the industry. Then follows an elaboration of the specific sub-sectors. These are separately analyzed on the basis of the SCP-model (Structure-Conduct-Performance framework) of Bain (1951), which provides information about the structural elements of the sector specific markets [Dutch] De onderzoeksvraag van deze studie luidt: geeft de huidige situatie in de afvalbranche aanleiding om tot nieuwe reguleringen over te gaan ter bevordering van de marktwerking in deze branche? Na de inleiding en een blik op het overheidsbeleid volgt een verkenning van de markt en een overzicht van recente ontwikkelingen binnen de branche. Vervolgens wordt dieper ingegaan op de specifieke deelsectoren. Deze worden los van elkaar geanalyseerd aan de hand van het SGR-model (Structuur-Gedrag-Resultaatschema) van Bain (1951), wat informatie verschaft over de structuurelementen van de sectorspecifieke markten.

  17. Revised Upper Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Dutch sector of the North Sea Basin: towards an integrated lithostratigraphic, seismostratigraphic and allostratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, K.F.; Passchier, S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Laban, C.; Leeuwen, R.J.W. van; Ebbing, J.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    A revised Upper Cenozoic stratigraphic framework of the Dutch sector of the North Sea Basin is presented whereby offshore stratigraphic units are integrated or correlated with onshore units. The framework is based on an integrated stratigraphic approach that combines elements of lithostratigraphy, s

  18. Revised Upper Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Dutch sector of the North Sea Basin: Towards an integrated lithostratigraphic, seismostratigraphic and allostratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, K.F.; Passchier, S.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Laban, C.; Leeuwen, R.J.W. van; Ebbing, J.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    A revised Upper Cenozoic stratigraphic framework of the Dutch sector of the North Sea Basin is presented whereby offshore stratigraphic units are integrated or correlated with onshore units. The framework is based on an integrated stratigraphic approach that combines elements of lithostratigraphy, s

  19. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sector actual de energía en Ecuador, su estructura actual, la industria del petróleo, los subsidios, y las energías renovables, centrándose en la evolución y la reforma del sector eléctrico. Actualmente, el 86% de la energía primaria se origina a partir de fuentes no renovables. En 2005, la producción bruta de electricidad fue 15127GWh (45,5% hidroeléctrica, 43,11% térmica y 11,39% importado). Ecuador es el quinto mayor productor de petróleo en América del Sur, ...

  20. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy and exergy methods. For the 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industrial sector, detailed end-use models were created and analysed...... with data for the years 2006 and 2012. The sectoral energy and exergy losses, as well as the exergy destruction, were further established to quantify the potential for recovering and valorising heat otherwise lost. By also considering transformation processes occurring in the utility sector, the impact...... of using electricity and district heat in the industry is shown. The exergy efficiencies for each process industry were found to be in the range of 12% to 56% in 2012. However variations in the efficiencies within the sectors for individual process industries occur, underlining the need for detailed...

  1. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  2. Dynamic and Static Behaviour with Respect to Energy Use and Investment of Dutch Greenhouse Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, D.M.I.; Emvalomatis, G.; Bunte, F.H.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dutch greenhouse horticulture firms are energy-intensive and major emitters of greenhouse gases. This paper develops a theoretically consistent model that is able to describe the greenhouse firms’ behaviour regarding energy use and investments in energy technology. The behaviour of the firm is model

  3. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  4. Account managers in the energy sector; Accountmanagers in energiesector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, L.; Verhagen, H.; Pentinga, J. [Berenschot, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    As a result of the liberalization in the energy sector in Europe account management has become an important aspect for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands. Briefly insight is given into the conditions that have to be fulfilled by the company management for successful account management in order to improve the market chances of energy companies

  5. Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy, exergy and embodied exergy methods. The 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industry, were modelled and analysed in details for the years...... 2006 and 2012. The energy and exergy losses, as well as the exergy destruction, were established, together with the embodied ones, by including the transformation processes in the utility sector. The energy and exergy efficiencies for each sub-sector were calculated in a final step and ranged from 12......% to 56% in 2012. Industries with high-temperature processes, such as the cement and metal production sectors, present the highest exergy efficiencies but the lowest energy ones. The opposite conclusion is drawn for the food, paper and chemical industries. The exergy losses, which indicate the potential...

  6. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  7. Dutch (organic) agriculture, carbon sequestration and energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Staps, S.; Timmermans, B.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in soils is often mentioned in the discussions about climate changes. In this paper the opportunities for carbon sequestration in Dutch agriculture are discussed at farm and national level. Farm internal carbon sources are already completely used in livestock farming. The effect

  8. Informal sector energy use in Tanzania. Efficiency and employment potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R. [Center for Energy and the Environment, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The informal sector in Tanzania contains a large number of small-scale business entrepreneurs filling a largely service role in the economy. The subsectors of the informal sector included in this study were food preparation, beer brewing, grain milling, carpentry, metal working and auto repairs. Over the past several years, women have entered into this subsector as part of economic survival activities. In terms of energy efficiency, the food preparation subsectors are the least efficient, while the welders and carpenters tend to be the most efficient, as the latter make use of electricity and the former utilize traditional fuels. However, the energy use of the informal sector is limited by capital limitations - informal cement and fertilizer factories simply do not exist. To a certain scale, energy efficiency follows capital intensity in the formal sector. The most capital intensive subsectors demonstrate the smallest gross energy requirements as they make greater use of modern fuels. The least capital intensive firms utilize the most energy in the form of traditional fuels. The energy-use patterns of the informal sector differ in the same way as the overall energy consumption patterns of the three cities. 6 tabs

  9. The structure of the Dutch waste sector and impediments for waste reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; Wolsink, M.

    1997-01-01

    The way in which organizations collect, treat and dispose of waste in The Netherlands frustrates the achievement of waste reduction goals. The possibility that directed modification of the structure of the waste sector may contribute to stimulating consumers (i.e. all waste producers using services

  10. Negotiating the 'trading zone'. Creating a shared information infrastructure in the Dutch public safety sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Wagenaar, F.P.; Wolbers, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Our main concern in this article is whether nation-wide information technology (IT) infrastructures or systems in emergency response and disaster management are the solution to the communication problems the safety sector suffers from. It has been argued that implementing nation-wide IT systems will

  11. High performance work practices in the health care sector: A dutch case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present an empirical study of the effect of high performance work practices on commitment and citizenship behaviour in the health care sector. The theory suggests that individual employees are willing “to go the extra mile” when they are given the opportunity to develop

  12. Dutch AG-MEMOD model; A tool to analyse the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural policies in the European Union (EU) have a history of continuous reform. AG-MEMOD, acronym for Agricultural sector in the Member states and EU: econometric modelling for projections and analysis of EU policies on agriculture, forestry and the environment, provides a system for analysing

  13. Designing for a Living? Income Determinants Among Firm Founders in the Dutch Design Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, A.; Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Castaldi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analysed the role of the creative class in fostering regional development. The focus on regional development neglects the individual differences in success among members in the creative class and among firms within creative industries. We study firm founders in three design sectors

  14. Sustainable Energy for All and the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanca, Raffaella; Wilson, Emma

    2012-06-15

    The UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) has a strong focus on the private sector to deliver universal energy access, improved efficiency and increased investment in renewable energy. Leading private sector associations have bought into SE4ALL, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the Global Compact. However, critics argue that SE4ALL is focusing too much on large-scale infrastructure investment and is missing opportunities to stimulate enterprise more locally and to benefit the poorest. The private sector – including large and smaller-scale businesses, both local and international – is keen to get involved in energy access in low-income markets and sees the value of an initiative such as SE4ALL. Yet some feel that SE4ALL is failing to engage all levels of the private sector effectively. To deliver universal energy access, SE4ALL needs to address the lack of finance for enterprises and end users, especially in untested markets; infrastructure and support services for new businesses; local skills, capacity and information about workable models; and favourable policy frameworks. With the right incentives, business can open up low-income markets by providing lifeimproving services to emerging middle class populations who are still excluded from energy access. To reach the poorest SE4ALL can promote private sector partnerships with government and NGOs, encourage corporate responsibility initiatives and support social entrepreneurs.

  15. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations...... consumption compared with the estimated energy demand by calculation. The paper concludes that the result of an energy calculation should not be given as a single figure but rather as a spread between the best and worst case for the assumed conditions. Finally, a brief update on current actions is given...... related to the sector guide for calculation of actual energy consumption. Keywords – Energy calculations, actual energy consumption, energy perfomance...

  16. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  17. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  18. Supplementary advise for geothermal energy in the SDE+ 2013 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme); Aanvullend advies geothermie in SDE+ 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lako, P.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-12-11

    This memo answers questions from the Ministry of Economic Affairs to ECN and DNV KEMA on the support for geothermal energy projects in the SDE+ 2013 [Dutch] Deze notitie beantwoordt vragen die het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) aan ECN en DNV KEMA gesteld heeft over de ondersteuning van geothermieprojecten in de SDE+ 2013. De beantwoording van de vragen is in het licht te zien van voorkoming van overstimulering en beperking van overreservering van middelen door de SDE+. Het advies in deze notitie is een aanvulling op het advies op de basisbedragen SDE+ 2013 dat geconsulteerd is met de sector. Na dit advies heeft EZ gevraagd naar de mogelijkheden voor het maximeren van het maximaal subsidiabele productievermogen en de wenselijkheid om de hoogte van de SDE+-subsidie te laten afhangen van het projectvermogen en de potentie van een referentie-installatie voor geothermische warmteopwekking op grote diepte. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren de SDE+-ondersteuning voor geothermische warmte open te stellen voor grotere projectvermogens dan het vermogen van de referentie-installatie uit het advies voor de basisbedragen 2013.

  19. Competition in the Dutch hospital sector: an analysis of health care volume and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Groot, T L C M; Lindeboom, M

    2017-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual implementation of price competition is a 'natural experiment' that provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of market competition on hospital behavior. We have access to a unique database, which contains hospital discharge data of diagnosis treatment combinations (DBCs) of individual patients, including detailed care activities. Difference-in-difference estimates show that the implementation of market-based competition leads to relatively lower total costs, production volume and number of activities overall. Difference-in-difference estimates on treatment level show that the average costs for outpatient DBCs decreased due to a decrease in the number of activities per DBC. The introduction of market competition led to an increase of average costs of inpatient DBCs. Since both volume and number of activities have not changed significantly, we conclude that the cost increase is likely the result of more expensive activities. A possible explanation for our finding is that hospitals look for possible efficiency improvements in predominantly outpatient care products that are relatively straightforward, using easily analyzable technologies. The effects of competition on average cost and the relative shares of inpatient and outpatient treatments on specialty level are significant but contrary for cardiology and orthopedics, suggesting that specialties react differently to competitive incentives.

  20. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DEPFI, Edificio A 1 piso Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan, C.P. (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electricity sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided into three parts. The first part presents a chronology of institutional background related to the RES. This is followed by an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electricity sector, which can facilitate the promotion and integration of the RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system of the sector. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (author)

  1. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations......Energy calculations have for a long time been a controversial topic as building owners do not necessarily achieve the promised energy savings after a building upgrade, but is this due to incorrect calculations or rather the evidence of misunderstandings in the communication? In Denmark...... of the energy calculation for building owners and developers. This paper describes the process that leads to the sector guide and briefly explains the content in both the technical guide and the communication paper. Finally the paper discusses some of the known dilemmas related to the measured energy...

  2. Investing in the Energy Sector: An Issue of Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst Keppler, J.; Schulke, Ch.

    2009-07-01

    Of all economic sectors, energy is among those where the issue of investments is the most urgent. Because of its technological structure and significant fixed costs, the energy sector is by nature heavily capital intensive. With growing demand and increasingly difficult access to resources, the amounts needed become enormous. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates in its World Energy Outlook 2008 that total energy investment needs between now and 2030 will stand at $26 trillion, or close to $1 trillion per year. This is just for energy supply. Half of these investments will be needed in the electricity sector (see below for more details on these estimations). Even after putting these figures into perspective in terms of total worldwide investments over the next 25 years, the amount of money is still significant. All types of energy are involved - oil, gas, coal, nuclear and renewables. In addition, all steps in the supply chain are included - exploration, production, transformation and transportation. The stakes are high. Without the necessary investments, security of supply, global economic growth and environmental integrity are put at risk. The most important challenge for the energy sector in the years to come is thus to pave the way for realising timely and appropriate investments. The current economic recession that is threatening to curb global economic growth will not change this fact. Even if global energy demand slows down in the next two or three years, the world will return to its long term growth path. An energy facility lasts between 20 and 60 years. Thus, the structure of energy production in 2050, when the current economic crisis has been forgotten, will be determined now and over the next years. Even if global energy demand remains stable between now and 2050 (which is highly improbable), the replacement of existing facilities that have reached the end of their life-cycle will still require considerable efforts. (authors)

  3. Energie Efficiency Directive. Article 7. Dutch implementation; Energie Efficiency Directive. Artikel 7. Nederlandse invulling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.; Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.; Kroon, P.; Stutvoet-Mulder, K.; Tigchelaar, C.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Article 7 of the recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) obliges the EU member states to achieve 1.5% yearly efficiency improvements during the period 2014-2020, culminating in a cumulative savings target. This report describes the way the Netherlands intends to meet the article 7 obligations, as requested by the European Commission. The EED offers the member states various degrees of freedom with regard to the definition of the target and the way it is met. Hence, this report addresses the choices of the Netherlands and their consequences for the Dutch target and the realised energy savings. A broad-lined description of the choices and overall results is complemented by extensive annexes that offer technical descriptions and detailed numbers [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de manier waarop Nederland aan haar doelstelling voor artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) denkt te voldoen. Het is gebaseerd op de interpretaties en keuzes die de Nederlandse overheid heeft gemaakt. Artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive verplicht Nederland tot het realiseren van een efficiencyverbetering van 1,5% per jaar in de periode 2014-2020, als cumulatieve doelstelling. Voor Nederland betekent dit - rekening houdend met de vrijheidsgraden van de EED - een doelstelling van minimaal 482 PJ besparing op het finaal energiegebruik. Nederland verwacht een cumulatieve besparing te bereiken tussen de 387 en 562 PJ in finale termen, waarvan 87 tot 186 PJ door nieuw beleid. Dit nieuwe beleid bestaat uit de overeengekomen beleidsmaatregelen uit het recente Energieakkoord dat onder regie van de Sociaal Economische Raad (SER) is gesloten. Het kabinet heeft dit akkoord mede ondertekend.

  4. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  5. The technologies in the energy sector; Las tendencias tecnologicas en el sector espanol de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Claver Cabrero, A.; Sanchez Sudon, F.

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a group of technologies to be considered as critical in the energy sector, with a medium and long time horizon. Technology identification has been made taking into account the basic information used in three foresight studies in renewable energies, advanced conversion technologies of fossil fuels, transport distribution storage and end energy use, conducted by CIEMAT from 1999 to 2001. The results of these studies have been used to group those subjects which experts consider as important in future development lines. The development of these lines requires the introduction of critical emergent technologies. The selection of these critical technologies has been made considering their relevance for the sector and the Spanish position concerning their development. (Author)

  6. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  7. Energy Monitor of the Dutch horticulture 2011; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Velden, N.J.A.; Smit, P.X.

    2012-12-15

    The Energy Monitor for Greenhouse Horticulture charts the energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, the share of sustainable energy and the transition paths of the Greenhouse as Energy Source programme up to and including 2011 [Dutch] Om het energieverbruik in de glastuinbouw in beeld te krijgen en te volgen, is al in 1990 de Energiemonitor in het leven geroepen. Deze monitor publiceert jaarlijks het energieverbruik van de glastuinbouw en de voortgang van de energie-indicatoren energie-efficientie, de CO2-emissie en het aandeel duurzame energie. Voor de monitor wordt gebruik gemaakt van een reeks verschillende databronnen.

  8. Energy Monitor of the Dutch horticulture 2012; Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Velden, N.J.A.; Smit, P.X.

    2013-12-15

    The Energy Monitor for Greenhouse Horticulture charts the energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, the share of sustainable energy and the transition paths of the Greenhouse as Energy Source programme up to and including 2012 [Dutch] Om het energieverbruik in de glastuinbouw in beeld te krijgen en te volgen, is al in 1990 de Energiemonitor in het leven geroepen. Deze monitor publiceert jaarlijks het energieverbruik van de glastuinbouw en de voortgang van de energie-indicatoren energie-efficientie, de CO2-emissie en het aandeel duurzame energie. Voor de monitor wordt gebruik gemaakt van een reeks verschillende databronnen.

  9. The private sector`s role in developing alternative energy systems in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulkadir, A. [PT. Adriant Trading and Engineering, Jakarta, (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    Several scenarios have been used to predict the need for electricity in Indonesia up to the year 2020, all of which should provide the best economic performance and the lowest damage to the environment. All scenarios have minimized the use of oil and natural gas as primary energy sources in favour of their use as foreign exchange generators and industrial raw materials. The alternative energy scenarios so developed shows the increasing use of coal, combined cycles, geothermal and hydro-power energy. Nuclear energy is apparently only considered whenever its selection becomes inevitable. The environmental issues associated with future energy generation necessitate serious consideration of the use of the latest technological state-of-the-art clean coal-fired power plants. Other types of alternative energy systems such as photovoltaic, wind energy, biomass, etc., are expected to be developed for site specific regions or remote areas where electricity grids are prohibitive economically. The Indonesian government has supported the use of NRSE (New and Renewable Sources of Energy) for electricity generation by introducing the SPPT, or Small Power Purchase Tariffs, intended to stimulate private sector participation in electricity by offering for purchase PLN (the State power company), using avoided cost calculation mainly for cogeneration systems and electric power from small power producers consisting of private sector and cooperative organizations. (author). 10 tabs., 14 refs.

  10. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Y.; Mustafa, M.; Al-Mashaqbah, S.; Mashal, K.; Mohsen, M. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan)

    2007-07-01

    The number of different types of tourism accommodation has been growing over the past few years. The country of Jordan will face significant challenges in trying to meet the growing energy need and electricity demands while, at the same time, developing the energy sector in a way that minimizes the adverse impacts on the economy, the environment, and social life. This paper discussed energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan. It presented an evaluation of energy conservation in hotels based on a recent survey on environmental performance in Jordan's tourism sector. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels managers and supervisors during August 2006. Field visits were also conducted. The findings focused on several themes, including electricity and diesel fuel consumption and the willingness to adopt energy efficient procedures. such as switching incandescent bulbs to energy saving light bulbs, installing power monitoring systems and using energy efficient appliances. It was concluded that most electricity was consumed for lighting and air-conditioning. 18 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. Effectiveness of energy efficiency regulatory tools in the housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need for a dramatic reduction of fossil fuels in the built environment is without any doubt. The energy saving potential of the building stock is considered to be large and to be the most cost efficient sector to contribute to the CO2 reductions. Goals set by the European Union are to bui

  12. Metrology considerations in a fast emerging new energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    developed. The process of harmonization of procedures started in the late 80'ies, and this lead to the development of international standards within IEC in the 90'ies. Today, the wind energy sector is well established with an international IEC certification standard and attached standards for design...

  13. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  14. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  15. Effectiveness of energy efficiency regulatory tools in the housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need for a dramatic reduction of fossil fuels in the built environment is without any doubt. The energy saving potential of the building stock is considered to be large and to be the most cost efficient sector to contribute to the CO2 reductions. Goals set by the European Union are to

  16. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  17. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  18. Energy Efficiency Tracking in Thai Manufacturing Sector by Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsapai Wongkot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.

  19. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  20. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  1. Low-energy features of a 1-tev higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    It seems very likely that the Higgs sector of a spontaneously broken gauge theory could be heavy (M = 1 TeV) and strongly interacting. By exploiting the intimate connection of such theories to nonlinear a models, it is possible to show under quite general conditions what sort of impact the heavy Higgs sector can have on low energy experiments (E << 1 TeV). In this talk, the techniques and results will be summar- ized for an SU(2) gauge theory, The analysis of the Weinberg-Salam and other realistic theories will appear in a forthcoming paper.

  2. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  3. Energy consumptions per sector; Les consommations d'energie par secteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  4. Internationalisation of Dutch SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanda Hessels

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the Dutch business sector as a whole is among the largest exporters, importers and foreign direct investors, Dutch SMEs, as compared to SMEs from other European countries, occupy a position in the middle with respect to the share of enterprises that export, import or invest abroad. In the coming years an increase in the international involvement of Dutch SMEs is expected. In this report the following subjects are adressed: Overview of the internationalisation of Dutch SME's, the inter...

  5. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  6. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  7. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  8. Corporate social responsibility practices in the Nigerian oil sector: The case of Royal Dutch Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwabizambuga, Alexis

    The thesis contributes to the perspective on the role of stakeholder engagement in negotiating corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and practices in developing country context. It critically examines the role of societal pressures as drivers of Shell's CSR agenda, and explores the forms of relationships existing between Shell and its stakeholders in Nigeria, as the company implements its CSR programme, both in the light of its strategic business objectives and of its social responsibilities and environmental liabilities. Furthermore, it examines the role of government in the oil MNCs' CSR agenda, and explores the conditions under which the government, in its dual role as business partner and as state authority, promotes CSR policies and practices in Nigeria. Shell's CSR policies and practices in Nigeria were examined under the theoretical lenses of the resource-based view perspective extended to notions of legitimacy and the licence to operate. Additionally, the stakeholder engagement perspective was applied as the theoretical framework for examining Shell's stakeholder engagement, and the role of the company's stakeholders in negotiating its current CSR policies and practices in Nigeria. Data collection was undertaken during field research in Nigeria. The evidence presented is drawn from individual interviews with corporate executives at Shell Nigeria, Shell International, several stakeholders in the Nigerian oil sector, and from an online survey conducted in 2005 on Shell Nigeria's stakeholders. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used throughout the analysis presented in the thesis. The research findings suggest that the relationship between the firm's pursuit of the social licence to operate through CSR initiatives and stakeholder engagement is more complex than assumed. It adds to the understanding of the dynamics of a MNC's stakeholder engagement in the local context. It highlights the various interdependencies that develop between

  9. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  10. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  11. Energy demand and emissions of the non-energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre P. C.; Saygin, Deger; Patel, Martin K.; Wicke, Birka; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    The demand for fossil fuels for non-energy purposes such as production of bulk chemicals is poorly understood. In this study we analyse data on non-energy demand and disaggregate it across key services or products. We construct a simulation model for the main products of non-energy use and project

  12. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  13. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  14. Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Sector

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since this year there can be no doubt that "sustainability" has become the top issue in the automotive sector. Volkswagen's CEO Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn attacked incumbents like BMW Group (so far the "most sustainable car manufacturer" for the 8th consecutive year) or Toyota (producer of the famous "Prius") head-on by boldly stating to become "the most profitable and most sustainable car manufacturer worldwide by 2018" . This announcement clearly shows that "sustainability" and "profitability" no longer are considered as conflicting targets. On the contrary, to Prof. Dr. Winterkorn : "climate protection is a driver for economic growth". To prime discussions, the plenary talk will give a brief overview of the entire range of energy efficiency in the automotive sector: based on the multiple drivers behind energy efficiency, practical examples are presented along the entire life-cycle of cars (R&D, production, usage and recycling). These "cases" include big automobile producers as well as their respectiv...

