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Sample records for dust sources spatially

  1. Probing the Spatial Distribution of the Interstellar Dust Medium by High Angular Resolution X-ray Halos of Point Sources

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    Xiang, Jingen

    X-rays are absorbed and scattered by dust grains when they travel through the interstellar medium. The scattering within small angles results in an X-ray ``halo''. The halo properties are significantly affected by the energy of radiation, the optical depth of the scattering, the grain size distributions and compositions, and the spatial distribution of dust along the line of sight (LOS). Therefore analyzing the X-ray halo properties is an important tool to study the size distribution and spatial distribution of interstellar grains, which plays a central role in the astrophysical study of the interstellar medium, such as the thermodynamics and chemistry of the gas and the dynamics of star formation. With excellent angular resolution, good energy resolution and broad energy band, the Chandra ACIS is so far the best instrument for studying the X-ray halos. But the direct images of bright sources obtained with ACIS usually suffer from severe pileup which prevents us from obtaining the halos in small angles. We first improve the method proposed by Yao et al to resolve the X-ray dust scattering halos of point sources from the zeroth order data in CC-mode or the first order data in TE mode with Chandra HETG/ACIS. Using this method we re-analyze the Cygnus X-1 data observed with Chandra. Then we studied the X-ray dust scattering halos around 17 bright X-ray point sources using Chandra data. All sources were observed with the HETG/ACIS in CC-mode or TE-mode. Using the interstellar grain models of WD01 model and MRN model to fit the halo profiles, we get the hydrogen column densities and the spatial distributions of the scattering dust grains along the line of sights (LOS) to these sources. We find there is a good linear correlation not only between the scattering hydrogen column density from WD01 model and the one from MRN model, but also between N_{H} derived from spectral fits and the one derived from the grain models WD01 and MRN (except for GX 301-2 and Vela X-1): N

  2. Heterodyne spatial interferometry of circumstellar dust shells at a wavelength of 11 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, E.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the 11 micron thermal emission from circumstellar dust envelopes has been studied using an infrared heterodyne interferometer. Circumstellar dust envelopes often exist around cool, late-type stars. These envelopes radiate strongly at 11 microns, particularly if they are composed of silicate grains, which have a strong emission feature near this wavelength. By measuring the spatial distribution of this dust emission it is possible to probe the temperatures and densities of the circumstellar material and thereby to gain an understanding of the structures of circumstellar envelopes. Among the sources which have been observed with this interferometer are α Orionis, o Ceti, VY Canis Majoris, and IRC + 10216. The 11 micron brightness distributions of these objects all have spatially extended dust-emission components which are resolved in these measurements. The dust envelopes of α Orionis and o Ceti are optically thin, having optical depths at 11 microns of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In addition, variations are seen in the 11 micron brightness distribution of o Ceti which correlate with the stellar variability. These variations primarily represent changes in the relative amount of spatially compact photospheric emission and spatially extended dust emission. The source VY Canis Majoris, on the other had, has a dust envelope which is optically thick at 11 microns. The dust envelope of IRC + 10216, although optically thick at visible wavelengths, does not seem to be optically thick at 11 microns since there is a spatially compact component of the 11 micron brightness distribution which presumably represents emission from the central star

  3. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates

  4. Biomonitoring spatial and temporal impact of atmospheric dust from a cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Gaio-Oliveira, Gisela; Augusto, Sofia; Pinho, Pedro; Maguas, Cristina; Correia, Otilia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial and temporal impact of dust-pollution in the vicinity of a cement industry, located in an area with dry climate. The spatial impact integrated over time was evaluated from the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Mg in in-situ Xanthoria parietina. The temporal pattern was assessed through one-month transplants of the lichen Ramalina canariensis. Four potential sources of atmospheric dust were evaluated: the limestone-quarry; the unpaved roads, the deposit area and the cement mill. Calcium concentration in lichens was considered the best cement-dust indicator. Different types of dust (clinker and grinded-limestone-dust) resulted in different time-patterns of Ca accumulation, which was also related with the different influence that wet and dry periods have in the lichen accumulation process. The dust pollution was found to be deposited locally and dependent on: the nature of dust particles and the volume and frequency of precipitation. - Biomonitoring Spatial and Temporal dust emissions in dry climates.

  5. Identifying sources of aeolian mineral dust: Present and past

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    Muhs, Daniel R; Prospero, Joseph M; Baddock, Matthew C; Gill, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust is an important component of the Earth’s environmental systems, playing roles in the planetary radiation balance, as a source of fertilizer for biota in both terrestrial and marine realms and as an archive for understanding atmospheric circulation and paleoclimate in the geologic past. Crucial to understanding all of these roles of dust is the identification of dust sources. Here we review the methods used to identify dust sources active at present and in the past. Contemporary dust sources, produced by both glaciogenic and non-glaciogenic processes, can be readily identified by the use of Earth-orbiting satellites. These data show that present dust sources are concentrated in a global dust belt that encompasses large topographic basins in low-latitude arid and semiarid regions. Geomorphic studies indicate that specific point sources for dust in this zone include dry or ephemeral lakes, intermittent stream courses, dune fields, and some bedrock surfaces. Back-trajectory analyses are also used to identify dust sources, through modeling of wind fields and the movement of air parcels over periods of several days. Identification of dust sources from the past requires novel approaches that are part of the geologic toolbox of provenance studies. Identification of most dust sources of the past requires the use of physical, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic analyses of dust deposits. Physical properties include systematic spatial changes in dust deposit thickness and particle size away from a source. Mineralogy and geochemistry can pinpoint dust sources by clay mineral ratios and Sc-Th-La abundances, respectively. The most commonly used isotopic methods utilize isotopes of Nd, Sr, and Pb and have been applied extensively in dust archives of deep-sea cores, ice cores, and loess. All these methods have shown that dust sources have changed over time, with far more abundant dust supplies existing during glacial periods. Greater dust supplies in

  6. Spatial distribution, environmental risk and source of heavy metals in street dust from an industrial city in semi-arid area of China

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    Han Xiufeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.

  7. The spatial characteristics and pollution levels of metals in urban street dust of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rongli; Ma, Keming; Zhang, Yuxin; Mao, Qizheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ·We explored the pollution characters of metals in street dust of Beijing. ·Area-source pollution and point-source pollution exist simultaneously. ·We identified the spatial autocorrelation intensities and ranges of metals. ·Metal pollution anomalies were identified by cluster and outlier analyses. ·Urban activities strongly influence the distributions of metals. - Abstract: The components and concentrations of metals in street dust are indictors of environmental pollution. To explore the pollution levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb in street dust and their spatial distribution characteristics, 220 dust samples were collected in a grid pattern from urban street surfaces in Beijing. Multivariate statistics and spatial analyses were adopted to investigate the associations between metals and to identify their pollution patterns. In comparison with the soil background values, elevated metal concentrations were found, except those for Mn and Ni. The results of the geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and the potential ecological risk index (Er i ) of the metals revealed the following orders: Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Mn and Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni. Levels of I geo ranging from 0 to 5 were found and about 80% of the samples were below the moderately polluted level. The Er i values of single elements were within the low ecological risk level in most sampling sites. Most of the metals in the street dust of Beijing were statistically significantly correlated. It is hard to clearly identify the sources of each metal in the street dust since local environments are very complex. Cadmium, Cu, Cr, Mn and Pb showed medium spatial autocorrelations within the sampling region. Similar spatial distribution patterns were observed for Cu, Cr and Pb, and these metals had relatively high spatial variabilities and were enriched in the center of the city with several peaks scattered in the suburbs. Metal pollution anomalies were identified by using cluster and outlier analyses

  8. Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: A study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Loretta Y.; Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and universities of Xi'an, China were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these metals in the dust. The spatial distributions of metals in urban dust of Xi'an were analyzed based on the metal concentrations in campus dusts using the geostatistics method. The results indicate that dust samples from campuses have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr and Ba, with the mean values of 7.1, 5.6, 3.7, 2.9, 2.5 and 1.9 times the background values for Shaanxi soil, respectively. The enrichment factor results indicate that Mn, Ni, V, As and Ba in the campus dust were deficiently to minimally enriched, mainly affected by nature and partly by anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the campus dust and especially Pb and Zn were mostly affected by human activities. As and Cu, Mn and Ni, Ba and V, and Pb and Zn had similar distribution patterns. The southwest high-tech industrial area and south commercial and residential areas have relatively high levels of most metals. Three main sources were identified based on correlation coefficient analysis, PCA, CA, as well as spatial distribution characteristics. As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cr have mixed sources — nature, traffic, as well as fossil fuel combustion and weathering of materials. Ba and V are mainly derived from nature, but partly also from industrial emissions, as well as construction sources, while Co principally originates from construction. - Highlights: • Metal content in dust from schools was determined by XRF. • Spatial distribution of metals in urban dust was focused on campus samples. • Multivariate statistic and spatial distribution were used to identify metal sources.

  9. Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: A study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Lu, Xinwei, E-mail: luxinwei@snnu.edu.cn [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Loretta Y., E-mail: lli@civil.ubc.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and universities of Xi'an, China were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these metals in the dust. The spatial distributions of metals in urban dust of Xi'an were analyzed based on the metal concentrations in campus dusts using the geostatistics method. The results indicate that dust samples from campuses have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr and Ba, with the mean values of 7.1, 5.6, 3.7, 2.9, 2.5 and 1.9 times the background values for Shaanxi soil, respectively. The enrichment factor results indicate that Mn, Ni, V, As and Ba in the campus dust were deficiently to minimally enriched, mainly affected by nature and partly by anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the campus dust and especially Pb and Zn were mostly affected by human activities. As and Cu, Mn and Ni, Ba and V, and Pb and Zn had similar distribution patterns. The southwest high-tech industrial area and south commercial and residential areas have relatively high levels of most metals. Three main sources were identified based on correlation coefficient analysis, PCA, CA, as well as spatial distribution characteristics. As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cr have mixed sources — nature, traffic, as well as fossil fuel combustion and weathering of materials. Ba and V are mainly derived from nature, but partly also from industrial emissions, as well as construction sources, while Co principally originates from construction. - Highlights: • Metal content in dust from schools was determined by XRF. • Spatial distribution of metals in urban dust was focused on campus samples. • Multivariate statistic and spatial distribution were used to identify metal

  10. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

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    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  11. Spatial distribution of dust in galaxies from the Integral field unit data

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    Zafar, Tayyaba; Sophie Dubber, Andrew Hopkins

    2018-01-01

    An important characteristic of the dust is it can be used as a tracer of stars (and gas) and tell us about the composition of galaxies. Sub-mm and infrared studies can accurately determine the total dust mass and its spatial distribution in massive, bright galaxies. However, faint and distant galaxies are hampered by resolution to dust spatial dust distribution. In the era of integral-field spectrographs (IFS), Balmer decrement is a useful quantity to infer the spatial extent of the dust in distant and low-mass galaxies. We conducted a study to estimate the spatial distribution of dust using the Sydney-Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) galaxies. Our methodology is unique to exploit the potential of IFS and using the spatial and spectral information together to study dust in galaxies of various morphological types. The spatial extent and content of dust are compared with the star-formation rate, reddening, and inclination of galaxies. We find a right correlation of dust spatial extent with the star-formation rate. The results also indicate a decrease in dust extent radius from Late Spirals to Early Spirals.

  12. Integrated spatiotemporal characterization of dust sources and outbreaks in Central and East Asia

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    Darmenova, Kremena T.

    The potential of atmospheric dust aerosols to modify the Earth's environment and climate has been recognized for some time. However, predicting the diverse impact of dust has several significant challenges. One is to quantify the complex spatial and temporal variability of dust burden in the atmosphere. Another is to quantify the fraction of dust originating from human-made sources. This thesis focuses on the spatiotemporal characterization of sources and dust outbreaks in Central and East Asia by integrating ground-based data, satellite multisensor observations, and modeling. A new regional dust modeling system capable of operating over a span of scales was developed. The modeling system consists of a dust module DuMo, which incorporates several dust emission schemes of different complexity, and the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model MM5, which offers a variety of physical parameterizations and flexible nesting capability. The modeling system was used to perform for the first time a comprehensive study of the timing, duration, and intensity of individual dust events in Central and East Asia. Determining the uncertainties caused by the choice of model physics, especially the boundary layer parameterization, and the dust production scheme was the focus of our study. Implications to assessments of the anthropogenic dust fraction in these regions were also addressed. Focusing on Spring 2001, an analysis of routine surface meteorological observations and satellite multi-sensor data was carried out in conjunction with modeling to determine the extent to which integrated data set can be used to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution of dust plumes at a range of temporal scales, addressing the active dust sources in China and Mongolia, mid-range transport and trans-Pacific, long-range transport of dust outbreaks on a case-by-case basis. This work demonstrates that adequate and consistent characterization of individual dust events is central to establishing a reliable

  13. Dust in Snow in the Colorado River Basin: Spatial Variability in Dust Concentrations, Radiative Forcing, and Snowmelt Rates

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    Skiles, M.; Painter, T.; Deems, J. S.; Landry, C.; Bryant, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the disturbance of the western US that began with the Anglo settlement in the mid 19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin (CRB) has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading. This dust deposition accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of albedo and its further reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow effective grain size. We have previously quantified the impacts of dust in snow using a 6-year record of dust concentration and energy balance fluxes at the alpine and subalpine towers in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA), San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado, USA. Dust loading exhibited interannual variability, and end of year dust concentrations were not necessarily related to the number of dust deposition events. Radiative forcing enhanced springtime melt by 21 to 51 days with the magnitude of advanced loss being linearly related to total dust concentration at the end of snow cover. To expand our understanding of dust on snow deposition patterns we utilize collections of dust concentration at the Colorado Dust on Snow (CODOS) study sites, established in 2009 along the western side of the CRB, to assess spatial variability in dust loading. In situ sampling of dust stratigraphy and concentration occurs twice each season, once over peak snow water equivalent (15 April), and again during melt (15 May). Dust loading occurs at all sites; dust concentrations are always higher in May, vary between sites, and the highest and lowest dust years were 2009 and 2012, respectively. In the absence of regular sampling and energy balance instrumentation these sites do not allow us to quantify the advanced melt due to dust. To facilitate this a new energy balance site, Grand Mesa Study plot (GMSP), was established for water year 2010 in west central Colorado, 150 km north of SBBSA. Back trajectories indicate similar Colorado Plateau dust sources at both SBBSA and GMSP, yet GMSP exhibits slightly lower dust

  14. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

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    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    fraction that arrives at another continent [2]. At the deposition end of the chain, it is still unclear how the limited minerals in the dust such as iron are released for uptake by organisms either on land or in the ocean. Not all dust deposited into oceans results in a phytoplankton bloom. The process requires a chemical pathway that mobilizes a fraction of the iron into soluble form. Meskhidze et al [3] show that phytoplankton blooms following dust transport from the Gobi desert in Asia into the Pacific ocean result in a phytoplankton bloom only if the dust is accompanied by high initial SO2-to-dust ratios, suggesting that sulfuric acid coatings on the dust particle mobilize the embedded iron in the dust for phytoplankton uptake. Quantifying transport, deposition and nutrient availability are the latter ends of a puzzle that must begin by identifying and quantifying dust emission at the sources. The emission process is complex at the microscale requiring the right conditions for saltation and bombardment, which makes identification and inclusion of sources in global transport models very difficult. The result is that estimates of annual global dust emissions range from 1000 to 3000 Tg per year [4]. Even as global estimates of dust emissions are uncertain, localizing the sources brings even greater uncertainty. It has been recognized for several years that dust sources are not uniformly distributed over the arid regions of the Earth, but are regulated to topographic lows associated with dried lake deposits [5]. Using aerosol information from satellites, a comprehensive map of the world's source regions shows sources localized to specific areas of the Earth's arid regions [6]. Still these maps suggest broad emission sources covering several degrees of latitude and longitude. In the paper by Koren and co-authors [7] appearing in this issue, one particular dust source, the Bodélé depression in Chad, is analyzed in detail. They find that the specific topography of the

  15. Paracas dust storms: Sources, trajectories and associated meteorological conditions

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    Briceño-Zuluaga, F.; Castagna, A.; Rutllant, J. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Caquineau, S.; Sifeddine, A.; Velazco, F.; Gutierrez, D.; Cardich, J.

    2017-09-01

    Dust storms that develop along the Pisco-Ica desert in Southern Peru, locally known as ;Paracas; winds have ecological, health and economic repercussions. Here we identify dust sources through MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery and analyze HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particles Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model trajectories and dispersion patterns, along with concomitant synoptic-scale meteorological conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP/NCAR). Additionally, surface pressure data from the hourly METeorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) at Arica (18.5°S, 70.3°W) and Pisco (13.7°S, 76.2°W) were used to calculate Alongshore (sea-level) Pressure Gradient (APG) anomalies during Paracas dust storms, their duration and associated wind-speeds and wind directions. This study provides a review on the occurrence and strength of the Paracas dust storms as reported in the Pisco airfield for five-year period and their correspondence with MODIS true-color imagery in terms of dust-emission source areas. Our results show that most of the particle fluxes moving into the Ica-Pisco desert area during Paracas wind events originate over the coastal zone, where strong winds forced by steep APGs develop as the axis of a deep mid-troposphere trough sets in along north-central Chile. Direct relationships between Paracas wind intensity, number of active dust-emission sources and APGs are also documented, although the scarcity of simultaneous METAR/MODIS data for clearly observed MODIS dust plumes prevents any significant statistical inference. Synoptic-scale meteorological composites from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data show that Paracas wind events (steep APGs) are mostly associated with the strengthening of anticyclonic conditions in northern Chile, that can be attributed to cold air advection associated with the incoming trough. Compared to the MODIS images, HYSPLIT outputs were able

  16. Applying geochemical signatures of atmospheric dust to distinguish current mine emissions from legacy sources

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    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Resolving the source of environmental contamination is the critical first step in remediation and exposure prevention. Australia's oldest silver-zinc-lead mine at Broken Hill (>130 years old) has generated a legacy of contamination and is associated with persistent elevated childhood blood lead (Pb) levels. However, the source of environmental Pb remains in dispute: current mine emissions; remobilized mine-legacy lead in soils and dusts; and natural lead from geological weathering of the gossan ore body. Multiple lines of evidence used to resolve this conundrum at Broken Hill include spatial and temporal variations in dust Pb concentrations and bioaccessibility, Pb isotopic compositions, particle morphology and mineralogy. Total dust Pb loading (mean 255 μg/m2/day) and its bioaccessibility (mean 75% of total Pb) is greatest adjacent to the active mining operations. Unweathered galena (PbS) found in contemporary dust deposits contrast markedly to Pb-bearing particles from mine-tailings and weathered gossan samples. Contemporary dust particles were more angular, had higher sulfur content and had little or no iron and manganese. Dust adjacent to the mine has Pb isotopic compositions (208Pb/207Pb: 2.3197; 206Pb/207Pb: 1.0406) that are a close match (99%) to the ore body with values slightly lower (94%) at the edge of the city. The weight of evidence supports the conclusion that contemporary dust Pb contamination in Broken Hill is sourced primarily from current mining activities and not from weathering or legacy sources.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in desert dust and anthropogenic pollution in Iraq, 1997-2010.

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    Chudnovsky, A Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Kostinski, Alex; Proctor, Susan P; Garshick, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Satellite imaging has emerged as a method for monitoring regional air pollution and detecting areas of high dust concentrations. Unlike ground observations, continuous data monitoring is available with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. In this study we test the utility of different sources of satellite data to assess air pollution concentrations in Iraq. SeaWiFS and MODIS Deep Blue (DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products were evaluated and used to characterize the spatial and temporal pollution levels from the late 1990s through 2010. The AOD and Ångström exponent (an indicator of particle size, since smaller Ångström exponent values reflect a source that includes larger particles) were correlated on 50 × 50 km spatial resolution. Generally, AOD and Ångström exponent were inversely correlated, suggesting a significant contribution of coarse particles from dust storms to AOD maxima. Although the majority of grid cells exhibited this trend, a weaker relationship in other locations suggested an additional contribution of fine particles from anthropogenic sources. Tropospheric NO 2 densities from the OMI satellite were elevated over cities, also consistent with a contribution from anthropogenic sources. Our analysis demonstrates the use of satellite imaging data to estimate relative pollution levels and source contributions in areas of the world where direct measurements are not available. The authors demonstrated how satellite data can be used to characterize exposures to dust and to anthropogenic pollution for future health related studies. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to different pollution sources and their health effects in inaccessible regions and areas where ground monitoring is unavailable.

  18. Measuring Dust Emission from the Mojave Desert (USA) by Daily Remote-Camera Observations and Wind-Erosion Measurements: Bearing on "Unseen" Sources and Global Dust Abundance

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    Reynolds, R. L.; Urban, F.; Goldstein, H. L.; Fulton, R.

    2017-12-01

    A large gap in understanding the effects of atmospheric dust at all spatial scales is uncertainty about how much and whence dust is emitted annually. Digital recording of dust emission at high spatial and temporal resolution would, together with periodic flux measurements, support improved estimates of local-scale dust flux where infrastructure could support remote internet enabled cameras. Such recording would also elucidate wind-erosion dynamics when combined with meteorological data. Remote camera recording of dust-emitting settings on and around Soda Lake (Mojave Desert) was conducted every 15 minutes during daylight between 10 Nov. 2010 and 31 Dec. 2016 and images uploaded to a web server. Examination of 135,000 images revealed frequent dust events, termed "dust days" when plumes obscured mountains beyond source areas. Such days averaged 68 (sd=10) per year (2011 through 2016). We examined satellite retrievals (MODIS, GOES) for dust events during six cloudless days of highest and longest duration dust emission but none were observed. From Apr. 2000 through May 2013, aeolian sediments collected at three sites were sampled and weighed. Estimates of the emitted mass of silt- and clay-size fractions were made on the basis of measured horizontal mass flux, particle sizes of sediment in collectors, and roughly determined areas of dust generation. Over this period, nearly 4 Tg yr-1 of dust (as particulate matter flood in the basin in late Dec. 2010 that deposited flood sediment across the lake basin. Increased emission was likely related to the availability of fresh, unanchored flood sediment. Within the Mojave and Great Basin deserts of North America, many settings akin to those at Soda Lake similarly emit dust that is rarely detected in satellite retrievals. These findings strongly imply that local and regional dust emissions from western North America are far underestimated and that, by extension to relatively small dust-source areas across all drylands, global

  19. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

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    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is an important component of Mars' current climate system. Airborne dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus greatly influencing the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Dust raising events on Mars occur at spatial scales ranging from meters to planet-wide. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. Generally, a low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading were observed by MGS/TES: one peak occurred before northern winter solstice at Ls 200-240, and one peak occurred after northern winter solstice at L(sub s) 305-340. These maxima in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere, which has been observed to maximize pre- and post-solstice. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading. Interactive dust cycle studies typically have not included the formation of water ice clouds or their radiative effects. Water ice clouds can influence the dust cycle by scavenging dust from atmosphere and by interacting with solar and infrared radiation

  20. Characterization of Dust Properties at the Source Region During ACE-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally-occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, east coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS overpass, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with MODIS retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  1. The impact of seasonal varied human activity on characteristics and sources of heavy metals in metropolitan road dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Guo, Lijia; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-10-01

    Due to significant human activity, road dust is becoming contaminated by heavy metals in many cities. To comprehensively investigate the variation of contamination level and sources of heavy metals in road dust, 10 heavy metals in road dust samples from Beijing, China, in both summer and winter, were evaluated by spatial analysis using geographic information system (GIS) mapping technology and the positive matrix factorization (PMF) Model. Although the concentrations of some heavy metals between summer and winter had similarities, the differences of others and spatial distributions of heavy metals between summer and winter were considerable. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Fe were lower in winter, while those of Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher. According to the values of the Pollution Index (PI) and Nemerow Integrated Pollution Index (NIPI), there were no obvious differences between summer and winter, but the range between different sites in winter was nearly twice that of summer. Based on the PMF model, four sources of heavy metals in the dust samples were identified. Although the types of sources were consistent, the relative contributions of each source differed between summer and winter. Non-exhaust vehicle emissions was the most important source in summer (34.47 wt%), while fuel combustion contributed the largest proportion to the total heavy metals in winter (32.40 wt%). The impact of each source also showed spatial variation different trends in summer and winter. With the alteration of seasons, intensity of human activities also changed, such as the number of tourists, energy needs for building temperature regulation, construction, and the amount of pesticides and fertilizer. That might be the reason for the variation of heavy metal concentrations and relative contribution of their sources between summer and winter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-monotonic spatial distribution of the interstellar dust in astrospheres: finite gyroradius effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.

  3. Kuiper Belt Dust Grains as a Source of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.

    1996-01-01

    The recent discovery of the so-called Kuiper belt objects has prompted the idea that these objects produce dust grains that may contribute significantly to the interplanetary dust population. In this paper, the orbital evolution of dust grains, of diameters 1 to 9 microns, that originate in the region of the Kuiper belt is studied by means of direct numerical integration. Gravitational forces of the Sun and planets, solar radiation pressure, as well as Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag are included. The interactions between charged dust grains and solar magnetic field are not considered in the model. Because of the effects of drag forces, small dust grains will spiral toward the Sun once they are released from their large parent bodies. This motion leads dust grains to pass by planets as well as encounter numerous mean motion resonances associated with planets. Our results show that about 80% of the Kuiper belt grains are ejected from the Solar System by the giant planets, while the remaining 20% of the grains evolve all the way to the Sun. Surprisingly, the latter dust grains have small orbital eccentricities and inclinations when they cross the orbit of the Earth. This makes them behave more like asteroidal than cometary-type dust particles. This also enhances their chances of being captured by the Earth and makes them a possible source of the collected interplanetary dust particles; in particular, they represent a possible source that brings primitive/organic materials from the outer Solar System to the Earth. When collisions with interstellar dust grains are considered, however, Kuiper belt dust grains around 9 microns appear likely to be collisionally shattered before they can evolve toward the inner part of the Solar System. The collision destruction can be applied to Kuiper belt grains up to about 50 microns. Therefore, Kuiper belt dust grains within this range may not be a significant part of the interplanetary dust complex in the inner Solar

  4. Constraints on Circumstellar Dust Grain Sizes from High Spatial Resolution Observations in the Thermal Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    We describe how high spatial resolution imaging of circumstellar dust at a wavelength of about 10 micron, combined with knowledge of the source spectral energy distribution, can yield useful information about the sizes of the individual dust grains responsible for the infrared emission. Much can be learned even when only upper limits to source size are available. In parallel with high-resolution single-telescope imaging that may resolve the more extended mid-infrared sources, we plan to apply these less direct techniques to interpretation of future observations from two-element optical interferometers, where quite general arguments may be made despite only crude imaging capability. Results to date indicate a tendency for circumstellar grain sizes to be rather large compared to the Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck size distribution traditionally thought to characterize dust in the general interstellar medium. This may mean that processing of grains after their initial formation and ejection from circumstellar atmospheres adjusts their size distribution to the ISM curve; further mid-infrared observations of grains in various environments would help to confirm this conjecture.

  5. Spatial variability of excess mortality during prolonged dust events in a high-density city: a time-stratified spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Ho, Hung Chak; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2017-07-24

    Dust events have long been recognized to be associated with a higher mortality risk. However, no study has investigated how prolonged dust events affect the spatial variability of mortality across districts in a downwind city. In this study, we applied a spatial regression approach to estimate the district-level mortality during two extreme dust events in Hong Kong. We compared spatial and non-spatial models to evaluate the ability of each regression to estimate mortality. We also compared prolonged dust events with non-dust events to determine the influences of community factors on mortality across the city. The density of a built environment (estimated by the sky view factor) had positive association with excess mortality in each district, while socioeconomic deprivation contributed by lower income and lower education induced higher mortality impact in each territory planning unit during a prolonged dust event. Based on the model comparison, spatial error modelling with the 1st order of queen contiguity consistently outperformed other models. The high-risk areas with higher increase in mortality were located in an urban high-density environment with higher socioeconomic deprivation. Our model design shows the ability to predict spatial variability of mortality risk during an extreme weather event that is not able to be estimated based on traditional time-series analysis or ecological studies. Our spatial protocol can be used for public health surveillance, sustainable planning and disaster preparation when relevant data are available.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in desert dust and anthropogenic pollution in Iraq, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A. Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Kostinski, Alex; Proctor, Susan P.; Garshick, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Satellite imaging has emerged as a method for monitoring regional air pollution and detecting areas of high dust concentrations. Unlike ground observations, continuous data monitoring is available with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. In this study we test the utility of different sources of satellite data to assess air pollution concentrations in Iraq. SeaWiFS and MODIS Deep Blue (DB) aerosol optical depth (AOD) products were evaluated and used to characterize the spatial and temporal pollution levels from the late 1990s through 2010. The AOD and Ångström exponent (an indicator of particle size, since smaller Ångström exponent values reflect a source that includes larger particles) were correlated on 50 × 50 km spatial resolution. Generally, AOD and Ångström exponent were inversely correlated, suggesting a significant contribution of coarse particles from dust storms to AOD maxima. Although the majority of grid cells exhibited this trend, a weaker relationship in other locations suggested an additional contribution of fine particles from anthropogenic sources. Tropospheric NO2 densities from the OMI satellite were elevated over cities, also consistent with a contribution from anthropogenic sources. Our analysis demonstrates the use of satellite imaging data to estimate relative pollution levels and source contributions in areas of the world where direct measurements are not available. Implications The authors demonstrated how satellite data can be used to characterize exposures to dust and to anthropogenic pollution for future health related studies. This approach is of a great potential to investigate the associations between subject-specific exposures to different pollution sources and their health effects in inaccessible regions and areas where ground monitoring is unavailable. PMID:28001122

  7. Early-Holocene greening of the Afro-Asian dust belt changed sources of mineral dust in West Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Arash; Murphy, Lisa N.; Pourmand, Ali; Clement, Amy C.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Lahijani, Hamid A. K.; Delanghe, Doriane; Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam

    2018-01-01

    Production, transport and deposition of mineral dust have significant impacts on different components of the Earth systems through time and space. In modern times, dust plumes are associated with their source region(s) using satellite and land-based measurements and trajectory analysis of air masses through time. Reconstruction of past changes in the sources of mineral dust as related to changes in climate, however, must rely on the knowledge of the geochemical and mineralogical composition of modern and paleo-dust, and that of their potential source origins. In this contribution, we present a 13,000-yr record of variations in radiogenic Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes and Rare Earth Element (REE) anomalies as well as dust grain size from an ombrotrophic (rain fed) peat core in NW Iran as proxies of past changes in the sources of dust over the interior of West Asia. Our data shows that although the grain size of dust varies in a narrow range through the entire record, the geochemical fingerprint of dust particles deposited during the low-flux, early Holocene period (11,700-6,000 yr BP) is distinctly different from aerosols deposited during high dust flux periods of the Younger Dryas and the mid-late Holocene (6,000-present). Our findings indicate that the composition of mineral dust deposited at the study site changed as a function of prevailing atmospheric circulation regimes and land exposure throughout the last deglacial period and the Holocene. Simulations of atmospheric circulation over the region show the Northern Hemisphere Summer Westerly Jet was displaced poleward across the study area during the early Holocene when Northern Hemisphere insolation was higher due to the Earth's orbital configuration. This shift, coupled with lower dust emissions simulated based on greening of the Afro-Asian Dust Belt during the early Holocene likely led to potential sources in Central Asia dominating dust export to West Asia during this period. In contrast, the dominant western and

  8. Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Kihl, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Dust samples collected annually for 5 years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide the first regional source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition relative to climate and to type and lithology of dust source. The average silt and clay flux (rate of deposition) in southern Nevada and southeastern California ranges from 4.3 to 15.7 g/m2/yr, but in southwestern California the average silt and clay flux is as high as 30 g/m2/yr. The climatic factors that affect dust flux interact with each other and with the factors of source type (playas versus alluvium), source lithology, geographic area, and human disturbance. Average dust flux increases with mean annual temperature but is not correlated to decreases in mean annual precipitation because the regional winds bring dust to relatively wet areas. In contrast, annual dust flux mostly reflects changes in annual precipitation (relative drought) rather than temperature. Although playa and alluvial sources produce about the same amount of dust per unit area, the total volume of dust from the more extensive alluvial sources is much larger. In addition, playa and alluvial sources respond differently to annual changes in precipitation. Most playas produce dust that is richer in soluble salts and carbonate than that from alluvial sources (except carbonate-rich alluvium). Gypsum dust may be produced by the interaction of carbonate dust and anthropogenic or marine sulfates. The dust flux in an arid urbanizing area may be as much as twice that before disturbance but decreases when construction stops. The mineralogic and major-oxide composition of the dust samples indicates that sand and some silt is locally derived and deposited, whereas clay and some silt from different sources can be far-traveled. Dust deposited in the Transverse Ranges of California by the Santa Ana winds appears to be mainly derived from sources to the north and east.

  9. Global dust sources detection using MODIS Deep Blue Collection 6 aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Remote sensing sensors are the most useful tool to locate dust sources. These sensors include microwaves, visible channels, and lidar. On the global scale, major dust source regions have been identified using polar orbiting satellite instruments. The MODIS Deep Blue algorithm has been particularly useful to detect small-scale sources such as floodplains, alluvial fans, rivers, and wadis , as well as to identify anthropogenic sources from agriculture. The recent release of Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products allows to extend dust source detection to the entire land surfaces, which is quite useful to identify mid to high latitude dust sources and detect not only dust from agriculture but fugitive dust from transport and industrial activities. This presentation will overview the advantages and drawbacks of using MODIS Deep Blue for dust detection, compare to other instruments (polar orbiting and geostationary). The results of Collection 6 with a new dust screening will be compared against AERONET. Applications to long range transport of anthropogenic dust will be presented.