  15. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia. 31006, Pamplona (Spain); [Canterbury Business School, University of Kent Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  16. Reforming Mexico’s Energy Sector to Enhance Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    requirement to reform Mexico’s energy sector. Subsequent analysis demonstrates government ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental...ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental destabilizing flaw in regulatory policy, by tracing various problems back to this root cause... Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the second largest company in Latin America and the seventh largest producer of oil in the world.1 The government of

  17. Energy conservation in Dutch offices of listed companies; Energiebesparing in Nederlandse kantoren bij beursgenoteerde bedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J.; Remmers, J.; Verstappen, R.

    2012-11-15

    Results are presented of a qualitative study of the ambitions of companies in the implementation of energy savings, and the extent to which they are reported. It appears that companies deal differently with taking energy saving measures and reporting on energy savings and CO2 emissions [Dutch] De resultaten worden gepresenteerd van een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de ambities van bedrijven bij de uitvoering van energiebesparingen, en de mate waarin hierover wordt gerapporteerd. Het blijkt dat bedrijven verschillend omgaan met het nemen van energiebesparende maatregelen en met het rapporteren over energie en CO2-emissies.

  18. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  19. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  20. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  1. Energy transition of a sector in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Weterings, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, F.A. [FORGOOD, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    To realize the energy transition in the building sector, three types of obstacles have to be overcome: technology-related, process-related and integration of technology and process. To this end an innovation / implementation program has been set up. The intrinsic driver of the program is the realization of increasingly more ambitious energy concepts in three successive waves, allowing for the different actors to learn from the previous wave, to prepare for the next wave and to scale up these type of projects both in terms of quantity and quality. The establishment process of the program identified a key success factor for the transition process itself: the role of the individual.

  2. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  3. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  4. Globalization of the energy sector: Environmental challenges and options for future actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pablo

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to environmental challenges of the energy sector and options for future action. Following themes are discussed: Globalisation of the energy sector; environmental challenges; the challenge of climate change; options for future action

  5. Energy. A sector in danger; Energie: une filiere en danger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-03-15

    Just like the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents slowed down the pace of development of nuclear energy, several countries put their project of construction of new nuclear reactors into question again after the accident of Fukushima, or at least decided a security assessment of their installations. The article comments the reactions of different political actors in France belonging either to the government or to the opposition. The level of this last accident may surely impact the development of nuclear reactors throughout the world, but may not stop it because of energy needs. Safety standards might be reassessed and some countries might choose other energy sources like gas for example. As Areva claims a high safety level for the EPR, a discussion emerges about the compliance of some French installations (Fessenheim, Cadarache) with anti-seismic construction standards

  6. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Brookfield, A W; Hall, L M H

    2007-01-01

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles.

  7. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  8. Cost price and energy consumption of tulip overheating. Water overheating offers bulb sector perspective on energy consumption; Kostprijs en energieverbruik bij tulpenbroei. Waterbroei biedt bollensector perspectief op energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rijssel, E.; Snoek, A.J.

    2003-07-01

    A switch from tulip overheating in boxes to overheating on water can save energy in the bulb sector. The result of a study on the subject are presented. [Dutch] Er is onderzocht in hoeverre de overschakeling van de broei van tulp op kisten naar de broei op water kan bijdragen aan energiebesparing in de sector. Deze onderzoeksvraag is opgesplitst in twee delen: (1) Hoe groot is de energiebesparing bij overschakeling per m{sup 2} kas en per 1000 gebroeide bollen?; en (2) Wat is het economisch perspectief van waterbroei ten opzichte van de traditionele broei op kisten met potgrond? Overeenkomstig met de huidige ontwikkelingen is voor waterbroei zowel de broei op stilstaand als de broei op stromend water in het project betrokken.

  9. Modelling energy demand in the buildings sector within the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O Broin, Eoin

    2012-11-01

    In the on-going effort within the EU to tackle greenhouse gas emissions and secure future energy supplies, the buildings sector is often referred to as offering a large potential for energy savings. The aim of this thesis is to produce scenarios that highlight the parameters that affect the energy demands and thus potentials for savings of the building sector. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to modelling energy demand in EU buildings are applied in this thesis. The top-down approach uses econometrics to establish the historical contribution of various parameters to energy demands for space and water heating in the residential sectors of four EU countries. The bottom-up approach models the explicit impact of trends in energy efficiency improvement on total energy demand in the EU buildings stock. The two approaches are implemented independently, i.e., the results from the top-down studies do not feed into those from the bottom-up studies or vice versa. The explanatory variables used in the top-down approach are: energy prices; heating degree days, as a proxy for outdoor climate; a linear time trend, as a proxy for technology development; and the lag of energy demand, as a proxy for inertia in the system. In this case, inertia refers to the time it takes to replace space and water heating systems in reaction to price changes. The analysis gives long-term price elasticities of demand as follows: for France, -0.17; for Italy, -0.35; for Sweden, -0.27; and for the UK, -0.35. These results reveal that the price elasticity of demand for space and water heating is inelastic in each of these cases. Nonetheless, scenarios created for the period up to 2050 using these elasticities and an annual price increase of 3 % show that demand can be reduced by more than 1 % per year in France and Sweden and by less than 1 % per year in Italy and the UK. In the bottom-up modelling, varying rates for conversion efficiencies, heating standards for new buildings, end-use efficiency, and

  10. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  11. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water reactor... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North...

  12. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to

  13. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinay, C. L. S., E-mail: cmahinay@nip.upd.edu.ph; Ramos, H. J. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Metro Manila (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  14. Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, I. E-mail: idincer@kfupm.edu.sa; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.

  15. Execution of a participatory supportive return to work program within the Dutch social security sector: a qualitative evaluation of stakeholders' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-04-14

    A process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program, aimed at workers without a (permanent) employment contract who are sick-listed due to a common mental disorder, revealed that this program was executed less successfully than similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in competitive employment. Aim of this study was to get a better understanding of the execution of the program by evaluating stakeholders' perceptions. In the absence of an employer, the program was applied by the Dutch Social Security Agency, in collaboration with vocational rehabilitation agencies. Together with the sick-listed workers, these were the main stakeholders. Our research questions involved stakeholders' perceptions of the function(s) of the program, and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators for a successful execution of the program within the Dutch social security sector. Semi-structured interviews were held with five sick-listed workers, eight professionals of the Social Security Agency, and two case managers of vocational rehabilitation agencies. Interview topics were related to experiences with different components of the program. Selection of respondents was based on purposive sampling and continued until data saturation was reached. Content analysis was applied to identify patterns in the data. Two researchers developed a coding system, based on predefined topics and themes emerging from the data. Although perceived functions of some components of the program were as intended, all stakeholders stressed that the program often had not resulted in return to work. Perceived barriers for a successful execution were related to a poor collaboration between the Dutch Social Security Agency, vocational rehabilitation agencies and healthcare providers, the type of experienced (health) problems, time constraints, and limited job opportunities. For future implementation

  16. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustainable energy, clear policies and targets and dedicated institutions are crucial. Fortunately, Afghan government with the support of international community is setting ambitious targets for the renewable energy sector and is encouraging national and international investors to take part in the generation, transmission, and distribution of renewable energy especially electricity through Power Purchase Agreements or very cheap land leases. Thus, the objectives of this report are (I to review the existing institutions in the field of renewable energy, (II to review renewable energy policies and targets in Afghanistan, and (III to identify institutional and policy gaps and recommend solutions.

  17. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  18. ACCOUNTANCY REFLECTION OF ENVIRONMENT INFORMATION REGARDING THE ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources, especially energetical ones, have continuously influenced the evolution of human society, including the economical developement, and so the problem of their deficiency and their limited character is a problem of major interest for the human kind in their quest to find the balance betwen the need of economical expansion and the environment protection. The purpose of this paper work is to show the importancy of energy eficiency by asuming two main action directions: to encrease the quantity of renewable energy and to emprove the energetical efficiency. After the researches we made, we brought in attention the main mechanisms used in the insurance of sustainability security and competitiveness of the energy sector. These practices the objectives of the sustainable development principle, exemplified from accountancy point of view through a new instrument in the economical theory: environmental accountancy which ensures the background regarding the recognition, evaluation and presentation of environment information.

  19. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  20. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German mechanical engineering (ME) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of four case studies of energy management in German companies in the ME sector. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the ME sector may be improved. The results of the study for the ME sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the mechanical engineering sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German mechanical engineering sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German mechanical engineering sector; - The role of energy service companies in the mechanical engineering sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  1. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  2. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake : the impact on the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Neto, Guilherme Maria Ferraz de

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact caused by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake, within the energy sector across the World. In order to measure results, a couple of methodologies that resorted to abnormal returns were undertaken and multiple significance tests were made to verify statistical relevancy on the findings. It has been possible to observe a positive reaction on the “Nuclear Energy” companies, as well as a negative impact on the “Renewable Energy” group, with the most prominen...

  3. Physical indicators as a basis for estimating energy efficiency developments in the Dutch industry. Update 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roes, L.; Neelis, M.; Ramirez, A.

    2007-04-15

    In 2004, a method was developed for calculating energy efficiency developments in the Dutch manufacturing industry using physical indicators of production. The method and its application to calculate energy efficiency developments in the Dutch manufacturing industry for the time period 1993-2001 is described in another. The method is used as part of the yearly calculation of energy savings in the Netherlands according to the Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings performed by the Platform Monitoring Energy Savings. On request of this platform, the calculations carried out in 2004 have been updated in 2005 for the years 2002 and 2003 and were published in the 2005 update. In this report, an update is made for the years 2004 and 2005. The authors present the results of the extended calculations for the years 1995-2005. In Chapter 2 of this report, an overview is given of data sources that were used in this study. In Chapter 3, changes compared to the analysis from 2005 are discussed and the results presented. It should be emphasised that this report does not contain background information on the method applied. For information on the method see the 2004 report. Furthermore, the focus of this report is on presenting the results of the calculations. Less attention is paid to analysing, explaining and interpreting the results.

  4. Physical indicators as a basis for estimating energy efficiency developments in the Dutch industry. Update 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelis, M.; Ramirez, A.; Patel, M.

    2005-07-15

    In 2004, a method was developed for calculating energy efficiency developments in the Dutch manufacturing industry using physical indicators of production. The method and its application to calculate energy efficiency developments in the Dutch manufacturing industry for the time period 1993-2001 is described in elsewhere. The method is used as part of the yearly calculation of energy savings in the Netherlands according to the Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings performed by the Platform Monitoring Energy Savings. On request of this platform, the calculations done in 2004 are updated and extended by two additional years (2002 and 2003) for which production statistics have, in the meantime, become available. In this report, we give the results of the extended calculations for the years 1993-2003. In Chapter 2 the additional data sources used are summarized and compared to the analysis done in 2004. The results are given in Chapter 3. It should be emphasised that the authors do not give any background on the method applied for which they refer to the 2004 report. Furthermore, they focus in this report on presenting the results of the calculations and only give minor attention to analysing, explaining and interpreting the results that were found.

  5. Environmental management in sugar-energy sector: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the environmental variable in the business environment, companies started to give greater attention to strategies and practices focused on the rational use of natural resources and minimize the environmental impacts of their business operations. Many productive sectors stood out in the reflections on production and the environment, as is the case of the sugar energy industry, which constitutes a sector with a highly demanding industrial activity of natural resources, whether as sources of inputs as depositories of waste production. Thus, the aim of this paper is a comparative analysis of environmental practices of two sugar energy plants, both from the point of view of their operational strategy and regarding the suitability of the disposal of waste generated by the industrial area. It was concluded that, although many practices adopted by businesses are analogous, one of the studied plants have distinctive environmental performance, because of the increased attention given to the implementation of environmental practices and especially the inclusion of the environmental variable in their strategies.

  6. Intelligent sector coupling. Efficient energy transition; Intelligente Sektorkopplung. Effiziente Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphues, Stephan

    2017-04-15

    The transformation process of the German energy industry is advancing. The power line and storage infrastructure still appears to be very neglected. The 2050 climate protection plan, but also the EU winter package, is an all-electric approach despite sector-specific targets. In addition to the exorbitant expansion requirements for renewables, infrastructures with enormous transport and storage potential are ''given away''. As in the interview with OGE CEO Stephan Kamphues becomes clear, an efficient energy transition requires an intelligent coupling of different sectors and infrastructures, ultimately even perhaps network convergence. [German] Der Transformationsprozess der deutschen Energiewirtschaft schreitet voran. Immer noch stark vernachlaessigt erscheint die Leitungs- und Speicherinfrastruktur. Dem Klimaschutzplan 2050, aber auch dem EU-Winterpaket wohnt trotz sektorspezifischer Ziele ein all electric-Ansatz inne. Neben exorbitantem Ausbaubedarf an Erneuerbaren ''verschenkt'' man damit Infrastrukturen mit riesigem Transport- und Speicherpotenzial. Wie im Interview mit OGE-Geschaeftsfuehrer Stephan Kamphues deutlich wird, erfordert eine effiziente Energiewende eine intelligente Kopplung verschiedener Sektoren und Infrastrukturen, letztendlich vielleicht sogar Netzkonvergenz.

  7. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  8. Dutch Research into User Behaviour in Relation to Energy Use of Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, E.; Spiekman, M. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J. [ECN ECN Efficiency en Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    The results of a literature review into user behaviour characteristics in relation to Dutch household energy use are reported. In succession, an extended probabilistic parameter study into the influence of variation of user related parameters on energy use has been executed. The probabilistic tool developed for the study will deliver characteristics of four fixed behavioural profiles which can be implemented in the energy performance calculations. Further, the probabilistic tool will be used to evaluate consequences of various user behaviour related to room ventilation and heating. The insight gained with this probabilistic study is used to define an approach to improve the interface of several building related energy devices in such a way that the user is challenged to behave more energy efficiently. Starting point for this approach has been knowledge on human technology interaction in the field of domestic appliances.

  9. An ex ante welfare analysis of the unbundling of the distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs intends (i) to unbundle the distribution companies from the commercial companies which are currently in the same holding (supply and generation) and (ii) to allow the Transmission System Operator to manage all the 110 kV grids (currently it manages the 220 kV l

  10. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  11. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.; Ostertag, K.; Radgen, P.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German brewing sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of five case studies of energy management in German breweries. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project. The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the brewing sector may be improved. The results of the study for the brewing sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the brewing sector - Case studies of energy management in the German brewing sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German brewing sector; - The role of energy service companies in the brewing sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  12. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  13. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  14. Alternative Energy Sources and Energy Infrastructure for Dutch Greenhouses : Investigating Growers’ Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, Yashar; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Growing plants, vegetables and flowers in greenhouses constitutes the core business and capability of the Dutch horticulture industry. Greenhouse owners in the Netherlands use advanced technology to maintain the quality of products and to remain competitive in international markets despite high cost

  15. Alternative Energy Sources and Energy Infrastructure for Dutch Greenhouses : Investigating Growers’ Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, Yashar; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Growing plants, vegetables and flowers in greenhouses constitutes the core business and capability of the Dutch horticulture industry. Greenhouse owners in the Netherlands use advanced technology to maintain the quality of products and to remain competitive in international markets despite high cost

  16. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  17. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  18. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  19. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  20. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  1. [Method for grading industrial sectors in energy consumption and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Su; Ma, Lan

    2013-04-01

    Energy is mainly consumed by the urban industry system, thus grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption may help to identify the concerned industrial sectors and provide necessary information for industrial energy management in China's industrialization and urbanization. In present article, based on a review of the fundamental relationships between energy consumption and industrial sectors, the contribution rates and energy efficiency of industrial sectors are chosen as typical parameters for energy consumption. The concept of distance index of industrial sectors for energy consumption is defined through China's average level as a reference base. The grade of industrial sectors in energy consumption is classed into 9 types from extreme advantage to extreme disadvantage according to the scope of distance index values, and the types of industrial sectors that need to be more concerned are pointed out. Taking Chongqing as a case study, the application for grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption was exhibited, by which, the main industrial sectors are grated and the industrial sectors that should be special concerned in energy management are determined.

  2. Search for dark sectors in missing energy events

    CERN Multimedia

    Enik, T; Rubbia, A; Kramarenko, V; Banerjee, D; Depero, E; Krasnikov, N; Petukhov, O; Kuleshov, S; Volkov, P; Dusaev, R; Radics, B; Toropin, A; Dermenev, A; Russomando, A; Peshekhonov, D; Peshekhonov, V; Kekelidze, G; Crivelli, P; Vasilishin, B; Tlisov, D; Karjavine, V; Donskov, S; Lyubovitsky, V; Burtsev, V; Zhukov, K; Kirsanov, M; Karneyeu, A; Matveev, V; Lysan, V; Samoylenko, V; Trifonov, A

    The NA64 experiment (known as P348 at the proposal stage) is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS combining the active beam dump and missing energy techniques to search for rare events. The experiment will build and operate a fully hermetic detector placed on the H4 beam line with the primary goal to search for light dark bosons (Z') from dark sector that are coupled to photons, e.g. dark photons (A'), or sub-GeV Z' coupled only to quarks. In some cases the Z' is coupled only to µ or tau, so we call the Z′ the dark leptonic gauge boson. The experiment is also capable to search for K_L -> invisible decay, which is complementary to K+ -> π+ + ν ν, and invisible decays of π0, η, η′, K_S mesons.

  3. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B., E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.in [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Kumar Ray, Binay [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

    2011-11-15

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO{sub 2} emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: > The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. > It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. > The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. > The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  4. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  5. Energy sector water use implications of a 2°C climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fricko, Oliver; Parkinson, Simon C.; Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; Vliet, van Michelle; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying water implications of energy transitions is important for assessing long-term freshwater sustainability since large volumes of water are currently used throughout the energy sector. In this paper, we assess direct global energy sector water use and thermal water pollution across a bro

  6. Energy sector water use implications of a 2°C climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fricko, Oliver; Parkinson, Simon C.; Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; Vliet, van Michelle; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying water implications of energy transitions is important for assessing long-term freshwater sustainability since large volumes of water are currently used throughout the energy sector. In this paper, we assess direct global energy sector water use and thermal water pollution across a

  7. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  8. Towards translation of environmental determinants of physical activity in children into multi-sector policy measures: study design of a Dutch project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oers Hans AM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in children is a major health problem in The Netherlands as well as in many other Western countries. In addition to health promotion among parents and children, creating "active" neighbourhoods can contribute to the solution of this health problem. However, changing environmental characteristics is often the responsibility of policy sectors outside the Public Health domain. Therefore this project identifies and evaluates the possibilities of multi-sector policy measures to stimulate physical activity in children. Methods and design The project consists of quantitative as well as qualitative research methods and is conducted in four medium sized Dutch cities. To identify perceived environmental determinants of physical activity in children, a large scale health survey was conducted at 42 primary schools. Written questionnaires including topics on the children's physical activity behaviour (i.e. sports participation, outdoor play, active commuting, television watching and computer usage and physical and social environmental characteristics were completed by 6,601 parents of children aged 3-13 years old and 3449 children aged 9-13 years old. In addition, 33 neighbourhood audits (systematic observations were conducted to assess objective neighbourhood characteristics. Furthermore, a policy analysis was conducted in the four participating municipalities to provide an overview of the current local policy measures directed at stimulation of physical activity in children. Policy plans of six different policy sectors (Public Health, Sports, Education & Youth, Spatial Planning, Traffic & Transport, and Safety were screened for their content on physical activity in children. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy makers of each of these sectors to identify critical success factors in the development and realization of multi-sector policy plans aimed at stimulating physical activity in

  9. The transport sector's energy usage in 2011; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ellen; Kadic, Zinaida; Lindblom, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of the Sweden's energy consumption. As the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels, its conversion to other fuel-/energy types have a major impact in the coming years with the increasing requirements for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This situation is expected to change and expand requirements for statistics on the transport sector's energy use. Since 2008, as a result of the increased interest, the Swedish Energy Agency publish an annual collection of statistics for the transport sector.

  10. Optimization in the energy sector; Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [German] Die Umsetzung der Energiewende und die Entwicklungen auf den nationalen und internationalen Energiemaerkten erfordern immer wieder fundierte Analysen und neue Antworten. Die Fachtagung ''Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft'' gibt hier einen Ueberblick ueber Methoden und Modelle, die praxisnah zur Entscheidungsunterstuetzung eingesetzt werden koennen. Speicher und Elektromobilitaet ebenso wie Nachfrageflexibilitaet sind wichtige Faktoren fuer die langfristige Gestaltung des deutschen und europaeischen Energiesystems. Aber auch methodischen Aspekten wie die Beruecksichtigung von Unsicherheiten wird im Rahmen der Tagung ein wichtiger Platz eingeraeumt. Ein zentrales Thema ist zudem die kurz- und

  11. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...

  12. Opportunities and barriers for a crop-based energy sector in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupfel, Ellen Joanne

    This study investigates the existing opportunities and barriers for expanding the crop-based energy sector in Ontario. The investigation takes place at a time when growing concerns about sustainability---environmental, social, and economic---are encouraging the exploration of alternatives to energy systems based on fossil fuels, and concerns around the future viability of rural communities are making agriculturally-based and rural-based energy production systems attractive to many. To explore opportunities and barriers for the crop-based energy sector, this thesis addresses the question: What is the political-economic context within which the crop-based energy sector operates in Ontario? Taking an institutional approach, the study involved 26 interviews with individuals whose organizations influence Ontario's crop-based energy sector (that includes the biofuels ethanol and biodiesel), developed a model outlining relationships between the crop-based energy sector and other sectors of the economy, as well as the state, and implemented a survey of Ontario Members of Provincial Parliament's perspectives on biofuels. This research examines the balance of power of knowledge, production, security, finance, and technology for Ontario's crop-based energy sector. The overall balance of power currently rests with the petroleum sector. Through force field analysis, the study also identifies the key opportunities and barriers for the growth and development of the biofuels sector. These opportunities include climate change and rural development agendas, and the barriers include the petroleum sector, cost of production, and some sectors of the state. A few overarching conclusions emerge from this research: (1) Change in Ontario's crop-based energy sector is driven foremost by political and economic forces; (2) Climate change is the most significant driving force for the development and expansion of Ontario's crop-based energy sector; (3) Production cost and resistance from the

  13. Public perceptions of low carbon energy technologies. Results from a Dutch large group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Van Bree, B.; Feenstra, C.F.J.; Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    This report describes the outcomes of a large group workshop held in Utrecht, the Netherlands on 21 May 2011. The workshop aims to learn about Dutch citizens perspectives on climate change and low emission energy technologies and how these perspectives may change after receiving and discussing objective information. This report presents participants environmental profile, stated beliefs, knowledge and attitudes, support for different energy technologies, and environmental behaviours and intentions, derived from questionnaire answers and observations during the day. The report also presents observed changes on the above over the course of the workshop. Whereas the report provides some conclusions and inferences throughout its sections, the focus of the report is on presenting the observations. No overall conclusions are drawn.

  14. Nuclear energy and opportunity to strengthen the sustainable electricity sector; Energia nuclear una oportunidad para fortalecer el sector electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles N, A. G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Direccion de Proyectos de Inversion Financiada, Gerencia de Proteccion Ambiental, Paseo de la Reforma No. 164, Col. Juarez, 06600 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The beginning of electricity in Mexico was through the use and exploitation of natural resources; as the demand grew, more generation power plants were required with great capacity and at the same time the fuels used varied, although, oil continued to be the main fuel. At present, due to the effects of climate change, the Conference of the Parties has proposed to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels to give way to clean energy (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, etc.), which entails gradually modifying the energy matrix of the electricity sector. The National Development Plan and the National Electricity Sector Development Program, this coordinated by the Energy Secretariat in Mexico, establish policies to promote sustainable development, increasing electricity generation through clean energy sources, including nuclear energy. However, such plans are not accurate in the strategy to be followed to ensure compliance with the increased participation of nuclear energy. This article proposes a nuclear program for the Mexican electricity sector, under the terms of a State policy, aimed at crystallizing a sustainable electricity development 2015-2036; considering that the application to the electricity sector constitutes a representative and justified example of the incorporation of environmental aspects in decision processes for the preservation of the environment. In order to determine the quantity and type of reactors, as well as the number of nuclear power plants and increase of the installed capacity, the general planning scheme of the electric sector was used, taking as reference the modeling criteria of the WASP planning system. Finally, is concluded that the electricity generated by fission of radioactive elements is an opportunity to fulfill the commitments made by Mexico at COP 21 and to meet in an environmentally friendly way the energy requirement that our country needs. (Author)

  15. E-commerce, paper and energy use: a case study concerning a Dutch electronic computer retailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogeveen, M.J.; Reijnders, L. [Open University Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Impacts of the application of c-commerce on paper and energy use are analysed in a case study concerning a Dutch electronic retailer (e-tailer) of computers. The estimated use of paper associated with the e-tailer concerned was substantially reduced if compared with physical retailing or traditional mail-order retailing. However, the overall effect of e-tailing on paper use strongly depends on customer behaviour. Some characteristics of c-commerce, as practised by the e-tailer concerned, such as diminished floor space requirements, reduced need for personal transport and simplified logistics, improve energy efficiency compared with physical retailing. Substitution of paper information by online information has an energetic effect that is dependent on the time of online information perusal and the extent to which downloaded information is printed. Increasing distances from producers to consumers, outsourcing, and increased use of computers, associated equipment and electronic networks are characteristics of e-commerce that may have an upward effect on energy use. In this case study, the upward effects thereof on energy use were less than the direct energy efficiency gains. However, the indirect effects associated with increased buying power and the rebound effect on transport following from freefalling travel time, greatly exceeded direct energy efficiency gains. (author)

  16. Energy conservation in the existing Dutch private housing stock; Energiebesparing bestaande koopwoningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijers, F.J.; Leguijt, C.

    2013-07-15

    One of the elements of the 'SER energy agreement' concluded by the Netherlands Social and Economic Council (SER) is concerned with energy efficiency in the current private housing stock. Over the past few decades there have been many programmes in this area, and a number of measures have certainly been implemented. To say that these have been overwhelmingly successful in securing the Dutch government's climate policy targets for the built environment would be an exaggeration, though. The pace of change has been too slow. The Netherlands Society for Nature and Environment (Natuur en Milieu) asked CE Delft to estimate the impact of a package of measures for improving the energy performance of existing dwellings, comprising incentives up to the year 2020 and an obligatory label C or better thereafter. The data in this brief report are derived largely from the dashboard model 'New instruments for the existing housing stock' developed by CE Delft in collaboration with ECN [Dutch] In het SER-energieakkoord speelt energiebesparing in de bestaande woningbouw een relevante rol. Vele programma's zijn de afgelopen decennia de revue gepasseerd, waarbij zeker besparingsmaatregelen zijn getroffen. Er is echter geen sprake van doorslaggevend succes dat de klimaatdoelen van de Rijksoverheid in de gebouwde omgeving daadwerkelijk binnen bereik brengt. Meer tempo is nodig. Natuur en Milieu heeft CE Delft gevraagd om de effecten in beeld te brengen van een pakket voor de verbetering van de energiekwaliteit van bestaande woningen dat bestaat uit verleiden tot 2020, met na 2020 een verplichting tot label C of beter. De cijfers in deze notitie zijn in belangrijke mate ontleend aan het dashboardmodel 'Nieuwe instrumenten voor de bestaande bouw' van CE Delft dat is ontwikkeld in samenwerking met ECN.

  17. Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997; 1. ed.; Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fuentes, Adrian; Ylizaliturri Ridriguez, Jose Carlos; Aguilar Alejandre, Vicente; Gomez Chiu, Rebeca [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The planning of the energy sector requires a detailed knowledge of the relations that exist among the International markets of energy and the position of Mexico with respect to these. The Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997 analyzes the tendency of the International markets of energy and the relative importance of the countries in relationship to its resources, production volumes, energy demand, fuel prices and foreign trade. It allows to know how and to what extent the energy sector has responded to the new economic conditions of the country and to the global tendencies, presenting statistics of easy consultation, updated information at International level on the reserves, installed capacity, production, consumption, prices and commerce of the main energy sources, and of the position of Mexico within this context. The information consists of seven chapters: First, analyzes the world-wide balance of energy, detailing the consumption of primary energy by region and source; in the second, the main crude petroleum statistics are analyzed, of selected countries; the third analyzes the refined products of petroleum, the fourth analyzes the world-wide natural gas reserves; the fifth the world-wide coal reserves and the sixth, the installed capacity of electricity generation in several countries. [Espanol] La planeacion del sector de energia requiere un conocimiento detallado de las relaciones que existen entre los mercados internacionales de energia y la posicion de Mexico con respecto a estos. El Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997 analiza la tendencia de los mercados internacionales de energia y la importancia relativa de los paises en relacion con sus recursos, volumenes de produccion, demanda de energia, precios de combustibles y comercio exterior. Permite conocer como y en que medida el sector de energia ha respondido a las nuevas condiciones economicas del pais y a las tendencias globales, al presentar estadisticas de facil consulta, de informacion

  18. Identifying the potential for resource and embodied energy savings within the UK building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandley, S.; Harmsen, R.; Worrell, E.; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The EU building sector is widely acknowledged as a primary source of anthropogenic emissions, contributing directly to climate change. Recent studies estimate the sector to account for approximately 40% of primary energy use and 50% of extracted materials within the European Union. The Energy Perfor

  19. Identifying the potential for resource and embodied energy savings within the UK building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandley, S.; Harmsen, R.; Worrell, E.; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The EU building sector is widely acknowledged as a primary source of anthropogenic emissions, contributing directly to climate change. Recent studies estimate the sector to account for approximately 40% of primary energy use and 50% of extracted materials within the European Union. The Energy

  20. Analyzing sectoral niche formation: The case of net-zero energy buildings in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Large scale development of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is seen as a potential solution to deal with future energy challenges in the building sector. This article aims to assess the current status of NZEB development in India by using an integrated framework named Sectoral System Innovation Ass

  1. A PathWayDiagram for introduction and prevention of Avian Influenza: Application to the Dutch poultry sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses is a continuing threat to the poultry sector. In times of increased risk of introduction (e.g. because of HPAI outbreaks in neighbouring countries or trade partners), decision-makers face the question whether they should intensify

  2. Achievements and challenges of innovation co-production support initiatives in the Australian and Dutch dairy sectors: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Nettle, R.

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers and innovation scholars share an increasing interest in how to operationalize innovation support given the increasing number and range of stakeholders engaged in co-producing innovation. Using comparative case study analysis, this article examines support initiatives for dairy sector in

  3. Prominent strategies for environmental sustainability in the stationary energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    There is an obvious need for companies in the stationary energy sector to intensify their efforts to contribute to sustainable development, both at a strategy level and in order to integrate sustainable practices into their operations. The main purposes of this study are 1. to identify mechanisms that enable energy companies to strengthen the environmental sustainability of their business and contribute to a sustainable development of the stationary energy system. 2. to operationalize sustainable development within the context of energy companies and establish a framework that can be used to arrange the different activities contributing to environmental sustainability at a conceptual level. Case studies of companies with a prominent strategy for environmental sustainability were chosen as a research methodology. Studying energy companies with a strong focus on the environment was considered beneficial for capturing the essence of sustainable practices and to support relevance and richness of the data to be collected. The selection of case companies was based on an emerging framework of activities for environmental sustainability that was established from an initial study of a large number of Nordic and European energy companies. This framework has subsequently been refined and extended with the help of theoretical findings (please refer to section 2 below). The study encompasses three case companies from the Swedish stationary energy sector, all showing substantial activities in each of the areas identified in the framework. Data was collected by means of personal interviews with representatives from different departments of the firms, i.e. from the environmental department, production, development, finance and management. Interviewing employees from a broad range of functions would open up for wide discussions on sustainable firm practices and different perspectives. Document studies served as an additional data source, both for interview preparations and to

  4. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  5. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  6. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  7. Mining and Energy Boom, Dutch Disease and Informality in Colombia: a DSGE Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model, which assesses the macroeconomic and labor market effects derived from simulating a positive shock to the stochastic component of the mining-energy sector productivity. Calibrating the model for the Colombian economy, this shock generates a whole increase in formal wages and a raise in tax revenues, expanding total consumption of the household members. These facts increase non-tradable goods prices relative to tradable ...

  8. Energy consumption in the industrial sector. Evolution and perspectives; Consumo energetico en el sector industrial. Evolucion y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieyra Fernandez, Arturo; Cortes Mendez, Carlos

    1992-12-31

    This article has the purpose of analyzing the main determinants of energy use in the industrial sector, standing out the economical, social and technological implications that determine a specific consumption pattern, departing from which, -as first hand indicators- the efficiency conditions under which this consumption is effected, are evaluated. Likewise, a break-up by branch for the analysis is proposed, taking as a reference point the importance of each one of these in the sector global consumption as well as the available information for each one of them. Finally, the execution of a prospective with an horizon to the year 2005, taking into consideration a macroeconomic scenario, in general, and the potential saving for each sub-sector, in particular, is proposed. [Espanol] El articulo tiene como finalidad analizar los determinantes principales del consumo energetico del sector industrial, destacando las implicaciones de caracter economico, social y tecnologico que conlleva a un patron especifico de consumo, a partir del cual se evaluan - con indicadores de primera mano - las condiciones de eficiencia bajo las cuales se realiza dicho consumo. Asimismo, se propone una desagregacion por rama para el analisis, tomando como punto de referencia la importancia de cada una de estas en el consumo global del sector, asi como la informacion disponible para cada una. Finalmente, se propone un ejercicio de prospectiva con un horizonte hasta el ano 2005 tomando en consideracion un escenario macroeconomico en general y el potencial de ahorro para cada subsector en particular.

  9. Energy contracting: how much can it contribute to energy efficiency in the residential sector?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleyl-Androschin, Jan W. (Graz Energy Agency Ltd, Graz (Austria)); Seefeldt, Friedrich (Prognos AG (Germany)); Eikmeier, Bernd (Bremer Energie Institut (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    Energy use for space heating and warm water in residential buildings accounts for more than a quarter of the final energy consumed in Germany. Yet, energy efficiency (EE) is not a priority for most building owners. At the same time Energy Contracting (EC) has climbed high on political agendas and has even reached the headlines of EE-legislation (2006/32/EC). But the realistic potential, the limits and obstacles of ESCo products in the residential sector are not well enough understood yet, as some political statements and the limited market success tell us. Answers to these questions are thought in the framework of an ongoing research study for the German government. We have undertaken a conceptual analysis of Energy Supply Contracting (ESC) as the market prevailing product. And an economic analysis of transaction cost and a life cycle cost comparison between in-house and ESCo implementation. The results are compared with the empirical data of a comprehensive market query. We also studied statistical housing data to estimate suitable ESCo market potentials in the residential sector. Over the range 30-1,000 kWth installations, the life cycle cost comparison reveals no significant cost advantage for ESCo compared to in-house projects. We found a cost effective minimum project size of 100 kWth for ESC-projects, derived from transaction cost accrued to implement ESC projects. This figure is confirmed by the market query. The market query has further revealed around 250 ESCos, whose dominant product in the residential sector is Energy Supply Contracting. Based on their specialized know how, competent ESCos achieve an average efficiency gain of around 5%. They are more likely to implement innovative and renewable technologies. Although there is still a lack of market data, it can be implicitly derived from other market data and results of our query that the actual market coverage for ESC in the residential sector is between 10 and 20%. In the German residential sector, a

  10. Socio-technical change: Developing narratives for the Danish energy and transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    has the past years done much to increase the amount in of renewable energy in the energy system, the transport sector has not yet been included in the greening process (Sovacool 2013). The transport sector is responsible for almost a quarter of greenhouse emissions in EU, whereof two thirds originate...... from road transports (EU, 2014). Thus it is important to focus on political actors and processes within socio-technical transitions on this area. The paper is based on the COMETS project, which main focus is policy advice in the Danish energy and transport sector to achieve a fossil-fuel free energy...

  11. A new NAMA framework for dispersed energy end-use sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2010-01-01

    sectors make up the largest portions of energy consumption in developing countries. However, due to multiple barriers and lack of effective polices, energy efficiency in dispersed energy end-use sectors has not been effectively put into practice. The new NAMA framework described in this paper is designed......This paper presents a new approach for a nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA) framework that can unlock the huge potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in dispersed energy end-use sectors in developing countries; specifically, the building sector and the industrial sector. These two...... investment projects. This is an essential step to achieve the global climate change mitigation target and support sustainable development in developing countries....

  12. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez-Manjon, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany); Barcikowski, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.barcikowski@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Chair of Technical Chemistry I (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO{sub 2} or SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  13. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  14. The liberalization process of the energy sector in Spain; El proceso de liberalizacion del sector de la energia en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, R. M.

    2010-07-01

    The liberalization process of the market has shaped the evolution of the sector in recent years. The process of promoting competition, mainly in generation, supply and commercialization activities, has focused the trend of the sectors development on a global level. The evolution has facilitated major development and professionalization of the energy business within a framework where the priorities have evolved toward sustainability and the search for solutions the energy and environmental problems. These involve the three axes of the problem at the same time: the need for efficiency, which is the key factor for improving the competitiveness of the economy; the importance of guaranteeing the security of supply; and the need to meet environmental goals. (Author)

  15. Improving the energy and IAQ performance of ventilation systems in Dutch dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsteijn, R.C.A. van; Li, W.L.; Valk, H.J.J.; Kornaat, W.

    2016-01-01

    MONICAIR - MONItoring & Control of Air quality in Individual Rooms - is a pre-competitive field research project of a broad consortium of Dutch ventilation unit manufacturers and research institutes, supported by the Dutch government. The first aim of the project is to investigate and compare the

  16. Estimation of sectoral prices in the BNL energy input--output model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Groncki, P.; Boyce, G.W. Jr.

    1977-12-01

    Value-added coefficients have been incorporated into Brookhaven's Energy Input-Output Model so that one can calculate the implicit price at which each sector sells its output to interindustry and final-demand purchasers. Certain adjustments to historical 1967 data are required because of the unique structure of the model. Procedures are also described for projecting energy-sector coefficients in future years that are consistent with exogenously specified energy prices.

  17. The energy sector in southern Africa: a preliminary survey of post-apartheid challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, E.O. [Fridtjof Nansens Inst., Lysaker (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The energy sector in SADC countries has been beset by several decades of crises. The decline in regional tensions is providing a conducive climate for broadening political, economic and environmental reform programmes. This paper reassesses the new environment for energy policy making and the nature of the crisis in the provision of energy services for sustainable development. It goes on to review the forces shaping new developments in the sector and the challenges ahead for stakeholders. (Author)

  18. Energy Transition Dynamics; Understanding Policy Resistance in the Dutch Energy System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.; Breen, H.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Various countries seek to establish an energy transition, a structural change towards a more sustainable energy system. Countries implement a combination of energy policies aimed at establishing an energy transition, but these policies frequently result in unintended negative consequences. This stud

  19. Checklist energy efficient building in the flower bulbs sector; Checklist energiezuinig bouwen in de bloembollensector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Paridon, W.J.A.; Dol, J.J.

    2002-11-15

    This checklist shows the energy saving options for investments in buildings and installations for flower bulb businesses. Next to an energy efficiency improvement of 22%, the Long-term agreement for energy has also adopted the target of 4% sustainable energy deployment. This checklist therefore indicates for each category whether it is in the sustainable energy category or part of the regular saving options [Dutch] In deze checklist wordt aangegeven waar de mogelijkheden liggen tot besparing van energie bij investeringen in gebouwen en installaties voor bloembollenteeltbedrijven. In de meerjarenafspraak energie heeft de bloembollensector naast de energie efficiency verbetering van 22% ook de doelstelling opgenomen om 4% duurzame energie te gebruiken. In de checklist staat daarom per aspect of deze behoort tot de categorie duurzame energie of tot de normale besparingsopties.

  20. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country l

  1. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country

  2. A PathWayDiagram for introduction and prevention of Avian Influenza: Application to the Dutch poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, G E; Saatkamp, H W

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses is a continuing threat to the poultry sector. In times of increased risk of introduction (e.g. because of HPAI outbreaks in neighbouring countries or trade partners), decision-makers face the question whether they should intensify current preventive measures or establish new ones. To support this, a qualitative decision tool in the form of a PathWayDiagram (PWD) is presented. The PWD includes theoretically possible pathways for introduction of HPAI in the domestic commercial poultry population together with corresponding preventive measures. Hence, the PWD is a systematic checklist focused on (1) possibilities of (increased risk of) introduction and (2) possible preventive measures. It can be used in a high-alert situation, when decision-makers have to act in a relatively short time to decide on and implement a coherent set of preventive measures covering the high-risk pathways involved.

  3. Energy efficiency and the reform of the mexican electrical sector; Eficiencia energetica y reforma al sector electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia Electrica (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    In this work are briefly examined how the power efficiency can bloom to its feasible fullness, under a scheme of reform of the Mexican electrical sector. In here are summarized the policies and experiences of the U.S.A. and other countries in which efforts have been made to assure the perseverance of the activities directed to foment a more efficient use of the energy to see its relevance in the Mexican context. Mechanisms are set out to enable the evolution of the markets of present efficient equipment to mature markets, prosperous and, to a great extent, self-sufficient. It is insisted on the necessity of having an energy policy that contemplates and gives total capacity to the energy efficiency as one of the fundamental ingredients for a sustainable development of the electrical sector as well as of the country. [Spanish] En este trabajo se examina brevemente como puede la eficiencia energetica florecer a su plenitud factible, bajo un esquema de reforma al sector electrico mexicano. Se resumen las politicas y experiencias de los EU.. y otros paises en donde se ha tratado de asegurar la perseverancia de las actividades encaminadas a fomentar un uso mas eficiente de la energia para ver su relevancia en el contexto mexicano. Se propone mecanismos para agilizar la evolucion de los mercados de equipos eficientes actuales a mercados maduros, prosperos y, en gran medida, autosuficientes. Se insiste en la necesidad de tener una politica energetica que contemple y de cabida plena a la eficiencia energetica como uno de los ingredientes fundamentales para un desarrollo sustentable tanto del sector electrico como del pais.

  4. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  5. China's Energy Sector Rises to Global Economic Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Qiang; Sun Chengchen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The deepening financial crisis has put China's energy industry in a tougher situation: energy demand is dwinding, production is sagging, stockpiles are rising, and energy companies are competing to cut prices.

  6. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representing the most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in at least one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energy intensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for each of these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes (t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumin...

  7. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  9. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  10. Emerging Wind Energy Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robi

    2016-08-08

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation as part of an Energy Technology session at the Energy Exchange event, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The presentation discusses a wind energy industry update, technology trends, financing options at federal facilities, and creative approaches for developing wind projects at federal facilities.

  11. Use of scenarios in the planning of the energy sector; Uso de escenarios en la planeacion del sector energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacristan Roy, Antonio [Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica (AMEE), (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A scenario is a logical and congruent narration on the future, which describes the future in terms of the consequences on the surroundings of tendency forces (descriptive scenario) or as a result of caused changes (normative scenario). Unlike an econometric projection, that fundamentally considers economic forces, a scenario takes into consideration the impact of political, technological, social and legal forces, in addition to the economic ones, and the uncertainty of the future can be covered using several different scenarios. The construction of scenarios constitutes an extremely useful tool for long term planning of and the design of governmental policies for the energy sector. In this work an investment to twenty-five years in the national energy sector, with a long term planning of using scenarios, the design of a policy of the possible savings and bases for the future technological development and investigation effort is estimated. [Spanish] Un escenario es una narracion logica y congruente sobre el futuro, la cual describe el futuro en terminos de las consecuencias sobre el entorno de fuerzas tendenciales (escenario descriptivo) o como resultado de cambios provocados (escenario normativo). A diferencia de una proyeccion econometrica, que fundamentalmente considera fuerzas economicos, un escenario toma en consideracion el impacto de fuerzas politicas, tecnologicas, sociales y juridicas, ademas de las economicas, la incertidumbre del futuro se puede cubrir utilizando varios escenarios distintos. La construccion de escenarios constituye una herramienta sumamente util para la planeacion de largo plazo y el diseno de politicas gubernamentales para el sector energetico. En este trabajo se estima una inversion a veinticinco anos en el sector energetico nacional, con una planeacion de largo plazo utilizando escenarios, el diseno de una politica los posibles ahorros y la base para el futuro desarrollo tecnologico y esfuerzo de investigacion.

  12. Energy Audit as a Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Srinath,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of energy consumption in industrial sector, the methodology and results of energy audits (EA performed in industrial sites and potentials for energy efficiency (EE improvements. The present state of industrial energy in India could be characterized by significant technological out-of–date, low energy efficiency and low level of environmental protection. Presented analysis of the results of conducted energy audits in selected industrial companies in previous period has shown the significant potentials for energy efficiency improvements in industrial sector (upgrading or replacement of equipment in the industrial energy sources and processes, introduction of energy management, improvement of steam supply and condensate return systems, the waste heat utilization, introduction of energy efficiency technology, improvement of energy efficiency in electrical equipment, usage of waste materials etc.

  13. The effects of energy policy of the Dutch province Overijssel; De effecten van het energiebeleid van de Provincie Overijssel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W.; Van Hout, M.; Jablonska, B.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Kroon, P.; Lako, P.; Plomp, A.J.; Volkers, C.H. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The Dutch Province of Overijssel has the ambition to reach a 20% share of renewable energy in 2020. The province is using a range of policy instruments to improve the investment climate for renewable energy and energy savings. Overijssel has asked ECN to investigate which effects can be expected in the period 2007-2020. The policies have significant positive effects on renewable energy, energy efficiency and employment, but are not sufficient for the province to reach the target of 20% renewable energy in 2020 [Dutch] De Provincie Overijssel heeft de ambitie om in 2020 een aandeel van 20% hernieuwbare energie te bereiken. Overijssel richt zich op het creëren van een goed investeringsklimaat voor hernieuwbare energie en energiebesparing. Het is de bedoeling dat het provinciale energiebeleid bijdraagt aan lastenverlichting, energiezekerheid, werkgelegenheid en innovatie. De Provincie Overijssel heeft ECN gevraagd onderzoek te doen naar de effecten van het Overijsselse energiebeleid. De twee onderzoeksvragen zijn: (1) Wat zijn de beleidseffecten van het Energiepact en het programma Nieuwe Energie; en (2) Wat is de verwachting met betrekking tot het halen van de doelen tot en met 2020.