  10. Development of High-Resolution Dynamic Dust Source Function - A Case Study with a Strong Dust Storm in a Regional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Kemp, Eric M.; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ginoux, Paul

    2017-01-01

    A high-resolution dynamic dust source has been developed in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to improve the existing coarse static dust source. In the new dust source map, topographic depression is in 1-km resolution and surface bareness is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The new dust source better resolves the complex topographic distribution over the Western United States where its magnitude is higher than the existing, coarser resolution static source. A case study is conducted with an extreme dust storm that occurred in Phoenix, Arizona in 0203 UTC July 6, 2011. The NU-WRF model with the new high-resolution dynamic dust source is able to successfully capture the dust storm, which was not achieved with the old source identification. However the case study also reveals several challenges in reproducing the time evolution of the short-lived, extreme dust storm events.

  11. Development of High-Resolution Dynamic Dust Source Function -A Case Study with a Strong Dust Storm in a Regional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Chin, Mian; Kemp, Eric M; Tao, Zhining; Peters-Lidard, Christa D; Ginoux, Paul

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution dynamic dust source has been developed in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to improve the existing coarse static dust source. In the new dust source map, topographic depression is in 1-km resolution and surface bareness is derived using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The new dust source better resolves the complex topographic distribution over the Western United States where its magnitude is higher than the existing, coarser resolution static source. A case study is conducted with an extreme dust storm that occurred in Phoenix, Arizona in 02-03 UTC July 6, 2011. The NU-WRF model with the new high-resolution dynamic dust source is able to successfully capture the dust storm, which was not achieved with the old source identification. However the case study also reveals several challenges in reproducing the time evolution of the short-lived, extreme dust storm events.

  12. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Dust Aerosols at the Source Region During ACE-ASIA: A Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  14. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  15. Geochemical characterization of critical dust source regions in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sarah M.; Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Stevenson, Emily I.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Scott, Sean R.; Aarons, Charles

    2017-10-01

    The generation, transport, and deposition of mineral dust are detectable in paleoclimate records from land, ocean, and ice, providing valuable insight into earth surface conditions and cycles on a range of timescales. Dust deposited in marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide critical nutrients to nutrient-limited ecosystems, and variations in dust provenance can indicate changes in dust production, sources and transport pathways as a function of climate variability and land use change. Thus, temporal changes in locations of dust source areas and transport pathways have implications for understanding interactions between mineral dust, global climate, and biogeochemical cycles. This work characterizes dust from areas in the American West known for dust events and/or affected by increasing human settlement and livestock grazing during the last 150 years. Dust generation and uplift from these dust source areas depends on climate and land use practices, and the relative contribution of dust has likely changed since the expansion of industrialization and agriculture into the western United States. We present elemental and isotopic analysis of 28 potential dust source area samples analyzed using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd composition and Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) for 176Hf/177Hf composition, and ICPMS for major and trace element concentrations. We find significant variability in the Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope compositions of potential source areas of dust throughout western North America, ranging from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.703699 to 0.740236, εNd = -26.6 to 2.4, and εHf = -21.7 to -0.1. We also report differences in the trace metal and phosphorus concentrations in the geologic provinces sampled. This research provides an important resource for the geochemical tracing of dust sources and sinks in western North America, and will aid in modeling the biogeochemical impacts of increased

  16. The Southern Kalahari: a potential new dust source in the Southern Hemisphere?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Baddock, Matthew C; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S; Cassar, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most sources of atmospheric dust on Earth are located in the Northern Hemisphere. The lower dust emissions in the Southern Hemisphere in part limit the supply of micronutrients (primarily soluble iron) to the Southern Ocean, thereby constraining its productivity. Climate and land use change can alter the current distribution of dust source regions on Earth. Can new dust sources be activated in the Southern Hemisphere? Here we show that vegetation loss and dune remobilization in the Southern Kalahari can promote dust emissions comparable to those observed from major contemporary dust sources in the Southern African region. Dust generation experiments support the hypothesis that, in the Southern Kalahari, aeolian deposits that are currently mostly stabilized by savanna vegetation are capable of emitting substantial amounts of dust from interdune areas. We show that dust from these areas is relatively rich in soluble iron, an important micronutrient for ocean productivity. Trajectory analyses show that dust from the Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean and could therefore enhance its productivity. (letter)

  17. The global distribution of mineral dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegen, I; Schepanski, K

    2009-01-01

    Dust aerosol particles produced by wind erosion in arid and semi arid regions affect climate and air quality, but the magnitude of these effects is largely unquantified. The major dust source regions include the Sahara, the Arabian and Asian deserts; global annual dust emissions are currently estimated to range between 1000 and 3000 Mt/yr. Dust aerosol can be transported over long distances of thousands of kilometers, e.g. from source regions in the Saharan desert over the North Atlantic, or from the Asian deserts towards the Pacific Ocean. The atmospheric dust load varies considerably on different timescales. While dust aerosol distribution and dust effects are important on global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are controlled on small spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Spatially resolving the dust properties and submillimetre excess in M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relaño, M.; De Looze, I.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Lisenfeld, U.; Dariush, A.; Verley, S.; Braine, J.; Tabatabaei, F.; Kramer, C.; Boquien, M.; Xilouris, M.; Gratier, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The relative abundance of the dust grain types in the interstellar medium is directly linked to physical quantities that trace the evolution of galaxies. Because of the poor spatial resolution of the infrared and submillimetre data, we are able to study the dependence of the resolved infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) across regions of the interstellar medium (ISM) with different physical properties in just a few objects. Aims: We aim to study the dust properties of the whole disc of M 33 at spatial scales of 170 pc. This analysis allows us to infer how the relative dust grain abundance changes with the conditions of the ISM, study the existence of a submillimetre excess and look for trends of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (GDR) with other physical properties of the galaxy. Methods: For each pixel in the disc of M 33 we have fitted the infrared SED using a physically motivated dust model that assumes an emissivity index β close to two. We applied a Bayesian statistical method to fit the individual SEDs and derived the best output values from the study of the probability density function of each parameter. We derived the relative amount of the different dust grains in the model, the total dust mass, and the strength of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) heating the dust at each spatial location. Results: The relative abundance of very small grains tends to increase, and for big grains to decrease, at high values of Hα luminosity. This shows that the dust grains are modified inside the star-forming regions, in agreement with a theoretical framework of dust evolution under different physical conditions. The radial dependence of the GDR is consistent with the shallow metallicity gradient observed in this galaxy. The strength of the ISRF derived in our model correlates with the star formation rate in the galaxy in a pixel by pixel basis. Although this is expected, it is the first time that a correlation between the two quantities has been reported

  19. The ecological risk, source identification, and pollution assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei Aminiyan, Milad; Baalousha, Mohammed; Mousavi, Rouhollah; Mirzaei Aminiyan, Farzad; Hosseini, Hamideh; Heydariyan, Amin

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination in road dust is a potential environmental and human health threat. The sources, concentrations, spatial distribution, and ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in road dust in Rafsanjan City, Iran, were investigated. Pollution was assessed using the enrichment factor (EF). The potentially harmful effects of HMs were evaluated by calculating the potential ecological risk factor of individual metals (E r ) and of multiple metals (RI) using the Hakanson method. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to identify HM pollution sources. The concentrations of HMs in road dust were higher (ca. 5-10 folds) than their natural background values. The EF and E r increased according to the following order Cu > Pb > As > Zn > Cd > Cr > Ni and Cu > Cd > Pb > As > Ni > Zn > Cr, respectively. Thus, Cu is regarded as the pollutant of highest concern. Based on potential ecological risk index (RI) spatial distribution, all parts of Rafsanjan are characterized by significantly high potential ecological risk. HM concentration heat maps, PCA, and correlation analysis suggest that Cu, Pb, As, Cd, and Zn may have originated from the same source and follow the same spatial distribution pattern. These metals originated mainly from anthropogenic sources like copper mining and smelting plants, industrial and chemical activities, inordinate application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farmlands, and heavy traffic. Ni and Cr are likely to origniate from the industrial activities and traffic load in Rafsanjan City.

  20. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  1. Statistical analysis of temporal and spatial evolution of in-vessel dust particles in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Rae; Hong, Suk-Ho; Nam, Yong-Un; Jung, Jinil; Kim, Woong-Chae

    2013-01-01

    Images of wide-angle visible standard CCD cameras contain information on in-vessel dusts such as dust creation events (DCEs) that occur during plasma operations, and their velocity. Analyzing the straight line-like dust traces in the shallow cylindrical shell-structured scrape-off layer along the vacuum vessel, a database on the short/long term temporal evolutions, spatial locations of DCEs caused by plasma–dust interaction, and the dust velocity distribution are built. We have studied DCEs of 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaign

  2. [Geochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric particulates in Shanghai during dust storm event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Zheng, Xiang-min; Zhou, Li-min

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particulates were sampled from three sampling sites of Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts in Shanghai between Oct. , 2009 and Oct. , 2010. In addition, particulate samples were also collected from Nantong, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, and Beijing city where dust storm dust transported along during spring. Element compositions of atmospheric particulates were determined by XRF and ICP-MS. The concentrations of major and trace elements in atmospheric particulates from Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts were similar, indicating their common source. The UCC standardization distribution map showed that the major element composition of dust storm samples was similar to that of loess in northwestern China, indicating that the dust storm dust was mainly derived from Western desert and partly from local area. The REE partition patterns of dust storm dusts among different cities along dust transport route were similar to each other, as well as to those of northern loess, which indicates that the dust storm samples may have the same material source as loess, which mainly comes from crust material. However, the REE partition patterns of non-dust storm particulates were different among the studied cities, and different from those of loess, which suggests that the non-dust storm samples may be mixed with non-crust source material, which is different from dust storm dust and loess. The major element composition and REE partition pattern are effective indicators for source tracing of dust storm dust.

  3. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

  4. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravanos, Jack; Weiss, Arlene L.; Blaise, Marc J.; Jaeger, Rudolph J.

    2006-01-01

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730μg/ft 2 ), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452μg/ft 2 ), the Bronx (382μg/ft 2 ), Queens (198μg/ft 2 ) and finally, Manhattan (175μg/ft 2 ). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40μg/ft 2 , our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources

  5. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of dust generating sources in gold and platinum mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biffi, M

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available of workers from harmful respirable dust as well as projections for future work. Summary of dust levels from test mines Dust Levels [mg/m³] Mine Mine Type Dust Source Min Max Avg Crystalline Silica [%] Intake 0.09 1.57 0.46 Tips 0.23 0.65 0... ? The movement of people and rolling stock along haulages, travelling ways and production areas liberating settled dust, ? Rock crushing. ? Screening, grinding, milling and pulverising of the ore during processing. ? Backfill placement. Good practice...

  7. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolour camera observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Delamere, W.A.; Keller, H.U.; Reitsema, H.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Whipple, F.L.; Wilhelm, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dust and gas productions of Comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolour Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet. 2 refs

  8. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 μm excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) × 10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least ( –3 M ☉ of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  9. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  10. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  11. Characterization of Dust Properties Near Source Region During ACE-Asia: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S. -C.; Ji, Q.; Chu, A.; Hsu, C.; Holben, B.; Campbell, J.; Welton, E. J.; Shu, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Dust Deposition in the San Juan Mountains, CO: A Network of Late Holocene Lake Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcusa, S.; Routson, C.; McKay, N.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of stakeholders living in the arid southwestern US rely on snowmelt from the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. However, dust deposition on snow accelerates snowmelt, challenging water management. Dustiness in the southwestern US is primarily mediated by drought, which is projected to increase in frequency and severity. Over the past several millennia, multidecadal-length megadroughts are hypothesized to have enhanced regional dustiness. These past megadroughts were more frequent during the Roman (ca. 1-400 CE) and Medieval (ca. 800-1300 CE) time periods and were similar in duration and severity to those projected for the future. Developing an understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of past dust deposition in the San Juan Mountains will help inform adaptation strategies for future droughts. A network of short sediment cores from six alpine lakes in the San Juan Mountains were collected in 2016 and 2017 to investigate the spatial patterns of dust deposition. The range in lake basin characteristics in the network, such as catchment size, helps to constrain the influence of secondary dust deposition. Grain size analysis and X-ray Fluorescence were combined with radiocarbon dating to trace the temporal patterns in dust flux over the Late Holocene (the last 2000 years). The End-member Modelling Algorithm (EMMA) was used to estimate the dust proportion in the lake sediment, distinguishing from locally derived catchment material. Comparisons to modern dust-on-snow samples were made to identify the dust size distribution. The results show that deposition trends were not uniform between the south-eastern and north-western San Juans, with increasing trends towards the present in the former, possibly reflecting a shift in dust sources associated with changes in wind speed and direction. Dust levels greater than long term averages were recorded during the Medieval and Roman periods. The network also showed the influence of lake basin parameters, such as the

  13. Advances in Mineral Dust Source Composition Measurement with Imaging Spectroscopy at the Salton Sea, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. O.; Realmuto, V. J.; Thompson, D. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Miller, R. L.; Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Okin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust emitted from the Earth's surface is a principal contributor to direct radiative forcing over the arid regions, where shifts in climate have a significant impact on agriculture, precipitation, and desert encroachment around the globe. Dust particles contribute to both positive and negative forcing, depending on the composition of the particles. Particle composition is a function of the surface mineralogy of dust source regions, but poor knowledge of surface mineralogy on regional to global scales limits the skill of Earth System models to predict shifts in regional climate around the globe. Earth System models include the source, emission, transport and deposition phases of the dust cycle. In addition to direct radiative forcing contributions, mineral dust impacts include indirect radiative forcing, modification of the albedo and melting rates of snow and ice, kinetics of tropospheric photochemistry, formation and deposition of acidic aerosols, supply of nutrients to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and impact on human health and safety. We demonstrate the ability to map mineral dust source composition in the Salton Sea dust source region with imaging spectroscopy measurements acquired as part of the NASA HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. These new spectroscopically derived compositional measurements provide a six orders of magnitude improvement over current atlases for this dust source region and provide a pathfinder example for a remote measurement approach to address this critical dust composition gap for global Earth System models.

  14. Spatially associated clump populations in Rosette from CO and dust maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltchev, Todor V.; Ossenkopf-Okada, Volker; Stanchev, Orlin; Schneider, Nicola; Donkov, Sava; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2018-04-01

    Spatial association of clumps from different tracers turns out to be a valuable tool to determine the physical properties of molecular clouds. It provides a reliable estimate for the X-factors, serves to trace the density of clumps seen in column densities only, and allows one to measure the velocity dispersion of clumps identified in dust emission. We study the spatial association between clump populations, extracted by use of the GAUSSCLUMPS technique from 12CO (1-0), 13CO (1-0) line maps and Herschel dust-emission maps of the star-forming region Rosette, and analyse their physical properties. All CO clumps that overlap with another CO or dust counterpart are found to be gravitationally bound and located in the massive star-forming filaments of the molecular cloud. They obey a single mass-size relation M_cl∝ R_cl^γ with γ ≃ 3 (implying constant mean density) and display virtually no velocity-size relation. We interpret their population as low-density structures formed through compression by converging flows and still not evolved under the influence of self-gravity. The high-mass parts of their clump mass functions are fitted by a power law dN_cl/d log M_cl∝ M_cl^{Γ } and display a nearly Salpeter slope Γ ˜ -1.3. On the other hand, clumps extracted from the dust-emission map exhibit a shallower mass-size relation with γ = 2.5 and mass functions with very steep slopes Γ ˜ -2.3 even if associated with CO clumps. They trace density peaks of the associated CO clumps at scales of a few tenths of pc where no single density scaling law should be expected.

  15. Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) for Compton Cameras.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Horne, Steven M.; O' Brien, Sean; Thoreson, Gregory G

    2018-03-01

    A Directional Unfolded Source Term (DUST) algorithm was developed to enable improved spectral analysis capabilities using data collected by Compton cameras. Achieving this objective required modification of the detector response function in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Experimental data that were collected in support of this work include measurements of calibration sources at a range of separation distances and cylindrical depleted uranium castings.

  16. Dust Storm over the Middle East: Retrieval Approach, Source Identification, and Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridnejad, A.; Karimi, N.; Ariya, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East region has been considered to be responsible for approximately 25% of the Earth's global emissions of dust particles. By developing Middle East Dust Index (MEDI) and applying to 70 dust storms characterized on MODIS images and occurred during the period between 2001 and 2012, we herein present a new high resolution mapping of major atmospheric dust source points participating in this region. To assist environmental managers and decision maker in taking proper and prioritized measures, we then categorize identified sources in terms of intensity based on extracted indices for Deep Blue algorithm and also utilize frequency of occurrence approach to find the sensitive sources. In next step, by implementing the spectral mixture analysis on the Landsat TM images (1984 and 2012), a novel desertification map will be presented. The aim is to understand how human perturbations and land-use change have influenced the dust storm points in the region. Preliminary results of this study indicate for the first time that c.a., 39 % of all detected source points are located in this newly anthropogenically desertified area. A large number of low frequency sources are located within or close to the newly desertified areas. These severely desertified regions require immediate concern at a global scale. During next 6 months, further research will be performed to confirm these preliminary results.

  17. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in road dust from urban industrial areas of Ahvaz megacity, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmeddin, Ali; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza

    2017-10-28

    This study investigates the occurrence and spatial distribution of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Hg, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, Fe, Mn, V and Sb) in 67 road dust samples collected from urban industrial areas in Ahvaz megacity, southwest of Iran. Geochemical methods, multivariate statistics, geostatistics and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants, regions of concern and sources of the studied PTEs. Also, receptor positive matrix factorization model was employed to assess pollution sources. Compared to the local background, the median enrichment factor values revealed the following order: Sb > Pb > Hg > Zn > Cu > V > Fe > Mo > Cd > Mn > Cr ≈ Co ≈ Al ≈ Ni. Statistical results show that a significant difference exists between concentrations of Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Sb, V and Hg in different regions (univariate analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test p matrix factorization model revealed that traffic-related emissions (43.5%) and steel industries (26.4%) were first two sources of PTEs in road dust, followed by natural sources (22.6%) and pipe and oil processing companies (7.5%). The arithmetic mean of pollution load index (PLI) values for high traffic sector (1.92) is greater than industrial (1.80) and residential areas (1.25). Also, the results show that ecological risk values for Hg and Pb in 41.8 and 9% of total dust samples are higher than 80, indicating their considerable or higher potential ecological risk. The health risk assessment model showed that ingestion of dust particles contributed more than 83% of the overall non-carcinogenic risk. For both residential and industrial scenarios, Hg and Pb had the highest risk values, whereas Mo has the lowest value.

  18. Pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals in street dust of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Manli; Gui, Herong; Wang, Yao; Peng, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the pollution characteristics, source apportionment, and health risk of heavy metals (HMs) in street dust of Suzhou, China, 23 sampling sites were selected and periodically sampled for 12 months. A total of 276 samples were collected, and the concentrations of selected HMs (e.g., Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn) were examined with an X-ray fluorescence spectrum analyzer. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn in the street dust of Suzhou were 112.9, 27.5, 19941.3, 410.3, 45.2, 75.6, and 225.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded their background values in local natural soils by 1.3-3.6-fold, whereas Fe, Mn, and V were all within their background values. However, enrichment factor analysis revealed that Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn, especially Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, were enriched in Suzhou street dust. The HMs showed no significant seasonal changes overall, but spatial distribution analysis implied that the high values of Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were mainly distributed in areas with frequent human activities. Results of multivariate techniques (e.g., Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster, and principal components analyses) suggested that Pb and Zn had complicated sources; Cu and V mainly originated from traffic sources; Fe and Mn mainly came from natural sources; and Cr was dominantly related to industrial district. Health risk assessment revealed that a single heavy metal might not cause both non-cancer and carcinogenic risks to local residents. Nevertheless, the sum of the hazard index of all selected HMs for children slightly exceeded the safety value, thereby implying that the HMs from Suzhou street dust can possibly produce significant risk to children. Cr was the priority pollutant in the study area because of its high concentration, high enrichment, and high contribution to non-cancer risk values.

  19. On supernovae as a source of interstellar dust. The current observational picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinerstein, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Supernovae have been generally thought of as being effective agents for the destruction of ambient interstellar dust. The idea that supernovae may also be a source of dust has been of interest recently, and is attractive for a couple of reasons. The main motivation is to explain meteoritic inclusions with peculiar isotopic abundance ratios as supernova dust condensates predating the solar nebula. In addition, although the nucleation process is not fully understood, the high concentration of condensable elements in the supernova mantle suggests the possibility that grain formation could be very efficient. In this case, supernovae could be a major source of new grain cores to the interstellar medium. (author)

  20. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Shucai; Wan Chao; Yue Dapan; Ye Youbin; Wang Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing. - Urban road runoff and road dust, canopy throughfall and rain were considered as a system for diagnostics of PAH sources

  1. Using Epiphytic Lichens to Elucidate the Sources and Spatial Distribution of Inorganic Air Pollution in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, M.; Graney, J. R.; Pancras, P.; Krupa, S.; Edgerton, E.; Puckett, K.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) conducted studies to document the geographic patterns of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. Epiphytic lichen samples (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected from 44 locations in 2002, 359 locations in 2008, and 21 locations in 2011 within the AOSR. A subset of samples from 2002 (15) and 2008 (121); and all the samples from 2011 were microwave extracted and analyzed for a comprehensive suite of trace elements using DRC-ICPMS. In addition, source profiles were developed for samples from a variety of available process stacks, heavy duty diesel fleet vehicles, bulk materials representing the various stages of oil sands processing operations, and forest fires. The lichen monitoring and source profile information were integrated into a receptor modeling framework to elucidate the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic sources to the observed atmospheric deposition of S and N in the AOSR. U.S. EPA implemented statistical receptor models utilized included Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), Unmix, and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). The sources uniquely identified that significantly contributed to concentrations of elements in the lichen tissue include: fugitive dust from haul roads, tailing sand, and oil sand mining; oil sand processing; combustion processes; and a general urban regional source. The spatial patterns of CMB, PMF, and Unmix receptor model estimated source impacts on the Hypogymnia physodes tissue concentrations from the oil sand processing and fugitive dust sources had a significant association with the distance from the primary oil sands surface mining operations and related production facilities. The spatial extent of the fugitive dust impact was limited to an approximately 20 km radius around the major mining and oil production facilities, indicative of ground level coarse

  2. Distribution, sources and health risk assessment of mercury in kindergarten dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Chen, Yupeng; Lu, Shuangfang; Yuan, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in urban area is a hot issue in environmental research. In this study, the distribution, sources and health risk of Hg in dust from 69 kindergartens in Wuhan, China, were investigated. In comparison with most other cities, the concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were significantly elevated, ranging from 0.15 to 10.59 mg kg-1 and from 0.64 to 3.88 μg kg-1, respectively. Among the five different urban areas, the educational area had the highest concentrations of THg and MeHg. The GIS mapping was used to identify the hot-spot areas and assess the potential pollution sources of Hg. The emissions of coal-power plants and coking plants were the main sources of THg in the dust, whereas the contributions of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and iron and steel smelting related industries were not significant. However, the emission of MSW landfills was considered to be an important source of MeHg in the studied area. The result of health risk assessment indicated that there was a high adverse health effect of the kindergarten dust in terms of Hg contamination on the children living in the educational area (Hazard index (HI) = 6.89).

  3. Astronomy in Denver: Spatial distributions of dust properties via far-IR broadband map with HerPlaNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kentaro; Ueta, Toshiya; Ladjal, Djazia; Exter, Katrina; Otsuka, Masaaki; HerPlaNS Consortium

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of our analyses on dust properties in all of Galactic planetary nebulae based on 5-band broadband images in the far-IR taken with the Herschel Space Observatory.By fitting surface brightness distributions of dust thermal emission at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns with a single-temperature modified black body function, we derive spatially resolved maps of the dust emissivity power-law index (beta) and dust temperature (Td), as well as the column density.We find that circumstellar dust grains in PNe occupy a specific region in the beta-Td space, which is distinct from that occupied by dust grains in the Interstellar Matter (ISM) and star forming regions (SFRs). Unlike those in the ISM and SFRs, dust grains in PNe exhibit little variation in beta while a large spread in Td, suggesting rather homogeneous dust properties.This work is part of the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey Plus (HerPlaNS+) supported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  4. Optical and microphysical properties of natural mineral dust and anthropogenic soil dust near dust source regions over northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wen, Hui; Shi, Jinsen; Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Beidou; Zhou, Tian; Fu, Kaiqi; Chen, Quanliang; Xin, Jinyuan

    2018-02-01

    Mineral dust aerosols (MDs) not only influence the climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation but also modify cloud properties and change the ecosystem. From 3 April to 16 May 2014, a ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed to measure the optical and microphysical properties of MDs near dust source regions in Wuwei, Zhangye, and Dunhuang (in chronological order) along the Hexi Corridor over northwestern China. Throughout this dust campaign, the hourly averaged (±standard deviation) aerosol scattering coefficients (σsp, 550 nm) of the particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) at these three sites were sequentially 101.5 ± 36.8, 182.2 ± 433.1, and 54.0 ± 32.0 Mm-1. Correspondingly, the absorption coefficients (σap, 637 nm) were 9.7 ± 6.1, 6.0 ± 4.6, and 2.3 ± 0.9 Mm-1; single-scattering albedos (ω, 637 nm) were 0.902 ± 0.025, 0.931 ± 0.037, and 0.949 ± 0.020; and scattering Ångström exponents (Åsp, 450-700 nm) of PM2.5 were 1.28 ± 0.27, 0.77 ± 0.51, and 0.52 ± 0.31. During a severe dust storm in Zhangye (i.e., from 23 to 25 April), the highest values of σsp2.5 ( ˜ 5074 Mm-1), backscattering coefficient (σbsp2.5, ˜ 522 Mm-1), and ω637 ( ˜ 0.993) and the lowest values of backscattering fraction (b2.5, ˜ 0.101) at 550 nm and Åsp2.5 ( ˜ -0.046) at 450-700 nm, with peak values of aerosol number size distribution (appearing at the particle diameter range of 1-3 µm), exhibited that the atmospheric aerosols were dominated by coarse-mode dust aerosols. It is hypothesized that the relatively higher values of mass scattering efficiency during floating dust episodes in Wuwei and Zhangye are attributed to the anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations.

  5. Composition and source apportionment of dust fall around a natural lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Ngah, Sofia Aida; Dominick, Doreena; Razak, Intan Suraya; Guo, Xinxin; Srithawirat, Thunwadee; Mushrifah, Idris

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the source apportionment of dust fall around Lake Chini, Malaysia. Samples were collected monthly between December 2012 and March 2013 at seven sampling stations located around Lake Chini. The samples were filtered to separate the dissolved and undissolved solids. The ionic compositions (NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl- and NH4+) were determined using ion chromatography (IC) while major elements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) and trace metals (Zn, Fe, Al, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Cd) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentration of total solids around Lake Chini was 93.49±16.16 mg/(m2·day). SO4(2-), Na and Zn dominated the dissolved portion of the dust fall. The enrichment factors (EF) revealed that the source of the trace metals and major elements in the rain water was anthropogenic, except for Fe. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified the seven monitoring stations and 16 variables into five groups and three groups respectively. A coupled receptor model, principal component analysis multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), revealed that the sources of dust fall in Lake Chini were dominated by agricultural and biomass burning (42%), followed by the earth's crust (28%), sea spray (16%) and a mixture of soil dust and vehicle emissions (14%). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Coal fly ash as a source of iron in atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A; Scherer, Michelle M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2012-02-21

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash (FA) aerosol may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made that compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report here an investigation of iron dissolution for three FA samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust (AZTD), a reference material for mineral dust. The effects of pH, simulated cloud processing, and solar radiation on iron solubility have been explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provides the predominant component of dissolved iron. Iron solubility of FA is substantially higher than of the crystalline minerals comprising AZTD. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in FA particles. Iron is continuously released into the aqueous solution as FA particles break up into smaller fragments. These results suggest that the assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes and their effect on the biogeochemistry at the ocean surface should be constrained by the source, environmental pH, iron speciation, and solar radiation.

  7. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shucai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Dapan; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-06-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing.

  8. Surface observation of sand and dust storm in East Asia and its application in CUACE/Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial-temporal distributions and sources of sand and dust storm (SDS in East Asia from 2001 to 2006 were investigated on the basis of visibility and PM10 data from the routine SDS and weather monitoring networks run by CMA (China Meteorological Administration. A power functional relationships between PM10 and visibility was found among various regions generally with a good correlation (r2=0.90, especially in Asian SDS source regions. In addition, three SDS occurrence centers, i.e. western China, Mongolia and northern China, were identified with the Mongolia source contributing more dust to the downwind areas including Korea and Japan than other two sources. Generally, high PM10 concentrations were observed in most areas of northern China. The highest value was obtained in the center of western China with a spring daily mean value of 876 μgm−3, and the value in other source regions exceeds 200 μgm−3. These data sets together with the satellite observations in China form the main observation database for the evaluation and data assimilation of CUACE/Dust system – an operational SDS forecasting system for East Asia.

  9. Global Scale Attribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Dust Sources and their Emission Rates Based on MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1 deg) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  10. Global-scale attribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources and their emission rates based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1°) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  11. Geomorphic and land cover identification of dust sources in the eastern Great Basin of Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, Maura; Nicoll, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies anthropogenically disturbed areas and barren playa surfaces as the two primary dust source types that repeatedly contribute to dust storm events in the eastern Great Basin of western Utah, U.S.A. This semi-arid desert region is an important contributor to dust production in North America, with this study being the first to specifically identify and characterize regional dust sources. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 51 dust event days (DEDs) affected the air quality in Salt Lake City, UT. MODIS satellite imagery during 16 of these DEDs was analyzed to identify dust plumes, and assess the characteristics of dust source areas. A total of 168 plumes were identified, and showed mobilization of dust from Quaternary deposits located within the Bonneville Basin. This analysis identifies 4 major and 5 secondary source areas for dust in this region, which produce dust primarily during the spring and fall months and during moderate or greater drought conditions, with a Palmer Drought Index (PDI) of - 2 or less. The largest number of observed dust plumes (~ 60% of all plumes) originated from playas (ephemeral lakes) and are classified as barren land cover with a silty clay soil sediment surface. Playa surfaces in this region undergo numerous recurrent anthropogenic disturbances, including military operations and anthropogenic water withdrawal. Anthropogenic disturbance is necessary to produce dust from the vegetated landscape in the eastern Great Basin, as evidenced by the new dust source active from 2008 to 2010 in the area burned by the 2007 Milford Flat Fire; this fire was the largest in Utah's history due to extensive cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) along with drought conditions. However, dust mobilization from the Milford Flat Burned Area was limited to regions that had been significantly disturbed by post-fire land management techniques that consisted of seeding, followed by chaining or tilling of the soil. Dust storms in the eastern

  12. Seasonal, Spatial, and Long-term Variability of Fine Mineral Dust in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J. L.; White, W. H.; Gebhart, K. A.; Hyslop, N. P.; Gill, T. E.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the seasonal, spatial, and long-term variability of fine mineral dust (FD) is important to assess its environmental and climate impacts. FD concentrations (mineral particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm) were estimated using ambient, ground-based PM2.5 elemental chemistry data from over 160 remote and rural Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites from 2011 through 2015. FD concentrations were highest and contributed over 50% of PM2.5 mass at southwestern sites in spring and across the central and southeastern United States in summer (20-30% of PM2.5). The highest seasonal variability in FD occurred at sites in the Southeast during summer, likely associated with impacts from North African transport, which was also evidenced in the elemental ratios of calcium, iron, and aluminum. Long-term trend analyses (2000-2015) indicated widespread, regional increases in FD concentrations during spring in the West, especially in March in the Southwest. This increase was associated with an early onset of the spring dust season and correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The Southeast and central United States also experienced increased FD concentrations during summer and fall, respectively. Contributions of FD to PM2.5 mass have increased in regions across the United States during all seasons, in part due to increased FD concentrations but also as a result of reductions in secondary aerosols (e.g., sulfates, nitrates, and organic carbon). Increased levels of FD have important implications for its environmental and climate impacts; mitigating these impacts will require identifying and characterizing source regions and underlying mechanisms for dust episodes.

  13. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  14. Iron Oxide Minerals in Atmospheric Dust and Source Sediments-Studies of Types and Properties to Assess Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Goldstein, H. L.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Till, J. L.; Flagg, C.; Kokaly, R. F.; Munson, S.; Landry, C.; Lawrence, C. R.; Hiza, M. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Painter, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Ferric oxide minerals in atmospheric dust can influence atmospheric temperatures, accelerate melting of snow and ice, stimulate marine phytoplankton productivity, and impact human health. Such effects vary depending on iron mineral type, size, surface area, and solubility. Generally, the presence of ferric oxides in dust is seen in the red, orange, or yellow hues of plumes that originate in North Africa, central and southwest Asia, South America, western North America, and Australia. Despite their global importance, these minerals in source sediments, atmospheric dust, and downwind aeolian deposits remain poorly described with respect to specific mineralogy, particle size and surface area, or presence in far-traveled aerosol compounds. The types and properties of iron minerals in atmospheric dust can be better understood using techniques of rock magnetism (measurements at 5-300 K), Mössbauer and high-resolution visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy; chemical reactivity of iron oxide phases; and electron microscopy for observing directly the ferric oxide coatings and particles. These studies can elucidate the diverse environmental effects of iron oxides in dust and can help to identify dust-source areas. Dust-source sediments from the North American Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts and the Kalahari Desert, southern Africa, were used to compare average reflectance values with a magnetic parameter (hard isothermal remanent magnetization, HIRM) for ferric oxide abundance. Lower reflectance values correspond strongly with higher HIRM values, indicating that ferric oxides (hematite or goethite, or both) contribute to absorption of solar radiation in these sediments. Dust deposited to snow cover of the San Juan Mountains (Colorado) and Wasatch Mountains (Utah) was used to characterize dust composition compared with properties of sediments exposed in source-areas identified from satellite retrievals. Results from multiple methods indicate that

  15. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10 chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb, nine ions (F−, Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources.