  14. Decomposition Analysis of Sectoral Energy Use in Beijing (1981-2005)Using the LMDI Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunlan; Xie Gaodi; Cai Bofeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the main driving force for changes of total primary enexgy consumption in Beijing during the period of 1981-2005. Sectoral energy use was investigated when regional economic structure changed significantly. The changes of total primary energy consumption in Beijing are decomposed into production effects, structural effects and intensity effects using the additive version of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Aggregate decomposition analysis showed that the major contributor of total effect was made by the production effect fol-lowed by the intensity effect, and the structural effect was rela-tively insignificant. The total and production effects were all posi-tive. In contrast, the structural effect and intensity effect were all negative. Sectoral decomposition investigation indicated that the most effective way to slow down the growth rate of total primary energy consumption (TPEC) was to reduce the production of the energy-intensive industrial sectors and improving industrial en-ergy intensity. The results show that in this period, Beijing's economy has undergone a transformation from an industrial to a service economy. However, the structures of sectoral energy use have not been changed yet, and energy demand should be in-creasing until the energy-intensive industrial production to be reduced and energy intensity of the region reaches a peal As sequence energy consumption data of sub-sectors are not available, only the fundamental three sectors are considered: agriculture, industry and service. However, further decomposition into secon-dary and tertiary sectors is definitely needed for detailed investi-gations.

  15. Energy conservation projects implementation at Jordan's industrial sector: a total quality management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kablan, M.M. [Mutah University, Alkarak (Jordan). Engineering College

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents insights into the energy problem in Jordan and specifically into the energy conservation status in the industrial sector in Jordan. The results of a recent survey of the energy consumption of the industrial sector were used to draw deductions about the energy conservation situation. The country of Jordan imports oil from its neighbouring countries to cover about 94% of its total energy demand. In the year 2000, the annual share of the industrial sector of the final energy consumption of the country is around 23%. Energy conservation in the industrial sector is a crucial area for energy saving. Many representatives of industrial firms are reluctant to participate in energy conservation projects because they think that the investment in energy-saving equipment may result in higher prices for their products, which may lead to reducing their competitiveness in the local market. Some managers are resistant to change because they do not know how to implement an energy conservation project. This research proposes a methodology for the effective implementation of energy conservation projects for Jordanian industries. The proposed methodology is useful for other countries. (author)

  16. Energy conservation in the residential sector : The role of policy and market forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, energy conservation has been a hot topic of debate among policy makers and researchers due to the concerns about global climate change and energy dependency. From a policy perspective, residential sector has been an important target for energy conservation policies as it is a major

  17. Development of an improved commercial sector energy model for national policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1992-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory provided support to the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (CE), under the Office of Planning and Assessment, to develop improved energy and environmental analysis tools. Commercial building sector energy models from the past decade were analyzed in order to provoke comment and stimulate discussion between potential model users and developers as to the appropriate structure and capability of a commercial sector energy model supported by CE. Three specific areas were examined during this review. These areas provide (1) a look at recent suggestions and guidance as to what constitutes a minimal set of requirements and capabilities for a commercial buildings energy model for CE, (2) a review of several existing models in terms of their general structure and how they match up with the requirements listed previously, and (3) an overview of a proposed improved commercial sector energy model.

  18. Human rights in the energy sector: where are we going?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jim [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable guidance and tools to avoid and remediate adverse Human Rights impacts; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), specific Human Right Impact Assessments or stand alone assessments across the whole spectrum of Human Rights. However the oil and gas sector has yet to address Human Rights risks in a comprehensive manner. In 2011 the Special Representative of the Secretary-General issued Guiding Principles (GP) to implement the United Nations 'Protect, Respect and Remedy' Framework. A survey of Human Rights performance against GP16 by the largest International Oil Companies (IOCs) and National Oil Companies (NOCs) shows a dichotomy with most (93%) of IOCs having a Human Rights Policy, approved at the highest level and available via the www to the general public (compliant with GP16) whilst 27% of NOCs have a Policy, of which, 9% are GP16 compliant. When service companies are included, only 23% are GP16 compliant. Only 8% provide Human Rights training. Human Rights in 41% of new projects are assessed via an EIA process, 18% via a specific Human Rights process, and 41% do not focus on Human Rights at all. Most companies do not have a Human Rights grievance mechanism. Whilst the IOCs are performing well the rest of the oil and gas sector, including the NOCs and service companies, are under-performing. The apparent reliance on the EIA process to Protect, Respect and Remedy Human Rights may be inadequate as the delivery of EIA is: still heavily biased toward environment compared to social and health impacts; they are time consuming and the Human Rights landscape can change during the EIA process; and the EIA disclosure process may expose vulnerable people to abuse. The oil and gas sector needs to address the record of poor compliance and develop and integrate some of the widely available Human rights tools. (author)

  19. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  20. Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

  1. Assessment of renewable energy technology and a case of sustainable energy in mobile telecommunication sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S; Emagbetere, Joy O; Ogujor, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities.

  2. APPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES IN THE AUSTRALIAN OFFSHORE SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. HJ. MOHD AMIN; C. K. H. CHIN; V. GARANIYA

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuel is not practically renewable and therefore the world is at risk of fossil fuel depletion. This gives urgency to investigate alternative energies, especially for industries that rely entirely on energies for operations, such as offshore industry. The use of alternative energies in this industry has been in place for a while now. This paper discusses the application of various alternative energy sources to assist powering the Goodwyn Alpha (A) Platform, located on the North West ...

  3. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  4. The purchasing of maintenance service delivery in the Dutch social housing sector: optimising commodity strategies for delivering maintenance services to tenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mossel, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    For housing associations, maintenance is an opportunity for high quality interaction with their tenants, and thus an opportunity for effectively influencing the quality of service delivery to tenants. Dutch housing associations have a market share of about one third of the entire Dutch housing stock

  5. The purchasing of maintenance service delivery in the Dutch social housing sector: optimising commodity strategies for delivering maintenance services to tenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mossel, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    For housing associations, maintenance is an opportunity for high quality interaction with their tenants, and thus an opportunity for effectively influencing the quality of service delivery to tenants. Dutch housing associations have a market share of about one third of the entire Dutch housing

  6. Study of energy R and D in the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study supplies DOE with information pertinent to the formulation of realistic national energy research policies and facilitates cooperation between government and business in the development and commercialization of new and improved energy technologies. The study gathered information on the amount of energy-related research and development that private companies are doing, types of energy-related programs they report, and their perceptions about appropriate areas for government support. Mail questionnaires obtained data on the amount of corporate research funding in specific energy-related technology areas and the interviews gathered information on corporate energy strategies, major commercial activities, and specific research plans in four major areas - conservation, supply, energy production and transmission, and new products. (MCW)

  7. Bottom-up modelling of energy demand and technical energy savings potential in the Irish residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dineen, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The International Energy Agency has repeatedly identified increased end-use energy efficiency as the quickest, least costly method of green house gas mitigation, most recently in the 2012 World Energy Outlook, and urges all governing bodies to increase efforts to promote energy efficiency policies and technologies. The residential sector is recognised as a major potential source of cost effective energy efficiency gains. Within the EU this relative importance can be seen from a review of the ...

  8. The Dutch province Noord-Holland monitors energy efficiency of houses; Noord-Holland controleert woningen op energiezuinigheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, E. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Upon delivery some new houses turn out to be less energy efficient than intended in the design. Sometimes they don't even meet the requirements of the Buildings Decree. In order to prevent such errors in the future, the Dutch province of Noord-Holland decided to thoroughly check the dwellings at random and to disseminate the results to the market as feedback. [Dutch] Nieuwbouwwoningen blijken bij oplevering nogal eens minder energiezuinig te zijn dan in het ontwerp was bedoeld. Soms voldoen ze zelfs niet aan het Bouwbesluit. Om deze misstanden in de toekomst zoveel mogelijk te voorkomen, kiest Noord-Holland ervoor steekproefsgewijs woningen grondig te controleren en de resultaten terug te koppelen naar de markt.

  9. Energy efficiency improvements in the European Household and Service sector. Data inventory to the GAINS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, Stefan; Lindblad, Maria; Saernholm, Erik; Soederblom, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Further improvements in the energy performance of buildings and equipment are important to Europe as measures to reduce energy demand as well as greenhouse gas emissions. For both the residential sector and the service sector, energy needed for heating and ventilation, as well as air conditioning represents the largest share of all energy needs in these sectors, and there are large potentials for further improvements in the energy performance in the climate envelope of most European houses and buildings.The International Institute for Applied System Analysis has developed the Integrated Assessment Model GAINS. The GAINS models' most recent methodology updates allow for a detailed description of the residential and commercial sector with energy use, potential for energy demand reduction as well as energy demand reduction costs. To implement the new detailed methodology for the European version of the GAINS model, a data inventory is needed. In this study, detailed data on energy use, building stocks and control technologies have been compiled and converted into the format suitable for the GAINS model. Bottom-up projections have been calibrated with the EU energy projections currently used as a European baseline in the GAINS model for the EU-27 countries as well as Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.

  10. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustai...

  11. The Sustainable Development Strategies for Energy Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Abbasian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development at the new field of politics, culture, environment, economy, trade, and the rights of humans, calls to consideration. Sustainable economic means to maintain and promote the current economic situation, without suffering degradation of natural resources. In this regard economic activity should cause the growth of community justice and efficiency. Relying on the definition provided by the WECD, two mainstreams sustainable development in energy consumption is specified: the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency improvement. In this study, at first some aspect of sustainability will be discussed and then the energy consumption in different parts of the Iranian economy is reviewed, in order that, the outlook has made it clear that the concepts of sustainable development and energy enables us to diagnose the current state of sustainability in energy use in Iran. In this way, the possibility of providing policy advice on sustainability in energy use has been provided. Finally, by introducing tax on energy consumption, we are going to calculate a tax path to maintain energy consumption on sustainable development pattern.

  12. An application of energy and exergy analysis in residential sector of Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: saidur@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.Y. [Department of Applied Economics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2007-02-15

    In this paper, the useful concept of energy and exergy utilization is defined, analyzed and applied to the residential sector of Malaysia by taking into account the energy and exergy flows for a period of 8 years from the year 1997 to 2004. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the devices used in this sector and found to be 70% and 28%, respectively. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for the overall efficiencies of Malaysian residential sector are also illustrated in this paper. It is found that the current methodology applied in Saudi Arabia is suitable to analyze energy and exergy use in Malaysian residential sector. It has been found that the exergy efficiency of the Malaysian residential sector appears to be much lower than its corresponding energy efficiency. It has been observed that about 21% of total exergy losses are caused by refrigerator-freezer and 12% of total loss is caused by air conditioner. Washing machine, fan and rice cooker contribute about 11%, 10% and 8% of total exergy losses, respectively.

  13. Private sector participation in Federal energy RD and D planning. [Study by National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The present study was started early in 1977 in response to a need expressed by the then Assistant Administrator for ERDA Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation and was endorsed by the Administrator of ERDA. The primary purpose is to explore various institutional alternatives that might be employed by the Federal government and the private sector to provide an effective coupling between the requirements of the private sector for new energy technologies and the government's planning process to develop these technologies. This also included an analysis of several institutional initiatives that have been tested by ERDA to create an effective working relationship with industry. Based on these studies, the Committee was requested to make recommendations on an appropriate institutional mechanism to improve the planning process. Chapters are entitled: The Government Role in Energy RD and D; The ERDA (DOE) Private Sector RD and D Planning Interface; Industry Perceptions of the ERDA/Private Sector Interface; Legal Constraints to DOE/Private Sector Cooperation; Instability as a Constraint to DOE/Private Sector Cooperation; and the RD and D Planning Process. An analysis of five legal problems in structuring private sector participation in joint RD and D planning is discussed in an appendix.

  14. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  15. Biomass Energy Technological Paradigm (BETP: Trends in This Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihui Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy plays a significant role in the world for obvious environmental and economic reasons with respect to the increasing energy crisis and fossil fuel environmental problems. Biomass energy, one of the most promising renewable energy technologies, has drawn increasing attention in recent years. However, biomass technologies still vary without an integrated framework. Considering the theory of a technological paradigm and implementing a literature analysis, biomass technological development was found to follow a three-stage technological paradigm, which can be divided into: BETP (biomass energy technological paradigm competition, BETP diffusion, and BETP shift. Further, the literature review indicates that waste, like municipal solid waste (MSW, has the potential to be an important future trend in the world and waste-to-energy (WTE is designed for sustainable waste management. Among WTE, anaerobic digestion has the potential to produce energy from waste sustainably, safely, and cost-effectively. The new BETP technological framework proposed in this paper may offer new research ideas and provide a significant reference for scholars.

  16. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  17. Study of energy optimization in the dairy sector; Estudo de otimizacao energetica setorial laticinios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, R.C.; Burgoa, J.A.; Oliveira Franco Latorre, C. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, M.C.I. [Centro de Apoio a Pequena e Media Empresa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the study that on the energy optimization which was elaborated for the dairy sector in the state of Minas Gerais (Southeast Brazil). The most outstanding results were: characterization of the typical production process for small, medium and large dairy utilities; characterization of the energy consumption; specific global consumptions as well as the consumption according to the product type; balances of energy including the Sankey Diagram, and recommendations for the rational use of energy. 1 ref., 4 tabs

  18. An energy used model of the residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, D. L.; Hirst, E.

    1980-11-01

    An energy simulation model for residential energy uses and costs from 1970 through 2000 estimates annual consumption of four fuels, eight end uses, and three housing types. The model also evaluates annual equipment installation, ownership, and equipment costs including charges for improving thermal performance of new and existing housing. An example of the model application is given by estimating the energy and economic factors of alternate water heating conservation options; they show the advantages of heat pump water heaters over conventional and solar units.

  19. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Fringing field correction of the second-order angular aberration in sector field electron energy analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavor, M.I. [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation RAS, 190103 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: mikhail.yavor@gmail.com; Belov, V.D.; Pomozov, T.V. [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation RAS, 190103 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    A new way of correcting the second-order angular aberration in sector field and polar-toroidal electron energy analyzers with object and image located outside the field is proposed. Correction is performed by biasing the optic axis electrostatic potential inside the analyzer with respect to the potential of surrounding field-free space. The strength of the correcting aberration concentrated in the fringing field regions of the analyzer is calculated with the aid of the fringing field integral method. The described correction allows achieving second-order focusing and thus increasing the energy resolving power in sector field analyzers, in particular used for angle resolved energy measurements.

  1. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  2. Nanotechnology Innovations & Business Opportunities in Renewable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology, being anticipated general purpose breakthrough technology of 21st century, has potential to solve problems related to human civilizations pertaining to both basic needs and aspirations for comfort life. Out of basic needs of human which include food, drinking water, energy, cloth, shelter, health and clean environment, perhaps, solving energy problem by providing a way to generating, storing, and converting it to required form at any time and any amount of time called ‘ubiquit...

  3. Nanotechnology Innovations & Business Opportunities in Renewable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology, being anticipated general purpose breakthrough technology of 21st century, has potential to solve problems related to human civilizations pertaining to both basic needs and aspirations for comfort life. Out of basic needs of human which include food, drinking water, energy, cloth, shelter, health and clean environment, perhaps, solving energy problem by providing a way to generating, storing, and converting it to required form at any time and any amount of time called ‘u...

  4. Cooperation between Lithuania and western countries on energy sector development issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskinis, V. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2003-07-01

    Lithuania is one of the country candidates making necessary progress in order to become a member of the European Union and seeking an invitation to join NATO as well as to be involved with other western economic and political structures. The country, being in transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy, is experiencing fundamental transformations and facing many problems. Lithuania has inherited an energy sector with a comparatively good technical infrastructure but inappropriate for a small independent state of its size and access to primary energy. The Lithuanian economy constructed since 1990 is energy intensive. In order to meet the requirements of a modern economy many significant changes occurred during this transformation period, including changes to institutional structure, legal framework, modernisation of technologies, etc. Considerable investments were made in all sectors of the economy. It would be impossible to realise all these positive changes without cooperation with developed countries, technical assistance of the EU-PHARE program and a range of other programs. The paper describes the current situation in the Lithuanian economy and energy sector, changes in energy intensity and in foreign direct investments in Lithuania. The paper aims to analyse the country's progress in transition to a free market economy and the positive contribution from cooperation between Lithuania and industrialised countries in several areas: overall modernisation of the national economy and energy sector, implementation of modem western modelling tools for energy planning, energy efficiency and nuclear safety. (author)

  5. APPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES IN THE AUSTRALIAN OFFSHORE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. HJ. MOHD AMIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel is not practically renewable and therefore the world is at risk of fossil fuel depletion. This gives urgency to investigate alternative energies, especially for industries that rely entirely on energies for operations, such as offshore industry. The use of alternative energies in this industry has been in place for a while now. This paper discusses the application of various alternative energy sources to assist powering the Goodwyn Alpha (A Platform, located on the North West Shelf (NWS of Australia. The three alternative energy sources under discussion are: wind, wave and solar. The extraction devices used are the Horizontal and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines - for wind; Pelamis, PowerBuoy and Wave Dragon - for wave; and the solar parabolic dish of SunBeam and Photovoltaic (PV cells of SunPower - for solar. These types of devices are installed within the same offshore platform area. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are taken into consideration before the best selection is made. The results showed that PowerBuoy used for wave energy, is the best device to be used on offshore platforms where operators could save up to 9% of power; $603,083 of natural gas; and 10,848 tonnes of CO2 per year.

  6. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection....... The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have...

  7. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R. [British Energy plc, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy`s International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK).

  8. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  9. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  10. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  11. Public water in private hands: a case study on the safeguarding of public values in the first DBFMO in the Dutch water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Reynaers

    2015-01-01

    In DBFMO projects, public procurers transfer to private consortia the responsibility for designing, building, financing, maintaining, and operating public assets. Although DBFMOs are criticized for their possible threat to the safeguarding of public values, the Dutch government recently procured Eur

  12. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  13. The Mexico`s energy sector: Restructure and challenges; Sector de la energia en Mexico: Reestructuracion y retos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo Soberon, Francisco [Sindicato Mexicano de Electricistas (SME), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In our country, the electric energy sector restructure is deeply permeated by the idea that the efficiency, the reduction of costs, the competitiveness and the modernization in general will only be feasible in the context of incorporation to the logistics of the functioning of the market rules. A historic revision is made of the elements that made possible the deterioration of a nationalized enterprise as it is today the enterprise Luz y Fuerza del Centro. The legal, regulatory, and organizational changes in this enterprise are discussed; the social sense of the electric industry and the limits of the private interests and the restructure as a democratic experience are also analyzed [Espanol] En nuestro pais, la reestructuracion del sector de la energia esta profundamente permeada por la idea de que la eficiencia, la reduccion de costos, la competitividad y en general la modernizacion, solo seran factibles en contextos de incorporacion a la logica de funcionamiento de las reglas del mercado. Se hace una revision historica de los elementos que hicieron posible el deterioro de una empresa nacionalizada como lo es hoy la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro. Se analizan los cambios legales, regulatorios y organizativos en esta empresa; el sentido social de la industria electrica y los limites de los intereses privados y la reestructuracion como una experiencia democratica

  14. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  15. Applying portfolio theory to the electricity sector. Energy versus power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarue, Erik; D' haeseleer, William; De Jonghe, Cedric; Belmans, Ronnie [Leuven University, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    Portfolio theory has found its way in numerous applications for optimizing the electricity generation mix of a particular region. Existing models, however, consider typically a single time period and correspondingly do not properly account for actual dispatch constraints and energy sources with a non-dispatchable, variable output. This paper presents a portfolio theory model that explicitly distinguishes between installed capacity (power), electricity generation (energy) and actual instantaneous power delivery. This way, the variability of wind power and ramp limits of conventional power plants are correctly included in the investment optimization. The model is written as a quadratically constrained programming problem and illustrated in a case study. The results show that the introduction of wind power can be motivated to lower the risk on generation cost, albeit to smaller levels than typically reported in the literature. This wind power deployment further requires the need for sufficiently rampable technologies, to deal with its fluctuating output. (author)

  16. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  17. The Sustainable Development Strategies for Energy Sector in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ezatollah Abbasian; Mohsen Nazari; Maysam Nasrindoost

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development at the new field of politics, culture, environment, economy, trade, and the rights of humans, calls to consideration. Sustainable economic means to maintain and promote the current economic situation, without suffering degradation of natural resources. In this regard economic activity should cause the growth of community justice and efficiency. Relying on the definition provided by the WECD, two mainstreams sustainable development in energy consumption is specified: th...

  18. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  19. Dutch climate and energy policy. Analysis of policy reviews 1989-2012; Het Nederlandse Klimaat- en Energiebeleid. Analyse van beleidsevaluaties 1989-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Blom, M.J.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Nelissen, D.; Aarnink, S.J.; De Buck, A.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F.H.; Kuik, O.J. [Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The Dutch government has had climate policy in place since 1989. Since 1999 that policy has been intensified with a view to meeting Kyoto commitments for the period 2008-2012. The Dutch Parliament requested a review of the costs and effects of the measures implemented in the context of Dutch climate and energy policy, based on the available review studies, with led to the commissioning of the present report [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid voert sinds 1989 klimaatbeleid. Vanaf 1999 is het beleid geïntensiveerd met het oog op het halen van de Kyoto-doelstelling in de periode 2008-2012. De Tweede Kamer wil een overzicht hebben van de kosten en effecten van beleidsinstrumenten van het Nederlandse klimaat- en energiebeleid, op basis van bestaande evaluatiestudies en heeft daarom deze studie laten uitvoeren.

  20. Concurrent and legacy economic and environmental impacts from establishing a marine energy sector in Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Grant J.; Turner, Karen [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Bryden, Ian; Wallace, Robin [Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); McGregor, Peter G.; Kim Swales, J. [Fraser of Allander Institute, Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom); Centre for Public Policy for the Regions, Universities of Glasgow and Strathclyde (United Kingdom); Stallard, Tim [Joule Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Pariser Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    We examine the economic and environmental impact that the installation of 3 GW of marine energy capacity would have on Scotland. This is not a forecast, but a projection of the likely effects of meeting the Scottish Government's targets for renewable energy through the development of a marine energy sector. Energy, with a particular focus on renewables, is seen by the Scottish Government as a 'key sector', with high growth potential and the capacity to boost productivity (Scottish Government, 2007a. The Government Economic Strategy. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh). The key nature of this sector has been identified through targets being set for renewable energy to achieve environmental and economic benefits. Using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Scotland we show that the development of a marine energy sector can have substantial and beneficial impacts on GDP, employment and the environment over the lifetime of the devices, given the encouragement of strong indigenous inter-industry linkages. Furthermore, there are also substantial ''legacy'' effects that persist well beyond the design life of the devices. (author)

  1. Impacts of irrigation network sectoring as an energy saving measure on olive grove production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Navajas, J M; Montesinos, P; Poyato, E Camacho; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, improving water use efficiency has been one of the most important challenges for the agricultural sector. However, such improvements have led to the installation of pressurized irrigation systems which generally require more energy to operate, especially in plantations on sloping and mountainous lands. Thus, the reduction of energy use in these systems has also become a major issue. Irrigation network sectoring has been proposed as one of the most effective energy saving measures. Typically, however, the potential benefits of this management strategy have been evaluated by means of theoretical approaches in networks that were originally designed to supply water on demand and not after water application in real irrigation districts designed following sectoring strategies. In this work, this measure is applied to an irrigation district devoted to olive grove production in a mountainous area that was designed according to this management strategy. With this aim, the WEBSO (Water and Energy Based Sectoring Operation) algorithm, which was developed in a previous work, has been modified in order to take into account the specific characteristics of the irrigation district and its actual management, as well as to analyze sensitivity to several irrigation water depths in terms of both energy demand and yields. An economic analysis of the potential benefits of this management strategy is also carried out. The results show that this measure has lead to a nearly 30% reduction in energy consumption, while increasing farmers' profits by 13% compared to traditional on-demand operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the renewable energy sector in Spain at the European level comparative; Analisis del sector de las energias renovables en Espana. Estudio comparativo a nivel europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    The energy sector, in particular renewable energy, represents a strategic sector for the Spanish and European industry. Policy decisions to its regulation or deregulation is critical. Regulatory frameworks mark a way to contrast their effectiveness and efficiency. However, it is necessary to deepen the theoretical foundations as the natural capital or the limits to growth, to place in a framework more accurately. This article presents specific data on the economic, fiscal, labor and environmental conditions to date has involved the promotion of this sector and its international impact. (Author)

  3. Miniguide. Energy efficiency in the public sector; Mini-Wegweiser. Energieeffizienz im oeffentlichen Sektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Birgit; Joest, Steffen; Grimm, Nadia (comps.)

    2010-12-15

    The public sector faces a big challenge if it wants to fulfill its tasks in spite of tight budgets and increasing costs. The focus is on high energy costs and the challenging targets for energy efficiency and climate protection. The contribution under consideration presents a selection of the successfully implemented public projects for energy efficiency as well as an overview on key fields of activity and specific services for decision makers in territorial authorities and public institutions.

  4. Multi-energy systems applied to the building sector (Heat Pump Technology)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Izquierdo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The project deals with the study of multi-energy systems applied to the building sector. Nowadays, this thematic is very important because the use of systems integrating different energy sources and energy technologies is a key element in the design of low emission buildings. In particular, the project focuses on heat pump technologies. In the first part of the project an over view of the status of the heat pump development is investigated. Then, a numerical model to simulat...

  5. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  6. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  7. Russia's energy sector between politics and business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orttung, Robert; Perovic, Jeronim; Pleines, Heiko; Schroeder, Hans-Henning (eds.)

    2008-02-15

    East-West relations are deteriorating to a level not seen since the Soviet period. Recent cover stories on Russia from The Economist (December 16, 2006) and Der Spiegel (March 5, 2007) present President Vladimir Putin as a gangster with a gasoline pump and a Soviet Commissar wielding Gazprom's massive pipeline network. These images illustrate a growing fear in the West that Russia is a threat. Russia, according to this point of view, is using energy as a weapon to rebuild its empire. This article examines to what extent Europe, which is heavily dependent on Russian oil and natural gas supplies, should worry. (orig.)

  8. Comparative Assessment of Severe Accidents in the Chinese Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.; Spiekerman, G.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazek, J.; Cheng, L

    2003-03-01

    This report deals with the comparative assessment of accidents risks characteristic for the various electricity supply options. A reasonably complete picture of the wide spectrum of health, environmental and economic effects associated with various energy systems can only be obtained by considering damages due to normal operation as well as due to accidents. The focus of the present work is on severe accidents, as these are considered controversial. By severe accidents we understand potential or actual accidents that represent a significant risk to people, property and the environment and may lead to large consequences. (author)

  9. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume II. Survey of available energy use data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A compilation of data on energy consumption in the commercial sector that have been published elsewhere is presented. Readily available information was collected on the structural, equipment, and energy use characteristics of the following: store and other mercantile buildings; warehouses; finance, insurance, real estate, and services industries; schools and colleges; hospitals and nursing homes; and government buildings. Energy data are shown in terms of Btu/ft/sup 2/. (MCW)

  10. Mediation in the energy sector : fuel for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trace, K. [McCuaig Desrochers LLP, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A recent report by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) has suggested that appropriate dispute resolution processes including mediation are proving to be 85 per cent effective at resolving time-consuming and costly energy disputes. This presentation outlined techniques used in the mediation process. Mediation seeks consensus-based agreement. Unlike arbitration and judicial dispute resolution, mediation assists parties in looking beyond legal rights and issues by exploring the context of the dispute so as to determine the roots of the conflict. Mediation processes are derived from theories of interest-based dispute resolution. In mediation procedures, interests are defined as the underlying hopes, beliefs, needs, and aspirations driving any particular conflict. During the mediation process, mutual interests often emerge as a starting point for consensus-based decision-making. Several case studies were presented in which oil and gas industry members came to satisfactory resolutions with a variety of initially antagonistic stakeholders. A case study on assumptions and three-party mediations was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. The Role of Municipalities, Energy Companies and the Agricultural Sector in Denmark as Drivers for Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector and identi......This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector...... municipalities more actively in the biogas development. Based on the analysis of the current situation and of the challenges and opportunities for the Danish Biogas sector, we propose that municipalities, energy companies and the agricultural sector take renewed actions and become drivers for the biogas sector...... from the new market opportunities that biogas poses e.g. supply biogas for transportation purposes. Farmers must look for alternative ways of implementing biogas plants using new corporate design concepts rather than traditional centralized and farm biogas plants.....

  12. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  13. The argentine electric sector reform and its correlation with energy efficiency; La reforma del sector electrico argentino y su relacion con la eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, Claudio [MGM International (Argentina)

    2005-04-15

    The reforms in the Argentine electrical sector and the effect these have originated in the energy efficiency policies for public sector are presented. The characteristics exposed of the Argentina Electric sector previous to the 1992 transformation are the departing base that gave rise to the reform fundaments, generating privatizations and a vertical economic scheme. The transformation of the electric sector departing from its environmental regulations yielded in a quality service, good electricity distribution, better prices and proper energy efficiency. [Spanish] Se presentan las reformas en el sector electrico argentino y el efecto que han tenido sobre las politicas de eficiencia energetica elaboradas en el sector publico. Las caracteristicas expuestas del sector electrico argentino previas a la transformacion de 1992 son la base de partida que dio lugar a los fundamentos de la reforma generando privatizaciones y un esquema economico vertical. La transformacion del sector electrico a partir de sus regulaciones energeticas y ambientales redituaron en calidad de servicio, de distribucion de electricidad, precios y en la propia eficiencia energetica.

  14. Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in China’s Power Sector: Alternative Scenarios Up to 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses energy conservation and emissions reduction (ECER in China’s power sector. To better understand China’s successes and failures on energy conservation in the electricity industry, first it is important to know the status of China’s power sector, and the key energy conservation actions, as well as the achievements in the past years. Second, two ECER scenarios are constructed to probe the 2020 energy conservation potential. Results show that the potential is estimated to be more than 240 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce. Third, the improvement of coal power operations, structures and technologies, and ambitious deployment of energy conservation measures are proposed to fully explore the potential of China’s power industry. Fourth, great challenges for China’s ECER and some suggested policies are summed up. The lessons learnt from China will provide a valuable reference and useful inputs for other emerging economies.

  15. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  16. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  17. New enterprises in the energy sector; Existenzgruendungen im Energiesektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Nordrhein-Westfalen is still Germany's biggest 'power state' but a structural change has come about: Instead of mines and blast furnaces, the focus is now on alternative energy sources. Solar modules are produced in Gelsenkirchen, the first fuel cell powered bus was developed in Marl, and wind rotors are being tested in Grevenbroich. [German] In Nordrhein-Westfalen, dem Energieland Nummer 1, hat sich der Strukturwandel in der Energiewirtschaft inzwischen deutlich bemerkbar gemacht. An die Stelle von Zechen und Hochoefen sind inzwischen viele Firmen erfolgreich am Markt taetig, die sich mit ganz anderen Bereichen der Energieerzeugung, -nutzung und -dienstleistung beschaeftigen. In Gelsenkirchen werden Solarmodule produziert, in Marl wurde der erste Brennstoffzellenbus entwickelt und in Grevenbroich werden Windraeder getestet. (orig.)

  18. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  19. Energy efficiency research for Canada's agri-food sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Canada's agriculture and food processing sector accounts for 15 per cent of Canadian energy consumption, of which 4 per cent is consumed on farms and 5 per cent is consumed for food and beverage processing. The rest is assigned to transportation. Energy efficiency research projects within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are being conducted across Canada in support of Natural Resources Canada's Program for Energy Research and Development (PERD). The research focuses on on-farm energy use or food processing to increase energy use efficiency and to ultimately help businesses in the agri-food sector achieve lower costs and higher returns. Other objectives are to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as other environmental emissions that have an impact on air and water quality. This document presents information about some of the projects and demonstrates the diversity of initiatives being undertaken. They include: improving produce while saving energy; reducing over-all energy inputs with manure; improved cooling of fresh blueberries; energy efficient drying of cranberries; liquid dairy manure and soil micro-organisms; saving energy on the farm with manure management; improved processing of ready-to-eat lettuce; removing surface moisture from blueberries; minimizing energy use during commercial banking; new biotechnology for energy recovery; decreasing energy use in processed meat cooking; energy efficient canola processing and utilization; reducing post-harvest losses of spinach; and, increasing production while decreasing consumption. 13 figs.

  20. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  1. Status of national CO{sub 2}-mitigation projects and initiatives in the Philippine energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tupas, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Philippines has a huge energy requirement for the next 30 years in order to achieve its economic growth target. Based on an expected annual GDP growth rate of 6.9 percent, the Philippines total energy requirement is estimated to increase at an average of 6.6 percent annually from 1996 to 2025. Gross energy demand shall increase from 219.0 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE) in 1996 to 552.4 MMBFOE in 2010 and 1,392.6 MMBFOE by 2025. These energy demand levels shall be driven primarily by the substantial increase in fuel requirements for power generation whose share of total energy requirement is 28.3 percent in 1996, 48.0 percent in 2010 and 55.0 percent in 2025. With the expected increase in energy demand, there will necessarily be adverse impacts on the environment. Energy projects and their supporting systems - from fuel extraction and storage to distribution - can and will be major contributors not only to local but also to regional and global environmental pollution and degradation. International experiences and trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory have shown that the energy sector has always been the dominant source of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) - the principal contributor to global climate change. The energy sector`s CO{sub 2} emissions come primarily from fossil fuels combustion. Since energy use is the dominant source of CO{sub 2} emissions, efforts should therefore be concentrated on designing a mitigation strategy in this sector.

  2. Dutch energy scenarios evaluated : trends and implications. Drawing lessons form an ex-post evaluation of Dutch energy forecasts and presenting alternative forecasts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, Bieuwe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the 1970s, many energy scenarios about future energy demand and supply appeared. This can be attributed to various developments, like the increased environmental awareness, the oil crisis of the year 1973, and the introduction of the compu

  3. Dutch energy scenarios evaluated : trends and implications. Drawing lessons form an ex-post evaluation of Dutch energy forecasts and presenting alternative forecasts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, Bieuwe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the 1970s, many energy scenarios about future energy demand and supply appeared. This can be attributed to various developments, like the increased environmental awareness, the oil crisis of the year 1973, and the introduction of the compu

  4. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. CFD Applications in Energy and Environment Sectors: Volume 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi and Hashim R. Abdol Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Simulation and Modelling of Oxygen Coal Combustion with Flue Gas Recirculation. Chaouki Ghenai Chapter 2: The Choice of the Best Air Distribution Concept in Air-Conditioned Auditorium by Means of CFD Numerical Prediction. Barbara Lipska, Piotr Koper Chapter 3: CFD Applications in Natural Ventilation of Buildings and Air Quality Dispersion. N. Nikolopoulos, A. Nikolopoulos, I. Papadakis, K.-S. P. Nikas Chapter 4: CFD Modeling of Air Pollutant Transport and Dispersion. Labovský Juraj, Jelemenský Ľudovít Chapter 5: CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Environmental Engineering. Masroor Mohajerani, Mehrab Mehrvar, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari Chapter 6: CFD Study on the Roles of Trees on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion within Urban Street Canyons. Salim Mohamed Salim, Andrew Chan, Riccardo Buccolieri, Silvana Di Sabatino Chapter 7: Energy Efficiency and Air Quality in Hospitals Design. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 8: Application of CFD in Pulverized Fuel Combustion. M. Tayyeb Javed, Tahira Sultana Chapter 9: A Heat Transfer Model For Fluids Based on Cellular Automaton Application to an Air Conditioning of A Building. Andrés Saiz Martínez Chapter 10: CFD Application in Power Plants. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 11: Analysis and Computation of the Heat Charge/Discharge Behavior in Packed Bed Thermal Storage Systems. Pei-Wen Li, Jon Van Lew, Wafaa Karaki, Cho Lik Chan, Jake Stephens

  6. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  7. Update of the Dutch PV specific yield for determination of PV contribution to renewable energy production: 25% more energy!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, Wilfried; Bosselaar, L.; Gerrissen, P.; Esmeijer, K.B.D.; Moraitis, Panagiotis; van den Donker, M.; Emsbroek, G.

    2014-01-01

    Statistics Netherlands (CBS) annually publishes the contribution of renewables to the Dutch electricity supply, by following a national protocol. The amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic (PV) technology is calculated from the average installed capacity in a particular year multiplied by a

  8. The Challenges & Opportunities for Arctic Microstates in Developing an Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2014-01-01

    Like many Arctic states, Iceland and the Faroe Islands used to be the resource-based economies which Greenland is today. Remotely located in relation to the World economy, Iceland and the Faroe Islands have succeeded in developing a knowledge- based economy, also related to their energy sector. T...

  9. What Role for Administrative Courts in Granting Effective Legal Protection in the Energy Sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a normative framework for assessing the role of the national administrative courts in reviewing regulatory decisions involving complex legal and economic assessments in the energy sector. It elaborates in a detailed way the requirements that follow from the EU law principle of

  10. Addressing human resources issues in the renewable energy sector : partnership opportunities with HRSDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venne, J. [Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the sectoral initiatives of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) and provides a brief update on its work with renewable energy industries. The Sector Council Program supports research initiatives and activities proposed by sector councils, as well as ad-hoc national sector organizations working on skills and learning issues. The program also supports the establishment of new partnerships in sectors of the economy that are experiencing difficulties with human resources and skills issues. Details of HRSDC's occupational and skills initiatives were provided, including national occupational classification, national occupational standards and career awareness products. HRSDC is also a partner with the Canadian Apprenticeship Forum as well as maintaining an involvement in the development of national occupational analyses for trades. In addition, HRSDC works to improve processes for the assessment and recognition of foreign credentials in Canada for both regulated and non-regulated occupations. Current activities with renewable energy industries included a feasibility assessment with preliminary results. tabs., figs.

  11. Renewable energy technologies for the Indian power sector: mitigation potential and operational strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D. [Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi (India); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad (India); Garg, A. [Winrock International India, New Delhi (India); Ramana, P.V. [Winrock International, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2002-12-01

    The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with attendant shortages and problems. Due to the predominance of fossil fuels in the generation mix, there are large negative environmental externalities caused by electricity generation. The power sector alone has a 40 percent contribution to the total carbon emissions. In this context, it is imperative to develop and promote alternative energy sources that can lead to sustainability of the energy-environment system. There are opportunities for renewable energy technologies under the new climate change regime as they meet the two basic conditions to be eligible for assistance under UNFCCC mechanisms: they contribute to global sustainability through GHG mitigation; and, they conform to national priorities by leading to the development of local capacities and infrastructure. This increases the importance of electricity generation from renewables. Considerable experience and capabilities exist in the country on renewable electricity technologies. But a number of techno-economic, market-related, and institutional barriers impede technology development and penetration. Although at present the contribution of renewable electricity is small, the capabilities promise the flexibility for responding to emerging economic, socio-environmental and sustainable development needs. This paper discusses the renewable and carbon market linkages and assesses mitigation potential of power sector renewable energy technologies under global environmental intervention scenarios for GHG emissions reduction. An overall energy system framework is used for assessing the future role of renewable energy in the power sector under baseline and different mitigation scenarios over a time frame of 35 years, between 2000 to 2035. The methodology uses an integrated bottom-up modelling framework. Looking into past performance trends and likely future developments, analysis results

  12. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  13. The importance of environmental champions for corporate energy management : comparing manufacturing firms to service sector businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliedt, T.; Parker, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Management

    2010-07-01

    Businesses of all sizes and types use large amounts of energy and emit greenhouse gases and must therefore be included in community energy planning. As an environmentally sound alternative to standard grid electricity, green electricity is considered an important energy management option for organizations wishing to address climate change. Businesses that voluntarily purchase green electricity include multi-national corporations in the primary and secondary sectors, such as agriculture, mining and manufacturing. They consume large quantities of energy and therefore have large environmental footprints. Smaller tertiary and quaternary sector businesses such as retail, health care and education, consume less energy but are also voluntarily purchasing green electricity. This paper examined if the factors that influence the decision process to purchase green electricity differ between primary and secondary sector firms, and smaller tertiary and quaternary businesses. Two models were outlined describing factors that influence proactive environmental management initiatives in firms. A summary of the corporate health and safety and total quality management literature was used to question if institutional experience with those established structures should spillover and support energy management initiatives. The results of a cluster analysis suggested that primary and secondary firms, as well as smaller and less hierarchical tertiary and quaternary businesses, are strongly influenced by environmental champions to voluntarily purchase green electricity. 41 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model (18-sector version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.H. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics); Thimmapuram, P.; Fisher, R.E.; Maciorowski, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The new 18-sector Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model is designed for convenient study of future industrial energy consumption, taking into account the composition of production, energy prices, and certain kinds of policy initiatives. Electricity and aggregate fossil fuels are modeled. Changes in energy intensity in each sector are driven by autonomous technological improvement (price-independent trend), the opportunity for energy-price-sensitive improvements, energy price expectations, and investment behavior. Although this decision-making framework involves more variables than the simplest econometric models, it enables direct comparison of an econometric approach with conservation supply curves from detailed engineering analysis. It also permits explicit consideration of a variety of policy approaches other than price manipulation. The model is tested in terms of historical data for nine manufacturing sectors, and parameters are determined for forecasting purposes. Relatively uniform and satisfactory parameters are obtained from this analysis. In this report, LIEF is also applied to create base-case and demand-side management scenarios to briefly illustrate modeling procedures and outputs.

  15. Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model (18-sector version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.H. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (US). Dept. of Physics; Thimmapuram, P.; Fisher, R.E.; Maciorowski, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)

    1993-05-01

    The new 18-sector Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model is designed for convenient study of future industrial energy consumption, taking into account the composition of production, energy prices, and certain kinds of policy initiatives. Electricity and aggregate fossil fuels are modeled. Changes in energy intensity in each sector are driven by autonomous technological improvement (price-independent trend), the opportunity for energy-price-sensitive improvements, energy price expectations, and investment behavior. Although this decision-making framework involves more variables than the simplest econometric models, it enables direct comparison of an econometric approach with conservation supply curves from detailed engineering analysis. It also permits explicit consideration of a variety of policy approaches other than price manipulation. The model is tested in terms of historical data for nine manufacturing sectors, and parameters are determined for forecasting purposes. Relatively uniform and satisfactory parameters are obtained from this analysis. In this report, LIEF is also applied to create base-case and demand-side management scenarios to briefly illustrate modeling procedures and outputs.

  16. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  17. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Prebensen, K.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  18. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Saal, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the conduct of publicly owned monopolistic utilities regulated by a voluntary sunshine regulatory model (i.e. publication of the performances of utilities). In particular, we examine the behaviour of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of the sunshine

  19. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Witte; D.S. Saal

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the conduct of publicly owned monopolistic utilities regulated by a voluntary sunshine regulatory model (i.e. publication of the performances of utilities). In particular, we examine the behaviour of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of the sunshine

  20. Is a little sunshine all we need? On the impact of sunshine regulation on profits, productivity and prices in the Dutch drinking water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Saal, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of Dutch drinking water utilities before and after the introduction of sunshine regulation, which involves publication of the performance of utilities but no formal price regulation. By decomposing profit change into its economic drivers, our results suggest that,

  1. The Contribution Values of Energy Consumptions from the Different Industrial Sectors on the Air Quality in Ningbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsha Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prived an overview of energy consumption in different industrial sectors in Ningbo for furture adjusting the local industry construction and relateive layout in terms of energy saving and air quality improvment. With the Bayesian network theory, combined the energy consumptions of unit production and indicators of air quality, energy consumption on the contribution to air quality from the various industrial sectors were analyzed in Ningbo. The results showed that the energy consumptions from five industrial sectors and GDP/capital directly affected on comprehensive air pollution index, while there was a direct causal relationship between GDP/capital and energy consumptions in five industrial sectors. The results implied that, for comprehensive air pollution index, the contribution from the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was larger. The sectors of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes and NOX from vehicle made more contributions on the NO2. Meanwhile, the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes and chemical raw materials and chemical products sectors gave more contributions on the SO2. For the TSP and acid rain rate, the sector of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was key contributor. It could be said the sector of the petroleum, coking and nuclear fuel processes was the most important industrial sector which impacts on local air quality in Ningbo.

  2. Modeling future U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in wood energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Do-il Yoo; V. Alaric Sample

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a...

  3. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  4. Energy and exergy analyses of the Nigerian transportation sector from 1980 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badmus, Ismaila [Yaba College of Technolgy, Lagos (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Osunleke, Ajiboye Saheeb [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Fagbenle, Richard Olayiwola; Oyewola, Miracle Olanrewaju [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyses energy utilisation in the transportation sector of Nigeria using exergy methods. The sector is dominated by the road subsector, with a share ranging from 70.65% in 1990 to 97.51% in the year 2005 and a mean of 88.44%. The road subsector is still the most efficient, with energy efficiency values that range from 9.93% in 1990 to 19.19% in 1986. The corresponding exergy values are 9.28% and 17.93%, respectively. Following the road subsector is the aviation subsector with its least energy consumption share of 0.10% in 2005 and biggest share of 26.25% in 1990. The subsector energy efficiency values range from 0.03% in 2005 to 7.35% in 1990, with corresponding exergy values of 0.026% and 6.87%, respectively. The overall mean energy efficiency in the Nigerian transportation sector for the three decades is 17.11%, while the overall mean exergy efficiency is 15.97%. The road subsector performance has been adversely affected by the massive importation of used vehicles into the country. (orig.)