  16. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Beroquo, Thelma; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth’s most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002–0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM bioavailability to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. PAEs occurrence and sources in road dust and soil in/around parks in May in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Ji, Yaqin; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 45 composite soil and road dust samples collected in the urban zone of Tianjin, China. Three sample types (one soil and two road dust) were collected from the city parks. Soil samples (SI) were obtained from inside the park, road dust samples (RDI) were gathered from inside the park roads and the others (RDA) from roads surrounding parks. The range of concentrations of ∑ 6 PAEs in SI, RDI and RDA were 0.07-0.92μgg -1 , 0.42-6.32μgg -1 and 0.40-7.54μgg -1 , respectively. The highest SI ∑ 6 PAEs concentration (0.92μgg -1 in The People's Park) was 13 times higher than that of the lowest content (0.07μgg -1 in XiLiu Park). Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PAEs in RDI showed higher contents in the Nankai and Hexi districts. PAEs concentrations in different types of roads displayed significant differences (P roads such as arterial road > sub-arterial road > branch road. The results of nonparametric tests on ∑ 6 PAEs revealed significant differences between every two different sample types (P < 0.05). The analysis of the six PAEs types indicated DnBP and DEHP were the primary contaminating compounds in all sample types. The PCA results showed cosmetics and personal care products were important sources of PAEs in SI, and plasticizers were the key sources of PAEs in RDI and RDA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Present and Past Impact of Glacially Sourced Dust on Iron Fertilization of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, E. M.; Winckler, G.; Kaplan, M. R.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    An increase in iron-containing dust flux and a more efficient biological pump in the Southern Ocean have been associated with the CO2 drawdown and global cooling of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). While iron (Fe) mineralogy is known to affect Fe bioavailability through its impact on Fe solubility, there are limited studies investigating the importance of Fe mineralogy in dust fluxes to the Southern Ocean, and no previous studies investigating interactions between eukaryotic phytoplankton and particulate-phase Fe in natural dusts applicable to Southern Ocean environments. Since physically weathered bedrock becomes less soluble as it becomes weathered and oxidized, we hypothesized that glacially sourced dusts would contain more Fe(II)-rich primary minerals and would be more bioavailable than dusts from areas not impacted by glaciers. We used a series of natural dusts from Patagonia as the sole Fe source in incubation experiments with the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and evaluated Fe bioavailability using culture growth rates, cell density, and variable fluorescence. Monod curves were also used to evaluate the efficiency of the different particulates as sources of nutrient Fe. Using these Monod curves fit to growth rates plotted against particulate Fe concentrations, we observed that 1) Fe(II)-rich primary silicates were significantly more effective as an Fe source to diatoms than Fe(III)-rich oxides, that 2) Fe(II) content itself was responsible for the difference in Fe bioavailability/efficiency of the Fe nutrient source, and that 3) surface interactions with the particulates were important. In an effort to explore the possibility that Fe mineralogy impacted Fe bioavailability in past oceans, we will present our hypotheses regarding productivity and Fe mineralogy/bioavailability through the last glacial cycle.

  19. Ice Nucleating Particle Properties in the Saharan Air Layer Close to the Dust Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, Y.; Garcia, I. M.; Rodríguez, S.; Linke, C.; Schnaiter, M.; Nickovic, S.; Lohmann, U.; Kanji, Z. A.; Sierau, B.

    2015-12-01

    In August 2013 and 2014 measurements of ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations, aerosol particle size distributions, chemistry and fluorescence were conducted at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory located at 2373 m asl on Tenerife, west off the African shore. During summer, the observatory is frequently within the Saharan Air Layer and thus often exposed to dust. Absolute INP concentrations and activated fractions at T=-40 to -15°C and RHi=100-150 % were measured. In this study, we discuss the in-situ measured INP properties with respect to changes in the chemical composition, the biological content, the source regions as well as transport pathways and thus aging processes of the dust aerosol. For the first time, ice crystal residues were also analyzed with regard to biological content by means of their autofluorescence signal close to a major dust source region. Airborne dust samples were collected with a cyclone for additional offline analysis in the laboratory under similar conditions as in the field. Both, in-situ and offline dust samples were chemically characterized using single-particle mass spectrometry. The DREAM8 dust model extended with dust mineral fractions was run to simulate meteorological and dust aerosol conditions for ice nucleation. Results show that the background aerosol at Izaña was dominated by carbonaceous particles, which were hardly ice-active under the investigated conditions. When Saharan dust was present, INP concentrations increased by up to two orders of magnitude even at water subsaturated conditions at T≤-25°C. Differences in the ice-activated fraction were found between different dust periods which seem to be linked to variations in the aerosol chemical composition (dust mixed with changing fractions of sea salt and differences in the dust aerosol itself). Furthermore, two biomass burning events in 2014 were identified which led to very low INP concentrations under the investigated temperature and relative humidity

  20. DISCOVERY OF 'WARM DUST' GALAXIES IN CLUSTERS AT z {approx} 0.3: EVIDENCE FOR STRIPPING OF COOL DUST IN THE DENSE ENVIRONMENT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Rex, M.; Egami, E.; Walth, G.; Pereira, M. J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Chung, S. M.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Smail, I. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Appleton, P.; Fadda, D. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alba, A. Berciano [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, NL-7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using far-infrared imaging from the 'Herschel Lensing Survey', we derive dust properties of spectroscopically confirmed cluster member galaxies within two massive systems at z {approx} 0.3: the merging Bullet Cluster and the more relaxed MS2137.3-2353. Most star-forming cluster sources ({approx}90%) have characteristic dust temperatures similar to local field galaxies of comparable infrared (IR) luminosity (T{sub dust} {approx} 30 K). Several sub-luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG; L{sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) Bullet Cluster members are much warmer (T{sub dust} > 37 K) with far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes resembling LIRG-type local templates. X-ray and mid-infrared data suggest that obscured active galactic nuclei do not contribute significantly to the infrared flux of these 'warm dust' galaxies. Sources of comparable IR luminosity and dust temperature are not observed in the relaxed cluster MS2137, although the significance is too low to speculate on an origin involving recent cluster merging. 'Warm dust' galaxies are, however, statistically rarer in field samples (>3{sigma}), indicating that the responsible mechanism may relate to the dense environment. The spatial distribution of these sources is similar to the whole far-infrared bright population, i.e., preferentially located in the cluster periphery, although the galaxy hosts tend toward lower stellar masses (M{sub *} < 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }). We propose dust stripping and heating processes which could be responsible for the unusually warm characteristic dust temperatures. A normal star-forming galaxy would need 30%-50% of its dust removed (preferentially stripped from the outer reaches, where dust is typically cooler) to recover an SED similar to a 'warm dust' galaxy. These progenitors would not require a higher IR luminosity or dust mass than the currently observed normal star-forming population.

  1. Geochemical evidence on the source regions of Tibetan Plateau dusts during non-monsoon period in 2008/09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical characteristics, source regions and related transport patterns of dust over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are still unclear. To address these issues, major (Na, Mg, Al, K and Ca), trace (e.g. Li, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Cs, Pb and U) and rare earth elements of dust samples from five snow-pits over the TP and its fringe areas during the non-monsoon period in 2008/2009 were analyzed. The results indicate that rare earth element compositions of snow-pit dust are similar to those of the upper continental crust. Enrichment factors of all the elements of snow-pit dust are identical to those of the pollution elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) and elements like Li, As and Cs that are concentrated in surface soils. In contrast, concentrations of some typical pollution elements (e.g. Cr and Cd) of snow pit dust are lower than those of dusts derived from the Sahara Desert and the Thar Desert surrounding the TP. Additionally, the compositions of rare earth elements and high field strength elements (Hf, Zr and Nb) of snow-pit dust are also similar to those of surface soils and different from dusts of these two deserts. The combined evidence, including dust transport patterns around the TP, supports the conclusion that the TP itself is the main source region of snow-pit dusts of the inner TP. It is unlikely that those particle-bound pollutants are transported into the TP from outside sources during the non-monsoon period. Ratios of Ce/Sm against Eu/Sm for the snow-pit dust, fine dust from the Sahara desert (A), and ratios of Ce/Er against Eu/Er for the snow-pit dust, fine dust from the Thar Desert (B). Dust from Sahasa cannot penetrate into the TP and transport only along the Himalayas at south and the Tianshan at north due to their high elevation

  2. Optical and microphysical properties of natural mineral dust and anthropogenic soil dust near dust source regions over northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosols (MDs not only influence the climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation but also modify cloud properties and change the ecosystem. From 3 April to 16 May 2014, a ground-based mobile laboratory was deployed to measure the optical and microphysical properties of MDs near dust source regions in Wuwei, Zhangye, and Dunhuang (in chronological order along the Hexi Corridor over northwestern China. Throughout this dust campaign, the hourly averaged (±standard deviation aerosol scattering coefficients (σsp, 550 nm of the particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 at these three sites were sequentially 101.5 ± 36.8, 182.2 ± 433.1, and 54.0 ± 32.0 Mm−1. Correspondingly, the absorption coefficients (σap, 637 nm were 9.7 ± 6.1, 6.0 ± 4.6, and 2.3 ± 0.9 Mm−1; single-scattering albedos (ω, 637 nm were 0.902 ± 0.025, 0.931 ± 0.037, and 0.949 ± 0.020; and scattering Ångström exponents (Åsp, 450–700 nm of PM2.5 were 1.28 ± 0.27, 0.77 ± 0.51, and 0.52 ± 0.31. During a severe dust storm in Zhangye (i.e., from 23 to 25 April, the highest values of σsp2.5 ( ∼  5074 Mm−1, backscattering coefficient (σbsp2.5,  ∼  522 Mm−1, and ω637 ( ∼  0.993 and the lowest values of backscattering fraction (b2.5,  ∼  0.101 at 550 nm and Åsp2.5 ( ∼  −0.046 at 450–700 nm, with peak values of aerosol number size distribution (appearing at the particle diameter range of 1–3 µm, exhibited that the atmospheric aerosols were dominated by coarse-mode dust aerosols. It is hypothesized that the relatively higher values of mass scattering efficiency during floating dust episodes in Wuwei and Zhangye are attributed to the anthropogenic soil dust produced by agricultural cultivations.

  3. Comparing modeled and observed changes in mineral dust transport and deposition to Antarctica between the Last Glacial Maximum and current climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Samuel [University of Siena, Graduate School in Polar Sciences, Siena (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Environmental Sciences, Milano (Italy); Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mahowald, Natalie M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Delmonte, Barbara; Maggi, Valter [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Environmental Sciences, Milano (Italy); Winckler, Gisela [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Mineral dust aerosols represent an active component of the Earth's climate system, by interacting with radiation directly, and by modifying clouds and biogeochemistry. Mineral dust from polar ice cores over the last million years can be used as paleoclimate proxy, and provide unique information about climate variability, as changes in dust deposition at the core sites can be due to changes in sources, transport and/or deposition locally. Here we present results from a study based on climate model simulations using the Community Climate System Model. The focus of this work is to analyze simulated differences in the dust concentration, size distribution and sources in current climate conditions and during the Last Glacial Maximum at specific ice core locations in Antarctica, and compare with available paleodata. Model results suggest that South America is the most important source for dust deposited in Antarctica in current climate, but Australia is also a major contributor and there is spatial variability in the relative importance of the major dust sources. During the Last Glacial Maximum the dominant source in the model was South America, because of the increased activity of glaciogenic dust sources in Southern Patagonia-Tierra del Fuego and the Southernmost Pampas regions, as well as an increase in transport efficiency southward. Dust emitted from the Southern Hemisphere dust source areas usually follow zonal patterns, but southward flow towards Antarctica is located in specific areas characterized by southward displacement of air masses. Observations and model results consistently suggest a spatially variable shift in dust particle sizes. This is due to a combination of relatively reduced en route wet removal favouring a generalized shift towards smaller particles, and on the other hand to an enhanced relative contribution of dry coarse particle deposition in the Last Glacial Maximum. (orig.)

  4. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  5. Black Carbon, Dust and Organic Matter at South Cascade Glacier in Washington State, USA: A Comprehensive Characterization of Temporal (1865-2014) and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, S.; Pittenger, D.; Swick, M.; Skiles, M.; Perez, A.; Sethi, H.; Sevier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rising temperatures are a widely recognized cause of glacial retreat in Washington, however light absorbing aerosols (LAA, including black carbon (BC), dust and organic matter) can also contribute to increased melt by reducing snow albedo. We present updated results of BC and dust variability at South Cascade (SOCAS) glacier spanning 1865-1994 using a 158 m ice core. Peak BC deposition occurred between 1940-1958, when median BC concentrations were 25 times higher than background levels. Post 1958 BC concentrations decrease, followed by an increase post 1980 associated with melt consolidation and/or trans-Pacific aerosol transport. Dust deposition at SOCAS is dominated by local sources. Albedo reductions from LAA are dominated by dust deposition, except during high BC deposition events from wildfires, and during the 1940-1958 period when BC contributes equally to albedo reductions. Results from a 2014 field campaign that included collection of 3 shallow ice cores, surface snow, and snow albedo measurements allow the 1865-1994 ice core record to be extended toward present, and spatial variability in LAA to be characterized. Snow albedo transects were measured using a spectrometer. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Gravimetric filtration was used to determine the total LAA, and a thermal gravimetric technique was used to partition the LAA between dust and organic matter. The organic matter was partitioned into organic and elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. These methods allow LAA abundances be measured, but to partition the contribution of the LAA to albedo reductions requires characterization of LAA optical properties. This was accomplished using a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer method that allows particle reflectance to be measured at 138 nm2 pixel resolution. By combining these methods, we provide a comprehensive characterization of spatial and temporal LAA variability at SOCAS.

  6. Sedimentary and mineral dust sources of dissolved iron to the world ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Moore

    2008-05-01

    from sinking particles; and 3 an improved sedimentary source for dissolved iron. Most scavenged iron (90% is put on sinking particles to remineralize deeper in the water column. The model-observation differences are reduced with these modifications. The improved BEC model is used to examine the relative contributions of mineral dust and marine sediments in driving dissolved-iron distributions and marine biogeochemistry. Mineral dust and sedimentary sources of iron contribute roughly equally, on average, to dissolved iron concentrations. The sedimentary source from the continental margins has a strong impact on open-ocean iron concentrations, particularly in the North Pacific. Plumes of elevated dissolved-iron concentrations develop at depth in the Southern Ocean, extending from source regions in the SW Atlantic and around New Zealand. The lower particle flux and weaker scavenging in the Southern Ocean allows the continental iron source to be advected far from sources. Both the margin sediment and mineral dust Fe sources substantially influence global-scale primary production, export production, and nitrogen fixation, with a stronger role for the dust source. Ocean biogeochemical models that do not include the sedimentary source for dissolved iron, will overestimate the impact of dust deposition variations on the marine carbon cycle. Available iron observations place some strong constraints on ocean biogeochemical models. Model results should be evaluated against both surface and subsurface Fe observations in the waters that supply dissolved iron to the euphotic zone.

  7. Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopic Analysis of <10 mg Dust Samples: Implications for Ice Core Dust Source Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Combined Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotopic data of two reference materials (AGV‐1/BCR2) and 50, 10, and 5 mg aliquots of carbonate‐free fine grain (isotopic...... compositions (ICs) demonstrate that robust isotopic ratios can be obtained from 5 to 10 mg size rock samples using the ion exchange/mass spectrometry techniques applied. While 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dust aluminosilicate fractions are affected by even small changes in pretreatments, Nd isotopic ratios are found...... to be insensitive to acid leaching, grain‐size or weathering effects. However, the Nd isotopic tracer is sometimes inconclusive in dust source fingerprinting (BEI and NUS both close to ɛNd(0) –10). Hafnium isotopic values (

  8. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, K; Froehlich, M; Kersten, H; Thieme, G; Schneider, R; Hannemann, M; Hippler, R

    2004-01-01

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed

  9. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyash, K [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Froehlich, M [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, H [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Thieme, G [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hippler, R [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-10-07

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

  10. Asian Dust Storm Outbreaks: A Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during springtime. Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During the transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues (e.g., radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean, etc.), as well as societal concerns (e.g., adverse health effects to humans). The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network (e.g. AERONET, SKY NET, MPLNET, etc.). Recently, many field campaigns (e.g., ACE-Asia-2001, TRACEP-2001, ADE-2002 & -2003, APEX-2001 & -2003, etc.) were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. I will present an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms from space and surface observations and to address the climatic effects and societal impacts.

  11. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  12. Herschel-ATLAS: Dust Temperature and Redshift Distribution of SPIRE and PACS Detected Sources Using Submillimetre Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, A.; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, P.; Temi, P.; Barton, E.; Negrello, M.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present colour-colour diagrams of detected sources in the Herschel-ATLAS Science Demonstration Field from 100 to 500/microns using both PACS and SPIRE. We fit isothermal modified-blackbody spectral energy distribution (SED) models in order to extract the dust temperature of sources with counterparts in GAMA or SDSS with either a spectroscopic or a photometric redshift. For a subsample of 331 sources detected in at least three FIR bands with significance greater than 30 sigma, we find an average dust temperature of (28 plus or minus 8)K. For sources with no known redshifts, we populate the colour-colour diagram with a large number of SEDs generated with a broad range of dust temperatures and emissivity parameters and compare to colours of observed sources to establish the redshift distribution of those samples. For another subsample of 1686 sources with fluxes above 35 mJy at 350 microns and detected at 250 and 500 microns with a significance greater than 3sigma, we find an average redshift of 2.2 plus or minus 0.6.

  13. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hamidul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducted with different coir dust and rice husk blends (i.e. coir dust and rice husk ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. Briquetting operation was performed using a die-screw press type briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their density, compressive strength, calorific value, burning rate and water vaporizing capacity and it was found that mixing ratio had a significant effect on the physical, mechanical and combustion properties of the coir dust-rice husk briquettes. Density, compressive strength and calorific value and water vaporizing capacity were increased with increasing mixing ratio while burning rate was decreased. Coir dust-rice husk briquettes with mixing ratio of 20:80 had higher density (1.413 g/cm3, compressive strength (218.4 N/cm2, calorific value (4879 kcal/kg, water vaporizing capacity (0.853 l/kg and low burning rate (0.783 kg/hour followed by the mixing ratio 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 0:100. The results indicate that coir dust and rice husk blend briquettes were found to have better overall handling characteristics over rice husk briquette. However, production of briquettes from coir dust and rice husk at mixing ratio of 50:50 was found to be more suitable for commercial application in terms of cost effectiveness.

  14. Two-dimensional transport of dust from an infinite line source at ground level: non-zero roughness height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  15. Magnetic characteristics of industrial dust from different sources of emission: A case study of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Magiera, Tadeusz; Kapička, Aleš; Petrovský, Eduard; Grison, Hanna; Gołuchowska, Beata

    2015-05-01

    Dust emission and deposition in topsoil have negative effect on individual components of the ecosystem. In addition to routine geochemical analyses, magnetic measurements may provide useful complementary information related to the type, concentration and grain-size distribution of the technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and thus the degree of contamination of the environment. The aim of this contribution is to use magnetic parameters in distinguishing dust from a wide range of sources of air pollution (power industry, cement, coke, ceramic industries and biomass combustion). We measured magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters and thermomagnetic curves. Our results suggest that predominant component in tested samples is magnetite, only dust from coking plant and the combustion of lignite contained also maghemite and/or hematite. Mixture of sizes, ranging from fine single-domain to coarse multi-domain grains, was detected. Our results indicate that industrial dusts from various sources of emissions have different specific magnetic properties and magnetic measurements may provide very helpful information.

  16. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Beroquo, Thelma; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth’s most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002–0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65% in ferric silicates. Structural iron in clay

  17. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  18. Source apportionment and environmental fate of lead chromates in atmospheric dust in arid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Romero, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquin; Pedroza-Montero, Martín; Rivero, Carlos Ibañez-Del; Acosta-Elías, Mónica; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Navarro-Espinoza, Sofía

    2018-03-07

    The environmental fate of lead derived from traffic paint has been poorly studied in developing countries, mainly in arid zones. For this purpose, a developing city located in the Sonoran desert (Hermosillo, Mexico), was chosen to conduct a study. In this paper the lead chromate (crocoite) sources in atmospheric dust were addressed using a combination of Raman microspectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Pb isotope measurements. A high concentration of Pb and Cr as micro- and nanostructured pigments of crocoite is reported in yellow traffic paint (n=80), road dust (n=146), settled dust in roofs (n=21), and atmospheric dust (n=20) from a developing city located in the Sonoran Desert. 10 samples of peri-urban soils were collected for local geochemical background. The paint photodegradation and erosion of the asphaltic cover are enhanced by the climate, and the presence of the mineral crocoite (PbCrO 4 ) in road dust with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 100nm to 2μm suggests its integration into the atmosphere by wind resuspension processes. A positive PbCr correlation (R 2 =0.977) was found for all studied samples, suggesting a common source. The Pb-isotope data show signatures in atmospheric dust as a product of the mixing of two end members: i) local soils and ii) crocoite crystals as pigments in paint. The presence of lead chromates in atmospheric dust has not been previously documented in Latin America, and it represents an unknown health risk to the exposed population because the identified size of crystals can reach the deepest part of lungs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging ecological datasets with application for modeling North American dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, S.; Stauffer, N. G.; Garman, S.; Webb, N.

    2017-12-01

    In 2011 the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) established the Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) program to monitor the condition of BLM land and to provide data to support evidence-based management of multi-use public lands. The monitoring program shares core data collection methods with the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) National Resources Inventory (NRI), implemented on private lands nationally. Combined, the two programs have sampled >30,000 locations since 2003 to provide vegetation composition, vegetation canopy height, the size distribution of inter-canopy gaps, soil texture and crusting information on rangelands and pasture lands across North America. The BLM implements AIM on more than 247.3 million acres of land across the western US, encompassing major dust source regions of the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin deserts, the Colorado Plateau, and potential high-latitude dust sources in Alaska. The AIM data are publicly available and can be used to support modeling of land surface and boundary-layer processes, including dust emission. While understanding US dust source regions and emission processes has been of national interest since the 1930s Dust Bowl, most attention has been directed to the croplands of the Great Plains and emission hot spots like Owens Lake, California. The magnitude, spatial extent and temporal dynamics of dust emissions from western dust source areas remain highly uncertain. Here, we use ensemble modeling with empirical and physically-based dust emission schemes applied to AIM monitoring data to assess regional-scale patterns of aeolian sediment mass fluxes and dust emissions. The analysis enables connections to be made between dust emission rates at source and other indicators of ecosystem function at the landscape scale. Emerging ecological datasets like AIM provide new opportunities to evaluate aeolian sediment transport responses to land surface conditions, potential interactions with

  20. Change of the Asian dust source region deduced from the composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil in Mongolia

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    Y. Igarashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent climate change, especially during the 2000s, may be the primary reason for the expansion of the Asian dust source region. The change in the dust source region was investigated by examining anthropogenic radionuclides contained in surface soil samples from Mongolia. Surface soil was globally labeled by radioactive fallout from nuclear testing during the late 1950s and early 1960s, but there are no current direct sources for anthropogenic radionuclides in the air (before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Radionuclides in the atmosphere are therefore carried mainly by wind-blown dust from surface soil, that is, aeolian dust. Asian dust carries traces of 90Sr, 137Cs, and other anthropogenic radionuclides; the heaviest deposition occurs in spring and has been recorded in Japan since the early 1990s. The composition of anthropogenic radionuclides in atmospheric depositions would be affected by a change in the dust source. Previous studies of atmospheric deposition at long-term monitoring sites (e.g. in Tsukuba, Japan have detected changes in the 137Cs/90Sr ratio and in the specific activity of the radionuclides. These changes in the composition of observed atmospheric depositions are supposed to reflect changes in the climatic conditions of the dust source region. To investigate this dust source change, we conducted a field survey of radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs in surface soil samples in September 2007 in the eastern and southern regions of Mongolia, where dust storms have occurred more frequently since 2000. The specific activities of both radionuclides as well as the 137Cs/90Sr ratio in the surface soil were well correlated with annual average precipitation in the Mongolian desert-steppe zone. Higher specific activities and a higher 137Cs/90Sr ratio were found in grassland regions that experienced greater

  1. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  3. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in street dust from Camagüey city (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, Oscar Díaz; Rivero Palma, Orestes; D’Alessandro Rodríguez, Katia; García Trápaga, César

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the street dust from Camagüey city were studied by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the urban dust samples (97 ± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg.kg-1 dry weight, respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr–Ni and Pb–Zn–Cu, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Co differs from other heavy metals. The metal-to-iron normalization, using Cuban average metal soil contents as background, showed that street dusts from Camagüey city are moderately or significantly Zn-Pb enriched in those areas associated with heavy traffic density and metallurgic plant location. However, the calculation of the potential ecological risk index shows that metal content in Camagüey street dust go not represent any risk for city population. (author)

  4. Magnetic studies of dusts in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, S.

    2000-12-01

    Dusts are one of the major public health concerns in the urban environment. This study investigates the application of magnetic techniques in the studies of urban dust pollution. Measurements of magnetic properties, element concentrations, and the organic matter content were carried out on Liverpool (UK) street dust and/or Bootle (UK) deposited dust. Mixed dominant ferrimagnetic phases are found in Liverpool street dust although magnetite is probably a major one. The partial susceptibility technique is able to model the contributions of main magnetic components satisfactorily in Liverpool street dust. There are similar spatial distributions for some measurements, such as χLF and Pb, whilst there are different patterns for some measurements, such as χLF and the organic matter content. There are good linear correlations between the organic matter content and some magnetic mineral concentration-related parameters for < 1mm (bulk) samples. Among them, frequency dependent susceptibility (χFD) shows the highest correlation coefficient value. χFD percentage demonstrates a significant correlation with the organic matter content for size fraction and bulk samples. This suggests that re-entrainment of soil is probably a major source of the organic material present in street dust. The ratio χARM /SIRM shows a highly significant correlation with the organic matter content for <150μm fraction samples. The study demonstrates that the simple, rapid, and non-destructive magnetic measurements may be used as proxies for the organic matter content in street dust. Associations between magnetic properties and element concentrations are investigated by using correlation analysis and factor analysis, which may be a potential approach for source identification of magnetic material in the environment. The study suggests that ferrimagnetic minerals are the dominant magnetic component in Bootle dust samples. Both studied sites show similar magnetic properties, but they can be

  5. Gathering dust: A galaxy-wide study of dust emission from cloud complexes in NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, M.; Faesi, C. M.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We use multi-band observations by the Herschel Space Observatory to study the dust emission properties of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. We compile a first catalogue of the population of giant dust clouds (GDCs) in NGC 300, including temperature and mass estimates, and give an estimate of the total dust mass of the galaxy. Methods: We carried out source detection with the multiwavelength source extraction algorithm getsources. We calculated physical properties, including mass and temperature, of the GDCs from five-band Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations from 100 to 500 μm; the final size and mass estimates are based on the observations at 250 μm that have an effective spatial resolution of 170 pc. We correlated our final catalogue of GDCs to pre-existing catalogues of HII regions to infer the number of GDCs associated with high-mass star formation and determined the Hα emission of the GDCs. Results: Our final catalogue of GDCs includes 146 sources, 90 of which are associated with known HII regions. We find that the dust masses of the GDCs are completely dominated by the cold dust component and range from 1.1 × 103 to 1.4 × 104 M⊙. The GDCs have effective temperatures of 13-23 K and show a distinct cold dust effective temperature gradient from the centre towards the outer parts of the stellar disk. We find that the population of GDCs in our catalogue constitutes 16% of the total dust mass of NGC 300, which we estimate to be about 5.4 × 106 M⊙. At least about 87% of our GDCs have a high enough average dust mass surface density to provide sufficient shielding to harbour molecular clouds. We compare our results to previous pointed molecular gas observations in NGC 300 and results from other nearby galaxies and also conclude that it is very likely that most of our GDCs are associated with complexes of giant molecular clouds. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http

  6. Identifying sources of respirable quartz and silica dust in underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzel, Steven J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that the source of respirable silica dust in underground coal mines is typically the immediate top or bottom lithology adjacent to the mined seam, not mineral matter bound within the mined coal bed. Geochemical analyses were applied in an effort to identify the specific source rock of respirable quartz dust in coal mines. The analyses also demonstrate the compositional changes that take place in the generation of the respirable dust fraction from parent rock material. All six mine sites were mining coal with relatively low mineral matter content, although two mines were operating in the Fire Clay coal bed which contains a persistent tonstein. Interpretations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and K concentrations strongly suggest that the top strata above the mined seam is the primary source of mineral dust produced during mining. One site indicates a mixed or bottom source, possibly due to site specific conditions. Respirable dust compositional analyses suggest a direct relationship between the quantity of mineral Si and the quantity of quartz Si. A similar relationship was not found in either the top or bottom rocks adjacent to the mined seam. An apparent loss of elemental Al was noted in the respirable dust fraction when compared to potential parent rock sources. Elemental Al is present in top and bottom rock strata within illite, kaolinite, feldspar, and chlorite. A possible explanation for loss of Al in the respirable dust samples is the removal of clays and possibly chlorite minerals. It is expected that removal of this portion of the Al bearing mineral matter occurs during rock abrasion and dust transport prior to dust capture on the samplers. (author)

  7. Temporal and spatial variation in radioactivity deposition in Japan-influence of the Asian dust-Kosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Shinoda, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    The possible effect of Asian dust-Kosa in radioactivity deposition, recorded during the recent years, is addressed. The Kosa events were remarkable during 2000 to 2002 in the Far East region, however no significant change was admitted in the MRI radioactivity deposition time series for 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Therefore, we looked at the nationwide distribution and seasonal trends in 90 Sr and 137 Cs depositions by using the data from the Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Database available on the web. It was found that 137 Cs deposition was larger in northern Japan along the Japan Sea side during spring. The 137 Cs/ 90 Sr activity ratio as well as the 137 Cs specific activity tended to be larger at the high 137 Cs deposition sites. The influence of the Kosa during 2000 to 2002 had larger in northern Japan/Sea of Japan side and the source of the Kosa may be different from the conventional type of the Kosa. The high 137 Cs/ 90 Sr activity ratio and the high 137 Cs specific activity suggest the source area had higher precipitation rate (higher fallout), where the fractionation between the 137 Cs and 90 Sr proceeded. Such area may become new source area for the aeolian dust due possibly to the recent global climate change. This accords with the literature on the source statistics of the Asian dust during the 1990s and the early 2000s. (author)

  8. Modeling the biogeochemical impact of atmospheric phosphate deposition from desert dust and combustion sources to the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, Camille; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Dulac, François; Wang, Rong; Balkanski, Yves

    2018-04-01

    Daily modeled fields of phosphate deposition to the Mediterranean from natural dust, anthropogenic combustion and wildfires were used to assess the effect of this external nutrient on marine biogeochemistry. The ocean model used is a high-resolution (1/12°) regional coupled dynamical-biogeochemical model of the Mediterranean Sea (NEMO-MED12/PISCES). The input fields of phosphorus are for 2005, which are the only available daily resolved deposition fields from the global atmospheric chemical transport model LMDz-INCA. Traditionally, dust has been suggested to be the main atmospheric source of phosphorus, but the LMDz-INCA model suggests that combustion is dominant over natural dust as an atmospheric source of phosphate (PO4, the bioavailable form of phosphorus in seawater) for the Mediterranean Sea. According to the atmospheric transport model, phosphate deposition from combustion (Pcomb) brings on average 40.5×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 over the entire Mediterranean Sea for the year 2005 and is the primary source over the northern part (e.g., 101×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from combustion deposited in 2005 over the north Adriatic against 12.4×10-6 from dust). Lithogenic dust brings 17.2×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 on average over the Mediterranean Sea in 2005 and is the primary source of atmospheric phosphate to the southern Mediterranean Basin in our simulations (e.g., 31.8×10-6 mol PO4 m-2 yr-1 from dust deposited in 2005 on average over the south Ionian basin against 12.4×10-6 from combustion). The evaluation of monthly averaged deposition flux variability of Pdust and Pcomb for the 1997-2012 period indicates that these conclusions may hold true for different years. We examine separately the two atmospheric phosphate sources and their respective flux variability and evaluate their impacts on marine surface biogeochemistry (phosphate concentration, chlorophyll a, primary production). The impacts of the different phosphate deposition sources on the biogeochemistry of the

  9. Developing a Dust Emission Procedure for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne mineral dust is thought to have a significant influence on the climate through absorbing and scattering both shortwave and longwave radiations and affecting cloud microphysical processes. However, a knowledge of long-term dust emissions is limited from both temporal and spatial perspectives. Here, we have developed a quantitative climatology: the column-integrated mass of the dust aerosol loading in Central Asia by incorporating the dust module (DuMo into the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem model and accounting for regional climate and Land-Cover and Land-Use Changes for the 1950-2010 period in April. This data set is lowly to moderately correlated (0.22-0.48 with the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth in April of the 2000s and lowly correlated (0.02-0.11 with the Absorbing Aerosol Index in April of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. The total dust loading is approximately 207.85 Mton per month in April during the recent decade (2000-2014 over dust source regions. Although only the month of April was simulated, results suggest that trends and magnitudes are captured well, using the WRF-Chem-DuMo.

  10. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jish Prakash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, ion chromatography (IC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and laser particle size analysis (LPSA. We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models

  11. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  12. A novel integrated approach for the hazardous radioactive dust source terms estimation in future nuclear fusion power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, L A; Malizia, A; Ciparisse, J F; Gaudio, P

    2016-10-01

    An open issue still under investigation by several international entities working on the safety and security field for the foreseen nuclear fusion reactors is the estimation of source terms that are a hazard for the operators and public, and for the machine itself in terms of efficiency and integrity in case of severe accident scenarios. Source term estimation is a crucial key safety issue to be addressed in the future reactors safety assessments, and the estimates available at the time are not sufficiently satisfactory. The lack of neutronic data along with the insufficiently accurate methodologies used until now, calls for an integrated methodology for source term estimation that can provide predictions with an adequate accuracy. This work proposes a complete methodology to estimate dust source terms starting from a broad information gathering. The wide number of parameters that can influence dust source term production is reduced with statistical tools using a combination of screening, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Finally, a preliminary and simplified methodology for dust source term production prediction for future devices is presented.