  5. Activity Sectors and Energy Intensity: Decomposition Analysis and Policy Implications for European Countries (1991–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Real

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the change in Energy Intensity (EI of the main economic activities in the EU15 countries, which represents approximately 45% of their final energy consumption. The purpose is, first, to measure the different patterns between the countries by establishing differentiated typologies, and second, to investigate those reasons that explain the different trends by country. To attain our objective, the changes in EI are decomposed into their structural and efficiency components for EU15 countries for the period 1991–2005. Results reveal four different typologies for this set of countries, and show the importance of identifying those economic activities which, due to their special impact, are key to reducing energy consumption. The changes in the structural component are due mainly to a transformative process in which the importance of industry in the economy as a whole drops, while the opposite holds for services. However, the changes in the efficiency component do not seem to be linked to this same process. It does not appear as though the services sector resulted in a more efficient use of final energy. We have detected significant evidence of convergence for EI in the service sector that would help to understand the recent worsen evolution of EI in this sector (and in overall EI of Southern European countries. It can also be concluded that an analysis of global EI change without distinguishing among its components can result in misleading conclusions and in improperly conceived Energy Policies.

  6. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  7. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  8. New Insight into the Finance-Energy Nexus: Disaggregated Evidence from Turkish Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Topcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeing that reshaped energy economics literature has adopted some new variables in energy demand function, the number of papers looking into the relationship between financial development and energy consumption at the aggregate level has been increasing over the last few years. This paper, however, proposes a new framework using disaggregated data and investigates the nexus between financial development and sectoral energy consumption in Turkey. To this end, panel time series regression and causality techniques are adopted over the period 1989–2011. Empirical results confirm that financial development does have a significant impact on energy consumption, even with disaggregated data. It is also proved that the magnitude of financial development is larger in energy-intensive industries than in less energy-intensive ones.

  9. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. A sustainable development in the energy sector is quite possible; En baerekraftig utvikling i energisektoren er fullt mulig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Oddvar

    1999-07-01

    The article deals with the possibilities of obtaining a sustainable development in the global energy sector during the first part of the next century. It should be possible to reduce the poverty problems in the energy sector by half by the year 2020 and lower the discharge of climatic gases considerably. Developments directions are pointed out and major challenges and pollution control measures are outlined. The World Energy Council global energy information system is mentioned.

  11. Energy sector water use implications of a 2 °C climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricko, Oliver; Parkinson, Simon C.; Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; van Vliet, Michelle TH; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying water implications of energy transitions is important for assessing long-term freshwater sustainability since large volumes of water are currently used throughout the energy sector. In this paper, we assess direct global energy sector water use and thermal water pollution across a broad range of energy system transformation pathways to assess water impacts of a 2 °C climate policy. A global integrated assessment model is equipped with the capabilities to account for the water impacts of technologies located throughout the energy supply chain. The model framework is applied across a broad range of 2 °C scenarios to highlight long-term water impact uncertainties over the 21st century. We find that water implications vary significantly across scenarios, and that adaptation in power plant cooling technology can considerably reduce global freshwater withdrawals and thermal pollution. Global freshwater consumption increases across all of the investigated 2 °C scenarios as a result of rapidly expanding electricity demand in developing regions and the prevalence of freshwater-cooled thermal power generation. Reducing energy demand emerges as a robust strategy for water conservation, and enables increased technological flexibility on the supply side to fulfill ambitious climate objectives. The results underscore the importance of an integrated approach when developing water, energy, and climate policy, especially in regions where rapid growth in both energy and water demands is anticipated.

  12. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  13. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  14. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  15. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  16. An estimation of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Pu; SHI Peihua

    2011-01-01

    In 2009,nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide.A global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment.In this contribution,five major aspects such as the change of LUCC and the use of energy and its associated impacts had been recognized.Recently,the impact of tourism on environment and climate attracts the attention of international organizations and societies in pace with rapid development of tourism industry.Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector are becoming a hot spot of international tourism research in recent five years.The use of energy for tourism can be divided according to transport-related purposes (travel to,from and at the destination) and destination-related purposes excluding transports (accommodation,food,tourist activities,etc.).In addition,the transports,accommodation and foods are related to many other industries which are dependent on energy.Thus,the estimations of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector have become a worldwide concern.Tourism in China grows rapidly,and the number of domestic tourists was 1902 million in 2009.Energy use and its impact on the environment increase synchronously with China's tourism.It is necessary to examine the relationship between energy use and CO2 emissions.In this article,a preliminary attempt was applied to estimate the energy consumption and CO2 emissions from China's tourism sector in 2008.Bottom-up approach,literature research and mathematical statistics technology were also adopted.According to the calculations,Chinese tourism-related may have consumed approximately 428.30 PJ of energy in 2008,or about 0.51% of the total energy consumptions in China.It is estimated that CO2 emissions from tourism sector amounted to 51.34 Mt,accounting for 0.86% of the total in China.The results show that tourism is a low-carbon industry and also a pillar industry coping with global climate change,energy-saving and CO

  17. Energy and exergy utilizations of the U.S. manufacturing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghandoor, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Phelan, P.E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); National Center of Excellence on SMART Innovations for Urban Climate + Energy (SMART = Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies), Arizona State University,AZ (United States); Villalobos, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jaber, J.O. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    The energy and exergy utilizations in the U.S. manufacturing sector are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the year 2002. Detailed end-use models for fourteen intensive industries are established using scattered data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Since the MECS data exhibit many gaps, data from other sources are used, as well as a number of assumptions are made to complete the models. The methodology applied and the assumptions made are clearly described so that the methods can be readily modified to fit different needs. The end-use models provide a starting point to estimate the site and embodied energy and exergy efficiencies. The average site energy and exergy efficiencies of the manufacturing sector are estimated as 63.5% and 38.8% respectively, while the embodied energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated as 52.7% and 32.1% respectively. The low efficiency values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilization still exist. (author)

  18. Assessing transition trajectories towards a sustainable energy system: A case study on the Dutch transition to climate-neutral transport fuel chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural chang

  19. The causality between energy consumption and economic growth. A multi-sectoral analysis using non-stationary cointegrated panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, Valeria [Department of Economics, University of Roma Tre, 77 Via Silvio D' Amico, 00145 Rome (Italy); Martini, Chiara [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA), Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76-00196 Rome (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing attention given to global energy issues and the international policies needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have given a renewed stimulus to research interest in the linkages between the energy sector and economic performance at country level. In this paper, we analyse the causal relationship between economy and energy by adopting a Vector Error Correction Model for non-stationary and cointegrated panel data with a large sample of developed and developing countries and four distinct energy sectors. The results show that alternative country samples hardly affect the causality relations, particularly in a multivariate multi-sector framework. (author)

  20. The causality between energy consumption and economic growth: A multi-sectoral analysis using non-stationary cointegrated panel data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, Valeria, E-mail: v.costantini@uniroma3.i [Department of Economics, University of Roma Tre, 77 Via Silvio D' Amico, 00145 Rome (Italy); Martini, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.martini@enea.i [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA), Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76-00196 Rome (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing attention given to global energy issues and the international policies needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have given a renewed stimulus to research interest in the linkages between the energy sector and economic performance at country level. In this paper, we analyse the causal relationship between economy and energy by adopting a Vector Error Correction Model for non-stationary and cointegrated panel data with a large sample of developed and developing countries and four distinct energy sectors. The results show that alternative country samples hardly affect the causality relations, particularly in a multivariate multi-sector framework.

  1. AIJ in the Non-Energy Sector in India: Opportunities and Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Meili, A.; Anita, R.

    1998-11-01

    Although the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has been signed and ratified by 168 countries, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased substantially since the 1992 Rio Summit. In both developing countries (DCs) and industrialized countries (ICs), there has been a need to find mechanisms to facilitate environmentally sound mitigation strategies. This need led to the formation of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) at the first Conference-of the Parties (COP) in 1995. In Article 4A, para 2D, the COP established an AIJ pilot phase in which Annex I (IC) countries would enter into agreements to implement activities jointly with non-Annex I parties. DCs would engage in AIJ on a purely voluntary basis and all AIJ projects should be compatible with and supportive of national environment and development goals. AIJ does not imply GHG reduction commitments by DCs. Neither do all projects undertaken during the pilot phase qualify as a fulfillment of current commitment s of Annex I parties under the COP. The current pilot phase for AIJ ends in the year 2000, a date which may be extended. Current AIJ activities are largely focused on the energy sector. The Nordic countries, for example, feel that the most important potential areas for cooperation in AIJ are fuel conversion, more effective energy production, increased energy efficiency, and reforms in energy-intensive industry (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). Denmark does not want to include non-energy sector projects such as carbon sink enhancement projects in the pilot phase (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). However, other countries, including the US, have already funded a number of forestry sector projects (Development Alternatives, 1997). Moreover, energy-sector projects involving high technology or capital-intensive technology are often a source of controversy between DCs and ICs regarding the kind of technology transferred and sharing of costs and benefits. Further, the pilot phase

  2. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  3. Covenant energy conservation for the rental sector [in the Netherlands]; Convenant Energiebesparing Huursector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-28

    The participating parties have the intention to achieve an Energy-Index of 1.25 on average for the total housing stock of the housing corporations. (Energylabel B). This corresponds to energy saving in existing buildings of 33% in the period 2008-2020. This ambition concerns energy consumption in buildings and related installation, especially for space heating, water heating and ventilation. 'Vastgoed Belang' aims to realize an improvement of the housing stock of its members, which must result in a housing stock in 2020 of which 80% will have energylabel C or better [Dutch] De deelnemende partijen beogen met dit convenant in 2020 ten minste een gemiddelde Energie-Index van 1,25 (gemiddeld energielabel B) te bereiken voor de totale huurwoningenvoorraad van de corporaties. Dat komt overeen met een besparing op het gebouwgebonden energieverbruik van bestaande corporatiewoningen van 33% in de periode 2008 tot en met 2020. Deze ambitie betreft het gebouw- en installatiegebonden energiegebruik voor met name ruimteverwarming, warm tapwater en ventilatie. Vastgoed Belang beoogt de realisatie van een verbetering van de woningvoorraad van haar leden, leidend tot een woningvoorraad in 2020 waarvan 80% label C of beter.

  4. The energy sector: key element for the social and economic development of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Argaez, C. [Ministry of Mines and Energy, Bogota (Colombia)

    2000-06-01

    The mining and energy sector has been accounting for an increasingly large share of the Colombian economy in terms of calibration to the production of goods and services, exports, and generation of national and local public revenues. The government has to maintain and improve these indices of buoyancy. This article looks at the contribution of the oil, gas and coal mining sectors to the economy and gives figures for reserves, production and consumption from 1995 to 1999. It discusses electric power generation trends (80% hydropower, 20% coal or gas-fired plant in 1999) and foreign investment in the electric power sector. The effect of recent changes in government policy, on exploration, pricing and tariff - setting, deregulation and encouraging the rational use of energy are discussed. Since 1991 there has been an intensification of the use of natural gas as a substitute for more costly and more scarce fuels. This strategy contributes to mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. 7 figs., 1 photo.

  5. Cluster pilot project for the integration of RES into European energy sector. (Canary test site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gotor, A. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos, Seccion de Medio Ambiente Industrial, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2003-09-01

    The more important objectives of the integrated systems in locations with water and electricity shortage are: 1)integration of RES into energy sector 2)self sufficient system 3)fresh water and electricity production 4)use of hydrogen and water as double storage system. The project RE2H2 tries to reach the mentioned objectives and this will be done by designing, constructing and evaluating self sufficient energy systems driven by wind energy, being capable of generating hydrogen, electricity and water storage making use of the features of hydrogen as an energy vector. Systems of this kind could be implemented in the near future in any area with high renewable (wind) energy potential for both pure hydrogen production and commercialization as well as electricity and water demand coverage. (O.M.)

  6. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes i

  7. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  8. Hydro-economic modelling: A comparison between the energy and water sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.

    2008-12-01

    The last 30 years have witnessed a tremendous effort in the development of a variety of models for planning, designing, and managing water resources engineering projects. The water resources community has widely accepted simulation models, which are designed to predict the response of a system under a particular set of conditions. Optimization extends the predictive concept in order to prescribe a set of decisions for achieving an optimal response. Most of the hydro-economic models reported in the literature are based on an economic optimization subject to constraints describing, amongst other things, the hydrological processes. Despite the proven array of benefits offered by hydro-economic models, their generalized use in the water sector is still limited primarily to the academic arena, and it has not been well integrated into practice. This contrasts significantly with the energy sector where hydro-economic models are commonly used for planning and managing hydrothermal electrical systems. We first briefly present the main approaches to hydro- economic modelling and how they are embedded into decision support and analytical frameworks. Then we review the types of policy and decision-making problems that have been addressed with hydro-economic models in both sectors. Some possible causes for the lack of acceptance of and limited implementation of hydro-economic models in the water sector are further discussed.

  9. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  10. Sectoral CO2 emissions in the Netherlands up to 2010. Update of the Reference Projection for Policy-making on Indicative Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp PGM; Daniels BW; Dril AWN van; Kroon P; Ybema JR; Wijngaart RA van den; ECN; KMD

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch government intends to formulate indicative targets for maximum sectoral CO2- emission levels in the year 2010. To this end the expected future emission levels have been determined for four sectors: Build Environment, Agriculture, Transportation and Industry/ Energy. The study relies

  11. Innovation excellence. Creating market success in the energy and natural resources sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtissek, Stephan

    2011-07-01

    In this book, author Stephan Scholtissek examines innovations as they relate to companies in the energy and natural resources sector, which contrary to popular opinion are indeed innovative. These companies are undergoing massive change as the balance of power shifts towards emerging economies and as the world looks to a range of low carbon technologies. Scholtissek sheds light on different forms of innovation and argues that R and D resources must be extended across all these forms. He includes a number of detailed case studies from the energy and natural resources industries that have shown a remarkable capacity to innovate: BP, Dow Corning, Evonik Industries, Iberdrola, Marathon Oil, Perrier, Schott and Siemens. (orig.)

  12. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  13. Prospects for renewable energy in South Africa. Mobilizing the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegels, Anna

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous, especially if a country is as fossil- fuel-based and emission-intensive as South Africa. However, as it is already facing climate change impacts in an increasingly carbon-constrained world, South Africa must drastically reduce its greenhouse gas emission intensity soon. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emission problem. Transforming this sector is therefore urgently needed, but will be difficult. First steps have been taken to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, but they have failed to have any large-scale effects. The two major barriers to investments in renewable energy technologies are based in the South African energy innovation system and its inherent power structures and in the economics of renewable energy technologies. The innovation system is dominated by the state-owned Eskom (electricity) and Sasol (fuel) enterprises. Both companies have their core competencies in fossil fuel technologies. Capacity in renewable energy is lacking at every stage of the technology cycle, from research and development to installation and maintenance. The obstacles inherent in the economics of renewable energy technologies are cost and risk, two of the main factors in investment planning. As most technologies are in early stages of development, they have not yet realized their full cost degression potential and continue to entail a higher risk than established technologies. To overcome these barriers, the South African government has introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a renewable energy feed-in tariff (REFIT). While a promising scheme in theory, the South African REFIT has a crucial flaw: Eskom is the monopsonistic buyer of electricity produced from renewable energy and is responsible for distributing it to consumers. However, Eskom is not obliged to buy that electricity. This runs counter to

  14. Light dark sector searches at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Shou-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Although the standard model (SM) is extremely successful, there are various motivations for considering the physics beyond the SM. For example, the SM includes neither dark energy nor dark matter, which has been confirmed through astrophysical observations. Examination of the dark sector, which contains new, light, weakly-coupled particles at the GeV scale or lower, is well motivated by both theory and dark-matter detection experiments. In this mini-review, we focus on one particular case in which these new particles can interact with SM particles through a kinematic mixing term between U(1) gauge bosons. The magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є. Following a brief overview of the relevant motivations and the constraints determined from numerous experiments, we focus on the light dark sector phenomenology at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders. These colliders are ideal for probing the new light particles, because of their large production rates and capacity for precise resonance reconstruction. Depending on the details of a given model, the typical observed signatures may also contain multi lepton pairs, displaced vertices, and/or missing energy. Through the use of extremely large data samples from existing experiments, such as KLOE, CLEO, BABAR, Belle, and BESIII, the magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є < 10-4-10-3 constraint can be obtained. Obviously, future experiments with larger datasets will provide opportunities for the discovery of new particles in the dark sector, or for stricter upper limits on є. Once the light dark sector is confirmed, the particle physics landscape will be changed significantly.

  15. The Romanian environment and energy sector - An introduction by the Royal Danish Embassy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    Romania suffers - even for Eastern European standards - from extensive problems in the energy and environmental sector. This is due mainly to the industrial development process during 40 years of communism, involving energy-intensive industries such as the chemical, metallurgy and cement industries and the development of densely populated areas. None of these developments were followed by an environmental strategy of the communist regime. The public investment over the past twelve years has not been adequate to close the gap that 40 years of communism left. The goal of EU-membership in 2007 means that the efforts towards closing the gap have to be intensified. This has given a new impetus to the environmental reforms in Romania. Especially improving the quality of the drinking water, handling wastewater, improving the efficiency of the district heating system, waste disposal and management, reducing air pollution as well as and improving efficiency in the electricity sector requires big public investments. These major challenges offer good opportunities for Danish companies in these areas. Furthermore, also the private companies will have to make major investments in order to meet especially environmental requirements. Due to the EU-accession process and agreements with IMF, the World Bank and others good possibilities for international financing of projects exist. From the EU alone Romania will receive over EUR 2.5 billions in the period from 2004 to 2007. This report will give the Danish investor, consultant, or subcontractor, interested in the Romanian environmental and energy sector, a basis for evaluating the opportunities in this promising sector of the Romanian economy. (au)

  16. The Moving Target of Climate Mitigation: Examples from the Energy Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2016-12-01

    In response to the concerns of climate change-induced impacts on human health, environmental integrity, and the secure operation of resource supply infrastructures, strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of major societal sectors have been in development. In the energy sector, these strategies are based in low carbon primary energy deployment, increased energy efficiency, and implementing complementary technologies for operational resilience. While these strategies are aimed at climate mitigation, a degree of climate change-induced impacts will occur by the time of their deployment, and many of these impacts can compromise the effectiveness of these climate mitigation strategies. In order to develop climate mitigation strategies that will achieve their GHG reduction and other goals, the impact that climate change-induced conditions can have on different components of climate mitigation strategies must be understood. This presentation will highlight three examples of how climate change-induced conditions affect components of climate mitigation strategies in California: through impacts on 1) hydropower generation, 2) renewable potential for geothermal and solar thermal resources to form part of the renewable resource portfolio, and 3) the magnitudes and shapes of the electric load demand that must be met sustainably. These studies are part of a larger, overarching project to understand how climate change impacts the energy system and how to develop a sustainable energy infrastructure that is resilient against these impacts.

  17. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  18. Do energy efficiency investments lead to lower household expenditure? Detailed analyses of the Dutch energy efficiency potential in 'real' households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Energy efficiency measures are often seen as a way to save on energy bills, thereby lowering household expenditures. This is true if the savings outweigh the costs of financing these investments. Calculations on cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures are often based on abstract assumptions. On the one hand, economic discounting methods are commonly used to calculate investment costs. On the other hand, most of the time the expected savings are based on theoretical models used for calculating energy consumption in households. Real cost-effectiveness depends on a variety of specific characteristics of households. In reality, the way people finance energy efficiency measures differs and what is more important: energy savings depend to a large extent on specific technical and behavioural characteristics of individual households. In this paper, we take a closer look at households in the Netherlands. The paper shows that there is a large cost-effective potential for energy savings, but that there are major differences between households. It will explain that heating behaviour of individual households should be taken into account. The paper will also address the adjusted Dutch rental price system, which offers a solution for the split incentives problem that used to hinder energy efficiency investments in social housing.

  19. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  20. A Load Prioritization Model for a Smart Demand Responsive Energy Management System in the Residential Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratsavadee Koonlaboon KORKUA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to strengthen energy security while reducing environmental impact, particularly from global warming and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the government of Thailand has established a 20-year Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP, aiming to reduce a 20 % share of final energy consumption by 2030. The energy saving potential assessment reveals that the forecasted energy saving by the residential sector holds more than 60 % of the overall electricity saving shares. Therefore, in this paper, the situation of Thailand’s energy is presented and the energy conservation plan is reviewed. Next, a smart demand responsive energy management system under ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 based wireless communication is proposed. An analysis of demand response potential in terms of a time-of-use (TOU pricing without enabling technology program in Thailand scenario is also investigated. Finally, by using the proposed load characterization and load prioritization under the concept of a smart energy management system, the bill savings benefits of a demand responsive program can be proved while the target of energy saving is also achieved.

  1. Renewable energies in Slovakia and objectives for 2020 - development of the different sectors; Les energies renouvelables en Slovaquie et les objectifs 2020 - Developpement des differentes filieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queval, Benjamin; Makhloufi, Rachid; Libercan, Adam

    2011-10-15

    After a presentation of the Slovakian general context (geography, policy, energy consumption, production, sources and policy), this report presents the Slovakian renewable energy development program (actors, regulation, and foreseen development scenario), and proposes an overview of the current situation and perspectives for the different concerned sectors: photovoltaic, biomass, bio-fuels, geothermal energy, wind energy, hydraulic energy

  2. Base rates in the SDE Plus Scheme 2013 (Dutch Renewable Energy Scheme). Final recommendation; Basisbedragen in de SDE+ 2013. Eindadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M.; Mozaffarian, M.; Luxembourg, S.L. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Wassenaar, J.A.; Faasen, C.J. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, ECN and DNV KEMA have studied the cost of renewable energy production. This cost assessment for various categories is part of an advice on the subsidy base for the feed-in support scheme SDE+. This report contains the advice on the cost of projects in the Netherlands targeted for realization in 2013. The advice covers technologies for the production of green gas, biogas, renewable electricity and renewable heat [Dutch] Het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) heeft aan ECN en DNV KEMA advies gevraagd over de hoogte van de basisbedragen in het kader van de SDE+-regeling voor 2013. Dit rapport bevat het eindadvies over de basisbedragen. Evenals bij vergelijkbare onderzoeken in voorgaande jaren, hebben ECN en DNV KEMA in overleg met het ministerie gekozen om de markt te consulteren over het voorgenomen advies. ECN en DNV KEMA adviseren het ministerie over de hoogte van de basisbedragen voor door het ministerie voorgeschreven categorieën. De Minister van ELI beslist over de openstelling van de SDE+-regeling in 2013, de open te stellen categorieen en de basisbedragen voor nieuwe SDE+-beschikkingen in 2013. De uitgangspunten van het advies, zoals opdracht en rekenmethodiek, staan genoemd in Hoofdstuk 2. In Hoofdstuk 3 wordt ingegaan op de werkwijze en randvoorwaarden, zoals flankerend beleid en financiële uitgangspunten. De feed-in-premiestructuur van de SDE+ wordt toegelicht in Hoofdstuk 4. De prijsontwikkelingen voor elektriciteit, gas en biomassa worden toelicht in Hoofdstuk 5. Hoofdstuk 6 geeft per categorie een overzicht van de technisch-economische parameters van de hernieuwbare-energieopties. Hoofdstuk 7 besluit met conclusies waarbij de vertaalslag naar basisbedragen gemaakt is.

  3. Colloquial Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  4. Colloquial Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  5. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  6. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  7. Disaggregated Energy Consumption and Sectoral Outputs in Thailand: ARDL Bound Testing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurai Murugan Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, energy-output relationship studies have become increasingly popular in recent times, partly fuelled by a need to understand the effect of energy on production outputs rather than overall GDP. This study dealt with disaggregated energy consumption and outputs of some major economic sectors in Thailand. ARDL bound testing approach was employed to examine the co-integration relationship. The Granger causality test of the aforementioned ARDL framework was done to investigate the corresponding causality effect. Results showed that, from year 1980 to 2010, productivity of most scrutinized industries was highly reliant on crude oil and natural gas. However, coal usage in transportation and agricultural industries can be reduced without affecting productivity. Few recommendations are given thereafter for Thailand to better manage their imported and local energy sources.

  8. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  9. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  10. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  11. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  12. The efficiency of energy metabolism during pregnancy and lactation in well-nourished Dutch women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, C.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation involve extra energy needs. As extra energy intakes over pregnancy and lactation are limited, and energy savings by reduced physical activity are assumed to be restricted, it has been postulated that during pregnancy and lactation, energy expenditure is further reduced by imp

  13. The efficiency of energy metabolism during pregnancy and lactation in well - nourished Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, C.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation involve extra energy needs. As extra energy intakes over pregnancy and lactation are limited, and energy savings by reduced physical activity are assumed to be restricted, it has been postulated that during pregnancy and lactation, energy expenditure is further

  14. Energy efficiency at Parana state, BR, industrial sector: trends and perspectives; Eficiencia energetica no setor industrial do Parana: tendencias e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Gustavo Inacio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mail: gimoraes@esalq.usp.br; Serra, Mauricio Aguiar [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: serra@ufpr.br

    2006-07-01

    From a social and economic scenario up to 2023, the energy intensity trajectory per capita and energy intensity per product are calculated at the Parana state, BR. An economic growing more intense could request less participation of the industrial sector related to service sector; however the necessity of action intensification viewing the energy efficiency of the sector yet will be important.

  15. The relationships of alternative energies with the technology sector and non-renewable energies

    OpenAIRE

    Barão, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objectivo compreender de que forma os investidores veem as energias renováveis: se as veem como parte do sector tecnológico, à espera de novos desenvolvimentos, ou como uma alternativa aos métodos existentes de produção de energia. Para responder a esta questão, foi desenvolvido um modelo de vectores autoregressivos com quatro variáveis de forma a se poder aplicar um Granger causality test e Impulse Response function. Os resultados sugerem que para o período de 2002-200...

  16. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  17. Climate Change and its Impact on the Energy Sector in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is anticipated that the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus will be disproportionally and adversely affected by future climate change. Impacts of these changes include rising summer temperatures and decreasing annual precipitation thereby causing strains on the energy sector in the region. Increases in the frequency of heat waves and tropical nights will lead to rising demands for air-conditioning of private and public housing on the one hand and to growing water scarcity, which will have to be satisfied by additional seawater desalination, on the other, to name just two of the repercussions of climate change on energy demand. Coping with these impacts will require additional electricity generation and will lead to enhanced energy demands. In the case of Cyprus, this will add to an already strained sector of the economy. The current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of hydrocarbon products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to app. 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. Possible remedies, which will be relevant for other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, as well include energy saving measures in the building sector and the use of renewable energy sources. With regard to sustainable building technologies, new and innovative building materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced thermochromic materials based on nanotechnology techniques combined with phase change microcapsules, photochromic coatings able to present very high or low solar reflectance, chameleon coatings presenting very low emissivity and time varying

  18. CURRENT STATE AND EVOLUTION PERSPECTIVES FOR MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE ENERGY SECTOR BY IMPLEMENTING THE ABC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rof Letitia Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a controversial issue, namely determining and controlling costs in the energy sector, the present study falls within the scope of management accounting and control. This scientific approach was initiated as a result of personal research concerns in the area of accounting, starting from the need to know and quantify costs in a sector of the economy that is less exploited. The main objective of this scientific approach is to address the evolution of the energy sector in a national and international context, in terms of economy and finances, with the aim to underline the need to organize and conduct management accounting in this sector. We will present a few particularities of the energy system, the current status of implementation of a medium and long term strategy aimed at developing the energy sector, as well as the need to adopt modern costing methods in this sector, which ensure operative cost control and performance growth of the entities that operate in this sector. Information on the reviewed topic was conducted by studying the national and international literature in the field, by analyzing the associated legislation, by consulting specialized web-sites and various articles in the database. The main research methods used in this scientific approach were analysis and synthesis, and qualitative research was the type of used research. The results of the research will materialize in providing the necessary conditions for designing an econometric model for implementing the ABC method, the conceptual and ideological delimitation of the ABC method, the deepening of the positive and negative aspects that the implementation of the Activity Based Costing involves. The major implication for the researched field is ensuring success for the implementation of a modern costing method in the energy sector, underlining the shortcomings of the traditional costing methods. The added value of the paper consists in conducting a rigorous study of the

  19. Factors affecting the energy consumption intensity in industrial sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy, one of the main inputs for production, has a foundational role in the economic life of industries, of inappropriate use of it leads to adverse uneconomical and environmental consequences.Studying improvements in energy efficiency and its effective factors is of the utmost importance when energy resources are limited. Reducing production costs and paying less subsidies and cost of industrial products are result of improvement of energy efficiency in industry and its subdivision. High use of energy in industrial products ismostly in developing countries, including Iran.The present study aims to investigate the effective factors on energy consumption intensity in Iranian industry. The methodology is descriptive - correlational with a practical purpose. The study population is Iran. The results show that the physical capital, value added in economic sectors and energy consumptionintensity variables were significant in the error level of 5% in previous period, and work force and GDP variables have significantly negative effect on the energy range in the error level of 5%.

  20. Final report of the project 'Survey of the consequences liberalization energy market for the flower bulb sector'. Annexes; Eindrapportage van het project 'Inventarisatie consequenties liberalisering energiemarkt voor de bolbloemen- en bloembollenteler'. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-15

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate the business-economic consequences of the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets for the various types of businesses per region in the flower bulb and bulb flower sector. Based on this information, it can be concluded what will be the consequences for the sector and what will be the consequences of realizing the sector target for energy. These annexes contain an overview of the types of businesses, the questionnaire used, example calculations for a certain type of business, the set-up of the Commodity Services System, the costs per product or area unit. Moreover, a brief overview is given of the main features of a free energy market. Some recommendations are provided on how the flower bulb sector can profit from the consequences of the liberalized energy market [Dutch] De doelstelling van het project is het zichtbaar maken van de bedrijfseconomische consequenties van de liberalisering van de gas- en elektriciteitsmarkt voor de verschillende bedrijfstypen per regio in de bloembollen- en bolbloemensector. Daaruit kan geconcludeerd worden wat de gevolgen zijn voor de sector en de gevolgen van het halen van de sectordoelstelling voor energie. In deze bijlagen wordt een overzicht gegeven van de bedrijfstypen, de gebruikte vragenlijst, een voorbeeldberekeningen voor een bepaald bedrijfstype, de opbouw van het Commodity Diensten Systeem, de kosten per product of oppervlakte-eenheid. Daarnaast wordt een beknopt overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste kenmerken van een vrije energiemarkt. Ook worden enkele praktische aanbevelingen gedaan voor de wijze waarop de bloembollensector kan inspelen op de gevolgen van de geliberaliseerde energiemarkt.

  1. Growth potential in the renewable energy sector. How Sweden can stimulate for renewable energy; Tillvaextpotential inom sektorn foernybar energi. Saa kan Sverige oeka tillvaexten inom foernybar energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The renewable energy sector has a huge potential worldwide. There will be opportunities for companies operating in the sector. The big question from a growth perspective is actually: How can the Swedish industry and Swedish companies take as large a market share of this sector as possible? The Swedish market is small relative to many other markets - which can be a barrier for companies to grow organically in a domestic market. Sweden still has, compared to the rest of Europe, relatively low electricity prices resulting in reduced profitability for wind farms or solar installations. Sweden has large power production facilities in the form of hydro and nuclear power plants. The electricity network is constructed or adapted for this type of large-scale production and it will require investment in the electricity grid to facilitate connection of other power generation units such as wind power and solar cells. Some countries have chosen to create fictitious markets using a system which provides a demand for non-commercial technologies and thus driving technology development. One example is Germany, where producers of renewable electricity are guaranteed a technology-specific sales price. This could be implemented in Sweden, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the Swedish companies should be given opportunities to exploit the markets that are already created, as if they were their home markets. All sectors surveyed in this study have shown that there are some large companies, a few medium-sized enterprises and many small businesses. This structure is often described as 'hourglass structure' and has existed for many years in Sweden. Industrial activities are operated in increasingly global way, and national aspects of decision-making get an increasingly secondary role, in relation to aspects of profitability and growth . Emerging businesses need to be greater than previously in order to act internationally concerning both technology and market. The government

  2. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1)). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  3. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  4. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  5. Climate Change mitigation opportunities in the Energy sector for the Caribbean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doral, Wenceslao Carrera; Chinchilla, Oscar Coto; Delgado, Ivan Relova

    The “Climate change mitigation opportunities in the energy sector for the Caribbean region” has been prepared as part of the implementation of the Caribbean Regional Subcomponent of the MEAs Program for Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP MEAs)1. The study has being executed...... in the region interested in linking energyclimate change benefits as part of the on-going and future scaling up efforts for Renewable Energy (RE) dissemination in the Caribbean. The study is based on an analysis of the mitigation potential in 16 countries in the Caribbean Region, due to the interconnection...... in the CDM in the region and narrows on some of the perceived institutional challenges, especially from the perspective of Programme of Activities (CDM PoA) development in the field of renewable energy for the Caribbean Region, as precursors for evolving mitigation activities (under broader climate finance...

  6. Industrial Control Systems/SCADA systems risk assessment in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Babatunde

    The energy sector is one of the most critical components of our national infrastructure. It not only provides the electrical power and petroleum required to run day-to-day operations and mechanisms in society, it's also an important element that directly impacts the economy with regard to growth and stability. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) /Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) are computerized mechanisms, they are both software and hardware that are used to control real time processes and operations in power plants and oil production facilities. A significant attack on these control systems that leads to widespread disruption of energy could result in catastrophic consequences for any major city and even the nation. This research paper explores cyber threats and vulnerabilities faced by ICS/SCADA systems in the energy sector and also highlights possible outcomes of a successful breach. Furthermore, the research underscores mitigation strategies that could be used to prevent and respond to an attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, SCADA, Cyber Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Dr. Albert Orbinati.

  7. Carbon and Energy Saving Financial Opportunities in the Industrial Compressed Air Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorini, Diego; Cipollone, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    The transition towards a more sustainable energy scenario calls for both medium-to-long and short term interventions, with CO2 reduction and fossil fuel saving as main goals for all the Countries in the World. Among all others, one way to support these efforts is the setting-up of immaterial markets able to regulate, in the form of purchase and sales quotas, CO2 emissions avoided and fossil fuels not consumed. As a consequence, the upgrade of those sectors, characterized by high energy impact, is currently more than an option due to the related achievable financial advantage on the afore mentioned markets. Being responsible for about 10% electricity consumption in Industry, the compressed air sector is currently addressed as extremely appealing, when CO2 emissions and burned fossil fuels saving are in question. In the paper, once a standard is defined for compressors performances, based on data from the Compressed Air and Gas Institute and PNEUROP, the achievable energy saving is evaluated along with the effect in terms of CO2 emissions: with reference to those contexts in which mature intangible markets are established, an estimation of the financial benefit from savings sale on correspondent markets is possible, in terms of both avoided CO2 and fossil fuels not burned. The approach adopted allows to extend the analysis results to every context of interest, by applying the appropriate emission factor to the datum on compressor specific consumption.

  8. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  9. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  10. Supporting synergism: Enhancing Federal, State and private sector collaboration in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Second annual report of the State Energy Advisory Board, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The State Energy Advisory Board first convened to counsel the Secretary of Energy and the Congress on the initiation, design, implementation, and evaluation of Federal energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) programs. The Board has developed and delivered a host of recommendations which serve to integrate and foster consistency among Federal, State, local and private sector activities. In fiscal year (FY) 1993, the Board worked closely with Department leadership to provide guidance on the implementation of several National Energy Policy Act (EPACT) provisions pertaining to the enhancement of energy efficiency and renewable energy initiatives, as well as on redefining the mission of the National Laboratories. Through these and other actions -- which also include promoting EE/RE technology deployment efforts -- the Board ensures that the knowledge and experience of program stakeholders, especially State and local governments, community action agencies and also the off-shore territories, are incorporated into Federal activities pertaining to energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  11. The Convergence Analysis on the Economic Growth and Energy Intensity Gap between Regional Sectors%The Convergence Analysis on the Economic Growth and Energy Intensity Gap between Regional Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shaozhou; Li Kai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have analyzed the relationship between energy intensity gap and GDP per worker gap of China's western and eastern provinces over the period 1997 2006. Using panel data model with lag adjustment, taking the above provinces and six industrial sectors (agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries, industry, construction industry, transport, storage and post & telecommunications, wholesale and retail trades & catering industry, and other sectors of tertiary industry.) as the investigated subjects, the authors have conducted empirical study on the convergence of GDP per worker gap and the convergence of energy intensity gap with respect to the variation of GDP per worker gap, and have concluded that: First, the GDP per worker gap of the six industrial sectors and provinces are convergent, and of this, the convergence rate of GDP per worker gap of Construction Industry is the fastest, while that of Industry is the slowest. Second, the overall energy intensity gap between eastern and western provinces is convergent, that is, with the narrowing of GDP per worker gap between eastern and western provinces, the energy intensity gap converges, but its convergence rate is slower than that of GDP per worker gap. Third, energy intensity gap between various industrial sectors of the east and the west is either convergent or divergent, and there are differences. The energy intensity gap of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries, industry, and construction industry is convergent, while that of the other three industrial sectors is divergent. Fourth, the convergence of the overall energy intensity of the western provinces is not in conformity with the convergence of the various industrial sectors, and there are significant differences, indicating that the western provinces and autonomous regions should take measures to more effectively improve their overall energy utilization efficiency at the industrial sector level.

  12. Technological Learning In The Energy Sector. Lessons for Policy, Industry and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junginger, M.; Van Sark, W.; Faaij, A. (eds.) [Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Technological learning is a key driver behind the improvement of energy technologies and subsequent reduction of production costs. Understanding how and why production costs for energy technologies decline, and whether they will continue to do so in the future, is of crucial importance for policy makers, industrial stakeholders and scientists alike. This timely and informative book therefore provides a comprehensive review of technological development and cost reductions for renewable energy, clean fossil fuel and energy-efficient demand-side technologies. It responds to the need for a quality-controlled data set of experience curves, including assessment of measurement methodology, technological knowledge and associated cost. The expert contributors present a thorough overview and discussion of the pitfalls of applying the experience curve approach, including aspects such as geographical system boundaries, whether the slope of the experience curves is constant or not, statistical error and sensitivity analysis of experience curves, and whether the experience curve approach can be utilized to quantify improvements in energy efficiency. A clear set of recommendations for the use of the experience curve approach is also prescribed. Providing a significant contribution to the current literature on energy and climate models, scenario analysis, and methodological lessons on experience curves, this book appeals to academics and students in the areas focusing on energy and public sector economics.

  13. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  14. Approach for Emissions Compliance in the Fossil-Fuel Based Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alain, Bill; Bitran, Guillaume; Basler, Benno; Hess, Stephan

    2007-07-01

    Most of today's air pollution legislation varies from country to country depending on factors such as the economy, fuel supply, fuel dependency and specific local pollution problems. At the same time, in a growing number of countries, the energy sector is going through privatisation, deregulation and globalisation process which is affecting energy demand and fuel selection, driving gradual integration of energy markets and requiring new solutions. Today it is also well recognized that pollution is often not a localized problem and that gaseous air pollutants can cross great distances. This has led to the cooperation between countries to control transboundary pollution, under bilateral or multilateral agreements. Similarly as for the energy sector, countries are not only becoming increasingly linked to each other in political, economic and social terms but also in environmental terms. Power generators and equipment manufacturers have been developing technologies and business agreements in countries with respective legislation constraints over many years and take this trend of interdependence into account. The equipment manufacturers and global solution providers such as Alstom have become the focal point driving the development of new environmental compliance products and solutions within the fossil fuel based energy sector. Technological progress achieved in many fields over recent years in different areas of the world according to the different legislations allows the power generators to meet these increasingly stringent emissions reduction requirements while extending the plant lifetime of existing power plants, and keeping them competitive. This paper gives an overview and outlook of environmental regulations, air pollution control technologies and some experience in pioneering environmental long-term service agreements. Obviously, the most immediately effective way to ensure emissions compliance of existing power plant is to professionally maintain and

  15. Trends in US private-sector energy R and D funding 1985--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report has been prepared in response to a set of four questions submitted by the International Energy Agency`s (IEA) Energy Technology Policy Division to the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research. The IEA`s questions all center on trends in US industrial energy R{ampersand}D spending over the decade 1985--1995. IEA has asked all of its member countries similar questions and intends to use the resulting multi-country data set on trends in private-sector energy R and D as basis for discussions at its October 16, 1996, Governing Board Meeting. This report first describes the principal data sets used with caveats about their shortcomings, then characterizes the context of US R and D spending over the recent past and short-term future. The remainder of the report is organized by addressing each of the four IEA questions. The appendices provide further information. IEA Question {number_sign}1: Are industry (energy) R and D expenditures monitored by the US Government? If so, please describe the types of data that are collected. Question {number_sign}2: How much money did industry spend to support energy technology development in your country in the following years: 1985, 1993, 1994, 1995? Question {number_sign}3: From the experience of your country in working with industry what is the timeframe of their R and D efforts in terms of the expected payback of their investments (e.g., short term 0--3 years, medium term 3--7 years, long term 7--12 years, or very long term beyond 12 years)? Question {number_sign}4: How would you describe industry energy technology investment trends over the past ten years?

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE TRAINING NEEDS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PALKOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes, the greenhouse gas emissions and reduced sources of traditional fossil fuels are one of themost serious environmental problems of present time. This fact was the starting point for Directive 2009/28/EC,which defined two objectives in the area of RES, the mandatory 20% share of RES in gross final energyconsumption in the European Community and the mandatory 10% share of RES in transport, which all MemberStates must achieve by 2020. In 2011 was the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production in theEuropean Union 13%. Promoting the use of renewable sources for electricity, heat, hot water, as well as promotingthe use of biomass energy and construction of energy efficient buildings brings, in addition to environmentalaspects, the development of innovative technologies, the transition to an energy-efficient economy and increaseemployment opportunities. Development in clean technologies becomes a strategic not only in terms of ecology, buthas a significant impact on economic development and employment. This paper presents an analysis of trainingneeds in clean technologies and renewable energy sources and through the Leonardo da Vincis’ projects – AVARESand C-TEST – supported by European Commission to show how to increase the attractiveness and accessibility ofvocational education and training for employees in agricultural sector in the European Union.

  17. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Petroleum Refining Sector in Mexico from 2015 to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados-Hernández Elías

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the volume of production of petroleum products of high demand, such as gasoline, rises the use of energy and therefore emissions of CO2 in oil refineries. In Mexico, for example, gasoline demand scenario for the next 20 years growth will increase the fuel consumption by almost 55%, considering a historical trend in traffic. The purpose of this study as to determine the impact of energy consumption per unit of processing oil and CO2 emissions using the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC as well as employing the stoichiometric calculation based on the carbon content. Different projections were made using four technological options of oil refining, processing three types of pure raw (Olmeca, Istmo, Maya and four blends (M1, M2, M3, M4. When performing an energy balance results show that projecting very complex refineries to meet a specific demand for gasoline will consume less energy and therefore CO2 emissions will be lower. This study is important as a tool for energy planning and environmental pollution in Mexico, as well as an object of analysis of the energy sector worldwide.

  18. Challenging knowledge hierarchies: working toward sustainable development in Sri Lanka's energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Nieusma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes sustainable development practices within Sri Lanka’s energy sector. It directs attention to how expertise functions in development decision making in ways that can unintentionally inhibit sustainable development. Understanding expertise as merely specialized knowledge clouds its role as a social activity. In practice, expertise is a combination of knowledge and authority, and expert knowledge exists within a hierarchically ordered authority structure of diverse knowledge domains—what is referred to here as “knowledge hierarchies.” Knowledge hierarchies exclude the participation of some relevant knowledge domains, and thereby preclude the possibility of local sustainable development. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka, a small renewable energy advocacy organization, strives to enable sustainability by going beyond facile calls for greater inclusion to confront the mechanisms of exclusion. The paper documents three of the Energy Forum’s development interventions intended to level out the knowledge hierarchy that inhibits sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka. Drawing insights from the Energy Forum’s approach, the paper argues that experts who wish to contribute to sustainable development must attend to the knowledge hierarchies in which they operate to ensure that their own authority does not exclude other relevant knowledge domains.

  19. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Cogeneration- and Total Energy potentials at an alternative natural gas price policy and environmental policy in the Dutch National Energy Outlook scenarios. WKK- en TE-potentielen bij een alternatief gasprijs- en milieubeleid in de NEV-scenario's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Verhagen, L.

    1989-09-01

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of VROM (public health, planning and environment) the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation carried out new calculations with regard to the title subject. New developments in the Dutch energy and environmental policies made that necessary. For eight cases the results for large-scale industrial cogeneration capacity are presented, i.e. the future industrial steam demand with gas turbine-, combined steam and power generation-, total energy gas- and total energy coal-installations or with coal- or gas boilers. The same calculations are made for small-scale Total Energy capacities. Finally some conclusions are given with regard to the total cogeneration potential. 8 tabs.

  3. Asian Development Bank assistance to promote private sector participation in renewable energy development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S.H. Asian Development Bank

    1997-12-31

    Inadequate power supply has emerged as one of the most serious infrastructure constraints on sustainable economic growth in the Asia and Pacific Region. The heavy reliance on coal in the region as a fuel source for power generation has significant detrimental environmental impacts. Power systems based on renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind, solar, bagasse, bio-methanation, municipal and agricultural wastes, mini-hydro, etc. are suitable candidates for alleviating some of the power shortages. RES technologies offer investment opportunities to small entrepreneurs in power generation and provide alternative sources of energy. There is, therefore, a challenge for the policy makers of the Region and for the Asian Development Bank to create an enabling environment for the private sector to undertake development of RES. (R.P.)