  13. Synergistic Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling for Tracing Dust Storms in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the detection of the dust source region and monitoring of the transport of the dust plume from its primary outflow to final deposition. The application area is the Sahara desert and the eastern Mediterranean, where two dust events occurred during the period 4–6 February 2009, an unusual event for a winter period. The Aqua-MODIS and OMI observations clearly define the spatial distribution of the dust plumes, while the CALIPSO observations of total attenuated backscatter (TAB at 532 nm, depolarization ratio (DR, and attenuated color ratio (1064/532 nm on 5 February 2009 provide a clear view and vertical structure of the dust-laden layer. The dust source region is defined to be near the Chad-Niger-Libyan borders, using satellite observations and model (DREAM output. This dust plume is vertically extended up to 2.5 km and is observed as a mass plume of dust from surface level to that altitude, where the vertical variation of TAB (0.002 to 0.2 and DR (0.2–0.5 implies dust-laden layer with non-spherical particles. CALIPSO profiles show that after the dust plume reached at its highest level, the dust particles start to be deposited over the Mediterranean and the initial dust plume was strongly attenuated, while features of dust were limited below about 1–1.5 km for latitudes northern of ~36° (Greek territory.

  14. A large source of dust missing in Particulate Matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Wagenbrenner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry, and avalanche danger, and affect ecological and biogeochemical cycles, precipitation regimes, and the Earth’s radiation budget. We used a novel modeling approach in which local-scale winds were used to drive a high-resolution dust emission model parameterized for burned soils to provide a first estimate of post-fire PM emissions. The dust emission model was parameterized with dust flux measurements from a 2010 fire scar. Here we present a case study to demonstrate the ability of the modeling framework to capture the onset and dynamics of a post-fire dust event and then use the modeling framework to estimate PM emissions from burn scars left by wildfires in U.S. western sagebrush landscapes during 2012. Modeled emissions from 1.2 million ha of burned soil totaled 32.1 Tg (11.7–352 Tg of dust as PM10 and 12.8 Tg (4.68–141 Tg as PM2.5. Despite the relatively large uncertainties in these estimates and a number of underlying assumptions, these first estimates of annual post-fire dust emissions suggest that post-fire PM emissions could substantially increase current annual PM estimates in the U.S. National Emissions Inventory during high fire activity years. Given the potential for post-fire scars to be a large source of PM, further on-site PM flux measurements are needed to improve emission parameterizations and constrain these first estimates.

  15. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  16. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  17. Discernible rhythm in the spatio/temporal distributions of transatlantic dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2012-03-01

    northwestern and southern Saharan dust source spatial distributions. Despite the vast difference in areas, the Bodélé Depression, located in Chad, appears to modulate transatlantic dust patterns about half the time.

  18. Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences – Source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Jun; Yamasaki, Kumiko; Yonemura, Ayumi; Ishibashi, Yuri; Kaido, Takaya; Mizuno, Kodai; Takagi, Mai; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The levels of 25 elements in house dust collected from 100 general Japanese residences were measured. Factor analysis was applied on the multi-element data to explore source of Pb (median concentration 49.1 mg/kg) in house dust. Six factors were extracted and Pb was found to have great loading on the fifth factor with Sb and Sn, suggesting solder (Sn), and plastic and metals (Sb) may be the sources of Pb in the house dust of Japanese residences. No significant loading was found on soil-related factors indicating non-significant contribution of Pb in track-in soil. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn) were found in house dust at >10 times more condensed than crustal abundance. Health risk of these elements to children via the ingestion of house dust was estimated based on the comparison with tolerable daily intake and found to be non-significant for most of the elements. - Highlights: • Multi-element analysis was carried out for house dust from households in Japan. • Factor analysis was applied on the multivariate data set. • The abundance of lead had a close relationship with antimony and tin in house dust. • Health risk of heavy metals in house dust for children was not serious. - Major source of Pb in house dust of Japanese residences was not track-in soil but unknown materials that contain Pb and Sb and/or Sn

  19. Recently deglaciated high-altitude soils of the Himalaya: diverse environments, heterogenous bacterial communities and long-range dust inputs from the upper troposphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaz Stres

    Full Text Available The Himalaya with its altitude and geographical position forms a barrier to atmospheric transport, which produces much aqueous-particle monsoon precipitation and makes it the largest continuous ice-covered area outside polar regions. There is a paucity of data on high-altitude microbial communities, their native environments and responses to environmental-spatial variables relative to seasonal and deglaciation events.Soils were sampled along altitude transects from 5000 m to 6000 m to determine environmental, spatial and seasonal factors structuring bacterial communities characterized by 16 S rRNA gene deep sequencing. Dust traps and fresh-snow samples were used to assess dust abundance and viability, community structure and abundance of dust associated microbial communities. Significantly different habitats among the altitude-transect samples corresponded to both phylogenetically distant and closely-related communities at distances as short as 50 m showing high community spatial divergence. High within-group variability that was related to an order of magnitude higher dust deposition obscured seasonal and temporal rearrangements in microbial communities. Although dust particle and associated cell deposition rates were highly correlated, seasonal dust communities of bacteria were distinct and differed significantly from recipient soil communities. Analysis of closest relatives to dust OTUs, HYSPLIT back-calculation of airmass trajectories and small dust particle size (4-12 µm suggested that the deposited dust and microbes came from distant continental, lacustrine and marine sources, e.g. Sahara, India, Caspian Sea and Tibetan plateau. Cyanobacteria represented less than 0.5% of microbial communities suggesting that the microbial communities benefitted from (codeposited carbon which was reflected in the psychrotolerant nature of dust-particle associated bacteria.The spatial, environmental and temporal complexity of the high-altitude soils of the

  20. Recently deglaciated high-altitude soils of the Himalaya: diverse environments, heterogenous bacterial communities and long-range dust inputs from the upper troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stres, Blaz; Sul, Woo Jun; Murovec, Bostjan; Tiedje, James M

    2013-01-01

    The Himalaya with its altitude and geographical position forms a barrier to atmospheric transport, which produces much aqueous-particle monsoon precipitation and makes it the largest continuous ice-covered area outside polar regions. There is a paucity of data on high-altitude microbial communities, their native environments and responses to environmental-spatial variables relative to seasonal and deglaciation events. Soils were sampled along altitude transects from 5000 m to 6000 m to determine environmental, spatial and seasonal factors structuring bacterial communities characterized by 16 S rRNA gene deep sequencing. Dust traps and fresh-snow samples were used to assess dust abundance and viability, community structure and abundance of dust associated microbial communities. Significantly different habitats among the altitude-transect samples corresponded to both phylogenetically distant and closely-related communities at distances as short as 50 m showing high community spatial divergence. High within-group variability that was related to an order of magnitude higher dust deposition obscured seasonal and temporal rearrangements in microbial communities. Although dust particle and associated cell deposition rates were highly correlated, seasonal dust communities of bacteria were distinct and differed significantly from recipient soil communities. Analysis of closest relatives to dust OTUs, HYSPLIT back-calculation of airmass trajectories and small dust particle size (4-12 µm) suggested that the deposited dust and microbes came from distant continental, lacustrine and marine sources, e.g. Sahara, India, Caspian Sea and Tibetan plateau. Cyanobacteria represented less than 0.5% of microbial communities suggesting that the microbial communities benefitted from (co)deposited carbon which was reflected in the psychrotolerant nature of dust-particle associated bacteria. The spatial, environmental and temporal complexity of the high-altitude soils of the Himalaya

  1. Intercontinental Transport and Climatic Impact of Saharan and Sahelian Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Datchoh Evelyne Touré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa are important sources of dust particles into the atmosphere. Dust particles from these regions are transported over the Atlantic Ocean to the Eastern American Coasts. This transportation shows temporal and spatial variability and often reaches its peak during the boreal summer (June-July-August. The regional climate model (RegCM 4.0, containing a module of dust emission, transport, and deposition processes, is used in this study. Saharan and Sahelian dusts emissions, transports, and climatic impact on precipitations during the spring (March-April-May and summer (June-July-August were studied using this model. The results showed that the simulation were coherent with observations made by the MISR satellite and the AERONET ground stations, within the domain of Africa (Banizoumba, Cinzana, and M’Bour and Ragged-point (Barbados Islands. The transport of dust particles was predominantly from North-East to South-West over the studied period (2005–2010. The seasonality of dust plumes’ trajectories was influenced by the altitudes reached by dusts in the troposphere. The impact of dusts on climate consisted of a cooling effect both during the boreal summer and spring over West Africa (except Southern-Guinea and Northern-Liberia, Central Africa, South-America, and Caribbean where increased precipitations were observed.

  2. Gas and dust in the star-forming region ρ Oph A. The dust opacity exponent β and the gas-to-dust mass ratio g2d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseau, R.; Larsson, B.; Lunttila, T.; Olberg, M.; Rydbeck, G.; Bergman, P.; Justtanont, K.; Olofsson, G.; de Vries, B. L.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We aim at determining the spatial distribution of the gas and dust in star-forming regions and address their relative abundances in quantitative terms. We also examine the dust opacity exponent β for spatial and/or temporal variations. Methods: Using mapping observations of the very dense ρ Oph A core, we examined standard 1D and non-standard 3D methods to analyse data of far-infrared and submillimetre (submm) continuum radiation. The resulting dust surface density distribution can be compared to that of the gas. The latter was derived from the analysis of accompanying molecular line emission, observed with Herschel from space and with APEX from the ground. As a gas tracer we used N2H+, which is believed to be much less sensitive to freeze-out than CO and its isotopologues. Radiative transfer modelling of the N2H+ (J = 3-2) and (J = 6-5) lines with their hyperfine structure explicitly taken into account provides solutions for the spatial distribution of the column density N(H2), hence the surface density distribution of the gas. Results: The gas-to-dust mass ratio is varying across the map, with very low values in the central regions around the core SM 1. The global average, = 88, is not far from the canonical value of 100, however. In ρ Oph A, the exponent β of the power-law description for the dust opacity exhibits a clear dependence on time, with high values of 2 for the envelope-dominated emission in starless Class -1 sources to low values close to 0 for the disk-dominated emission in Class III objects. β assumes intermediate values for evolutionary classes in between. Conclusions: Since β is primarily controlled by grain size, grain growth mostly occurs in circumstellar disks. The spatial segregation of gas and dust, seen in projection toward the core centre, probably implies that, like C18O, also N2H+ is frozen onto the grains. Based on observations with APEX, which is a 12 m diameter submillimetre telescope at 5100 m altitude on Llano Chajnantor

  3. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  4. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Osipov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    , this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution

  5. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate Matter during Natural Dust Episodes at an Urban Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Krasnov

    Full Text Available Dust storms are a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid areas, and their impacts on both physical and human environments are of great interest. Number of studies have associated atmospheric PM pollution in urban environments with origin in natural soil/dust, but less evaluated the dust spatial patterns over a city. We aimed to analyze the spatial-temporal behavior of PM concentrations over the city of Beer Sheva, in southern Israel, where dust storms are quite frequent. PM data were recorded during the peak of each dust episode simultaneously in 23 predetermined fixed points around the city. Data were analyzed for both dust days and non-dust days (background. The database was constructed using Geographic Information System and includes distributions of PM that were derived using inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation. The results show that the daily averages of atmospheric PM10 concentrations during the background period are within a narrow range of 31 to 48 μg m-3 with low variations. During dust days however, the temporal variations are significant and can range from an hourly PM10 concentration of 100 μg m-3 to more than 1280 μg m-3 during strong storms. IDW analysis demonstrates that during the peak time of the storm the spatial variations in PM between locations in the city can reach 400 μg m-3. An analysis of site and storm contribution to total PM concentration revealed that higher concentrations are found in parts of the city that are proximal to dust sources. The results improve the understanding of the dynamics of natural PM and the dependence on wind direction. This may have implications for environmental and health outcomes.

  6. Anthropogenic Air Pollution Observed Near Dust Source Regions in Northwestern China During Springtime 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Fu, Joshua S.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Wu; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhanqing; hide

    2010-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols were measured in Zhangye (39.082degN, 100.276degE, 1460 m a.s. 1.), a rural site near the Gobi deserts in northwestern China during spring 2008. Primary trace gases (CO:265 ppb; SO2:3.4 ppb; NO(*y): 4.2 ppb; hereafter results given as means of hourly data) in the area were lower than in eastern China, but still indicative of marked anthropogenic emissions. Sizable aerosol mass concentration (153 micro-g/cu m) and light scattering (159/Mm at 500 nm) were largely attributable to dust emissions, and aerosol light absorption (10.3/Mm at 500 nm) was dominated by anthropogenic pollution. Distinct diurnal variations in meteorology and pollution were induced by the local valley terrain. Strong daytime northwest valley wind cleaned out pollution and was replaced by southeast mountain wind that allowed pollutants to build up overnight. In the afternoon, aerosols had single scattering albedo (SSA, 500 mn) of 0.95 and were mainly of supermicron particles, presumably dust, while at night smaller particles and SSA of 0.89-0.91 were related to Pollution. The diverse local emission sources were characterized: the CO/SO2, CO/NO(y), NO(y)/SO2 (by moles), and BC/CO (by mass) ratios for small point sources such as factories were 24.6-54.2, 25.8-35.9, 0.79-1.31, and 4.1-6.1 x 10(exp -3), respectively, compared to the corresponding inventory ratios of 43.7-71.9, 23.7-25.7, 1.84-2.79, and 3.4-4.0 x 10(exp -3) for the industrial sector in the area. The mixing between dust and pollution can be ubiquitous in this region. During a dust storm shown as an example, pollutants were observed to mix with dust, causing discernible changes in both SSA and aerosol size distribution. Further interaction between dust and pollutants during transport may modify the properties of dust particles that are critical for their large-scale impact on radiation, clouds, and global biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Study of characterizations of aerosols in a dust storm source region and its influence on Beijing by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yan; Chai Zhifang; Xu Diandou; Feng Weiyue; Ouyang Hong; Mao Xueying

    2005-01-01

    Dust storms have caused many problems in the environment, health and climate. For decades, dust storms have occurred frequently in various regions of China. The dust aerosols not only affected the local atmosphere, but also contaminated the atmosphere of the circumjacent regions. Further, they could affect Korea, Japan and even USA via long-range transportation. Many researches related to Chinese dust storms have been reported, however, there are few reports on the chemical components and characters of dust aerosols at their sources. Data on chemical properties of dust storm in the dust source region can help people understand the characteristics of dust storms and their influence on local and other regions. Duolun county (42 degree 13' N, 116 degree 25' E) lies in the southeast of Inner Mongolia, China, in the south of Hunshandake sands (one of the four famous sands in China). Because it is located at windward of Beijing, the dust aerosols can affect Beijing quickly when dust storm occurs. Hence, the study of chemical compositions and elemental abundance patterns of atmospheric particulate matters at Duolun is imperative to understand its influence on Beijing's atmospheric quality. In this work, TSP and PM2.5 samples were collected in Beijing and Duolun, Inner Mongolia, China, in April and May of 2002. Monthly arithmetic averages of the mass concentrations indicated that the pollution of atmospheric particulate matter's (APM) in Duolun was very serious, especially in April. The chemical compositions of total 163 samples were analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS and their origins were identified through Enrichment Factor and Principal Component Analysis. The results showed that the main source of Duolun aerosols was soil dust, and coal combustion constituted the important anthropogenic contribution. The dust events in April and changes of local meteorological conditions were the main reasons for the differences of APM characteristics between April and May. The

  8. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Teng, Yanguo; Song, Liuting; Zuo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn). The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment) > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment) > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment). Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  9. Ecological Restoration Programs Induced Amelioration of the Dust Pollution in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, X.; Tie, X.; Li, G.; Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    With Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product (MCD12Q1), we quantitatively evaluate the ecological restoration programs (ERP) induced land cover change in China by calculating gridded the land use fraction (LUF). We clearly capture two obvious vegetation (grass and forest) protective barriers arise between the dust source region DSR and North China Plain NCP from 2011 to 2013. The WRF-DUST model is applied to investigate the impact of ERPs on dust pollution from 2 to 8 March 2016, corresponding to a national dust storm event over China. Despite some model biases, the WRF-DUST model reasonably reproduced the temporal variations of dust storm event, involving IOA of 0.96 and NMB of 2% for DSR, with IOA of 0.83 and NMB of -15% for downwind area of NCP. Generally, the WRF-DUST model well capture the spatial variations and evolutions of dust storm events with episode-average [PMC] correlation coefficient (R) of 0.77, especially the dust storm outbreak and transport evolution, involving daily average [PMC] R of 0.9 and 0.73 on 4-5 March, respectively. It is found that the ERPs generally reduce the dust pollution in NCP, especially for BTH, involving upper dust pollution control benefits of -15.3% (-21.0 μg m-3) for BTH, and -6.2% (-9.3 μg m-3) for NCP. We are the first to conduct model sensitivity studies to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of the ERPs on the dust pollution in NCP. And our narrative is independently based on first-hand sources, whereas government statistics.

  10. Novel plasma source for safe beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, B. D.; Vinić, M.; Gavrilović Božović, M. R.; Ivković, M.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma source for beryllium spectral line studies in the presence of beryllium dust particles was realised. The guideline during construction was to prevent exposure to formed dust, considering the toxicity of beryllium. Plasma source characterization through determination of optimal working conditions is described. The necessary conditions for Be spectral line appearance and optimal conditions for line shape measurements are found. It is proven experimentally that under these conditions dust appears coincidently with the second current maximum. The electron density measured after discharge current maximum is determined from the peak separation of the hydrogen Balmer beta spectral line, and the electron temperature is determined from the ratios of the relative intensities of Be spectral lines emitted from successive ionized stages of atoms. Maximum values of electron density and temperature are measured to be 9.3 × 1022 m-3 and 16 800 K, respectively. Construction details and testing of the BeO discharge tube in comparison with SiO2 and Al2O3 discharge tubes are also presented in this paper.

  11. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guitao; Chen Zhenlou; Xu Shiyuan; Zhang Ju; Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan; Teng Jiyan

    2008-01-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai

  12. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Guitao [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Chen Zhenlou [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: gt_shi@163.com; Xu Shiyuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Ju [School of Environment and Planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Teng Jiyan [Shanghai Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai 202183 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai.

  13. Effect of plasma absorption on dust lattice waves in hexagonal dust crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerong, HE; Hui, CHEN; Sanqiu, LIU

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, the effect of plasma absorption on lattice waves in 2D hexagonal dust crystals is investigated. The dispersion relations with the effect of plasma absorption are derived. It is found that the temperature effect (electron-to-ion temperature ratio τ) enhances the frequency of the dust lattice waves, while the spatial effect (dimensionless Debye shielding parameter \\tilde{κ }) weakens the frequency of the dust lattice waves. In addition, the system stabilities under the conditions of plasma absorption are studied. It is found that the temperature effect narrows the range of instability, while the spatial effect extends this range. And the range of instability is calculated, i.e. the system will always in the stable state regardless of the value of \\tilde{κ } when τ > 3.5. However, the system will be unstable when τ = 1 and \\tilde{κ }> 4.1.

  14. MAPPING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST EXTINCTION IN NGC 959 USING BROADBAND VISIBLE AND MID-INFRARED FILTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Jansen, R. A.; Windhorst, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to estimate and map the two-dimensional distribution of dust extinction in the late-type spiral galaxy NGC 959 from the theoretical and observed flux ratio of optical V and mid-IR (MIR) 3.6 μm images. Our method is applicable to both young and old stellar populations for a range of metallicities, and is not restricted to lines of sight toward star-formation (SF) regions. We explore this method using a pixel-based analysis on images of NGC 959 obtained in the V band at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and at 3.6 μm (L band) with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera. We present the original and extinction corrected Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) images, as well as optical UBVR images of NGC 959. While the dust lanes are not clearly evident at GALEX resolution, our dust map clearly traces the dust that can be seen silhouetted against the galaxy's disk in the high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of NGC 959. The advantages of our method are (1) it only depends on two relatively common broadband images in the optical V band and in the MIR at 3.6 μm (but adding a near-UV band improves its fidelity); and (2) it is able to map the two-dimensional spatial distribution of dust within a galaxy. This powerful tool could be used to measure the detailed distribution of dust extinction within higher redshift galaxies to be observed with, e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 (optical near-IR) and James Webb Space Telescope (mid-IR), and to distinguish properties of dust within galaxy bulges, spiral arms, and inter-arm regions.

  15. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 1482

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagshette, N. D.; Pandge, M. B.; Pandey, S. K.; Patil, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to ˜11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV = 3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is ˜2.7 × 105 M⊙, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not sensitive to the intermix component of dust. Comparison of the observed dust in the galaxy with that supplied by the SNe to the ISM, imply that this supply is not sufficient to account for the observed dust and hence point towards the origin of dust in this galaxy through a merger like event. Our multiband imaging analysis reveals a qualitative physical correspondence between the morphologies of the dust and Hα emission lines as well as diffuse X-ray emission in this galaxy. Spatially resolved spectral analysis of the hot gas along outflows exhibit a gradient in the temperature. Similar gradient was also noticed in the measured values of metallicity, indicating that the gas in the halo is not yet enriched. High resolution, 2-8 keV Chandra image reveals a pair of point sources in the nuclear region with their luminosities equal to 2.27 × 1039 erg s-1 and 9.34 × 1039 erg s-1, and are in excess of the Eddington-limit of 1.5 M⊙ accreting source. Spectral analysis of these

  16. Short-term variability of mineral dust, metals and carbon emission from road dust resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Schaap, Martijn; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Keuken, Menno; Querol, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities has severe impact on morbidity and mortality of their population. In these cities, road dust resuspension contributes largely to PM and airborne heavy metals concentrations. However, the short-term variation of emission through resuspension is not well described in the air quality models, hampering a reliable description of air pollution and related health effects. In this study we experimentally show that the emission strength of resuspension varies widely among road dust components/sources. Our results offer the first experimental evidence of different emission rates for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon fractions due to traffic-induced resuspension. Also, the same component (or source) recovers differently in a road in Barcelona (Spain) and a road in Utrecht (The Netherlands). This finding has important implications on atmospheric pollution modelling, mostly for mineral dust, heavy metals and carbon species. After rain events, recoveries were generally faster in Barcelona rather than in Utrecht. The largest difference was found for the mineral dust (Al, Si, Ca). Tyre wear particles (organic carbon and zinc) recovered faster than other road dust particles in both cities. The source apportionment of road dust mass provides useful information for air quality management.

  17. Emissions of road dust by winter tyres and the contributions of different road dust sources in road side particle samples; Talvirenkaiden poelypaeaestoet ja eri katupoelylaehteiden osuudet kadunvarrella keraetyissae hiukkasnaeytteissae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, K.; Pirjola, L.; Ritola, R.; Stojiljkovic, A.; Malinen, A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine: (1) the relative contributions from pavement wear and traction sanding in PM{sub 10} road side air and road dust resuspension samples; (2) PM{sub 10} dust emissions from studded and studless tyres in on-road conditions. The study was conducted as part of the NASTA research program during the winter season 2011/2012. The studies were carried out in Suurmetsaentie and Viikintie in Helsinki, Finland. The results showed that dust from pavement aggregates was the largest source during spring, accounting for 40- 50 percent of the particulate matter in the air and resuspension samples. Based on studies on formation of dust, major source of the dust from pavement aggregates is the wear by studded tyres. Traction sand and road salt were used frequently during the winter 2011/2012. Sanding material explained about 25 percent of the road dust in the air and resuspension samples. Traction sanding is estimated to account for approximately few percent of the pavement dust via the sandpaper effect. Effect of road salt was few percent in the samples. The source contributions from pavement and traction sanding observed in spring 2011/2012 at Suurmetsaentie are similar to what has been estimated in previous studies conducted in the early 2000s in Finland. In a study conducted in the city of Hanko, it was estimated the contribution from traction sanding to be in average of about 10 percent. In another study in the center of Helsinki the contribution was estimated to be about half of the PM{sub 10}. The general perception in Finland has been that traction sanding is the main source of airborne road dust. Studies conducted in 2000s and the results of this study, however, indicate that traction sanding has been an important but not the main source of PM10 road dust even in winters with extensive use of gravel for traction control. Emissions of road dust by a single tyre consist of direct emissions of wear products as well as resuspension emissions of

  18. Palaeo-dust records: A window to understanding past environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Samuel K.; Kamber, Balz S.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Petherick, Lynda M.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Stromsoe, Nicola; Hooper, James N.; May, Jan-Hendrik

    2018-06-01

    Dust entrainment, transport over vast distances and subsequent deposition is a fundamental part of the Earth system. Yet the role and importance of dust has been underappreciated, due largely to challenges associated with recognising dust in the landscape and interpreting its depositional history. Despite these challenges, interest in dust is growing. Technical advances in remote sensing and modelling have improved understanding of dust sources and production, while advances in sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry (in particular) have allowed dust to be more easily distinguished within sedimentary deposits. This has facilitated the reconstruction of records of dust emissions through time. A key advance in our understanding of dust has occurred following the development of methods to geochemically provenance (fingerprint) dust to its source region. This ability has provided new information on dust transport pathways, as well as the reach and impact of dust. It has also expanded our understanding of the processes driving dust emissions over decadal to millennial timescales through linking dust deposits directly to source area conditions. Dust provenance studies have shown that dust emission, transport and deposition are highly sensitive to variability in climate. They also imply that dust emissions are not simply a function of the degree of aridity in source areas, but respond to a more complex array of conditions, including sediment availability. As well as recording natural variability, dust records are also shown to sensitively track the impact of human activity. This is reflected by both changing dust emission rates and changing dust chemistry. Specific examples of how dust responds to, and records change, are provided with our work on dust emissions from Australia, the most arid inhabited continent and the largest dust source in the Southern Hemisphere. These case studies show that Australian dust emissions reflect hydro-climate variability, with

  19. Geologic and anthropogenic sources of contamination in settled dust of a historic mining port city in northern Chile: health risk implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseline S. Tapia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chile is the leading producer of copper worldwide and its richest mineral deposits are found in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. Mining activities have significantly increased income and employment in the region; however, there has been little assessment of the resulting environmental impacts to residents. The port of Antofagasta, located 1,430 km north of Santiago, the capital of Chile, functioned as mineral stockpile until 1998 and has served as a copper concentrate stockpile since 2014. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2016 that show elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in street dust and in residents’ blood (Pb and urine (As samples. To interpret and analyze the spatial variability and likely sources of contamination, existent data of basement rocks and soil geochemistry in the city as well as public-domain airborne dust were studied. Additionally, a bioaccessibility assay of airborne dust was conducted and the chemical daily intake and hazard index were calculated to provide a preliminary health risk assessment in the vicinity of the port. The main conclusions indicate that the concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V recorded from Antofagasta dust likely originate from intrusive, volcanic, metamorphic rocks, dikes, or soil within the city. However, the elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn do not originate from these geologic outcrops, and are thus considered anthropogenic contaminants. The average concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn are possibly the highest in recorded street dust worldwide at 239, 10,821, and 11,869 mg kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, the contaminants As, Pb, and Cu exhibit the highest bioaccessibilities and preliminary health risk indices show that As and Cu contribute to elevated health risks in exposed children and adults chronically exposed to dust in Antofagasta, whereas Pb is considered harmful at any concentration. Therefore, an increased environmental awareness and greater

  20. Geologic and anthropogenic sources of contamination in settled dust of a historic mining port city in northern Chile: health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Joseline S; Valdés, Jorge; Orrego, Rodrigo; Tchernitchin, Andrei; Dorador, Cristina; Bolados, Aliro; Harrod, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Chile is the leading producer of copper worldwide and its richest mineral deposits are found in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. Mining activities have significantly increased income and employment in the region; however, there has been little assessment of the resulting environmental impacts to residents. The port of Antofagasta, located 1,430 km north of Santiago, the capital of Chile, functioned as mineral stockpile until 1998 and has served as a copper concentrate stockpile since 2014. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2016 that show elevated concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in street dust and in residents' blood (Pb) and urine (As) samples. To interpret and analyze the spatial variability and likely sources of contamination, existent data of basement rocks and soil geochemistry in the city as well as public-domain airborne dust were studied. Additionally, a bioaccessibility assay of airborne dust was conducted and the chemical daily intake and hazard index were calculated to provide a preliminary health risk assessment in the vicinity of the port. The main conclusions indicate that the concentrations of Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V recorded from Antofagasta dust likely originate from intrusive, volcanic, metamorphic rocks, dikes, or soil within the city. However, the elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn do not originate from these geologic outcrops, and are thus considered anthropogenic contaminants. The average concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn are possibly the highest in recorded street dust worldwide at 239, 10,821, and 11,869 mg kg -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the contaminants As, Pb, and Cu exhibit the highest bioaccessibilities and preliminary health risk indices show that As and Cu contribute to elevated health risks in exposed children and adults chronically exposed to dust in Antofagasta, whereas Pb is considered harmful at any concentration. Therefore, an increased environmental awareness and greater protective measures

  1. Tracing Sources and Contamination Assessments of Heavy Metals in Road and Foliar Dusts in a Typical Mining City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Road and foliar dust samples from four land-use districts of Panzhihua City, a famous V-Ti magnetite production area of China, were collected to investigate the sources and distribution characteristics of 9 heavy metals (V, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn. The results suggest that foliar samples had smaller particle size and higher heavy metal contents than road dusts. The contamination assessments of heavy metals were as follows: Pb and V (significant enrichment > Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, and Mn (moderate enrichment > Cd and Ni (minimal enrichment. Statistical analyses showed Pb, as the primary pollution element, originated from waste incineration and lead-fuel combustion. The sources of Zn, Ni, Cr, Fe, V, and Mn were fugitive dust and traffic activities. Potential origins of Cu were corrosion of alloys used in vehicle components, vehicle covers, or other metallic surfaces and materials. The sources of Cd were different from any other heavy metals. Traffic and industrial activities were the main anthropogenic origins of heavy metals in dusts of Panzhihua, and more attention should be paid to heavy metal pollution in agricultural area.

  2. Particle size traces modern Saharan dust transport and deposition across the equatorial North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van der Does

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust has a large impact on regional and global climate, depending on its particle size. Especially in the Atlantic Ocean downwind of the Sahara, the largest dust source on earth, the effects can be substantial but are poorly understood. This study focuses on seasonal and spatial variations in particle size of Saharan dust deposition across the Atlantic Ocean, using an array of submarine sediment traps moored along a transect at 12° N. We show that the particle size decreases downwind with increased distance from the Saharan source, due to higher gravitational settling velocities of coarse particles in the atmosphere. Modal grain sizes vary between 4 and 32 µm throughout the different seasons and at five locations along the transect. This is much coarser than previously suggested and incorporated into climate models. In addition, seasonal changes are prominent, with coarser dust in summer and finer dust in winter and spring. Such seasonal changes are caused by transport at higher altitudes and at greater wind velocities during summer than in winter. Also, the latitudinal migration of the dust cloud, associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, causes seasonal differences in deposition as the summer dust cloud is located more to the north and more directly above the sampled transect. Furthermore, increased precipitation and more frequent dust storms in summer coincide with coarser dust deposition. Our findings contribute to understanding Saharan dust transport and deposition relevant for the interpretation of sedimentary records for climate reconstructions, as well as for global and regional models for improved prediction of future climate.

  3. Mineral Dust Instantaneous Radiative Forcing in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Groot Zwaaftink, C. D.; Stohl, A.

    2018-05-01

    Mineral dust sources at high and low latitudes contribute to atmospheric dust loads and dust deposition in the Arctic. With dust load estimates from Groot Zwaaftink et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025482), we quantify the mineral dust instantaneous radiative forcing (IRF) in the Arctic for the year 2012. The annual-mean top of the atmosphere IRF is 0.225 W/m2, with the largest contributions from dust transported from Asia south of 60°N and Africa. High-latitude (>60°N) dust sources contribute about 39% to top of the atmosphere IRF and have a larger impact (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) on IRF per emitted kilogram of dust than low-latitude sources. Mineral dust deposited on snow accounts for nearly all of the bottom of the atmosphere IRF of 0.135 W/m2. More than half of the bottom of the atmosphere IRF is caused by dust from high-latitude sources, indicating substantial regional climate impacts rarely accounted for in current climate models.