  4. Consistent cost curves for identification of optimal energy savings across industry and residential sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Baldini, Mattia

    Energy savings are a key element in reaching ambitious climate targets and may contribute to increased productivity as well. For identification of the most attractive saving options cost curves for savings are constructed illustrating potentials of savings with associated costs. In optimisation...... with constructing and applying the cost curves in modelling: • Cost curves do not have the same cost interpretation across economic subsectors and end-use technologies (investment cost for equipment varies – including/excluding installation – adaptation costs – indirect production costs) • The time issue of when...... the costs are incurred and savings (difference in discount rates both private and social) • The issue of marginal investment in a case of replacement anyway or a full investment in the energy saving technology • Implementation costs (and probability of investment) differs across sectors • Cost saving...

  5. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Laura C; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-03-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m(3) per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m(3) per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m(3)), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest.

  6. Residential sector dossier. Energy savings as target; Dossier residentiel. Les economies d'energie en point de mire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappa, F.

    2004-05-01

    With the 2003 heat wave in Europe, the sales of air conditioning split systems have reached records with a progress of about 40%. Beside these data, it is a new perception of these devices that is progressively gaining the consumers mind, in particular in the residential sector which has been considered as 'very promising' by air conditioning professionals, but which has never reached its expected development in France, so far. Manufacturers are more and more looking towards this sector with the energy savings and the environment protection as main arguments. The French scientific and technical committee of air conditioning industries (Costic) is carrying out several actions in parallel which aim at giving help to professionals for the realisation of quality air conditioning installations. This dossier takes stock of the technical and regulatory aspects of residential air conditioning (choice of appliances, evacuation of condensates, air flow, abatement of energy consumptions and noise pollution, Vivrelec offer of Electricite de France (EdF), improvement of esthetics and efficiency..). Some examples of innovative realizations illustrate this dossier: high environmental quality house with 77% of space heating savings, combination of ventilation and radiant ceiling. (J.S.)

  7. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  8. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  9. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector; Biomassebaserade energibaerare foer transportsektorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO{sub 2} emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO{sub 2}/ha,year) and costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction (SEK/kg CO{sub 2}) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO{sub 2} emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  10. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  11. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  12. Analysis of Renewable Energy Policies Related to Repowering the Wind Energy Sector: the Spanish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Roberto; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Rodriguez, Rubén; Calvo Narvaez, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In countries that started early with wind energy, the old wind turbines were located in places where the wind is often very good. Since the best places in which the wind is concerned are occupied by old wind turbines (with lower capacity than the more recent ones) the trend is to start replacing old turbines with new ones. With repowering, the first generation of wind turbines can be replaced by modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. The aim of this article is to analyze energy policies in ...

  13. The evolution of environmental concerns in economywide policies and adjustment lending: Experience from the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Stein

    1993-07-01

    In this report, following a brief overview of some generic issues and empirical evidence relating to the linkages between economic growth, energy use and environmental impacts, a review of energy sector adjustment lending activities in developing and Eastern European countries is carried out. Following that a more specific discussion of the direct and indirect environmental impacts of these policies is presented, both in general terms, but also illustrated by means of how specific energy project packages are being designed in response to the said policy changes. Perhaps the most significant role of such policy reforms is that it impacts economywide on all economic activities; both the decisions regarding input substitution and output focus of existing plants and services, as well as the decisions regarding choice of technology, design and location of new investments in all sectors of the economy. It can be concluded from the reviewed studies that getting the prices right helps the environment, but it is not enough. It undoubtedly helps the environment to correct for market failures and have prices reflect the full resource costs, because it lessens the incentive to exploit resources wastefully. This is comforting because it suggests that what has been advocated for a long time on pure efficiency grounds irrespective to environmental management reasons. What has been missing, however, is a full acknowledgement of the crucial role of supportive institutional reforms and administrative strengthening required to actually succeed with the economic reforms. Examples will be presented on how such reforms can contribute to facilitate the adjustment process by simultaneously improving allocative efficiency and generating desperately needed public revenue.

  14. Task Force on Integrated Energy and Environmental Planning: The Netherlands - Poland. Working Paper 2: Government institutions of the energy sector in the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, A.D. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands); Verhagen, H.M. [Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1993-07-01

    The Polish Government is interested in a broad perspective of institutional arrangements in the national energy sector. A brief review of energy administrations in the EC countries illustrates that only a few of the energy ministries established in 1970`s after the oil crisis still remain. At present, energy departments are incorporated in a ministry of economic affairs or trade and industry and have broad energy policy responsibilities. Their subdivisions are oriented towards energy resources and in some cases also with energy conservation. Energy is not treated as a common commodity, but is strongly controlled by legislation. Germany and United Kingdom have the most strongly privatized energy sectors in EC but nevertheless still have a plethora of laws concerning pricing, investment, organization, monopolies, supply areas, grid development, maintenance, etc. Government involvement in energy sector is still far greater than set by EC policies directed to privatisation and competition. Comparison of energy administrations of Poland and EC countries is hampered by incomparable key economic figures and different political and cultural traditions; however the overall institutional set-up for energy has some common characteristics in the EC countries: Energy departments within a ministry of economic affairs are subdivided according to energy carriers and include energy conservation and energy planning units in general energy policy units. Polish parliament is responsible for election and establishment of an adequate and competent energy administration structure. Energy planning plays an important role in EC countries. National energy plans are strongly related to key economic figures for economic sectors and subsectors and are usually commissioned by general policy units in the department of energy and updated at regular intervals. They function as anchor points for industry, thus providing basic data.

  15. The Impact of Energy taxes on Competitiveness and Output: A Panel Regression Study of 56 European Industry Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how cha...

  16. Modelling of electricity savings in the Danish households sector: from the energy system to the end-user

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the value of investing in energy-efficient household appliances from both an energy system and end-user perspectives. We consider a set of appliance categories constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and focus on the stoc...

  17. Beyond Fossils. Envisioning desired futures for two sustainable energy islands in the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Etteger Ma, van R.; Waal, de R.M.; Haan, de H.J.; Basta, C.; Andela, M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is the concrete product of an academic exercise: the Master’s course ‘Designing and Planning Sustainable Energy Islands Atelier.’ It is the condensed result of three months’ work by six teachers and sixty students from the disciplines of landscape architecture, spatial planning and cultura

  18. Monitoring dwelling stock efficiency through energy performance register: Trends in Dutch social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 EU adopted the Energy Performance of Buildings directive which was subsequently adopted by the member states. However, more than a decade later, no national registers of certificates have become available publicly or to research institutions in order to give feedback on the introduced regula

  19. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  20. The value of energy efficiency and accessibility. An analysis of the Dutch office building market; De waarde van energiezuinigheid en bereikbaarheid een analyse van de nederlandse kantorenmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, N. [Departement Financiering, School of Business and Economics, Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Jennen, M. [Departement Financiering, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This study offers the first systematic insight in the effects of the main components of sustainability (energy efficiency and accessibility by public transport) on realized rent levels in the Dutch market for office buildings. The rent developments of inefficient and efficient office buildings vary significantly. Accessibility also pays. Both components of sustainability have a direct impact on the value development of both 'non-green' inefficient buildings and of office buildings on traditional single function locations. [Dutch] Dit onderzoek biedt het eerste systematische inzicht in de effecten van de belangrijkste componenten van duurzaamheid (energiezuinigheid en OV-bereikbaarheid) op gerealiseerde huurniveaus in de Nederlandse kantorenmarkt. De huurontwikkelingen van niet zuinige en zuinige kantoorgebouwen lopen sterk uiteen. Ook bereikbaarheid betaalt. Beide componenten van duurzaamheid hebben een directe impact op de waardeontwikkeling van zowel 'niet-groene', onzuinige gebouwen, als op kantoren op traditionele, 'monofunctionele' locaties.

  1. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  2. COGNITIVE GRAPHICS AND SEMANTIC MODELING FOR GEOSPATIAL SOLUTIONS IN ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Massel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author team proposes the integration of mathematical and semantic modeling and visual analytics techniques, including the use of geographic information technologies, to solve geospatial problems. We con-siderthese types ofsemantic modelingasontological, cognitive, probability and event simulation. It is shown that-graphicsemantic modelshave properties of cognitive graphics. TraditionalGIS andgeo-toolsprovidingopportunities of 3D-geovizualization are compared.The author tool of 3D-geovizualization named Geocomponentandits application to solving of geospatialenergyproblems are described. We consider the integration of semantic modeling and 3D-geovizualization providing situational awareness of the researcher, and, as a result, the expansion of visual analytics opportunities and their using to solve geospatial problems of management in the energy sector.

  3. Uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electrical power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.F.; Skytte, K.

    2000-01-01

    market context is modelled. For each of eight Northern European countries, the basic results of the models are the installation of new production capacities, the production on old and new production capacities, the electricity prices, and the interchange between the countries. The investment in new...... this within the context of a model of the Northern European electricity sector. The paper considers uncertainties about future states of nature. More specifically, we consider the inflow of water into a hydropower production system, where the states of nature are represented by a "dry", a "normal" and a "wet...... of electricity and that the consumers pay an energy tax on their use of electricity. The consumers are divided into two groups, households and industry. Also, complementarity formulations are used, as these are shown to be more adequate for certain aspects, in particular where risk aversion within a liberalised...

  4. Instability in interacting dark sector: An appropriate Holographic Ricci dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Ramon; Videla, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the consequences of phantom crossing considering the perturbative dynamics in models with interaction in their dark sector. By mean of a general study of gauge-invariant variables in comoving gauge, we relate the sources of instabilities in the structure formation process with the phantom crossing. In order to illustrate these relations and its consequences in more detail, we consider a specific case of an holographic dark energy interacting with dark matter. We find that in spite of the model is in excellent agreement with observational data at background level, however it is plagued of instabilities in its perturbative dynamics. We reconstruct the model in order to avoid these undesirable instabilities, and we show that this implies a modification of the concordance model at background. Also we find drastic changes on the parameters space in our model when instabilities are avoided.

  5. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Carlson, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  6. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  7. Mesoscale generation of available potential energy in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Ruminski, M. G.; Starr, D. OC.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of available potential energy (APE) was evaluated in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone containing intense convective activity. Mesoscale rawinsonde data from AVE-SESAME '79 was employed. Parametrization techniques were used for latent and sensible heating components, and variations for the Kuo scheme provided convective latent heat release. Radiative transfer models were used to obtain estimates of infrared and solar processes. The results indicated that solar heating was greater than IR cooling near midday. An extensive low-level cloud deck was the most radiatively active area. Negative generation of APE occurred during most of the period for the SESAME domain as a whole. The leading contributor was convective latent heating located primarily in regions of negative efficiency. Infrared cooling was the only component to consistently produce positive generation. Sensible heating provided an important sink of APE in the low levels during the afternoon.

  8. Exploring methods and practicalities of conducting sector-wide energy consumption accounting in the tourist accommodation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, Jan; Bradley, Melanie [School of Environmental and Applied Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Gold Coast, Qld 9726 (Australia); Guilding, Chris [Service Industry Research Centre and School of Accounting and Finance, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Gold Coast, Qld (Australia)

    2004-01-01

    Sector-wide environmental accounting is an important mechanism for determining areas of poor environmental performance that need to be targeted to reduce resource consumption and the production of waste output. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the practicalities of conducting sector-wide environmental accounting in fragmented, service-oriented industry sectors that comprise a diversity of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study explores such practicalities through a series of independent energy audits conducted in the Australian tourist accommodation industry. Three distinct energy consumption accounting techniques are reviewed in the light of findings made from 35 energy audits, and more than 200 telephone and face-to-face interviews held with various accommodation sector representatives. The three sector-wide energy consumption accounting methods reviewed are: the Floor Area Method, the Multiple Regression Method and the Mandatory Reporting Method. In light of different business structures, different in-house environmental accounting practices, and other major factors affecting resource consumption, mandatory reporting is found to be the most efficient and effective method.

  9. Energy consumption in buildings within the services sector. 2008; Energibruk i bygninger for tjenesteytende virksomhet. 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Anne Sofie; Bergh, Marius

    2011-05-15

    The population and sample for this survey are based on data from The Ground Parcel, Address and Building Register (GAB) as of 1 January 2008. GAB is a computer register containing information about ground properties and addresses in Norway. Defined by type of building, around 130 000 buildings within the services sector are included in the register. Buildings with an unspecified owner, buildings smaller than 200 m2 and some special types of buildings (garages etc.) were excluded from the population, thus giving a total of just over 60 000 buildings. The gross sample was made up of 8 100 buildings, and questionnaires were sent to the landowners of these buildings. In addition to the Statistics Norway sample, data from Enova and Statsbygg, among others, was used. The net sample included about 5 000 buildings. The relatively low number of usable questionnaires in the Statistics Norway sample was related to both the quality of the data in GAB and in the reported data. The use of energy per square metre between the different types of buildings in the survey varies considerably. This is due to several factors, such as time of use of the buildings, the amount of technical equipment in the buildings, energy efficiency etc. The average for all the buildings in the survey for 2008 was 226 kWh/m2. Total energy consumption in the survey was slightly more than 5 TWh distributed over 22.5 million m2 of heated area. Electric power accounted for 83 per cent of the energy used and was by far the largest energy carrier. District heating was the second largest energy carrier with 11 per cent, while heating oil accounted for about 3 per cent. Wood and pellets made up slightly less than 2 per cent and other energy carriers totalled 0.4 per cent. Schools and kindergartens had by far the lowest use of energy, with an average of 159 kWh/m2. This is related to the relatively low time of use of the buildings and fewer technical installations using energy. On the other hand, hospitals are

  10. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  11. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  12. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  13. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  14. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sectors Industry, Agriculture and Horticulture; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening Energieakkoord. Sectoren industrie en land- en tuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    On September 4, 2013, representatives of employers' associations, trade union federations, environmental organizations, the Dutch government and civil society have signed an Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. ECN and PBL have been asked to evaluate this agreement. This report gives background information on the evaluation of the measures aimed at improving energy efficiency in industry and agriculture [Dutch] Op 4 september 2013 is het 'Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei' getekend. ECN en PBL zijn gevraagd het akkoord te beoordelen en door te rekenen. Dit rapport dient als achtergronddocument bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de industrie en land- en tuinbouw.

  15. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  16. Financing the Civic Energy Sector:How financial institutions affect ownership models in Germany and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stephen; Foxon, Timothy J.; Bolton, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between financinginstitutions and more local ownership structures for energy provision.This research defines municipal and civil society structures involved inenergy provision as the 'Civic Energy Sector'. It argues that thefinancial institutions of nations are key enabling institutions for thissector to contribute to a low carbon energy transition. The path ofdevelopment of these financial institutions helps to shape the ownershipstructures and technology ch...

  17. Scoping study on SADC energy sector carbon market potential; SADC = Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-22

    programmes. Biomass and bio fuels: Some of the biomass cogeneration and biofuels projects are large enough scale to be implemented at national level. However, the scale of biomass potential is so large in the region that developing several 'demonstration projects' with high replicability and visibility could catalyze rapid growth of CDM projects in this sub-sector. Household scale biomass use is covered by the SADC Programme for Biomass Energy Conservation (ProBEC), but commercial and industrial use projects in the region would have high value for promoting CDM in SADC. Institutional strengthening through regional cooperation: rather than only working at national level to build capacity in DNAs and the local consulting industry for CDM projects, sharing knowledge and experience across the region would facilitate more rapid CDM market development. Providing the opportunity for key energy sector decision makers to become more active in the negotiations around the CDM and the future of the carbon market would also strengthen SADC's 'regional voice' in the climate change debate. (Author)

  18. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  19. Workshop Report: International Workshop to Explore Synergies between Nuclear and Renewable Energy Sources as a Key Component in Developing Pathways to Decarbonization of the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lyons, Peter B. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An international workshop was organized in June 2016 to explore synergies between nuclear and renewable energy sources. Synergies crossing electricity, transportation, and industrial sectors were the focus of the workshop, recognizing that deep decarbonization will require efforts that go far beyond the electricity sector alone. This report summarizes the key points made within each presentation and highlights outcomes that were arrived at in the discussions.

  20. Government-to-private sector energy programs: Identification of common elements leading to successful implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Keith M.

    -and-control programs we examined also create market distortions that both limit the flexibility of private markets to adjust to changing economic conditions and discourage the adoption of competing technologies. We conclude our research by recommending that future policy makers maximize the range of methods availability to the private sector to meet legislative goals and limit the use of financial incentives. With these measures, energy programs may achieve higher levels of success by reaching their goals with maximum economic efficiency and minimal negative unanticipated consequences.

  1. Spoken Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  2. Spoken Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  3. Pioneering Renewable Energy in an Economic Energy Policy System: The History and Development of Dutch Grassroots Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteman, M.I.; Kooij, H.J.; Wiering, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The first grassroots initiatives for renewable energy in The Netherlands were a small number of wind cooperatives that developed in the 1980s and 1990s. After a few years without developments, new initiatives started emerging after 2000, and after 2009 the movement boomed, growing from around 40 to

  4. The Danish Perspective of Energy Internet: From Service-oriented Flexibility Trading to Integrated Design, Planning and Operation of Multiple Cross-sectoral Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Jin, Lin; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    two important subjects of the energy internet from the Danish perspective, i.e., service-oriented flexibility trading and integrated design, planning and operation of multiple cross-sectoral energy systems. Both elements are anticipated to bring in new business opportunities and challenges...

  5. Green growth: innovative capacity of sme's in the Dutch Greenhouse Horticulture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch greenhouse horticultural industry is characterized by world leadership in high-tech innovation. The dynamics of this playing field are innovation in production systems and automation, reduction in energy consumption and sharing limited space. However, international competitive advantage of the industry is under pressure and sustainable growth of individual enterprises is no longer a certainty. The sector's ambition is to innovate better and grow faster than the competition in the re...

  6. GREEN NETWORKS: INNOVATIVE CAPACITY OF SMES IN THE DUTCH GREENHOUSE HORTICULTURE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch greenhouse horticulture industry is characterized by world leadership in high-tech innovation. The dynamics of this playing field are innovation in production systems and automation, reduction in energy consumption and sharing limited space. However, international competitive advantage of the industry is under pressure and sustainable growth of individual enterprises is no longer a certainty. The sector’s ambition is to innovate better and grow faster than the competition in the r...

  7. Green networks: innovative capacity of sme's in the Dutch Greenhouse Horticulture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch greenhouse horticulture industry is characterized by world leadership in high-tech innovation. The dynamics of this playing field are innovation in production systems and automation, reduction in energy consumption and sharing limited space. However, international competitive advantage of the industry is under pressure and sustainable growth of individual enterprises is no longer a certainty. The sector's ambition is to innovate better and grow faster than the competition in the res...

  8. Investigation of Energy Consumption in Agriculture Sector of Iran and their Effect on Air Pollution and Social Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asakereh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are investigation of consumption, intensity and efficiency of fossil fuels and electricity energy in Iran's agriculture sector and emission of GHG and air pollutants and their social (damage costs. D ata used in this study were obtained from ministry of energy and central bank of Iron in 1997- 2007. Input energy of fossil fuel and electricity in agriculture increased from 265.1 to 411.2 PJ in this period. Results show that the efficiency of using of fuels and electricity has not increased and increasing of social costs of GHG and air pollutants emission has been more than added value of agriculture sector. So, it is necessary that by increasing of technology level and replacement of age-old and depreciated machineries and equipments, appropriate management and increasing efficiency of fuel and electricity energy in macro level will cause decreasing negative effects of energy consumption.

  9. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  10. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Engström

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate–economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model. We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs. Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road. For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  11. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  12. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  13. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  14. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  15. Interdisciplinary analysis of successful implementation of energy efficiency in the industrial, commercial and service sector. Final report. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following study represents the final report of the project `Interdisciplinary analysis of Successful Implementation of Energy Efficiency in the Industrial, Commercial and Service sector` (InterSEE), undertaken within the socio-economic research areas of the JOULE programme. InterSEE analyses the successful implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) of less energy intensive sectors by carrying out case studies of successful companies as well as of policy programmes providing the ground for these activities. The findings of the analysis result in policy recommendations, aiming to improve energy efficiency of SME within the target sectors. The main objective of the project is to increase the knowledge about energy saving activities in SME and to indicate opportunities for policy-makers and energy efficiency market actors to stimulate and to foster the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the related demand for energy services. More specifically, the project aims: to provide insight into the underlying internal and social change process of efficiency measures (a better understanding); to formulate policy implications related to crucial determinants, interdependencies and patterns of implementation processes (a new philosophy); to derive recommendations for the design of policy instruments and appropriate mixes including socio-economic marketing and market transformation strategies (a new strategy). (EG)

  16. Greenhouse gases emissions inventory in 2005 by the Mexican energy sector; Inventario de emisiones en 2005 de gases de efecto invernadero por el sector energetico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, R.; Munoz Lerdo Carranza, R.; Villalba Valle, D. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfv@iie.org.mx; rml@iie.org.mx; danviva17@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, it is estimated the greenhouse gases (GHG, GEI in this paper) emissions in 2005 by the consumption and/or transformation of energy in Mexico. This document is not official, and it is used as reference the fuel consumption reported in the Balance National de Energia 2005 published by the Secretaria de Energia. In this way, it is standardized the emission source that will be used in the near future to estimated the official 2005 GHG Emissions Inventory. In order to solve the absence of own emission factors in Mexico, it is used the default global emission factors proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. The Sectorial Method was used to estimate the GHG emissions taking in account the fuel consumption in each subsector considered in the energy sector. It was found that the transport and energy industries sector had the most GHG emissions, and that Mexico as a non-industrialized country had lower per capita emissions that developed countries. [Spanish] En este trabajo se calcularon las emisiones de Gases de Efecto de inventario (GEI's) del 2005 por la seccion de consumo y/o transformacion de energia en Mexico. El documento obtenido no es oficial, y como referencia, se utiliza el consumo de combustible que refiere el Balance Nacional de Energia 2005, publicado por la Secretaria de Energia. Con esto, se estandarizan las fuentes de emision que en algun momento usara el Inventario Nacional de Emisiones de GEI's 2005. Para resolver la falta de factores de emision propios de Mexico, se recurre a los factores globales de emision propuestos como valores por omision por el Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico. Para la estimacion de las emisiones de GEI's se utilizo el Metodo Sectorial tomando en consideracion el consumo de combustible de cada uno de los subsectores en que se encuentra dividido el sector energetico. Se encontro que los sectores transporte y de la industria de la transformacion de energia son los que

  17. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  18. Opportunities in EUcase law for achieving Dutch sustainable energy target. It's up to the Netherlands to seize them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on recent case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the opportunities available in European Union law to promote the generating of electricity from renewable sources within the Dutch system for managing congestion in the electricity grid (CMS) and for allocating the costs

  19. Opportunities in EU case law for achieving Dutch sustainable energy targets: it's up to the Netherlands to seize them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on recent case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the opportunities available in European Union law to promote the generating of electricity from renewable sources within the Dutch system for managing congestion in the electricity grid (CMS) and for allocating the cos

  20. On the area of tension between energy conservation, environmental impact and IAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolloos, M.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of conserving energy in the building sector, the Dutch Building Regulations incorporate requirements for the energy performance of houses and utility building. Use of the energy performance coefficient (EPC, see Box 1) offers excellent opportunities for enhancing the energy performance