  4. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  5. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  6. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  7. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  8. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Enfeng, E-mail: efliu@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Birch, Gavin [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  9. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-01-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. -- Highlights: •Large-scale Pb/Zn smelters contributed to elevated trace elements in the street dust. •The hard alloy processing caused the enrichment of a few elements. •Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the most polluted elements. •Northwestern Zhuzhou suffered severe contamination for a range of trace elements. -- Pb/Zn smelting and hard alloy processing operations have caused seriously contamination of trace metal/metalloids in the street dust

  10. Dust Deposition Events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains in the 21st Century Reconstructed from the Shallow Firn and Ice Cores (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgedanova, M.; Kutuzov, S.; Mikhalenko, V.; Ginot, P.; Lavrentiev, I.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents and discusses a record of dust deposition events reconstructed from the shallow firn and ice cores extracted on the Western Plateau, Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia. A combination of SEVIRI imagery, HYSPLIT trajectory model, meteorological and atmospheric optical depth data were used to establish timing of deposition events and source regions of dust with very high temporal (hours) and spatial (c. 50-100 km) resolution. The source regions of the desert dust transported to Mt. Elbrus were primarily located in the Middle East, in particular in eastern Syria and in the Syrian Desert at the border between Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Jordan. Northern Sahara, the foothills of the Djebel Akhdar Mountains in eastern Libya and the border region between Libya and Algeria were other important sources of desert dust. Dust sources in the Sahara were natural (e.g. palaeolakes and alluvial deposits in the foothills) while in the Middle East, dust entrainment occurred from both natural (e.g. dry river beds) and anthropogenic (e.g. agricultural fields) sources. The overall majority of dust deposition events occurred between March and June and, less frequently, dust deposition events occurred in February and October. In all cases, dust deposition was associated with depressions causing strong surface wind and dust uplift in the source areas, transportation of dust to the Caucasus with a strong south-westerly flow from the Sahara or southerly flow from the Middle East, merging of the dust clouds with precipitation-bearing weather fronts and precipitation over the Caucasus region. The Saharan depressions were vigorous and associated with stronger daily wind speeds of 20-30 m/s at the 700 hPa level; depressions forming over the Middle East and the associated wind speeds were weaker at 12-15 m/s. The Saharan depressions were less frequent than those carrying dust from the Middle East but higher dust loads were associated with the Saharan depressions. A higher

  11. The Continuous Monitoring of Desert Dust using an Infrared-based Dust Detection and Retrieval Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust and sand are significant aerosol sources that can impact the atmospheric and surface radiation budgets. Because airborne dust affects visibility and air quality, it is desirable to monitor the location and concentrations of this aerosol for transportation and public health. Although aerosol retrievals have been derived for many years using visible and near-infrared reflectance measurements from satellites, the detection and quantification of dust from these channels is problematic over bright surfaces, or when dust concentrations are large. In addition, aerosol retrievals from polar orbiting satellites lack the ability to monitor the progression and sources of dust storms. As a complement to current aerosol dust retrieval algorithms, multi-spectral thermal infrared (8-12 micron) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Meteosat-8 Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are used in the development of a prototype dust detection method and dust property retrieval that can monitor the progress of Saharan dust fields continuously, both night and day. The dust detection method is incorporated into the processing of CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) aerosol retrievals to produce dust property retrievals. Both MODIS (from Terra and Aqua) and SEVERI data are used to develop the method.

  12. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  13. Investigating the size, shape and surface roughness dependence of polarization lidars with light-scattering computations on real mineral dust particles: Application to dust particles' external mixtures and dust mass concentration retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Tahar; Kemppinen, Osku; David, Grégory; Lindqvist, Hannakaisa; Tyynelä, Jani; Nousiainen, Timo; Rairoux, Patrick; Miffre, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Our understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to the Earth's radiative budget is limited by the complexity of these particles, which present a wide range of sizes, are highly-irregularly shaped, and are present in the atmosphere in the form of particle mixtures. To address the spatial distribution of mineral dust and atmospheric dust mass concentrations, polarization lidars are nowadays frequently used, with partitioning algorithms allowing to discern the contribution of mineral dust in two or three-component particle external mixtures. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the retrieved dust backscattering (βd) vertical profiles with the dust particle size and shape. For that, new light-scattering numerical simulations are performed on real atmospheric mineral dust particles, having determined mineralogy (CAL, DOL, AGG, SIL), derived from stereogrammetry (stereo-particles), with potential surface roughness, which are compared to the widely-used spheroidal mathematical shape model. For each dust shape model (smooth stereo-particles, rough stereo-particles, spheroids), the dust depolarization, backscattering Ångström exponent, lidar ratio are computed for two size distributions representative of mineral dust after long-range transport. As an output, two Saharan dust outbreaks involving mineral dust in two, then three-component particle mixtures are studied with Lyon (France) UV-VIS polarization lidar. If the dust size matters most, under certain circumstances, βd can vary by approximately 67% when real dust stereo-particles are used instead of spheroids, corresponding to variations in the dust backscattering coefficient as large as 2 Mm- 1·sr- 1. Moreover, the influence of surface roughness in polarization lidar retrievals is for the first time discussed. Finally, dust mass-extinction conversion factors (ηd) are evaluated for each assigned shape model and dust mass concentrations are retrieved from polarization lidar measurements. From

  14. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  15. Benchmarking the New RESRAD-OFFSITE Source Term Model with DUST-MS and GoldSim - 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Yu, C.

    2013-01-01

    RESRAD-OFFSITE is a computer code developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is designed on the basis of RESRAD (onsite) code, a computer code designated by DOE and NRC for evaluating soil-contaminated sites for compliance with human health protection requirements pertaining to license termination or environmental remediation. RESRAD-OFFSITE has enhanced capabilities of modeling radionuclide transport to offsite locations and calculating potential radiation exposure to offsite receptors. Recently, a new source term model was incorporated into RESRAD-OFFSITE to enhance its capability further. This new source term model allows simulation of radionuclide releases from different waste forms, in addition to the soil sources originally considered in RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes. With this new source term model, a variety of applications can be achieved by using RESRAD-OFFSITE, including but not limited to, assessing the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. This paper presents the comparison of radionuclide release rates calculated by the new source term model of RESRAD-OFFSITE versus those calculated by DUST-MS and GoldSim, respectively. The focus of comparison is on the release rates of radionuclides from the bottom of the contaminated zone that was assumed to contain radioactive source materials buried in soil. The transport of released contaminants outside of the primary contaminated zone is beyond the scope of this paper. Overall, the agreement between the RESRAD-OFFSITE results and the DUST-MS and GoldSim results is fairly good, with all three codes predicting identical or similar radionuclide release profiles over time. Numerical dispersion in the DUST-MS and GoldSim results was identified as potentially contributing to the disagreement in the release rates. In general, greater discrepancy in the release rates was found for short

  16. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fucheng; Dong Lifang; He Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. (paper)

  17. The cascade from local to global dust storms on Mars: Temporal and spatial thresholds on thermal and dynamical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.; Wang, Huiqun; Guzewich, Scott D.; Newman, Claire E.

    2018-03-01

    We use the MarsWRF general circulation model to examine the temporal and spatial response of the atmosphere to idealized local and regional dust storm radiative heating. The ability of storms to modify the atmosphere away from the location of dust heating is a likely prerequisite for dynamical feedbacks that aid the growth of storms beyond the local scale, while the ability of storms to modify the atmosphere after the cessation of dust radiative heating is potentially important in preconditioning the atmosphere prior to large scale storms. Experiments were conducted over a range of static, prescribed storm sizes, durations, optical depth strengths, locations, and vertical extents of dust heating. Our results show that for typical sizes (order 105 km2) and durations (1-10 sols) of local dust storms, modification of the atmosphere is less than the typical variability of the unperturbed (storm-free) state. Even if imposed on regional storm length scales (order 106 km2), a 1-sol duration storm similarly does not significantly modify the background atmosphere. Only when imposed for 10 sols does a regional dust storm create a significant impact on the background atmosphere, allowing for the possibility of self-induced dynamical storm growth. These results suggest a prototype for how the subjective observational categorization of storms may be related to objective dynamical growth feedbacks that only become available to storms after they achieve a threshold size and duration, or if they grow into an atmosphere preconditioned by a prior large and sustained storm.

  18. Determining the Influence of Dust on Post-Glacial Lacustrine Sedimentation in Bald Lake, Uinta Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S. S.; McElroy, R.; Munroe, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Dust is increasingly recognized as an important component of biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function in mountain environments. Previous work has shown that delivery of dust to the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah has influenced pedogenesis, soil nutrient status, and surface water chemistry. An array of passive and active samplers in the alpine zone of the Uintas provides detailed information about contemporary dust fluxes, along with physical and geochemical properties of modern dust. Reconstruction of changes in the dust system over time, however, requires continuous sedimentary archives sensitive to dust inputs. A radiocarbon-dated 3.5-m core (spanning 12.7 kyr) collected from subalpine Bald Lake may provide such a record. Passive dust collectors in the vicinity of the lake constrain the geochemical properties of modern dust, whereas samples of regolith constrain properties of the local surficial material within the watershed. Together, these represent two end member sources of clastic sediment to Bald Lake basin: allochthonous dust and autochthonous regolith. Ba and Eu are found in higher abundances in the dust than in the watershed regolith. Zr and Th are found to be lower in the dust than in the watershed. Geochemical analysis of the sediment core allows the relative contribution of exotic and local material to the lake to be considered as a time series covering the post-glacial interval when indicator elements are plotted. Findings suggest Bald Lake's dust record tracks regional aridity and corresponds to low-stands of large lakes in the southwestern United States. Spatial variability of elemental abundances in the watershed suggests there are more than two input sources contributing to the lake over time.

  19. INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AND DUST PROPERTIES OF z ∼ 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Borys, C.; Desai, V.; Sheth, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present SHARC-II 350 μm imaging of twelve 24 μm bright (F 24μm > 0.8 mJy) Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1 mm imaging of a subset of two DOGs. These objects are selected from the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Detections of four DOGs at 350 μm imply infrared (IR) luminosities which are consistent to within a factor of 2 of expectations based on a warm-dust spectral energy distribution (SED) scaled to the observed 24 μm flux density. The 350 μm upper limits for the 8 non-detected DOGs are consistent with both Mrk 231 and M82 (warm-dust SEDs), but exclude cold dust (Arp 220) SEDs. The two DOGs targeted at 1 mm were not detected in our CARMA observations, placing strong constraints on the dust temperature: T dust > 35-60 K. Assuming these dust properties apply to the entire sample, we find dust masses of ∼3 x 10 8 M sun . In comparison to other dusty z ∼ 2 galaxy populations such as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and other Spitzer-selected high-redshift sources, this sample of DOGs has higher IR luminosities (2 x 10 13 L sun versus 6 x 10 12 L sun for the other galaxy populations) that are driven by warmer dust temperatures (>35-60 K versus ∼30 K) and lower inferred dust masses (3 x 10 8 M sun versus 3 x 10 9 M sun ). Wide-field Herschel and Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 surveys should be able to detect hundreds of these power-law-dominated DOGs. We use the existing Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera data to estimate stellar masses of these sources and find that the stellar to gas mass ratio may be higher in our 24 μm bright sample of DOGs than in SMGs and other Spitzer-selected sources. Although much larger sample sizes are needed to provide a definitive conclusion, the data are consistent with an evolutionary trend in which the formation of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 involves a submillimeter bright, cold-dust, and star

  20. Control of harmful dust in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, B; Bower, K; Mitchell, D

    1973-01-01

    This handbook consists of a series of short chapters devoted to: sources of airborne dust; dust standards and methods of sampling; dust prevention on mechanized faces; ventilation and dust extraction; distribution and use of water; dust control on mechanized faces; dust control in drivages and headings; drilling and shotfiring; dust control in transport; some outbye dust control techniques (hygroscopic salts, impingement curtains); water infusion; personal protective equipment. (CIS Abstr.)

  1. Mid-Infrared Interferometry on Spectral Lines. II. Continuum (Dust) Emission Around IRC +10216 and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Lipman, E. A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Townes, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    The University of California Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has measured the mid-infrared visibilities of the carbon star IRC +10216 and the red supergiant VY CMa. The dust shells around these sources have been previously shown to be time variable, and these new data are used to probe the evolution of the dust shells on a decade timescale, complementing contemporaneous studies at other wavelengths. Self-consistent, spherically symmetric models at maximum and minimum light both show the inner radius of the IRC +10216 dust shell to be much larger (150 mas) than expected from the dust-condensation temperature, implying that dust production has slowed or stopped in recent years. Apparently, dust does not form every pulsational cycle (638 days), and these mid-infrared results are consistent with recent near-infrared imaging, which indicates little or no new dust production in the last 3 yr. Spherically symmetric models failed to fit recent VY CMa data, implying that emission from the inner dust shell is highly asymmetric and/or time variable.

  2. Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, R J; Faeste, C K; Granum, B; Egaas, E; London, S J; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Løvik, M

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment. The objective of this study was firstly to describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13-year-old adolescents and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust. Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analysed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models. Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (Food allergens occurred frequently in beds in Norwegian homes, with dwelling size and proximity of kitchen and bedroom as the most important determinants. Due to the amount of time children spent in the bedroom, mattress dust may be an important source of exposure to food allergens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; NcKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80–100 Tg yr−1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  4. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  5. Quantifying dust plume formation and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth’s meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust--laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the equatorial North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface and likely suppresses hurricane activity. To understand the formation mechanisms of SAL, we combine model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM--I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. We employed the Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF--Chem) to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The experimental domain covers northwest Africa including the southern Sahara, Morocco and part of the Atlantic Ocean with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground--based observations show that WRF--Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane’s tracks. We evaluated several aerosol uplift processes and found that orographic lifting, aerosol transport through the land/sea interface with steep gradients of meteorological characteristics, and interaction of sea breezes with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface--detached aerosol plume over the ocean. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with airplane and ground--based observations are generally good, but suggest

  6. Neutron activation analysis on sediments from Victoria Land, Antarctica. Multi-elemental characterization of potential atmospheric dust sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccolo, G.; Maggi, V.; Baroni, C.; Clemenza, M.; Motta, A.; Nastasi, M.; Previtali, E.; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan; Delmonte, B.; Salvatore, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The elemental composition of 40 samples of mineral sediments collected in Victoria Land, Antarctica, in correspondence of ice-free sites, is presented. Concentration of 36 elements was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA. The selection of 6 standard reference materials and the development of a specific analytical procedure allowed to reduce measurements uncertainties and to verify the reproducibility of the results. The decision to analyze sediment samples from Victoria Land ice-free areas is related to recent investigations regarding mineral dust content in the TALos Dome ICE core (159deg11'E; 72deg49'S, East Antarctica, Victoria Land), in which a coarse local fraction of dust was recognized. The characterization of Antarctic potential source areas of atmospheric mineral dust is the first step to identify the active sources of dust for the Talos Dome area and to reconstruct the atmospheric pathways followed by air masses in this region during different climatic periods. Principal components analysis was used to identify elements and samples correlations; attention was paid specially to rare earth elements (REE) and incompatible/compatible elements (ICE) in respect to iron, which proved to be the most discriminating elemental groups. The analysis of REE and ICE concentration profiles supported evidences of chemical weathering in ice-free areas of Victoria Land, whereas cold and dry climate conditions of the Talos Dome area and in general of East Antarctica. (author)

  7. Spatial variations of brightness, colour and polarization of dust in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbush, Vera K.; Ivanova, Oleksandra V.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla O.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.

    2017-07-01

    We present post-perihelion photometric and polarimetric observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko performed at the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS in the g-sdss (465/65 nm), r-sdss (620/60 nm) and R filters. Observations in November and December 2015 and April 2016 covered the range of heliocentric distance 1.62-2.72 au and phase angle 33.2°-10.4°. The comet was very active. Two persistent jets and long dust tail were observed during the whole observing period; one more jet was detected only in December. The radial profiles of surface brightness, colour and polarization significantly differed for the coma, jets and tail, and changed with increasing heliocentric distance. The dust production Afρ decreased from 162 cm at r = 1.62 au to 51 cm at r = 2.72 au. The dust colour (g-r) gradually changed from 0.8 mag in the innermost coma to about 0.4 mag in the outer coma. The spectral slope was 8.2 ± 1.7 per cent/100 nm in the 465 to 620 nm wavelength domain. In November and December, the polarization in the near-nucleus area was about 8 per cent, dropped sharply to 2 per cent at the distance above 5000 km and then gradually increased with distance from the nucleus, reaching ˜8 per cent at 40 000 km. In April, at a phase angle 10.4°, the polarization varied between -0.6 per cent in the near-nucleus area and -4 per cent in the outer coma. Circular polarization was not detected in the comet. The spatial variations of brightness, colour and polarization in different structural features suggest some evolution of particle properties, most likely decreasing the size of dust particles.

  8. Surface Winds and Dust Biases in Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, A. T.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis of North African dust from models participating in the Fifth Climate Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) suggested that, when forced by observed sea surface temperatures, these models were unable to reproduce any aspects of the observed year-to-year variability in dust from North Africa. Consequently, there would be little reason to have confidence in the models' projections of changes in dust over the 21st century. However, no subsequent study has elucidated the root causes of the disagreement between CMIP5 and observed dust. Here I develop an idealized model of dust emission and then use this model to show that, over North Africa, such biases in CMIP5 models are due to errors in the surface wind fields and not due to the representation of dust emission processes. These results also suggest that because the surface wind field over North Africa is highly spatially autocorrelated, intermodel differences in the spatial structure of dust emission have little effect on the relative change in year-to-year dust emission over the continent. I use these results to show that similar biases in North African dust from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) version 2 surface wind field biases but that these wind biases were not present in the first version of MERRA.

  9. Attenuation Modified by DIG and Dust as Seen in M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomičić, Neven; Kreckel, Kathryn; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Groves, Brent [School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Sandstrom, Karin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kapala, Maria [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Leroy, Adam, E-mail: tomicic@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The spatial distribution of dust in galaxies affects the global attenuation, and hence inferred properties, of galaxies. We trace the spatial distribution of dust in five approximately kiloparsec fields of M31 by comparing optical attenuation with the total dust mass distribution. We measure the attenuation from the Balmer decrement using Integral Field Spectroscopy and the dust mass from Herschel far-IR observations. Our results show that M31's dust attenuation closely follows a foreground screen model, contrary to what was previously found in other nearby galaxies. By smoothing the M31 data, we find that spatial resolution is not the cause for this difference. Based on the emission-line ratios and two simple models, we conclude that previous models of dust/gas geometry need to include a weakly or non-attenuated diffuse ionized gas (DIG) component. Due to the variation of dust and DIG scale heights with galactic radius, we conclude that different locations in galaxies will have different vertical distributions of gas and dust and therefore different measured attenuation. The difference between our result in M31 with that found in other nearby galaxies can be explained by our fields in M31 lying at larger galactic radii than the previous studies that focused on the centers of galaxies.

  10. An empirical model to predict road dust emissions based on pavement and traffic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Elio; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio

    2018-06-01

    The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables. We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 μm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions

  11. Multi-element characterization and source identification of trace metal in road dust from an industrial city in semi-humid area of Northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengmeng Zhang; Xinwei Lu; Hao Chen; Panpan Gao; Yi Fu

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and sources of multi-elements in road dusts from an industrial city of northwest China were determined. Dust samples have elevated concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sr and Ba. The dusts were mainly moderate enrichment by Co and Pb, minimal enrichment to moderate enrichment by Sr and Zn, and deficiency to minimal enrichment by other trace metals. Mn, V, Y, La, Hf, Th and U originated from soil. Cu, Pb, Cr, Ba and Sr mainly derived from traffic. Co, Zr, Ni, Ga, As and Zn have mixed sources of nature, industry and traffic. (author)

  12. Interpreting last glacial to Holocene dust changes at Talos Dome (East Antarctica: implications for atmospheric variations from regional to hemispheric scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Albani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Central East Antarctic ice cores preserve stratigraphic records of mineral dust originating from remote sources in the Southern Hemisphere, and represent useful indicators of climatic variations on glacial-interglacial time scales. The peripheries of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, where ice-free areas with the potential to emit dust exist, have been less explored from this point of view. Here, we present a new profile of dust deposition flux and grain size distributions from an ice core drilled at Talos Dome (TALDICE, Northern Victoria Land, East Antarctica, where there is a significant input of dust from proximal Antarctic ice-free areas. We analyze dust and stable water isotopes variations from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Late Holocene, and compare them to the EPICA Dome C profiles from central East Antarctica. The smaller glacial-interglacial variations at Talos Dome compared to Dome C and a distinctive decreasing trend during the Holocene characterize the TALDICE dust profile. By deciphering the composite dust signal from both remote and local sources, we show the potential of this combined proxy of source activity and atmospheric transport to give information on both regional and larger spatial scales. In particular, we show how a regional signal, which we relate to the deglaciation history of the Ross Sea embayment, can be superimposed to the broader scale glacial-interglacial variability that characterizes other Antarctic sites.

  13. Hypervelocity Dust Injection for Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin

    2005-10-01

    Hypervelocity micron-size dust grain injection was proposed for high-temperature magnetized plasma diagnosis. Multiple dust grains are launched simultaneously into high temperature plasmas at several km/s or more. The hypervelocity dust grains are ablated by the electron and ion fluxes. Fast imaging of the resulting luminous plumes attached to each grain is expected to yield local magnetic field vectors. Combination of multiple local magnetic field vectors reproduces 2D or even 3D maps of the internal magnetic field topology. Key features of HDI are: (1) a high spatial resolution, due to a relatively small transverse size of the elongated tail, and (2) a small perturbation level, as the dust grains introduce negligible number of particles compared to the plasma particle inventory. The latter advantage, however, could be seriously compromised if the gas load from the accelerator has an unobstructed access to the diagnosed plasma. Construction of a HDI diagnostic for National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), which includes a coaxial plasma gun for dust grain acceleration, is underway. Hydrogen and deuterium gas discharges inside accelerator are created by a ˜ 1 mF capacitor bank pre-charged up to 10 kV. The diagnostic apparatus also comprises a dust dispenser for pre-loading the accelerator with dust grains, and an imaging system that has a high spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. Pixel-based dust-extinction mapping in nearby galaxies: A new approach to lifting the veil of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki

    In the first part of this dissertation, I explore a new approach to mapping dust extinction in galaxies, using the observed and estimated dust-free flux- ratios of optical V -band and mid-IR 3.6 micro-meter emission. Inferred missing V -band flux is then converted into an estimate of dust extinction. While dust features are not clearly evident in the observed ground-based images of NGC 0959, the target of my pilot study, the dust-map created with this method clearly traces the distribution of dust seen in higher resolution Hubble images. Stellar populations are then analyzed through various pixel Color- Magnitude Diagrams and pixel Color-Color Diagrams (pCCDs), both before and after extinction correction. The ( B - 3.6 microns) versus (far-UV - U ) pCCD proves particularly powerful to distinguish pixels that are dominated by different types of or mixtures of stellar populations. Mapping these pixel- groups onto a pixel-coordinate map shows that they are not distributed randomly, but follow genuine galactic structures, such as a previously unrecognized bar. I show that selecting pixel-groups is not meaningful when using uncorrected colors, and that pixel-based extinction correction is crucial to reveal the true spatial variations in stellar populations. This method is then applied to a sample of late-type galaxies to study the distribution of dust and stellar population as a function of their morphological type and absolute magnitude. In each galaxy, I find that dust extinction is not simply decreasing radially, but that is concentrated in localized clumps throughout a galaxy. I also find some cases where star-formation regions are not associated with dust. In the second part, I describe the application of astronomical image analysis tools for medical purposes. In particular, Source Extractor is used to detect nerve fibers in the basement membrane images of human skin-biopsies of obese subjects. While more development and testing is necessary for this kind of work

  15. Episodic Dust Emission from Alpha Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W. C.; Greenhill, L. J.; Bester, M.; Degiacomi, C.; Townes, C. H.

    1993-05-01

    The spatial distribution of dust surrounding alpha Orionis has been observed with the Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) operating at a wavelength of 11.15 microns. Radiative transfer modeling of the visibility curves obtained by the ISI has yielded estimates of the physical parameters of the dust surrounding the star and new details of the dust distribution. The visibility curves taken in 1992 can be fitted best by a model with two dust shells. One shell has an inner radius of 1.0+/- 0.1{ }('') , a thickness between 50-200 milliarcsec, and a temperature of about 380 K. The second shell has an inner radius of 2.0+/-0.1{ }('') , a thickness less than about 200 milliarcsec, and a temperature of 265 K. These results are consistent with the recent spatially resolved spectroscopy of alpha Orionis reported by Sloan et al. (1993, Ap.J., 404, 303). The dust was modelled with the MRN size distribution with radius varying from 0.005--0.25 microns. The star was assumed to be a blackbody with a temperature of 3500 K and angular radius of 21.8 milliarcsec, consistent with recent interferometric determinations of its diameter (cf. Dyck et al., 1992, A.J., 104, 1992). For an adopted distance of 150 pc, the model for the 1992 data was evolved backward in time for a comparison with previous visibility data of Sutton (1979, Ph.D. Thesis, U.C. Berkeley) and Howell et al. (1981, Ap.J., 251, L21). The velocities, 11 km \\ s(-1) and 18 km \\ s(-1) , were used for the first and second shells respectively, which are the CO velocities measured by Bernat et al. (1979, Ap.J.,233, L135). We find excellent agreement if the dust shells were at approximately 0.80{ }('') and 1.67{ }('') at the epoch of the previous measurements. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that inner dust shell was emitted during the unusual variations in radial velocity and visual magnitude in the early 1940's, described by Goldberg (1984, PASP, 96, 366).

  16. Spatial distribution, health risk assessment, and isotopic composition of lead contamination of street dusts in different functional areas of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li

    2016-02-01

    Street dusts from heavy density traffic area (HDTA), tourism area (TA), residential area (RA), and educational area (EA) in Beijing were collected to explore the distribution, health risk assessment, and source of lead (Pb). The average concentration of Pb in TA was the highest among the four areas. Compared with other cities, Pb concentrations in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. The average value (14.05) of ecological risk index (RI) indicated that Pb was at "low pollution risk" status. According to the calculation on hazard index (HI), the ingestion of dust particles of children and adults was the major route of exposure to street dusts in four studied areas, followed by dermal contact. The lower values of HI than 1 further suggested that non-carcinogenic risks of Pb in the street dusts were in the low range. Comparing (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of street dusts with other environmental samples, it was found that atmospheric deposition of coal combustion dust might be the main pathway for anthropogenic Pb input to the street dusts in four functional areas.

  17. Search for Spatially Extended Fermi-LAT Sources Using Two Years of Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lande, Joshua; Ackermann, Markus; Allafort, Alice; Ballet, Jean; Bechtol, Keith; Burnett, Toby; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Funk, Stefan; Giordano, Francesco; Grondin, Marie-Helene; Kerr, Matthew; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2012-07-13

    Spatial extension is an important characteristic for correctly associating {gamma}-ray-emitting sources with their counterparts at other wavelengths and for obtaining an unbiased model of their spectra. We present a new method for quantifying the spatial extension of sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations to validate this tool and calculate the LAT threshold for detecting the spatial extension of sources. We then test all sources in the second Fermi -LAT catalog (2FGL) for extension. We report the detection of seven new spatially extended sources.

  18. Precise Mapping Of A Spatially Distributed Radioactive Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Caras, I.; Piestum, S.; Sheli, E.; Melamud, Y.; Berant, S.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial distribution measurement of radioactive sources is a routine task in the nuclear industry. The precision of each measurement depends upon the specific application. However, the technological edge of this precision is motivated by the production of standards for calibration. Within this definition, the most demanding field is the calibration of standards for medical equipment. In this paper, a semi-empirical method for controlling the measurement precision is demonstrated, using a relatively simple laboratory apparatus. The spatial distribution of the source radioactivity is measured as part of the quality assurance tests, during the production of flood sources. These sources are further used in calibration of medical gamma cameras. A typical flood source is a 40 x 60 cm 2 plate with an activity of 10 mCi (or more) of 57 Co isotope. The measurement set-up is based on a single NaI(Tl) scintillator with a photomultiplier tube, moving on an X Y table which scans the flood source. In this application the source is required to have a uniform activity distribution over its surface

  19. Blowing dust and highway safety in the southwestern United States: Characteristics of dust emission "hotspots" and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junran; Kandakji, Tarek; Lee, Jeffrey A; Tatarko, John; Blackwell, John; Gill, Thomas E; Collins, Joe D

    2018-04-15

    Despite the widespread media attention of chain-reaction traffic incidents and property damage caused by windblown dust in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world, very few studies have provided in-depth analysis on this issue. Remote sensing and field observations reveal that wind erosion in the southwestern U.S. typically occurs in localized source areas, characterized as "hotspots", while most of the landscape is not eroding. In this study, we identified the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of hotspots that may contribute dust blowing onto highways in the southwestern U.S. We further classified the hotspots for the potential of blowing dust production based upon field observations and wind erosion modeling. Results of land use and land cover show that shrubland, grassland, and cropland accounted for 42%, 31%, and 21% of the overall study area, respectively. However, of the 620 total hotspots identified, 164 (26%), 141 (22%), and 234 (38%) are located on shrubland, grassland, and cropland, respectively. Barren land represented 0.9% of the land area but 8% of the dust hotspots. While a majority of these hotspots are located close to highways, we focused on 55 of them, which are located hotspot sites are dominated by sand and silt particles with threshold shear velocities ranging from 0.17-0.78m s -1 , largely depending on the land use of the hotspot sites. Dust emission modeling showed that 13 hotspot sites could produce annual emissions >3.79kg m -2 , yielding highly hazardous dust emissions to ground transportation with visibility hotspots are critical information for highway authorities to make informed and timely management decisions when wind events strike. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying road dust resuspension in urban environment by Multilinear Engine: A comparison with PMF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Escrig, A.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Perez, N.; Hopke, P. K.

    Atmospheric PM pollution from traffic comprises not only direct emissions but also non-exhaust emissions because resuspension of road dust that can produce high human exposure to heavy metals, metalloids, and mineral matter. A key task for establishing mitigation or preventive measures is estimating the contribution of road dust resuspension to the atmospheric PM mixture. Several source apportionment studies, applying receptor modeling at urban background sites, have shown the difficulty in identifying a road dust source separately from other mineral sources or vehicular exhausts. The Multilinear Engine (ME-2) is a computer program that can solve the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) problem. ME-2 uses a programming language permitting the solution to be guided toward some possible targets that can be derived from a priori knowledge of sources (chemical profile, ratios, etc.). This feature makes it especially suitable for source apportionment studies where partial knowledge of the sources is available. In the present study ME-2 was applied to data from an urban background site of Barcelona (Spain) to quantify the contribution of road dust resuspension to PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations. Given that recently the emission profile of local resuspended road dust was obtained (Amato, F., Pandolfi, M., Viana, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Moreno, T., 2009. Spatial and chemical patterns of PM 10 in road dust deposited in urban environment. Atmospheric Environment 43 (9), 1650-1659), such a priori information was introduced in the model as auxiliary terms of the object function to be minimized by the implementation of the so-called "pulling equations". ME-2 permitted to enhance the basic PMF solution (obtained by PMF2) identifying, beside the seven sources of PMF2, the road dust source which accounted for 6.9 μg m -3 (17%) in PM 10, 2.2 μg m -3 (8%) of PM 2.5 and 0.3 μg m -3 (2%) of PM 1. This reveals that resuspension was responsible of the 37%, 15% and 3% of total

  1. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Askary, H. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing; Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Farouk, R. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Ichoku, C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Climate and Radiation Branch; Kafatos, M. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing

    2009-07-01

    The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II) and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor during the periods of October 1999-August 2001 and July 2002-September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W) enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Aangstroem exponent ({alpha}) derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14 N, 29.59 E) during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Aangstroem exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and clean sky. (orig.)

  2. Long-term airborne contamination studied by attic dust in an industrial area: Ajka, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyesi, P.; Jordan, G.; Szabo, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy industrial activities such as mining, metal industry, coal fired power plants have produced large amount of by-products and wide-spread pollution, particularly in the period of centrally dictated economy after WWII, in Hungary. Several studies suggest that significant amount of these pollutants have been deposited in the urban environment. Nowadays, more than half of the world's population is living in urban areas and people spend almost 80% of their lives indoors in developed countries increasing human health risk due to contamination present in urban dwellings. Attic dust sampling was applied to determine the long-term airborne contamination load in the industrial town of Ajka (Hungary). There has been a high industrial activity in Ajka since the end of the 19th century. In addition to aluminum and alumina industry, coal mining, coal fired power plant and glass industry sites, generated numerous waste heaps which act as multi-contamination sources in the area. In October 2010 the Ajka red mud tailings pond failed and caused an accidental regional contamination of international significance. The major objective of this research was to study and map the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in airborne attic dust samples. At 27 sampling sites 30 attic dust samples were collected. Sampling strategy followed a grid-based stratified random sampling design. In each cell a house for attic dust sample collection was selected that was located the closest to a randomly generated point in the grid cell. The project area covers a 8x8 grid of 1x1 km cells with a total area of 64 km2. In order to represent long-term industrial pollution, houses with attics kept intact for at least 30-40 years were selected for sampling. Sampling included the collection of background samples remotely placed from the industrialized urban area. The concentration of the major and toxic elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic composition in road dust, farmland soil and vegetation in proximity to roads since cessation of use of leaded petrol in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, G.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T.; Pulford, I.D.; Duncan, H.J.; Scott, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of spatial distributions and temporal trends in concentrations of lead (Pb) from different sources in soil and vegetation of an arable farm in central Scotland in the decade since the use of leaded petrol was terminated. Isotopic analyses revealed that in all of the samples analysed, the Pb conformed to a binary mixture of petrol Pb and Pb from industrial or indigenous geological sources and that locally enhanced levels of petrol Pb were restricted to within 10 m of a motorway and 3 m of a minor road. Overall, the dominant source of Pb was historical emissions from nearby industrial areas. There was no discernible change in concentration or isotopic composition of Pb in surface soil or vegetation over the decade since the ban on the sale of leaded petrol. There was an order of magnitude decrease in Pb concentrations in road dust over the study period, but petrol Pb persisted at up to 43% of the total Pb concentration in 2010. Similar concentrations and spatial distributions of petrol Pb and non petrol Pb in vegetation in both 2001 and 2010, with enhanced concentrations near roads, suggested that redistribution of previously deposited material has operated continuously over that period, maintaining a transfer pathway of Pb into the biosphere. The results for vegetation and soil transects near minor roads provided evidence of a non petrol Pb source associated with roads/traffic, but surface soil samples from the vicinity of a motorway failed to show evidence of such a source. - Highlights: → A 10 year study of Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in farmland. → Soil and vegetation showed no systematic decrease in Pb concentrations over 10 years. → Road dust Pb concentrations fell from 117 mg kg -1 in 2001 to 14.2 mg kg -1 in 2010. → Enhancement of petrol Pb only within 10m of a motorway and 3m of a minor road.

  4. Sources of hydrocarbons in urban road dust: Identification, quantification and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummullage, Sandya; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    Among urban stormwater pollutants, hydrocarbons are a significant environmental concern due to their toxicity and relatively stable chemical structure. This study focused on the identification of hydrocarbon contributing sources to urban road dust and approaches for the quantification of pollutant loads to enhance the design of source control measures. The study confirmed the validity of the use of mathematical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for source identification and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model for pollutant load quantification. Study outcomes identified non-combusted lubrication oils, non-combusted diesel fuels and tyre and asphalt wear as the three most critical urban hydrocarbon sources. The site specific variabilities of contributions from sources were replicated using three mathematical models. The models employed predictor variables of daily traffic volume (DTV), road surface texture depth (TD), slope of the road section (SLP), effective population (EPOP) and effective impervious fraction (EIF), which can be considered as the five governing parameters of pollutant generation, deposition and redistribution. Models were developed such that they can be applicable in determining hydrocarbon contributions from urban sites enabling effective design of source control measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal provenance changes in present-day Saharan dust collected in and off Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Friese

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saharan dust has a crucial influence on the earth climate system and its emission, transport and deposition are intimately related to, e.g., wind speed, precipitation, temperature and vegetation cover. The alteration in the physical and chemical properties of Saharan dust due to environmental changes is often used to reconstruct the climate of the past. However, to better interpret possible climate changes the dust source regions need to be known. By analysing the mineralogical composition of transported or deposited dust, potential dust source areas can be inferred. Summer dust transport off northwest Africa occurs in the Saharan air layer (SAL. In continental dust source areas, dust is also transported in the SAL; however, the predominant dust input occurs from nearby dust sources with the low-level trade winds. Hence, the source regions and related mineralogical tracers differ with season and sampling location. To test this, dust collected in traps onshore and in oceanic sediment traps off Mauritania during 2013 to 2015 was analysed. Meteorological data, particle-size distributions, back-trajectory and mineralogical analyses were compared to derive the dust provenance and dispersal. For the onshore dust samples, the source regions varied according to the seasonal changes in trade-wind direction. Gibbsite and dolomite indicated a Western Saharan and local source during summer, while chlorite, serpentine and rutile indicated a source in Mauritania and Mali during winter. In contrast, for the samples that were collected offshore, dust sources varied according to the seasonal change in the dust transporting air layer. In summer, dust was transported in the SAL from Mauritania, Mali and Libya as indicated by ferroglaucophane and zeolite. In winter, dust was transported with the trades from Western Sahara as indicated by, e.g., fluellite.

  6. Source contributions to airborne particle deposition at the Yungang Grottoes, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Lynn G.; Christoforou, Christos S.; Gerk, Timothy J.; Cass, Glen R. [Environmental Engineering Science Department and Environmental Quality Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA (United States); Casuccio, Gary S.; Cooke, Gary A.; Leger, Michael [R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Olmez, Ilhan [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The Buddhist cave temple complex at Yungang in northern China is affected by a rapid accumulation of airborne particles that settle onto the thousands of statues contained within those caves. Experiments have been conducted to identify the most important air pollution sources that contribute to the dust deposition problem. The spatial distribution of the deposition rate of airborne particles within a 2 km x 2 km area surrounding the grottoes was measured during a 2-day period in April, 1991. Peak particle deposition rates of >60 {mu}g m{sup -2} s{sup -1} were found at locations within the village of Yungang itself and along the adjacent coal-haul highway. Moving away from the village and coal-haul highway, deposition rates decline to much lower values, indicating that the village and highway are significant sources of airborne particles. A comparison of the mineralogical composition of the dust deposits in the caves with the composition of local soil dust, paved road dust from the coal-haul highway and deteriorated cave ceiling rock material indicates that the dust deposits in the caves are a combination of the above sources, with the paved road dust from the coal-haul highway providing the closest match to the largest quantity of the material deposited in the caves

  7. Atmospheric dust events in central Asia: Relationship to wind, soil type, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huawei; Sharratt, Brenton; Lei, Jiaqiang

    2017-06-01

    Xinjiang Province in northwest China is one of the most important source regions of atmospheric dust in the world. Spatial-temporal characteristics of dust events in the province were investigated by time series analysis of annual dust event frequency and meteorological data collected at 101 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2007. Blowing dust frequency (BDF) and dust storm frequency (DSF) decreased with time in North, South, and East Xinjiang whereas floating dust frequency (FDF) decreased with time only in South and East Xinjiang. Dust concentrations were lower in North than in South Xinjiang and decreased with time in East Xinjiang. Wind significantly influenced the temporal trend in FDF, BDF, and DSF in South Xinjiang and DSF in North Xinjiang. Frequency of dust events was smaller by an order of magnitude in North (10.9 d yr-1) than in South Xinjiang (111.3 d yr-1), possibly due in part to higher annual precipitation in North Xinjiang. Floating dust was most frequently observed in East and South Xinjiang, while blowing dust was most frequently observed in North Xinjiang. The high frequency of floating dust in East and South Xinjiang is likely due to the enclosed terrain that characterizes these regions. Land use and soil type also influenced dust events. Although climate influences frequency of dust events, the occurrence of these events may be reduced most effectively by imposing better land management practices in deciduous forests or orchards characterized by saline soils in respectively North and East Xinjiang and meadows characterized by Guanyu soils in South Xinjiang.

  8. Dust coma of Halley comet: measurements with the dust counter and mass analyzer (DUSMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Tuzzolino, A.J.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1986-01-01

    The paper represents a preliminary report on measurements of spatial and temporal distribution of mass and flows of dust particles coming from comet nucleus performed by means of devices constructed on the new principle of detecting comet dust specks. The device has a high time resolution (∼ 4 μs) in the wide range of mass and dust flows. On the base of a preliminary analysis the following conclusions are drawn: dust coma in quiet state (''Vega-2'') as well as at the presence of considerable emissions (''Vega-1'') manifests the presence of important short-term out-bursts having by time a quasi-periodic structure. Integral mass spectra show flows intensity growth with the decrease of measured mass (which contradicts some theoretical models). Flow levels lie approximately in the region previously determined by ground observations. The coma is extremely dynamic both in space and in time which proves the complex structure of regions of dust emission from the nucleus

  9. Verification of a dust transport model against theoretical solutions in multidimensional advection diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z., E-mail: zhanjie.xu@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Travis, J.R. [Ingenieurbuero DuBois-Pitzer-Travis, 63071 Offenbach (Germany); Breitung, W.; Jordan, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Potentially explosive dust aerosol mobilization in the vacuum vessel is an important safety issue of the ITER facility, especially in scenarios of loss of vacuum accidents. Therefore dust mobilization modeling is ongoing in Research Center Karlsuhe. At first the aerosol particle model in the GASFLOW computer code is introduced briefly. To verify the particle model, a series of particle diffusion problems are simulated in one-, two- and three-dimensions. In each problem a particle source is initially exposed to an advective gas flow. Then a dust cloud is formed in the down stream. To obtain the theoretical solution about the particle concentration in the dust cloud, the governing diffusion partial differential equations with an additional advection term are solved by using Green's function method. Different spatial and temporal characters about the particle sources are also considered, e.g., instantaneous or continuous sources, line, or volume sources and so forth. The GASFLOW simulation results about the particle concentrations and the corresponding Green's function solutions are compared case by case. Very good agreements are found between the theoretical solutions and the GASGLOW simulations, when the drag force between the micron-sized particles and the conveying gas flow meets the Stokes' law about resistance. This situation is corresponding to a very small Reynolds number based on the particle diameter, with a negligible inertia effect of the particles. This verification work shows that the particle model of the GASFLOW code can reproduce numerically particle transport and diffusion in a good way.

  10. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  11. Characterization of Dust Properties during ACE-Asia and PRIDE: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Ji, Q. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentration over particular pathways around the globe. For example, the ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). The PRIDE (Puerto RIco Dust Experiment, July 2000) was designed to measure the properties of Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Dust particles typically originate in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of dust aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the ocean. During ACE-Asia and PRIDE we had measured aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from ground-based remote sensing. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. We will present the results and discuss their implications in regional climatic effects.

  12. Investigation of Three-Dimensional Evolution of East Asian Dust Storm by Modeling and Remote Sensing Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional evolution of an East Asian dust storm during 23–26 April 2009 was investigated by utilizing a regional air quality model system (RAQMS and satellite measurements. This severe dust storm hit Mt. Tai in east China with daily mean PM10 concentration reaching 1400 μg/m3 and the model captured the PM10 variation reasonably well. Modeled spatial distributions of AOD and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient during the dust storm were compared with MODIS and CALIPSO data, demonstrating that RAQMS was able to reproduce the 3D structure and the evolution of the dust storm reasonably well. During early days of the dust storm, daily mean dust-induced AOD exceeded 2.0 over dust source regions (the Gobi desert and the Taklamakan desert and was in a range of 1.2–1.8 over the North China Plain, accounting for about 98% and up to 90% of total AOD over corresponding areas, respectively. The top of the dust storm reached about 8 km over east China, with high dust concentration locating at around 40°N. Dust aerosol below 2 km was transported southeastward off the Gobi desert while dust above 2 km was transported out of China along 40°–45°N.

  13. Isotopically constrained lead sources in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the southeast Missouri mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Pribil, Michael; Hogan, John P; Wronkiewicz, David

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead (Pb) in fugitive dust suspended by a vehicle from 13 unsurfaced roads in Missouri was measured to identify the source of Pb within an established long-term mining area. A three end-member model using 207Pb/206Pb and concentration as tracers resulted in fugitive dust samples plotting in the mixing field of well characterized heterogeneous end members. End members selected for this investigation include the 207Pb/206Pb for 1) a Pb-mixture representing mine tailings, 2) aerosol Pb-impacted soils within close proximity to the Buick secondary recycling smelter, and 3) an average of soils, rock cores and drill cuttings representing the background conditions. Aqua regia total concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb of mining area dust suggest that 35.4–84.3% of the source Pb in dust is associated with the mine tailings mixture, 9.1–52.7% is associated with the smelter mixture, and 0–21.6% is associated with background materials. Isotope ratios varied minimally within the operational phases of sequential extraction suggesting that mixing of all three Pb mixtures occurs throughout. Labile forms of Pb were attributed to all three end members. The extractable carbonate phase had as much as 96.6% of the total concentration associated with mine tailings, 51.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 34.2% with background. The next most labile geochemical phase (Fe + Mn Oxides) showed similar results with as much as 85.3% associated with mine tailings, 56.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 4.2% associated with the background soil.

  14. Spatially Resolved Isotopic Source Signatures of Wetland Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Stell, A. C.; Gedney, N.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Hayman, G.; Rigby, M.; Poulter, B.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spatially resolved wetland δ13C(CH4) source signature map based on data characterizing wetland ecosystems and demonstrate good agreement with wetland signatures derived from atmospheric observations. The source signature map resolves a latitudinal difference of 10‰ between northern high-latitude (mean -67.8‰) and tropical (mean -56.7‰) wetlands and shows significant regional variations on top of the latitudinal gradient. We assess the errors in inverse modeling studies aiming to separate CH4 sources and sinks by comparing atmospheric δ13C(CH4) derived using our spatially resolved map against the common assumption of globally uniform wetland δ13C(CH4) signature. We find a larger interhemispheric gradient, a larger high-latitude seasonal cycle, and smaller trend over the period 2000-2012. The implication is that erroneous CH4 fluxes would be derived to compensate for the biases imposed by not utilizing spatially resolved signatures for the largest source of CH4 emissions. These biases are significant when compared to the size of observed signals.

  15. Extinction and dust properties in a clumpy medium

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) The dust content of the universe is primarily explored via its interaction with stellar photons, producing interstellar extinction. However, owing to the physical extension of the observing beam, observations may detect scattered photons, resulting in a change in the observed (or effective) extinction, depending on the spatial distribution of the dust and the resolution of the instrument. We investigate the influence of clumpy dust distributions on effective extinction toward embed...

  16. Effective mitigation efforts to reduce road dust near industrial sites: assessment by mobile pollution surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Patrick F; Corr, Denis; Wallace, Julie; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2012-05-15

    Assessment of spatial variation of fugitive dust sources, particularly road dust track-out from industrial sites and its subsequent re-suspension is difficult with fixed air quality monitoring stations given their sparse distribution and the highly localized nature of road dust. Mobile monitoring was employed to measure levels of road dust in the industrial area of the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Results of this monitoring were used in a Fugitive Dust Control workshop held for local stakeholders, where fugitive dust control solutions were presented. After the workshop, the City of Hamilton and cooperative industrial groups executed enhanced street cleaning and individual industries and facilities performed on-site control activities. Post-workshop mobile air monitoring was performed for comparison to the initial values to determine effectiveness of these approaches. A regression model testing the difference pre- and post-workshop yielded a statistically significant difference in PM(10) measurements demonstrating improvement. The average value of PM(10) prior to the workshop was 114 μg/m(3). Post-workshop the average value dropped to 73 μg/m(3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence, sources and human exposure assessment of SCCPs in indoor dust of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Huo, Chun-Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Yi-Fan; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-06-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are widely used chemicals in household products and might cause adverse human health effects. However, limited information is available on the occurrence of SCCPs in indoor environments and their exposure risks on humans. In this study the concentrations, profiles and human exposure of SCCPs in indoor dust from five different indoor environments, including commercial stores, residential apartments, dormitories, offices and laboratories were characterized. The SCCPs levels ranged from 10.1 to 173.0 μg/g, with the median and mean concentration of 47.2 and 53.6 μg/g, respectively. No significant difference was found on concentrations among the five microenvironments. The most abundant compounds in indoor dust samples were homologues of C 13 group, Cl 7 group and N 20 (N is the total number of C and Cl) group. In the five microenvironments, commercial stores were more frequently exposed to shorter carbon chained and higher chlorinated homologues. Three potential sources for SCCPs were identified by the multiple linear regression of factor score model and correspondence analysis. The major sources of SCCPs in indoor dust were technical mixtures of CP-42 (42% chlorine, w/w) and CP-52 b (52% chlorine, w/w). The total daily exposure doses and hazard quotients (HQ) were calculated by the human exposure models, and they were all below the reference doses and threshold values, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of SCCPs. Infants and toddlers were at risk of SCCPs based on predicted HQ values, which were exceeded the threshold for neoplastic effects in the worst case. Our results on the occurrences, sources and human exposures of SCCPs will be useful to provide a better understanding of SCCPs behaviors in indoor environment in China, and to support environmental risk evaluation and regulation of SCCPs in the world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Computer tomography of large dust clouds in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killer, Carsten; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André

    2014-01-01

    The dust density is a central parameter of a dusty plasma. Here, a tomography setup for the determination of the three-dimensionally resolved density distribution of spatially extended dust clouds is presented. The dust clouds consist of micron-sized particles confined in a radio frequency argon plasma, where they fill almost the entire discharge volume. First, a line-of-sight integrated dust density is obtained from extinction measurements, where the incident light from an LED panel is scattered and absorbed by the dust. Performing these extinction measurements from many different angles allows the reconstruction of the 3D dust density distribution, analogous to a computer tomography in medical applications

  19. A SEARCH FOR DUST EMISSION IN THE LEO INTERGALACTIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Puget, Jeremie; Latter, William B.; Schneider, Stephen; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-01-01

    We present a search for infrared dust emission associated with the Leo cloud, a large intergalactic cloud in the M96 group. Mid-infrared and far-infrared images were obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis of these maps is done at each wavelength relative to the H I spatial distribution. We observe a probable detection at 8 μm and a marginal detection at 24 μm associated with the highest H I column densities in the cloud. At 70 and 160 μm, upper limits on the dust emission are deduced. The level of the detection is low so that the possibility of a fortuitous cirrus clump or of an overdensity of extragalactic sources along the line of sight cannot be excluded. If this detection is confirmed, the quantities of dust inferred imply a dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic cloud up to a few times solar but no less than 1/20 solar. A confirmed detection would therefore exclude the possibility that the intergalactic cloud has a primordial origin. Instead, this large intergalactic cloud could therefore have been formed through interactions between galaxies in the group.

  20. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  1. Production, Processing, and Consumption of Dust in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontcharov, G.

    2017-06-01

    The recent results obtained by the modern telescopes and spacecrafts allow us for the first time to compare directly the mass, spatial density and size distribution of the dust grains in the regions of their production, processing and consumption in our Galaxy. The ALMA and VLT/SPHERE telescopes allow us to estimate the production of the dust by supergiants and collapsing core supernovae. The 2MASS, WISE, SDSS, Planck and other telescopes allow us to estimate the processing of the dust in the interstellar medium. After renewed Besançon Galaxy model the medium appears to contain about half the local mass of matter (both baryonic and dark) in the Galactic neighborhood of the Sun. The Helios, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons spacecrafts allow us to estimate the consumption of the dust by large solid bodies. The results are consistent assuming the local mean spatial density of the dust is about of 3.5×10-26 g/cm3, mean density of the grain is about 1 g/cm3, and the dust production rate is about of 0.015 Solar mass per year for whole the Galaxy.

  2. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir H.; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2016-01-01

    , because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably

  3. Utilization of waste coconut coir dust as a source of fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festin, T.F.; Jose, W.I.

    1979-01-01

    A review on the production of a gaseous fuel by the pyrolysis of waste coir dust, which is a by-product in the manufacturing of coir fibers from coconut husks. Experimental and pilot-plant studies on the pyrolysis of coir dust are discussed and the properties of the dust and the fuel gas produced are given. (Refs. 13).

  4. Dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, S.

    1977-01-01

    Several pieces of evidence indicate that H II regions may contain dust: 1) the continuum light scattered by dust grains (O'Dell and Hubbard, 1965), 2) thermal radiation from dust grains at infrared wavelengths (Ney and Allen, 1969), 3) the abnormal helium abundance in some H II regions (Peimbert and Costero, 1969), etc. Although observations of the scattered continuum suggest that the H II region cores may be dust-free, dust grains and gas must be well mixed in view of the infrared observations. This difficulty may be solved by introducing globules with sizes approximately 0.001 pc. These globules and the molecular clouds adjacent to H II regions are the main sources supplying dust to H II regions. (Auth.)

  5. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining’s potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  6. Desert Dust and Health: A Central Asian Review and Steppe Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Troy; Edwards, Mona

    2017-11-03

    In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe. In the Gobi Desert, our case study in Khanbogd, Mongolia addressed large-scale mining's potential dust risk to the health of the local population. Dust traps showed variable exposure to particulates among herder households and town residents; dust density distribution indicated that sources beyond the mine need to be considered when identifying particulate sources. Research suggests that atmospheric dust from multiple causes may enhance human particulate exposure. Greater awareness of dust in greater Central Asia reflects community concern about related health implications. Future human well-being in the region will require more thorough information on dust emissions in the changing environment.

  7. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  8. A full-sky, high-resolution atlas of galactic 12 μm dust emission with WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our custom processing of the entire Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 12 μm imaging data set, and present a high-resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission that is free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. The principal distinctions between our resulting co-added images and the WISE Atlas stacks are our removal of compact sources, including their associated electronic and optical artifacts, and our preservation of spatial modes larger than 1.°5. We provide access to the resulting full-sky map via a set of 430 12.°5 × 12.°5 mosaics. These stacks have been smoothed to 15'' resolution and are accompanied by corresponding coverage maps, artifact images, and bit-masks for point sources, resolved compact sources, and other defects. When combined appropriately with other mid-infrared and far-infrared data sets, we expect our WISE 12 μm co-adds to form the basis for a full-sky dust extinction map with angular resolution several times better than Schlegel et al.

  9. Engineering-scale dust control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Jacobs, N.C.; Thompson, D.N.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of engineering scale dust-control experiments relating to contamination control during handling of transuranic waste. These experiments focused on controlling dust during retrieval operations of buried waste where waste and soil are intimately mixed. Sources of dust generation during retrieval operations include digging, dumping, and vehicle traffic. Because contaminants are expected to attach to soil particles and move with the generated dust, control of the dust spread may be the key to contamination control. Dust control techniques examined in these experiments include the use of misting systems, soil fixatives, and dust suppression agents. The Dryfog Ultrasonic Misting Head, manufactured by Sonics, Incorporated, and ENTAC, an organic resin derived from tree sap manufactured by ENTAC Corporation, were tested. The results of the experiments include product performance and recommended application methods. 19 figs., 7 refs., 6 tabs

  10. On the dust load and rainfall relationship in South Asia: an analysis from CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Ganguly, Dilip; Dash, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the consistency of the relationship between load of dust and rainfall simulated by different climate models and its implication for the Indian summer monsoon system. Monthly mean outputs of 12 climate models, obtained from the archive of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) for the period 1951-2004, are analyzed to investigate the relationship between dust and rainfall. Comparative analysis of the model simulated precipitation with the India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rainfall, CRU TS3.21 and GPCP version 2.2 data sets show significant differences between the spatial patterns of JJAS rainfall as well as annual cycle of rainfall simulated by various models and observations. Similarly, significant inter-model differences are also noted in the simulation of load of dust, nevertheless it is further noted that most of the CMIP5 models are able to capture the major dust sources across the study region. Although the scatter plot analysis and the lead-lag pattern correlation between the dust load and the rainfall show strong relationship between the dust load over distant sources and the rainfall in the South Asian region in individual models, the temporal scale of this association indicates large differences amongst the models. Our results caution that it would be pre-mature to draw any robust conclusions on the time scale of the relationship between dust and the rainfall in the South Asian region based on either CMIP5 results or limited number of previous studies. Hence, we would like to emphasize upon the fact that any conclusions drawn on the relationship between the dust load and the South Asian rainfall using model simulation is highly dependent on the degree of complexity incorporated in those models such as the representation of aerosol life cycle, their interaction with clouds, precipitation and other components of the climate system.

  11. Featured Image: Making Dust in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    This remarkable photograph (which spans only 10 m across; click for a full view) reveals what happens when you form dust grains in a laboratory under conditions similar to those of interstellar space. The cosmic life cycle of dust grains is not well understood we know that in the interstellar medium (ISM), dust is destroyed at a higher rate than it is produced by stellar sources. Since the amount of dust in the ISM stays constant, however, there must be additional sources of dust production besides stars. A team of scientists led by Daniele Fulvio (Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena) have now studied formation mechanisms of dust grains in the lab by mimicking low-temperature ISM conditions and exploring how, under these conditions, carbonaceous materials condense from gas phase to form dust grains. To read more about their results and see additional images, check out the paper below.CitationDaniele Fulvio et al 2017 ApJS 233 14. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa9224

  12. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  13. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  14. Modeling of surface dust concentration in snow cover at industrial area using neural networks and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Shichkin, A. V.; Tyagunov, A. G.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of spatial distribution of pollutants in the urbanized territories is difficult, especially if there are multiple emission sources. When monitoring such territories, it is often impossible to arrange the necessary detailed sampling. Because of this, the usual methods of analysis and forecasting based on geostatistics are often less effective. Approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) demonstrate the best results under these circumstances. This study compares two models based on ANNs, which are multilayer perceptron (MLP) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNNs) with the base geostatistical method - kriging. Models of the spatial dust distribution in the snow cover around the existing copper quarry and in the area of emissions of a nickel factory were created. To assess the effectiveness of the models three indices were used: the mean absolute error (MAE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE). Taking into account all indices the model of GRNN proved to be the most accurate which included coordinates of the sampling points and the distance to the likely emission source as input parameters for the modeling. Maps of spatial dust distribution in the snow cover were created in the study area. It has been shown that the models based on ANNs were more accurate than the kriging, particularly in the context of a limited data set.

  15. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-11-27

    Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth’s meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem) is employed to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The model domain covers northwest Africa and adjacent water with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of the most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane’s tracks. Several mechanisms that cause aerosol entrainment into the free troposphere are evaluated and it is found that orographic lifting, and interaction of sea breeze with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. The model dust emission scheme is tuned to simultaneously fit the observed total optical depth and the ratio of aerosol optical depths generated by fine and coarse dust modes. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with

  16. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basit Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth's meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I, which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem is employed to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The model domain covers northwest Africa and adjacent water with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of the most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane's tracks. Several mechanisms that cause aerosol entrainment into the free troposphere are evaluated and it is found that orographic lifting, and interaction of sea breeze with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. The model dust emission scheme is tuned to simultaneously fit the observed total optical depth and the ratio of aerosol optical depths generated by fine and coarse dust modes. Comparisons of simulated dust size

  17. Step by step in dust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, N. [Arch Environmental Equipment, Inc. (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The paper examines the different stages in identifying delegating and controlling dust before it becomes a serious problem for a facility. Material handling, processing, storage and traffic are the major dust producing sources. All industries that convey dry, light material need to install a dust control system. The confine-seal-suppress method of dust control has provided excellent results in numerous applications, only with the combination of all three will maximum dust control. When a system is properly engineered and correctly installed, meeting the EPA Government standards becomes very easy, and is necessary in to the operation of a quality facility. 5 photos.

  18. Frontiers in In-Situ Cosmic Dust Detection and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Auer, Siegfried; Drake, Keith; Gruen, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Le, Huy; Xie Jianfeng; Srama, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In-situ cosmic dust instruments and measurements played a critical role in the emergence of the field of dusty plasmas. The major breakthroughs included the discovery of β-meteoroids, interstellar dust particles within the solar system, Jovian stream particles, and the detection and analysis of Enceladus's plumes. The science goals of cosmic dust research require the measurements of the charge, the spatial, size and velocity distributions, and the chemical and isotopic compositions of individual dust particles. In-situ dust instrument technology has improved significantly in the last decade. Modern dust instruments with high sensitivity can detect submicron-sized particles even at low impact velocities. Innovative ion optics methods deliver high mass resolution, m/dm>100, for chemical and isotopic analysis. The accurate trajectory measurement of cosmic dust is made possible even for submicron-sized grains using the Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS). This article is a brief review of the current capabilities of modern dust instruments, future challenges and opportunities in cosmic dust research.

  19. Does the source migration pathway of HBCDs to household dust influence their bio-accessibility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Alcega, Sonia [Soil Research Centre, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH (United Kingdom); Rauert, Cassie; Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D., E-mail: c.d.collins@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the human bioaccessibility of dust contaminated with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) via two migration pathways a) volatilisation with subsequent partitioning to dust particles, and b) abrasion of treated textile fibres directly to the dust. This was achieved using previously developed experimental chamber designs to generate dust samples contaminated with HBCDs emitted from a HBCD treated textile curtain. The generated dust samples were exposed to an in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CE-PBET). The bioaccessibility of the HBCDs which were incorporated within dust as a result of volatilisation from the curtain material with subsequent partitioning to dust was higher than in dusts contaminated with HBCDs via abrasion of the curtain (35% and 15% respectively). We propose this occurs due to a stronger binding of HBCDs to treated fabric fibres than that experienced following volatilisation and sorption of HBCDs to dust particles. - Highlights: • Migration pathways via which HBCDs enter dust influences its bioaccessibility. • HBCDs more bioaccessible when incorporated to dust via volatilisation. • Contamination of dusts is more variable via abrasion than volatilisation.

  20. Does the source migration pathway of HBCDs to household dust influence their bio-accessibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Alcega, Sonia; Rauert, Cassie; Harrad, Stuart; Collins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the human bioaccessibility of dust contaminated with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) via two migration pathways a) volatilisation with subsequent partitioning to dust particles, and b) abrasion of treated textile fibres directly to the dust. This was achieved using previously developed experimental chamber designs to generate dust samples contaminated with HBCDs emitted from a HBCD treated textile curtain. The generated dust samples were exposed to an in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CE-PBET). The bioaccessibility of the HBCDs which were incorporated within dust as a result of volatilisation from the curtain material with subsequent partitioning to dust was higher than in dusts contaminated with HBCDs via abrasion of the curtain (35% and 15% respectively). We propose this occurs due to a stronger binding of HBCDs to treated fabric fibres than that experienced following volatilisation and sorption of HBCDs to dust particles. - Highlights: • Migration pathways via which HBCDs enter dust influences its bioaccessibility. • HBCDs more bioaccessible when incorporated to dust via volatilisation. • Contamination of dusts is more variable via abrasion than volatilisation.

  1. DUST AND GAS IN THE DISK OF HL TAURI: SURFACE DENSITY, DUST SETTLING, AND DUST-TO-GAS RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinte, C.; Ménard, F. [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386), and Dept. de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dent, W. R. F.; Hales, A.; Hill, T.; Cortes, P.; Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. de, E-mail: christophe.pinte@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-01-01

    The recent ALMA observations of the disk surrounding HL Tau reveal a very complex dust spatial distribution. We present a radiative transfer model accounting for the observed gaps and bright rings as well as radial changes of the emissivity index. We find that the dust density is depleted by at least a factor of 10 in the main gaps compared to the surrounding rings. Ring masses range from 10–100 M{sub ⊕} in dust, and we find that each of the deepest gaps is consistent with the removal of up to 40 M{sub ⊕} of dust. If this material has accumulated into rocky bodies, these would be close to the point of runaway gas accretion. Our model indicates that the outermost ring is depleted in millimeter grains compared to the central rings. This suggests faster grain growth in the central regions and/or radial migration of the larger grains. The morphology of the gaps observed by ALMA—well separated and showing a high degree of contrast with the bright rings over all azimuths—indicates that the millimeter dust disk is geometrically thin (scale height ≈1 AU at 100 AU) and that a large amount of settling of large grains has already occurred. Assuming a standard dust settling model, we find that the observations are consistent with a turbulent viscosity coefficient of a few 10{sup −4}. We estimate the gas/dust ratio in this thin layer to be of the order of 5 if the initial ratio is 100. The HCO{sup +} and CO emission is consistent with gas in Keplerian motion around a 1.7 M{sub ⊙} star at radii from ≤10–120 AU.

  2. Whither Cometary Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  3. Optical characteristics of desert dust over the East Mediterranean during summer: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High aerosol optical depth (AOD values, larger than 0.6, are systematically observed in the Ultraviolet (UV region both by sunphotometers and lidar systems over Greece during summertime. To study in more detail the characteristics and the origin of these high AOD values, a campaign took place in Greece in the frame of the PHOENICS (Particles of Human Origin Extinguishing Natural solar radiation In Climate Systems and EARLINET (European Aerosol Lidar Network projects during August–September of 2003, which included simultaneous sunphotometric and lidar measurements at three sites covering the north-south axis of Greece: Thessaloniki, Athens and Finokalia, Crete. Several events with high AOD values have been observed over the measuring sites during the campaign period, many of them corresponding to Saharan dust. In this paper we focused on the event of 30 and 31 August 2003, when a dust layer in the height range of 2000-5000 m, progressively affected all three stations. This layer showed a complex behavior concerning its spatial evolution and allowed us to study the changes in the optical properties of the desert dust particles along their transport due to aging and mixing with other types of aerosol. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio determined on the 30 August 2003 at Thessaloniki was approximately 50 sr, characteristic for rather spherical mineral particles, and the measured color index of 0.4 was within the typical range of values for desert dust. Mixing of the desert dust with other sources of aerosols resulted the next day in overall smaller and less absorbing population of particles with a lidar ratio of 20 sr. Mixing of polluted air-masses originating from Northern Greece and Crete and Saharan dust result in very high aerosol backscatter values reaching 7 Mm-1 sr-1 over Finokalia. The Saharan dust observed over Athens followed a different spatial evolution and was not mixed with the boundary layer aerosols mainly originating from

  4. Investigating dust trapping in transition disks with millimeter-wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A.; Kataoka, A.; Pinilla, P.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Birnstiel, T.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Spatially resolved polarized (sub-)mm emission has been observed for example in the protoplanetary disk around HL Tau. Magnetically aligned grains are commonly interpreted as the source of polarization. However, self-scattering by large dust grains with a high enough albedo is another polarization mechanism, which is becoming a compelling method independent of the spectral index to constrain the dust grain size in protoplanetary disks. Aims: We study the dust polarization at mm wavelengths in the dust trapping scenario proposed for transition disks, when a giant planet opens a gap in the disk. We investigate the characteristic polarization patterns and their dependence on disk inclination, dust size evolution, planet position, and observing wavelength. Methods: We combine two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with self-consistent dust growth models. These size-dependent dust density distributions are used for follow-up three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to predict the polarization degree at ALMA bands due to scattered thermal emission. Results: Dust self-scattering has been proven to be a viable mechanism for producing polarized mm-wave radiation. We find that the polarization pattern of a disk with a planetary gap after 1 Myr of dust evolution shows a distinctive three-ring structure. Two narrow inner rings are located at the planet gap edges. A third wider ring of polarization is situated in the outer disk beyond 100 au. For increasing observing wavelengths, all three rings change their position slightly, where the innermost and outermost rings move inward. This distance is detectable when comparing the results at ALMA bands 3, 6, and 7. Within the highest polarized intensity regions the polarization vectors are oriented in the azimuthal direction. For an inclined disk there is an interplay between polarization originating from a flux gradient and inclination-induced quadrupole polarization. For

  5. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kutuzov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009–2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (ca. 20–100 km resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March–June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in northeastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric southwesterly flow with daily winds speeds of 20–30 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Although these events were less frequent than those originating in the Middle East, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centred over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or southeasterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12–18 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterised dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0–2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and

  6. Temporal and spatial characteristics of dust devils and their contribution to the aerosol budget in East Asia-An analysis using a new parameterization scheme for dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoguo; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    Dust aerosols are the main aerosol components of the atmosphere that affect climate change, but the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget is uncertain. In this study, a new parameterization scheme for dust devils was established and coupled with WRF-Chem, and the diurnal and monthly variations and the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget in East Asia was simulated. The results show that 1) both the diurnal and monthly variations in dust devil emissions in East Asia had unimodal distributions, with peaks in the afternoon and the summer that were similar to the observations; 2) the simulated dust devils occurred frequently in deserts, including the Gobi. The distributed area and the intensity center of the dust devil moved from east to west during the day; 3) the ratio between the availability of convective buoyancy relative to the frictional dissipation was the main factor that limited the presence of dust devils. The position of the dust devil formation, the surface temperature, and the boundary layer height determined the dust devil intensity; 4) the contribution of dust devils to atmospheric dust aerosols determined in East Asia was 30.4 ± 13%, thereby suggesting that dust devils contribute significantly to the total amount of atmospheric dust aerosols. Although the new parameterization scheme for dust devils was rough, it was helpful for understanding the distribution of dust devils and their contribution to the dust aerosol budget.

  7. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia; Feng, Fan; Liu, Fucheng; Dong, Lifang; He, Yafeng

    2016-09-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2011201006 and A2012201015), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. Y2012009), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project, China.

  8. The role of airborne mineral dusts in human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is generally acknowledged to increase risk for human morbidity and mortality. However, particulate matter (PM) research has generally examined anthropogenic (industry and combustion by-products) sources with few studies considering contributions from geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes, e.g., volcanic ash, windborne ash from wildfires, and mineral dusts) or geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities, e.g., dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices). Globally, public health concerns are mounting, related to potential increases in dust emission from climate related changes such as desertification and the associated long range as well as local health effects. Recent epidemiological studies have identified associations between far-traveled dusts from primary sources and increased morbidity and mortality in Europe and Asia. This paper provides an outline of public health research and history as it relates to naturally occurring inorganic mineral dusts. We summarize results of current public health research and describe some of the many challenges related to understanding health effects from exposures to dust aerosols.

  9. Quasar Winds as Dust Factories at High Redshift

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita

    2003-01-01

    Winds from AGN and quasars will form large amounts of dust, as the cool gas in these winds passes through the (pressure, temperature) region where dust is formed in AGB stars. Conditions in the gas are benign to dust at these radii. As a result quasar winds may be a major source of dust at high redshifts, obviating a difficulty with current observations, and requiring far less dust to exist at early epochs.

  10. Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates in indoor Floor Dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Wolkoff, Peder; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1999-01-01

    The amount of Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) in the particle fraction of floor dust sampled from 7 selected public buildings varied between 34 and 1500 microgram per gram dust, while the contents of the fibre fractions generally were higher with up to 3500 microgram LAS/g dust. The use...... of a cleaning agent with LAS resulted in an increase of the amount of LAS in the floor dust after floor wash relative to just before floor wash. However, the most important source of LAS in the indoor floor dust appears to be residues of detergent in clothing. Thus, a newly washed shirt contained 2960 microgram...

  11. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprinting of transatlantic dust derived from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wancang; Balsam, William; Williams, Earle; Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    Long-range transport of African dust plays an important role in understanding dust-climate relationships including dust source areas, dust pathways and associated atmospheric and/or oceanic processes. Clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions can be used as geochemical fingerprints to constrain dust provenance and the pathways of long-range transported mineral dust. We investigated the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of surface samples along four transects bordering the Sahara Desert. The transects are from Mali, Niger/Benin/Togo, Egypt and Morocco. Our results show that the Mali transect on the West African Craton (WAC) produces lower εNd (εNd-mean = -16.38) and εHf (εHf-mean = -9.59) values than the other three transects. The Egyptian transect exhibits the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (87Sr/86Srmean = 0.709842), the highest εHf (εHf-mean = -0.34) and εNd values of the four transects. Comparison of the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values from our North African samples to transatlantic African dust collected in Barbados demonstrates that the dust's provenance is primarily the western Sahel and Sahara as well as the central Sahel. Summer emission dust is derived mainly from the western Sahel and Sahara regions. The source of transatlantic dust in spring and autumn is more varied than in the summer and includes dust not only from western areas, but also south central areas. Comparison of the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprints between the source and sink of transatlantic dust also suggests that a northwestward shift in dust source occurs from the winter, through the spring and into the summer. The isotopic data we develop here provide another tool for discriminating changes in dust archives resulting from paleoenvironmental evolution of source regions.

  12. A simplified Suomi NPP VIIRS dust detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yikun; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Jinshan; Wei, Jing; Su, Qinghua; Sun, Wenxiao; Liu, Fangwei; Shu, Meiyan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the complex characteristics of dust and sparse ground-based monitoring stations, dust monitoring is facing severe challenges, especially in dust storm-prone areas. Aim at constructing a high-precision dust storm detection model, a pixel database, consisted of dusts over a variety of typical feature types such as cloud, vegetation, Gobi and ice/snow, was constructed, and their distributions of reflectance and Brightness Temperatures (BT) were analysed, based on which, a new Simplified Dust Detection Algorithm (SDDA) for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP VIIRS) is proposed. NPP VIIRS images covering the northern China and Mongolian regions, where features serious dust storms, were selected to perform the dust detection experiments. The monitoring results were compared with the true colour composite images, and results showed that most of the dust areas can be accurately detected, except for fragmented thin dusts over bright surfaces. The dust ground-based measurements obtained from the Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System (MICAPS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index (OMI AI) products were selected for comparison purposes. Results showed that the dust monitoring results agreed well in the spatial distribution with OMI AI dust products and the MICAPS ground-measured data with an average high accuracy of 83.10%. The SDDA is relatively robust and can realize automatic monitoring for dust storms.

  13. Spectrophotometry of Dust in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Comets, such as Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1), are frozen reservoirs of primitive solar nebula dust grains and ices. Analysis of the composition of cometary dust grains from infrared spectroscopic techniques permits an estimation of the types of organic and inorganic materials that constituted the early primitive solar nebula. In addition, the cometary bombardment of the Earth (approximately 3.5 Gy ago) supplied the water for the oceans and brought organic materials to Earth which may have been biogenic. Spectroscopic observations of comet Hale-Bopp suggest the possible presence of organic hydrocarbon species, silicate and olivine dust grains, and water ice. Spectroscopy near 3 microns obtained in Nov 1996 r=2.393 AU, delta=3.034 AU) shows a feature which we attribute to PAH emission. The spatial morphology of the 3.28 microns PAH feature is also presented. Optical and infrared spectrophotometric observations of comets convey valuable information about the spatial distribution and properties of dust and gas within the inner coma. In the optical and NIR shortward of 2 microns, the observed light is primarily scattered sunlight from the dust grains. At longer wavelengths, particularly in the 10 gm window, thermal emission from these grains dominates the radiation allowing an accurate estimate of grain sizes and chemical composition. Here we present an initial analysis of spectra taken with the NASA HIFOGS at 7-14 microns as part of a multiwavelength temporal study of the "comet of the century".

  14. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloorani, Ali D; Nabavi, Seyed O; Bahrami, Hosain A; Mirzapour, Fardin; Kavosi, Musa; Abasi, Esmail; Azizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    One of the natural phenomena which have had considerable impacts on various regions of the world, including Iran, is "dust storm". In recent years, this phenomenon has taken on new dimensions in Iran and has changed from a local problem to a national issue. This study is an attempt to investigate the formation of the dust storms crossing the Western Iran. To find the sources of the dust storms entering Iran, first we examine three determined dust paths in the region and their temporal activities, using MODIS satellite images. Then, four regions were identified as dust sources through soil, land cover and wind data. Finally, atmospheric analyses are implemented to find synoptic patterns inducing dust storms. Source 1 has covered the region between the eastern banks of Euphrates and western banks of Tigris. Source 2 is in desert area of western and south-western Iraq. Finally source 3 is bounded in eastern and south-eastern deserts of Saudi Arabia called Rub-Al-Khali desert, or Empty Quarter. Moreover, south-eastern part of Iraq (source 4) was also determined as a secondary source which thickens the dust masses originating from the above mentioned sources. The study of synoptic circulations suggests that the dust storms originating from source 1 are formed due to the intense pressure gradient between the low-pressure system of Zagros and a high-pressure cell formed on Mediterranean Sea. The dust events in sources 2 and 3 are outcomes of the atmospheric circulations dominant in the cold period of the year in mid-latitudes.

  15. Singlet Oxygen Production by Illuminated Road Dust and Winter Street Sweepings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Gan, L.; Gao, S.; Hoy, K. S.; Kwasny, J. R.; Styler, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Road dust is an important urban source of primary particulate matter, especially in cities where sand and other traction materials are applied to roadways in winter. Although the composition and detrimental health effects of road dust are reasonably well characterized, little is currently known regarding its chemical behaviour. Motivated by our previous work, in which we showed that road dust is a photochemical source of singlet oxygen (1O2), we investigated 1O2 production by bulk winter street sweepings and by road dust collected in a variety of urban, industrial, and suburban locations in both autumn and spring. In all cases, the production of 1O2 by road dust was greater than that by Arizona test dust and desert-sourced dust, which highlights the unique photochemical environment afforded by this substrate. Mechanistically, we observed correlations between 1O2 production and the UV absorbance properties of dust extracts, which suggests the involvement of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the observed photochemistry. Taken together, this work provides evidence that road dust-mediated photochemistry may influence the environmental lifetime of pollutants that react via 1O2-mediated pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  17. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    In this talk I will describe the origin of dust in the early universe. I will be presenting observations of the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy J1148+5251, and present estimates of the dust mass in this high redshift (z=6.4) object. I will then discuss the origin of this dust, and the role of SN and AGB stars as dust sources, and the effect of SNRs on the destruction of dust in the interstellar medium of this galaxy.

  18. Grain size effect on Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in eolian dust. Implications for tracing dust provenance and Nd model age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jinliang; Zhu Liping; Zhen Xiaolin; Hu Zhaoguo

    2009-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions enable identification of dust sources and reconstruction of atmospheric dispersal pathways. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in eolian dust change systematically with grain size in ways not yet fully understood. This study demonstrates the grain size effect on the Sr and Nd isotopic compositions in loess and 2006 dust fall, based on analyses of seven separated grain size fractions. The analytical results indicate that Sr isotopic ratios strongly depend on the grain size fractions in samples from all types of eolian dust. In contrast, the Nd isotopic ratios exhibit little variation in loess, although they vary significantly with grain size in samples from a 2006 dust fall. Furthermore, Nd model ages tend to increase with increasing grain size in samples from all types of eolian dust. Comparatively, Sr isotopic compositions exhibit high sensitively to wind sorting, while Nd isotopic compositions show greater sensitively to dust origin. The principal cause for the different patterns of Sr and Nd isotopic composition variability with grain size appears related to the different geochemical behaviors between rubidium (Rb) and Sr, and the similar geochemical behaviors between samarium (Sm) and Nd. The Nd isotope data indicate that the various grain size fractions in loess have similar origins for each sample. In contrast, various provenance components may separate into different grain size fractions for the studied 2006 dust fall. The Sr and Nd isotope compositions further confirm that the 2006 dust fall and Pleistocene loess in Beijing have different sources. The loess deposits found in Beijing and those found on the Chinese Loess Plateau also derive from different sources. Variations between Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and Nd model ages with grain size need to be considered when directly comparing analyses of eolian dust of different grain size. (author)

  19. Implementation of dust emission and chemistry into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and initial application to an Asian dust storm episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system version 4.7 is further developed to enhance its capability in simulating the photochemical cycles in the presence of dust particles. The new model treatments implemented in CMAQ v4.7 in this work include two online dust emission schemes (i.e., the Zender and Westphal schemes, nine dust-related heterogeneous reactions, an updated aerosol inorganic thermodynamic module ISORROPIA II with an explicit treatment of crustal species, and the interface between ISORROPIA II and the new dust treatments. The resulting improved CMAQ (referred to as CMAQ-Dust, offline-coupled with the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF, is applied to the April 2001 dust storm episode over the trans-Pacific domain to examine the impact of new model treatments and understand associated uncertainties. WRF/CMAQ-Dust produces reasonable spatial distribution of dust emissions and captures the dust outbreak events, with the total dust emissions of ~111 and 223 Tg when using the Zender scheme with an erodible fraction of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The model system can reproduce well observed meteorological and chemical concentrations, with significant improvements for suspended particulate matter (PM, PM with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm, and aerosol optical depth than the default CMAQ v4.7. The sensitivity studies show that the inclusion of crustal species reduces the concentration of PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5 over polluted areas. The heterogeneous chemistry occurring on dust particles acts as a sink for some species (e.g., as a lower limit estimate, reducing O3 by up to 3.8 ppb (~9% and SO2 by up to 0.3 ppb (~27% and as a source for some others (e.g., increasing fine-mode SO42− by up to 1.1 μg m−3 (~12% and PM2.5 by up to 1.4 μg m−3 (~3% over the domain. The

  20. Probing the Cold Dust Emission in the AB Aur Disk: A Dust Trap in a Decaying Vortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asunción; Baruteau, Clément; Neri, Roberto; Carmona, Andrés; Agúndez, Marcelino; Goicoechea, Javier R; Bachiller, Rafael; Cernicharo, José; Berné, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    One serious challenge for planet formation is the rapid inward drift of pebble-sized dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Dust trapping at local maxima in the disk gas pressure has received much theoretical attention but still lacks observational support. The cold dust emission in the AB Aur disk forms an asymmetric ring at a radius of about 120 au, which is suggestive of dust trapping in a gas vortex. We present high spatial resolution (0".58×0".78 ≈ 80×110 au) NOEMA observations of the 1.12 mm and 2.22 mm dust continuum emission from the AB Aur disk. Significant azimuthal variations of the flux ratio at both wavelengths indicate a size segregation of the large dust particles along the ring. Our continuum images also show that the intensity variations along the ring are smaller at 2.22 mm than at 1.12 mm, contrary to what dust trapping models with a gas vortex have predicted. Our two-fluid (gas+dust) hydrodynamical simulations demonstrate that this feature is well explained if the gas vortex has started to decay due to turbulent diffusion, and dust particles are thus losing the azimuthal trapping on different timescales depending on their size. The comparison between our observations and simulations allows us to constrain the size distribution and the total mass of solid particles in the ring, which we find to be of the order of 30 Earth masses, enough to form future rocky planets.

  1. Probing the Cold Dust Emission in the AB Aur Disk: A Dust Trap in a Decaying Vortex?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, Asunción; Bachiller, Rafael [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN, IGN), Apdo 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Baruteau, Clément; Carmona, Andrés; Berné, Olivier [IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse (France); Neri, Roberto [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Agúndez, Marcelino; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, José, E-mail: a.fuente@oan.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    One serious challenge for planet formation is the rapid inward drift of pebble-sized dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Dust trapping at local maxima in the disk gas pressure has received much theoretical attention but still lacks observational support. The cold dust emission in the AB Aur disk forms an asymmetric ring at a radius of about 120 au, which is suggestive of dust trapping in a gas vortex. We present high spatial resolution (0.″58 × 0.″78 ≈ 80 × 110 au) NOEMA observations of the 1.12 mm and 2.22 mm dust continuum emission from the AB Aur disk. Significant azimuthal variations of the flux ratio at both wavelengths indicate a size segregation of the large dust particles along the ring. Our continuum images also show that the intensity variations along the ring are smaller at 2.22 mm than at 1.12 mm, contrary to what dust trapping models with a gas vortex have predicted. Our two-fluid (gas+dust) hydrodynamical simulations demonstrate that this feature is well explained if the gas vortex has started to decay due to turbulent diffusion, and dust particles are thus losing the azimuthal trapping on different timescales depending on their size. The comparison between our observations and simulations allows us to constrain the size distribution and the total mass of solid particles in the ring, which we find to be of the order of 30 Earth masses, enough to form future rocky planets.

  2. Reconstructing transport pathways for late Quaternary dust from eastern Australia using the composition of trace elements of long traveled dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Lynda M.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2009-04-01

    The southeast Australian dust transport corridor is the principal pathway through which continental emissions of dust from central and eastern Australia are carried to the oceans by the prevailing mid-latitude westerly circulation. The analysis of trace elements of aeolian dust, preserved in lake sediment on North Stradbroke Island, southeast Queensland, is used to reconstruct variation in the intensity and position of dust transport to the island over the past 25,000 yrs. Separation of local and long traveled dust content of lake sediments is achieved using a unique, four-element (Ga, Ni, Tl and Sc) separation method. The local and continental chronologies of aeolian deposition developed by this study show markedly different records, and indicate varied responses to climate variability on North Stradbroke Island (local aeolian sediment component) and in eastern and central Australia (long traveled dust component). The provenance of the continental component of the record to sub-geologic catchment scales was accomplished using a ternary mixing model in which the chemical identification of dusts extracted, from the lake sediments, was compared to potential chemical characteristics of surface dust from the source areas using 16 trace elements. The results indicate that the position and intensity of dust transport pathways during the late Quaternary varied considerably in response to changing atmospheric circulation patterns as well as to variations in sediment supply to dust source areas, which include the large anabranching river systems of the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling Basins.

  3. Identification of historical lead sources in roof dust and recent lake sediments from an industrialized are: Indications from lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenhall, B.E.; Depers, A.M.; Jones, B.G.; Chiaradia, M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence and stable lead (Pb) isotopic analyses have been undertaken on dusts, known from microscopic investigation to contain significant quantities of industrially- and urban-derived particulate matter, present in the roof cavities of houses in the Illawarra region (N.S.W., Australia), with the objective of examining the historic record of Pb pollution. All investigated houses contained in excess of 250 μg g -1 Pb, with dwellings close to a copper smelter, in a large industrial complex including a major steelworks, containing higher (>2500 μg g -1 ) Pb concentrations. The isotopic composition in the dusts, expressed here as 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, is relatively constant at 17.0, irrespective of dwelling age or distance from the industrial complex. Contamination of the dusts by Pb sourced from paint cannot explain the isotopic uniformity of the dust samples. Isotopic modelling indicates that the dusts contain Pb derived from the copper smelter, gasoline-air Pb and a minor contribution from the steelworks. Isotopic calculations, together with records of particulate pollution emission, indicate a link between the Pb in roof dusts and Pb contamination of the near surface lagoonal sediments. Over the last five decades, atmospheric fallout of Pb-bearing particulate matter appears to have been the dominant pathway for addition of Pb to the lagoon and dwellings in the Illawarra region

  4. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  5. Dust from southern Africa: rates of emission and biogeochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Zobeck, T. M.; Okin, G. S.; Dintwe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The stabilized linear dunefields in the southern Kalahari show signs of reactivation due to reduced vegetation cover owing to drought and/or overgrazing. It has been demonstrated with a laboratory dust generator that the southern Kalahari soils are good emitters of dust and that large-scale dune reactivation can potentially make the region an important dust source in the relatively low-dust Southern Hemisphere. We show that emergence of the southern Kalahari as a new dust source may affect ocean biogeochemistry as the soils are rich in soluble iron and the dust from the southern Kalahari commonly reaches the Southern Ocean. We investigate the biogeochemical properties of the fine fraction of soil from the Kalahari dunes and compare them to those of currently active dust sources such as the Makgadikgadi and the Etosha pans as well as other smaller pans in the region. Using field measurements of sediment fluxes and satellite images, we calculate the rates of dust emission from the southern Kalahari under different land cover scenarios. To assess the reversibility of dune reactivation in the southern Kalahari, we investigate the resilience of dunefield vegetation by looking at changes in soil nutrients, fine soil fractions, and seed bank in areas affected by intense denudation.

  6. Lead in Chinese villager house dust: Geographical variation and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2015-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to Pb exposure of children. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decoration materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with a median concentration of 42 mg/kg. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decoration materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that elemental compositions of the house dust were controlled by both anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the Pb bearing particles in the house dust were also studied. - Highlights: • Geographical variation in house dust Pb concentrations were observed. • Dust Pb concentrations were not associated with house age and decoration materials. • Soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution were potential Pb sources. • Pb bearing particles were identified by SEM-EDX. - The variations of Pb in Chinese villager house dust were controlled by outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution sources.

  7. EEG/MEG Source Reconstruction with Spatial-Temporal Two-Way Regularized Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva

    2013-07-11

    In this work, we propose a spatial-temporal two-way regularized regression method for reconstructing neural source signals from EEG/MEG time course measurements. The proposed method estimates the dipole locations and amplitudes simultaneously through minimizing a single penalized least squares criterion. The novelty of our methodology is the simultaneous consideration of three desirable properties of the reconstructed source signals, that is, spatial focality, spatial smoothness, and temporal smoothness. The desirable properties are achieved by using three separate penalty functions in the penalized regression framework. Specifically, we impose a roughness penalty in the temporal domain for temporal smoothness, and a sparsity-inducing penalty and a graph Laplacian penalty in the spatial domain for spatial focality and smoothness. We develop a computational efficient multilevel block coordinate descent algorithm to implement the method. Using a simulation study with several settings of different spatial complexity and two real MEG examples, we show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods that use only a subset of the three penalty functions. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  8. Enhancement and identification of dust events in the south-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in dust source regions, which have a negative impact on human health ... Keywords. MODIS; dust storm; visible; infrared; remote sensing; brightness temperature. 1 ... clouds can often be misinterpreted as dust. In order to ... dust aerosol outbreaks over land using satellite ... models were also used to track air parcels arriving.

  9. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  10. THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. IV. DISSECTING DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Michael; Ivezić, Željko; Brooks, Keira J.; Gibson, Robert R.; Jones, Lynne; Yoachim, Peter; Krughoff, Simon; Connolly, Andrew J.; Loebman, Sarah; Sesar, Branimir; Jurić, Mario; Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Bellovary, Jillian; Vrbanec, Dijana; Beers, Timothy C.; Schneider, Donald P.; Kimball, Amy; Bond, Nicholas A.; Schlegel, David

    2012-01-01

    We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously constrain best-fit main-sequence stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight toward each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, R V , can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes (|b| V = 3.0 ± 0.1(random)±0.1 (systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b| V and find that R V = 3.1 cannot be ruled out in any of the 10 SEGUE stripes at a precision level of ∼0.1-0.2. Our best estimate for the intrinsic scatter of R V in the regions probed by SEGUE stripes is ∼0.2. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed 'dusty parallax relation', which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format. These data can be used for studies of stellar number density distribution, the distribution of dust properties, for selecting sources whose SED differs from SEDs for high-latitude main-sequence stars, and for estimating distances to dust clouds and, in turn, to molecular gas clouds.

  11. Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Guanghui; Bi, Xiangyang; Zhu, Jianming; Qin, Haibo; Dai, Zhihui; Liu, Jinling; Li, Qiuhua; Sun, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    A series of representative street dust samples were collected from a heavily industrialized city, Zhuzhou, in central China, with the aim to investigate the spatial distribution and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloid elements. Concentrations of twelve elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, As, Sb, In, Bi, Tl, Ag and Ga) were distinctly amplified by atmospheric deposition resulting from a large scale Pb/Zn smelter located in the northwest fringe of the city, and followed a declining trend towards the city center. Three metals (W, Mo and Co) were enriched in samples very close to a hard alloy manufacturing plant, while Ni and Cr appeared to derive predominantly from natural sources. Other industries and traffic had neglectable effects on the accumulation of observed elements. Cd, In, Zn, Ag and Pb were the five metal/metalloids with highest pollution levels and the northwestern part of city is especially affected by heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  14. The Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Absorbing Aerosols over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litai Kang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols can strongly absorb solar radiation and have a profound impact on the global and regional climate. Black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC and dust are three major types of absorbing aerosols. In order to deepen the overall understanding of absorbing aerosols over East Asia and provide a basis for further investigation of its role in enhanced warming in drylands, the spatial-temporal distribution of absorbing aerosols over East Asia for the period of 2005–2016 was investigated based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI satellite retrievals. Overall, high values of Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth (AAOD mainly distribute near dust sources as well as BC and OC sources. AAOD reaches its maximum during spring over East Asia as a result of dust activity and biomass burning. Single-scattering albedo (SSA is comparatively high (>0.96 in the most part of East Asia in the summer, indicating the dominance of aerosol scattering. Hyper-arid regions have the highest Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and AAOD among the five climatic regions, with springtime values up to 0.72 and 0.04, respectively. Humid and sub-humid regions have relatively high AOD and AAOD during the spring and winter and the highest SSA during the summer. AAOD in some areas shows significant upward trends, which is likely due to the increase of BC and OC emission. SSA shows overall downward trends, indicating the enhancement of the aerosol absorption. Analysis of emission inventory and dust index data shows that BC and OC emissions mainly come from the humid regions, while dust sources mainly distribute in drylands.

  15. Dust grains from the heart of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchio, M.; Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Bianchi, S.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.

    2016-03-01

    Dust grains are classically thought to form in the winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However, there is increasing evidence today for dust formation in supernovae (SNe). To establish the relative importance of these two classes of stellar sources of dust, it is important to know the fraction of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta that is able to survive the passage of the reverse shock and be injected in the interstellar medium. With this aim, we have developed a new code, GRASH_Rev, that allows following the dynamics of dust grains in the shocked SN ejecta and computing the time evolution of the mass, composition, and size distribution of the grains. We considered four well-studied SNe in the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud: SN 1987A, CasA, the Crab nebula, and N49. These sources have been observed with both Spitzer and Herschel, and the multiwavelength data allow a better assessment the mass of warm and cold dust associated with the ejecta. For each SN, we first identified the best explosion model, using the mass and metallicity of the progenitor star, the mass of 56Ni, the explosion energy, and the circumstellar medium density inferred from the data. We then ran a recently developed dust formation model to compute the properties of freshly formed dust. Starting from these input models, GRASH_Rev self-consistently follows the dynamics of the grains, considering the effects of the forward and reverse shock, and allows predicting the time evolution of the dust mass, composition, and size distribution in the shocked and unshocked regions of the ejecta. All the simulated models aagree well with observations. Our study suggests that SN 1987A is too young for the reverse shock to have affected the dust mass. Hence the observed dust mass of 0.7-0.9 M⊙ in this source can be safely considered as indicative of the mass of freshly formed dust in SN ejecta. Conversely, in the other three SNe, the reverse shock has already destroyed between 10-40% of the

  16. Regional and climatic controls on seasonal dust deposition in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Urban, F.E.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical dust deposition rates (dust flux) are a complex response to the interaction of seasonal precipitation, wind, changes in plant cover and land use, dust source type, and local vs. distant dust emission in the southwestern U.S. Seasonal dust flux in the Mojave-southern Great Basin (MSGB) deserts, measured from 1999 to 2008, is similar in summer-fall and winter-spring, and antecedent precipitation tends to suppress dust flux in winter-spring. In contrast, dust flux in the eastern Colorado Plateau (ECP) region is much larger in summer-fall than in winter-spring, and twice as large as in the MSGB. ECP dust is related to wind speed, and in the winter-spring to antecedent moisture. Higher summer dust flux in the ECP is likely due to gustier winds and runoff during monsoonal storms when temperature is also higher. Source types in the MSGB and land use in the ECP have important effects on seasonal dust flux. In the MSGB, wet playas produce salt-rich dust during wetter seasons, whereas antecedent and current moisture suppress dust emission from alluvial and dry-playa sources during winter-spring. In the ECP under drought conditions, dust flux at a grazed-and-plowed site increased greatly, and also increased at three annualized, previously grazed sites. Dust fluxes remained relatively consistent at ungrazed and currently grazed sites that have maintained perennial vegetation cover. Under predicted scenarios of future climate change, these results suggest that an increase in summer storms may increase dust flux in both areas, but resultant effects will depend on source type, land use, and vegetation cover. ?? 2011.

  17. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  18. Phosphorus speciation and solubility in aeolian dust deposited in the interior American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuojun; Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Mengqiang

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian dust is a significant source of phosphorus (P) to alpine oligotrophic lakes, but P speciation in dust and source sediments and its release kinetics to lake water remain unknown. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that calcium-bound P (Ca−P) is dominant in 10 of 12 dust samples (41−74%) deposited on snow in the central Rocky Mountains and all 42 source sediment samples (the fine fraction) (68−80%), with a lower proportion in dust probably because acidic snowmelt dissolves some Ca−P in dust before collection. Iron-bound P (Fe−P, ∼54%) dominates in the remaining two dust samples. Chemical extractions (SEDEX) on these samples provide inaccurate results because of unselective extraction of targeted species and

  19. Dust: Small-scale processes with global consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G.S.; Bullard, J.E.; Reynolds, R.L.; Ballantine, J.-A.C.; Schepanski, K.; Todd, M.C.; Belnap, J.; Baddock, M.C.; Gill, T.E.; Miller, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Desert dust, both modern and ancient, is a critical component of the Earth system. Atmospheric dust has important effects on climate by changing the atmospheric radiation budget, while deposited dust influences biogeochemical cycles in the oceans and on land. Dust deposited on snow and ice decreases its albedo, allowing more light to be trapped at the surface, thus increasing the rate of melt and influencing energy budgets and river discharge. In the human realm, dust contributes to the transport of allergens and pathogens and when inhaled can cause or aggravate respiratory diseases. Dust storms also represent a significant hazard to road and air travel. Because it affects so many Earth processes, dust is studied from a variety of perspectives and at multiple scales, with various disciplines examining emissions for different purposes using disparate strategies. Thus, the range of objectives in studying dust, as well as experimental approaches and results, has not yet been systematically integrated. Key research questions surrounding the production and sources of dust could benefit from improved collaboration among different research communities. These questions involve the origins of dust, factors that influence dust production and emission, and methods through which dust can be monitored. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  20. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  1. Ulysses dust measurements near Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, E; Zook, H A; Baguhl, M; Fechtig, H; Hanner, M S; Kissel, J; Lindblad, B A; Linkert, D; Linkert, G; Mann, I B

    1992-09-11

    Submicrometer- to micrometer-sized particles were recorded by the Ulysses dust detector within 40 days of the Jupiter flyby. Nine impacts were recorded within 50 Jupiter radii with most of them recorded after closest approach. Three of these impacts are consistent with particles on prograde orbits around Jupiter and the rest are believed to have resulted from gravitationally focused interplanetary dust. From the ratio of the impact rate before the Jupiter flyby to the impact rate after the Jupiter flyby it is concluded that interplanetary dust particles at the distance of Jupiter move on mostly retrograde orbits. On 10 March 1992, Ulysses passed through an intense dust stream. The dust detector recorded 126 impacts within 26 hours. The stream particles were moving on highly inclined and apparently hyperbolic orbits with perihelion distances of >5 astronomical units. Interplanetary dust is lost rather quickly from the solar system through collisions and other mechanisms and must be almost continuously replenished to maintain observed abundances. Dust flux measurements, therefore, give evidence of the recent rates of production from sources such as comets, asteroids, and moons, as well as the possible presence of interstellar grains.

  2. Calculation of spatial distribution of the EURACOS II converter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, A.C.F. de

    1985-01-01

    It is obtained the neutron spatial flux from the EURACOS (Enriched Uranium Converter Source) device, adjusted to experimental measures. The EURACOS device is a converter source which is constituted a circle plate of highly enriched uranium (90%). The converter provides an intense source of fast neutrons which has the energetic spectrum near to the fission spectrum. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Impact of Asian Dust on Climate and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Tan, Qian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Dust generated from Asian permanent desert and desertification areas can be efficiently transported around the globe, making significant radiative impact through their absorbing and scattering solar radiation and through their deposition on snow and ice to modify the surface albedo. Asian dust is also a major concern of surface air quality not only in the source and immediate downwind regions but also areas thousands of miles away across the Pacific. We present here a global model, GOCART, analysis of data from satellite remote sensing instrument (MODIS, MISR, CALIPSO, OMI) and other observations on Asian dust sources, transport, and deposition, and use the model to assess the Asian dust impact on global climate and air quality.

  4. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements and metals in quasi-ultrafine (PM0.25) particles in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and characterization of their sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    Year-long sampling campaign of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM 0.25 ) was conducted at 10 distinct locations across the Los Angeles south coast air basin and concentrations of trace elements and metals were quantified at each site using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. In order to characterize sources of trace elements and metals, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the dataset. The major sources were identified as road dust (influenced by vehicular emissions as well as re-suspended soil), vehicular abrasion, residual oil combustion, cadmium sources and metal plating. These sources altogether accounted for approximately 85% of the total variance of quasi-ultrafine elemental content. The concentrations of elements originating from source and urban locations generally displayed a decline as we proceeded from the coast to the inland. Occasional concentration peaks in the rural receptor sites were also observed, driven by the dominant westerly/southwesterly wind transporting the particles to the receptor areas. -- Highlights: •We collected quasi-ultrafine samples at 10 locations across the Los Angeles Basin. •The concentration of trace elements and metals at each site were quantified. •Distinct temporal and spatial variability was observed across the basin. •Principal component analysis was applied to the data to characterize the sources. •Five major sources were identified for quasi-ultrafine elemental content. -- Characterization of sources of trace elements and metals in quasi-ultrafine particles in the Los Angeles south coast air basin and explaining their seasonal and spatial variability

  5. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  6. ORIGIN OF DUST AROUND V1309 SCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Lü, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    The origin of dust grains in the interstellar medium is still an unanswered problem. Nicholls et al. found the presence of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco, which may originate from the merger of a contact binary. We investigate the origin of dust around V1309 Sco and suggest that these dust grains are produced in the binary-merger ejecta. By means of the AGBDUST code, we estimate that ∼5.2 × 10 –4 M ☉ dust grains are produced with a radii of ∼10 –5 cm. These dust grains are mainly composed of silicate and iron grains. Because the mass of the binary merger ejecta is very small, the contribution of dust produced by binary merger ejecta to the overall dust production in the interstellar medium is negligible. However, it is important to note that the discovery of a significant amount of dust around V1309 Sco offers a direct support for the idea that common-envelope ejecta provides an ideal environment for dust formation and growth. Therefore, we confirm that common envelope ejecta can be important source of cosmic dust

  7. Assessment of state-of-the-art dust emission scheme in GEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenov, A.; Liu, X.; Prigent, C.

    2017-12-01

    The GEOS modeling system has been extended with state-of-the-art parameterization of dust emissions based on the vertical flux formulation described in Kok et al., 2014. The new dust scheme was coupled with the GOCART and MAM aerosol models. In the present study we compared dust emissions, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and radiative fluxes from GEOS experiments with the standard and new dust emissions. AOD from the model experiments were also compared with AERONET and satellite based AOD product. Based on this comparative analysis we concluded that the new parameterization improved the GEOS capability to model dust aerosols originating from African sources, however it led to overestimation of dust emissions from Asian and Middle-Eastern sources. Further regional tuning of key parameters controlling the threshold friction velocity may be required in order to attain more definitive and uniform improvement in the dust modeling skill with the newly implemented dust emissions scheme.

  8. Research and development in dust and silicosis suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, H

    1975-08-21

    MAK values of 4 mg/m/sup 3/ for respirable dust containing quartz and 0.15 mg/m/sup 3/ for respirable quartz dust have been established for 5 years' exposure in West German hard coal mines. Routine gravimetric measurements were introduced in 1974 and these are supplemented by the digital Tyndallometer which indicates short-term variations. Gravimetric measurements have indicated the main sources of dust and improved dust suppression measures have considerably reduced respirable dust concentrations in some cases, e.g., by seam infusion, by spraying of the face machine path and at crushers, and by dedusters on heading machines.

  9. THE 1.1 mm CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTION OF THE DUST-SELECTED CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya; Muller, Erik; Mizuno, Norikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Ezawa, Hajime [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Oshima, Tai; Kawabe, Ryohei [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Wilson, Grant W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-20

    The first 1.1 mm continuum survey toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was performed using the AzTEC instrument installed on the ASTE 10 m telescope. This survey covered 4.5 deg{sup 2} of the SMC with 1 σ noise levels of 5–12 mJy beam{sup −1}, and 44 extended objects were identified. The 1.1 mm extended emission has good spatial correlation with Herschel 160 μ m, indicating that the origin of the 1.1 mm extended emission is thermal emission from a cold dust component. We estimated physical properties using the 1.1 mm and filtered Herschel data (100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μ m). The 1.1 mm objects show dust temperatures of 17–45 K and gas masses of 4 × 10{sup 3}–3 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, assuming single-temperature thermal emission from the cold dust with an emissivity index, β , of 1.2 and a gas-to-dust ratio of 1000. These physical properties are very similar to those of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in our galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The 1.1 mm objects also displayed good spatial correlation with the Spitzer 24 μ m and CO emission, suggesting that the 1.1 mm objects trace the dense gas regions as sites of massive star formation. The dust temperature of the 1.1 mm objects also demonstrated good correlation with the 24 μ m flux connected to massive star formation. This supports the hypothesis that the heating source of the cold dust is mainly local star-formation activity in the 1.1 mm objects. The classification of the 1.1 mm objects based on the existence of star-formation activity reveals the differences in the dust temperature, gas mass, and radius, which reflects the evolution sequence of GMCs.

  10. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  11. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-11-26

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist.

  12. Evolution of interstellar dust in light of Herschel Space Observatory data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Heddy

    2012-01-01

    Interstellar dust grains are nanometer to micrometer sized particles. Although a weak proportion of the total interstellar mass is at solid state, dust plays a fundamental role in the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) and of the galaxy itself. Grains can be observed in the UV and visible wavelength through extinction whereas their emission is in the infrared to submillimeter range. Astrophysical observations combined to numerical models and laboratory studies of dust analogs improve our comprehension of the nature and the physics of interstellar grains. For example, evidence of dust evolution in the interstellar medium are now numerous, even if the physical processes responsible of this evolution are still poorly understood. Understanding how grains evolve with physical conditions requires observations of various environments. Photodissociation regions (PDRs) are zones of the ISM where the radiation field and the local density vary on short spatial scales (∼10''- 20''). Moreover the many gas tracers offer the opportunity to constraint efficiently the physical conditions within PDRs. Past missions such as ISO and Spitzer allow to study the evolution of dust in the near-Infrared range. At longer wavelengths, where the emission is dominated by the grains at thermal equilibrium with the radiation, instruments rarely resolved the spatial emission in PDRs. PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard Herschel Space Observatory provide spectro-photometric data between 70 and 500 μm. Their high spatial resolution (from 5 to 35 arcmin) makes these observations ideal for the study of dust evolution in PDRs. We present here an analysis of Herschel observations of three PDRs: the Orion Bar, the Horsehead and NGC 7023 East, characterized by different physical conditions. By combining these data with shorter wavelength observations from Spitzer, we can study the dust emission spectrum from 3.6 to 500 μm at different positions within the PDR. Intensity profiles are extracted

  13. Normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of dust concentration nearby emission source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important component of air. Nowadays, major attention is payed to fine dust. It has considerable environmental impact, including adverse effect on human health. One of important issues regarding PM is the temporal variation of its concentration. The variation contains information about factors influencing this quantity in time. The work focuses on the character of PM concentration dynamics indoors, in the vicinity of emission source. The objective was to recognize between the homogeneous or heterogeneous dynamics. The goal was achieved by detecting normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of PM concentration. For this purpose we used anomalous diffusion exponent, β which was derived from Mean Square Displacement (MSD) analysis. The information about PM concentration dynamics may be used to design sampling strategy, which serves to attain representative information about PM behavior in time. The data analyzed in this work was collected from single-point PM concentration monitoring in the vicinity of seven emission sources in industrial environment. In majority of cases we observed heterogeneous character of PM concentration dynamics. It confirms the complexity of interactions between the emission sources and indoor environment. This result also votes against simplistic approach to PM concentration measurement indoors, namely their occasional character, short measurement periods and long term averaging.

  14. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    comparing the spatial pattern of predicted wind stress lifting with a catalog of observed local storms. Better agreement is achieved in the radiatively active cloud case. These results suggest that wind stress lifting may contribute more to maintaining the background dust haze during NH spring and summer than what previous studies have shown.

  15. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350μm = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10 7 M ⊙ and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  16. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Ho, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S{sub 350μm} = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  18. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Miao, E-mail: hemiao.cmu@gmail.com [Environment and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Research Center, College of Public Health, China Medical University, 11001 Shenyang (China); Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi, E-mail: ichinose@oita-nhs.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Song, Yuan, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: songyuan1107@163.com [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi, E-mail: arashi@snow.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi, E-mail: syoshida@oita-nhs.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Liu, Boying, E-mail: boyingliu321@gmail.com [Environment and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Research Center, College of Public Health, China Medical University, 11001 Shenyang (China); Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka, E-mail: mnishi@nies.go.jp [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 305-8506 Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa, E-mail: htakano@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environmental Health Division, Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and β-glucan (ASD1 < ASD2) and SiO{sub 2} (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 < ASD2) and chemokine eotaxin (ASD1 > ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and β-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 −/−), TLR4 −/−, and MyD88 −/− mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 −/− BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1α secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 −/− BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 −/− BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. • The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. • The ASDs contained different LPS and β-glucan (ASD1

  19. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Liu, Boying; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and β-glucan (ASD1 2 (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and β-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 −/−), TLR4 −/−, and MyD88 −/− mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 −/− BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1α secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 −/− BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 −/− BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO 2 . - Highlights: • Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. • The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. • The ASDs contained different LPS and β-glucan (ASD1 2 (ASD1 > ASD2). • The ASD2 aggravating effects on lung

  20. Reconciling PM10 analyses by different sampling methods for Iron King Mine tailings dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Félix, Omar I; Gonzales, Patricia; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The overall project objective at the Iron King Mine Superfund site is to determine the level and potential risk associated with heavy metal exposure of the proximate population emanating from the site's tailings pile. To provide sufficient size-fractioned dust for multi-discipline research studies, a dust generator was built and is now being used to generate size-fractioned dust samples for toxicity investigations using in vitro cell culture and animal exposure experiments as well as studies on geochemical characterization and bioassay solubilization with simulated lung and gastric fluid extractants. The objective of this study is to provide a robust method for source identification by comparing the tailing sample produced by dust generator and that collected by MOUDI sampler. As and Pb concentrations of the PM10 fraction in the MOUDI sample were much lower than in tailing samples produced by the dust generator, indicating a dilution of Iron King tailing dust by dust from other sources. For source apportionment purposes, single element concentration method was used based on the assumption that the PM10 fraction comes from a background source plus the Iron King tailing source. The method's conclusion that nearly all arsenic and lead in the PM10 dust fraction originated from the tailings substantiates our previous Pb and Sr isotope study conclusion. As and Pb showed a similar mass fraction from Iron King for all sites suggesting that As and Pb have the same major emission source. Further validation of this simple source apportionment method is needed based on other elements and sites.

  1. Origin of Harmattan dust settled in Northern Ghana – Long transported or local dust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry; Awadzi, Theodore W; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is that the majority of dust deposited in northern Ghana may not be from the original Harmattan source in the Bodélé Depression. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the origin of deposited dust in Tamale, Ghana. This is examined by comparing wind data, grain size distribution, mineralogical......The Harmattan is a dry, dust-laden continental wind which has its origin in the Bodélé Depression in the Chad basin. In Ghana the Harmattan can be experienced from November to March, when the Harmattan replaces the dominant south westerly maritime Monsoon wind. The hypothesis of this study...... and geochemical data from dust samples deposited during the Harmattan and Monsoon seasons, and topsoil. This study shows that despite a clear difference between the wind directions in the Harmattan and Monsoon seasons in Tamale, northern Ghana, no distinct differences are observed between the mineral or elemental...

  2. EVIDENCE FOR DUST CLEARING THROUGH RESOLVED SUBMILLIMETER IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. M.; Blake, G. A.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.; Dullemond, C. P.; Williams, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations have revealed a small subclass of circumstellar disks with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of large inner gaps with low dust content. However, such data provide only an indirect and model-dependent method of finding central holes. Imaging of protoplanetry disks provides an independent check of SED modeling. We present here the direct characterization of three 33-47 AU radii inner gaps, in the disks around LkHα 330, SR 21N, and HD 135344B, via 340 GHz (880 μm) dust continuum aperture synthesis observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The large gaps are fully resolved at ∼0.''3 by the SMA data and mostly empty of dust, with less than (1-7.5) x 10 -6 M sun of fine grained solids inside the holes. Gas (as traced by atomic accretion markers and CO 4.7 μm rovibrational emission) is still present in the inner regions of all three disks. For each, the inner hole exhibits a relatively steep rise in dust emission to the outer disk, a feature more likely to originate from the gravitational influence of a companion body than from a process expected to show a more shallow gradient like grain growth. Importantly, the good agreement between the spatially resolved data and spectrophotometry-based models lends confidence to current interpretations of SEDs, wherein the significant dust emission deficits arise from disks with inner gaps or holes. Further SED-based searches can therefore be expected to yield numerous additional candidates that can be examined at high spatial resolution.

  3. Spitzer Observations of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 During Deep Impact : Water and Dust Production and Spatial Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005 (rh = 1.506 AU). Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope (ΔSpitzer = 0.72 AU) at different times around the Deep Impact event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations (Lisse et al 2006, Sciences 313, 635) were taken from the Spitzer data archive. We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 µm spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. On the first stage we studied the water ν2 vibrational band emission at 6.4µm, which is present in most spectra. The water production rate before impact is deduced ( 4.25e27 molecules/sec). In order to study both the amount and origin of the water molecules released after impact, we used extractions centered on the nucleus and along the length of the slit. We analyzed the spatial distribution of water and its time evolution with a time-dependent model which describes the evolution of the water cloud after impact. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the evolution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  4. Dust emission: small-scale processes with global consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Ballantine, John-Andrew C.; Schepanski, Kerstin; Todd, Martin C.; Belnap, Jayne; Baddock, Matthew C.; Gill, Thomas E.; Miller, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Desert dust, both modern and ancient, is a critical component of the Earth system. Atmospheric dust has important effects on climate by changing the atmospheric radiation budget, while deposited dust influences biogeochemical cycles in the oceans and on land. Dust deposited on snow and ice decreases its albedo, allowing more light to be trapped at the surface, thus increasing the rate of melt and influencing energy budgets and river discharge. In the human realm, dust contributes to the transport of allergens and pathogens and when inhaled can cause or aggravate respiratory diseases. Dust storms also represent a significant hazard to road and air travel. Because it affects so many Earth processes, dust is studied from a variety of perspectives and at multiple scales, with various disciplines examining emissions for different purposes using disparate strategies. Thus, the range of objectives in studying dust, as well as experimental approaches and results, has not yet been systematically integrated. Key research questions surrounding the production and sources of dust could benefit from improved collaboration among different research communities. These questions involve the origins of dust, factors that influence dust production and emission, and methods through which dust can be monitored.

  5. Systematic characterization of structural, dynamical and electrical properties of dust devils and implications for dust lifting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzese, Gabriele; Esposito, Francesca; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Popa, Ciprian; Silvestro, Simone; Deniskina, Natalia; Cozzolino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    scale. Instead, on Mars the presence of the dust devils has been confirmed at almost every latitude and altitude and it has been indicated as the possible main source of suspended dust outside the storm seasons. Hence, the study of the dust devils becomes of great importance in order to understand the atmospheric dust loading and the global climate of the planet. In addition, the dust lifting phenomena are probably one of the main source of atmospheric electrification on Mars and the measurement and study of the Martian boundary layer electric field is one of the main objectives of the future Martian space missions, such as ExoMars 2020. Indeed, this mission will accommodate "Dust Complex", a suite of sensors that will monitor lifted dust and atmospheric electric field on the surface of Mars. For these reasons, the present work represents a useful tool for the understanding of the dust lifting phenomena and their electrification both on Earth and on Mars.

  6. Investigation of snow cover dust pollution by contact and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raputa, Vladimir F.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.

    2015-11-01

    The problems of reconstructing the snow cover pollution fields from dusting, point, linear and area sources according to ground and satellite observations are considered. Using reconstruction models, the methods of the combined analysis of the characteristic images of snow cover pollution haloes in the vicinity of sources of dust and contact data observations have been developed. On the basis of the numerical data analysis of ground monitoring and satellite imagery, the stable quantitative regularities between the fields of dust fallouts and the intensity of a change of tones of gray in the radial directions relative to the main sources are identified.

  7. Mapping the three-dimensional dust extinction towards the supernova remnant S147 - the S147 dust cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.-Q.; Liu, X.-W.; Ren, J.-J.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Yu, B.; Xiang, M.-S.; Wang, C.; Tian, Z.-J.; Zhang, H.-W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) extinction analysis in the region towards the supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7) using multiband photometric data from the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (XSTPS-GAC), 2MASS and WISE. We isolate a previously unrecognized dust structure likely to be associated with SNR S147. The structure, which we term as 'S147 dust cloud', is estimated to have a distance d = 1.22 ± 0.21 kpc, consistent with the conjecture that S147 is associated with pulsar PSR J0538 + 2817. The cloud includes several dense clumps of relatively high extinction that locate on the radio shell of S147 and coincide spatially with the CO and gamma-ray emission features. We conclude that the usage of CO measurements to trace the SNR associated MCs is unavoidably limited by the detection threshold, dust depletion and the difficulty of distance estimates in the outer Galaxy. 3D dust extinction mapping may provide a better way to identify and study SNR-MC interactions.

  8. Mass transfer of PBDEs from plastic TV casing to indoor dust via three migration pathways — A test chamber investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauert, C.; Harrad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in humans with substantial exposure thought to occur in indoor environments and particularly via contact with indoor dust. Despite this, knowledge of how PBDEs migrate to indoor dust from products within which they are incorporated is scarce. This study utilises an in-house designed and built test chamber to investigate the relative significance of different mechanisms via which PBDEs transfer from source materials to dust, using a plastic TV casing treated with the Deca-BDE formulation as a model source. Experiments at both room temperature and 60 °C revealed no detectable transfer of PBDEs from the TV casing to dust via volatilisation and subsequent partitioning. In contrast, substantial transfer of PBDEs to dust was detected when the TV casing was abraded using a magnetic stirrer bar. Rapid and substantial PBDE transfer to dust was also observed in experiments in which dust was placed in direct contact with the source. Based on these experiments, we suggest that for higher molecular weight PBDEs like BDE-209; direct dust:source contact is the principal pathway via which source-to-dust transfer occurs. - Highlights: • Transfer from a TV casing to dust of high molecular weight PBDEs examined. • Direct source:dust contact effected rapid and most substantial transfer. • Substantial source:dust transfer also occurred via abrasion of source

  9. Transport of Mineral Dust and Its Impact on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schepanski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust plays a pivotal role in the Earth’s system. Dust modulates the global energy budget directly via its interactions with radiation and indirectly via its influence on cloud and precipitation formation processes. Dust is a micro-nutrient and fertilizer for ecosystems due to its mineralogical composition and thus impacts on the global carbon cycle. Hence, dust aerosol is an essential part of weather and climate. Dust suspended in the air is determined by the atmospheric dust cycle: Dust sources and emission processes define the amount of dust entrained into the atmosphere. Atmospheric mixing and circulation carry plumes of dust to remote places. Ultimately, dust particles are removed from the atmosphere by deposition processes such as gravitational settling and rain wash out. During its residence time, dust interacts with and thus modulates the atmosphere resulting into changes such as in surface temperature, wind, clouds, and precipitation rates. There are still uncertainties regarding individual dust interactions and their relevance. Dust modulates key processes that are inevitably influencing the Earth energy budget. Dust transport allows for these interactions and at the same time, the intermittency of dust transport introduces additional fluctuations into a complex and challenging system.

  10. Tracing source, distribution and health risk of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in street dust of Durgapur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Manash; Masto, Reginald Ebhin; George, Joshy; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2018-06-15

    Street dust samples from Durgapur, the steel city of eastern India, were collected from five different land use patterns, i.e., national highways, urban residential area, sensitive area, industrial area and busy traffic zone during summer, monsoon, and winter to analyze the pollution characteristics, chemical fractionation, source apportionment and health risk of heavy metals (HMs). The samples were fractionated into ≤ 53 µm and analyzed for potentially harmful elements (PHEs) viz. Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Summer season indicated higher concentrations of PHEs when compared to the other two seasons. Mean enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), and contamination factor (CF) were high for Cd followed by Pb during all the three season in Durgapur. Chemical fractionation was executed in order to obtain distribution patterns of PHEs and to evaluate their bioavailable fractions in street dust samples. Mn was found to be highly bioavailable and bioavailability of the PHEs were in the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu > Fe > Cr. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, correlation analysis indicated the main sources of PHEs could be industrial, especially coal powered thermal plant, iron and steel industries and cement industries and vehicular. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that sites, seasons and their interaction were significantly affected by different PHEs as a whole. The health risk was calculated with total metal as well as mobile fraction of PHEs, which indicated that the actual non-carcinogenic risk due to bioavailable PHEs was less (HI < 1) when compared to total concentrations of PHEs. Carcinogenic risk was observed for total Cr in street dust (Child: 4.6E-06; Adult: 3.6E-06). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Origin-Dependent Variations in the Atmospheric Microbiome in Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Y.; Gat, D.

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms carried by dust storms are transported through the atmosphere and may affect human health and the functionality of microbial communities in various environments. Characterizing the dust-borne microbiome in dust storms of different origins, or that followed different trajectories, provides valuable data to improve our understanding of global health and environmental impacts. We present a comparative study on the diversity of dust- borne bacterial communities in dust storms from three distinct origins—North Africa, Syria and Saudi Arabia—and compare them with local bacterial communities sampled on clear days, all collected at a single location, in Israel. Storms from different dust origins exhibited distinct bacterial communities, with signature bacterial taxa for each source. Dust storms were characterized by a lower abundance of selected antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) compared with ambient dust, asserting that the origin of these genes is local, possibly anthropogenic. With the progression of the storm, the storm-borne bacterial community showed increasing resemblance to ambient dust, suggesting mixing with local dust. We will also discuss how exposure to dust containing biological components affect lung epithelial cells. These results show, for the first time, that dust storms from different sources display distinct bacterial communities, suggesting possible distinct effects on the environment and public health.

  12. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  13. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  14. Organophosphate esters and phthalate esters in human hair from rural and urban areas, Chongqing, China: Concentrations, composition profiles and sources in comparison to street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-Jing; Lu, Jun-Feng; Ma, Jing-Ye; Wang, Huan; Du, Xiao-Fan

    2018-06-01

    Human hair and street dust from rural and urban areas in Chongqing were collected to analyze Organophosphate esters (OPEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Concentrations of OPEs in urban hair were significantly higher than those in rural hair, whereas PAEs concentrations in rural hair were significantly higher than those in urban hair. Different composition patterns of OPEs were observed in rural and urban hair, where tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris (butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the dominating analogues in rural hair, accounting for 62.1% of the OPEs burden, and tris (methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) exhibited a high contribution in urban hair, responsible for 51.3% of total OPEs, which differed from the composition profiles in corresponding street dust. Analogous composition patterns of PAEs were found in hair of both areas. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DNBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the most abundant analogues in hair samples, while DEHP was the predominant analogue in dust samples. No clear tendency was obtained between the increasing ages and the concentrations of both compounds. Most OPEs and PAEs congeners showed significantly positive correlation with one another in rural hair. On the contrary, different correlation patterns were observed in urban hair for OPEs and PAEs, indicating multiple or additional sources existed in urban areas. Significant correlations of OPEs and PAEs were found between hair and corresponding street dust samples, but poor correlations of OPEs and PAEs were observed between rural hair and rural indoor dust, suggesting that street dust may be a predominant exogenous source for human exposure to OPEs and PAEs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation

  16. Dust control at Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissell, F.; Jurani, R.; Dresel, R.; Reaux, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests indicated that air leakage from the TBM head, the primary ventilation duct, and movement of the conveyor belt were all significant sources of dust. Conventional dust control approaches yielded no significant reductions in dust levels. A novel alternative was to install an air cleaning station on a rear deck of the TBM trailing gear. It filtered dust from the contaminated intake air and discharged clean air towards the front of the TBM. The practical effect was to produce dust levels below the exposure limit for all TBM locations except close to the head. In the Cross Drift, better ventilation and an extra set of dust seals on the TBM served to cut down the leakage of dust from the TBM cutter head. However, the conveyor belt was much dustier than the belt in the main loop drift. The problem originated with dirt on the bottom of the belt return side and much spillage from the belt top side. Achieving lower dust levels in hard rock tunneling operations will require new approaches as well as a more meticulous application of existing technology. Planning for dust control will require specific means to deal with dust that leaks from the TBM head, dust that originates with leaky ventilation systems, and dust that comes from conveyor belts. Also, the application of water could be more efficient if automatic controls were used to adjust the water flow

  17. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  18. New methods and standards for fine dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielvogel, Juergen; Hartstock, Stefan; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    There seems to be common agreement that PM10 is a suboptimal quantity for the quantification of potential dangers from fine dust due to a number of reasons, notably because the chemical composition of the particles is not considered, because the size distribution is disregarded, and because of sampling artefacts. In a first step for improving the particle measurements, the European Community has published new directives for ambient air in June 2008 (EU 2008), which as a main part included new regulations for PM2.5 measurements, in addition to the further on valid regulations for PM10. The comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 may allow a source apportionment and a better assessment of the influence of fine dust on human health. The source apportionment may allow more effective fine dust reduction strategies.

  19. Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma keV x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschetto, D.; Mourou, G.; Rousse, A.; Mordovanakis, A.; Hou, Bixue; Nees, J.; Kumah, D.; Clarke, R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors use Fresnel diffraction from knife-edges to demonstrate the spatial coherence of a tabletop ultrafast x-ray source produced by laser-plasma interaction. Spatial coherence is achieved in the far field by producing micrometer-scale x-ray spot dimensions. The results show an x-ray source size of 6 μm that leads to a transversal coherence length of 20 μm at a distance of 60 cm from the source. Moreover, they show that the source size is limited by the spatial spread of the absorbed laser energy

  20. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy....

  1. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    ), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  2. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Feng, Tian; Zhao, Shuyu; Xing, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs) to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW). Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR) and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP). To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust) is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei). When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from -5 to -15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of -12.4 % (-19.2 µg m-3) in BTH and -7.6 % (-10.1 µg m-3) in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the dominant reason for [PMC] decrease in the NCP

  3. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW. Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP. To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from −5 to −15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of −12.4 % (−19.2 µg m−3 in BTH and −7.6 % (−10.1 µg m−3 in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the

  4. Saharan dust levels in Greece and received inhalation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mitsakou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The desert of Sahara is one of the major sources of mineral dust on Earth, producing around 2×108 tons/yr. Under certain weather conditions, dust particles from Saharan desert get transported over the Mediterranean Sea and most of Europe. The limiting values set by the directive EC/30/1999 of European Union can easily be exceeded by the transport of desert dust particles in the south European Region and especially in urban areas, where there is also significant contribution from anthropogenic sources. In this study, the effects of dust transport on air quality in several Greek urban areas are quantified. PM10 concentration values from stationary monitoring stations are compared to dust concentrations for the 4-year period 2003–2006. The dust concentration values in the Greek areas were estimated by the SKIRON modelling system coupled with embedded algorithms describing the dust cycle. The mean annual dust contribution to daily-averaged PM10 concentration values was found to be around or even greater than 10% in the urban areas throughout the years examined. Natural dust transport may contribute by more than 20% to the annual number of exceedances – PM10 values greater than EU limits – depending on the specific monitoring location. In a second stage of the study, the inhaled lung dose received by the residents in various Greek locations is calculated. The particle deposition efficiency of mineral dust at the different parts of the human respiratory tract is determined by applying a lung dosimetry numerical model, which incorporates inhalation dynamics and aerosol physical processes. The inhalation dose from mineral dust particles was greater in the upper respiratory system (extrathoracic region and less significant in the lungs, especially in the sensitive alveolar region. However, in cases of dust episodes, the amounts of mineral dust deposited along the human lung are comparable to those

  5. Characterization of the Temporal-Spatial Variability of Trans-Atlantic Dust Transport Based on CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Atlantic dust transport has important implications for human and ecosystem health, the terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycle, weather systems, and climate. A reliable assessment of these influences requires the characterization of dust distributions in three dimensions and over long time periods. We provide an observation-based multiyear estimate of trans-Atlantic dust transport by using a 7-year (2007 - 2013) lidar record from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. We estimate that on a basis of the 7-year average and integration over 10S - 30N, 182 Tg a-1 dust leaves the coast of North Africa at 15W, of which 132 Tg a-1 and 43 Tg a-1 reaches 35W and 75W, respectively. These flux estimates have an overall known uncertainty of (45 - 70). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 - 48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8 - 50) kg ha-1 a-1. This imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006 - 0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 - 39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which is comparable to the loss of phosphorus to rainfall. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the magnitude of total dust transport and its meridional and vertical distributions. The observed large interannual variability of annual dust transport is highly anti-correlated with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index. Comparisons of CALIPSO measurements with surface-based observations and model simulations will also be discussed.

  6. RR Tel: Determination of Dust Properties During Minimum Obscuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkić T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available the ISO infrared spectra and the SAAO long-term JHKL photometry of RR Tel in the epochs during minimum obscuration are studied in order to construct a circumstellar dust model. the spectral energy distribution in the near- and the mid-IR spectral range (1–15 μm was obtained for an epoch without the pronounced dust obscuration. the DUSTY code was used to solve the radiative transfer through the dust and to determine the circumstellar dust properties of the inner dust regions around the Mira component. Dust temperature, maximum grain size, dust density distribution, mass-loss rate, terminal wind velocity and optical depth are determined. the spectral energy distribution and the long-term JHKL photometry during an epoch of minimum obscuration show almost unattenuated stellar source and strong dust emission which cannot be explained by a single dust shell model. We propose a two-component model consisting of an optically thin circmustellar dust shell and optically thick dust outside the line of sight in some kind of a flattened geometry, which is responsible for most of the observed dust thermal emission.

  7. Hybrid Simulations of Plasma-Neutral-Dust Interactions at Enceladus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.; Russell, C. T.; Jia, Y. D.; Tokar, R. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Leisner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Through ejection from its southern hemisphere, Enceladus is a dominant source of neutral gas and dust in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The interaction of the corotating plasma with the gas and dust modifies the plasma environment around Enceladus. We use 3-D hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations to examine the effects of gas and dust on the nature of the interaction region and use Cassini observations to constrain their properties.

  8. The concentration, source and deposition flux of ammonium and nitrate in atmospheric particles during dust events at a coastal site in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaohuan; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Ruifeng; Chen, Xiaojing; Lin, Xuehui; Gao, Huiwang; Liu, Ruhai

    2018-01-01

    Asian dust has been reported to carry anthropogenic reactive nitrogen during transport from source areas to the oceans. In this study, we attempted to characterize NH4+ and NO3- in atmospheric particles collected at a coastal site in northern China during spring dust events from 2008 to 2011. Based on the mass concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in each total suspended particle (TSP) sample, the samples can be classified into increasing or decreasing types. In Category 1, the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were 20-440 % higher in dust day samples relative to samples collected immediately before or after a dust event. These concentrations decreased by 10-75 % in the dust day samples in Categories 2 and 3. Back trajectory analysis suggested that multiple factors, such as the transport distance prior to the reception site, the mixing layer depth on the transport route and the residence time across highly polluted regions, might affect the concentrations of NH4+ and NO3-. NH4+ in the dust day samples was likely either in the form of ammonium salts existing separately to dust aerosols or as the residual of incomplete reactions between ammonium salts and carbonate salts. NO3- in the dust day samples was attributed to various formation processes during the long-range transport. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model results showed that the contribution of soil dust increased from 23 to 36 % on dust days, with decreasing contributions from local anthropogenic inputs and associated secondary aerosols. The estimated deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- varied greatly from event to event; e.g., the dry deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- increased by 9-285 % in Category 1 but decreased by 46-73 % in Category 2. In Category 3, the average dry deposition fluxes of particulate nitrate and ammonium decreased by 46 % and increased by 10 %, respectively, leading to 11-48 % decrease in the fluxes of NNH4++NO3-.

  9. Paleo-dust insights onto dust-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust emissions are affected by changing climate conditions, and in turn dust impacts the atmospheric radiation budget, clouds and biogeochemical cycles. Climate and public health dust-related issues call for attention on the fate of the dust cycle in the future, and the representation of the dust cycle is now part of the strategy of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4 and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (PMIP4-CMIP6). Since mineral aerosols are one of the most important natural aerosols, understanding past dust responses to climate in the paleoclimate will allow us to better understand mineral aerosol feedbacks with climate and biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene. Modern observations and paleoclimate records offer the possibility of multiple, complementary views on the global dust cycle, and allow to validate and/or constrain the numerical representation of dust in climate and Earth system models. We present our results from a set of simulations with the Community Earth System Model for different climate states, including present and past climates such as the pre-industrial, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of simulations including a prognostic dust cycle was thoroughly compared with a wide set of present day observations from different platforms and regions, in order to realistically constrain the magnitude of dust load, surface concentration, deposition, optical properties, and particle size distributions. The magnitude of emissions for past climate regimes was constrained based on compilations of paleodust mass accumulation rates and size distributions, as well as based on information on dust provenance. The comparison with a parallel set of simulations without dust allows estimating the impacts of dust on surface climate. We analyze impacts of dust on the mean and variability of surface temperature and precipitation in each climate state, as well as the impacts that changing dust emissions had

  10. Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G.; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.

  11. 40 CFR 63.545 - Standards for fugitive dust sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage piles, wet suppression applied to storage piles with sufficient frequency and quantity to prevent...) Materials storage and handling area—partial enclosure of storage piles, wet suppression applied to storage piles with sufficient frequency and quantity to prevent the formation of dust, vehicle wash at each exit...

  12. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  13. Influences of natural emission sources (wildfires and Saharan dust) on the urban organic aerosol in Barcelona (Western Mediterranean Basis) during a PM event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend L; Lopez, Jordi F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-11-01

    The urban air quality in Barcelona in the Western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by overall high particulate matter (PM) concentrations, due to intensive local anthropogenic emissions and specific meteorological conditions. Moreover, on several days, especially in summer, natural PM sources, such as long-range transported Saharan dust from Northern Africa or wildfires on the Iberian Peninsula and around the Mediterranean Basin, may influence the levels and composition of the organic aerosol. In the second half of July 2009, daily collected PM(10) filter samples in an urban background site in Barcelona were analyzed on organic tracer compounds representing several emission sources. During this period, an important PM peak event was observed. Individual organic compound concentrations increased two to five times during this event. Although highest increase was observed for the organic tracer of biomass burning, the contribution to the organic aerosol was estimated to be around 6 %. Organic tracers that could be related to Saharan dust showed no correlation with the PM and OC levels, while this was the case for those related to fossil fuel combustion from traffic emissions. Moreover, a change in the meteorological conditions gave way to an overall increase of the urban background contamination. Long-range atmospheric transport of organic compounds from primary emissions sources (i.e., wildfires and Saharan dust) has a relatively moderate impact on the organic aerosol in an urban area where the local emissions are dominating.

  14. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  15. Lead isotopes combined with a sequential extraction procedure for source apportionment in the dry deposition of Asian dust and non-Asian dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Lead isotopic compositions were determined in leachates that were generated using sequential extractions of dry deposition samples of Asian dust (AD) and non-Asian dust (NAD) and Chinese desert soils, and used to apportion Pb sources. Results showed significant differences in "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb isotopic compositions in non-residual fractions between the dry deposition samples and the Chinese desert soils while "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb isotopic compositions in residual fraction of the dry deposition of AD and NAD were similar to the mean "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb in residual fraction of the Alashan Plateau soil. These results indicate that the geogenic materials of the dry deposition of AD and NAD were largely influenced by the Alashan Plateau soil, while the secondary sources of the dry deposition were different from those of the Chinese desert soils. In particular, the lead isotopic compositions in non-residual fractions of the dry deposition were homogenous, which implies that the non-residual four fractions (F1 to F4) shared the primary anthropogenic origin. "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb values and the predominant wind directions in the study area suggested that airborne particulates of heavily industrialized Chinese cities were one of the main Pb sources. Source apportionment calculations showed that the average proportion of anthropogenic Pb in the dry deposition of AD and NAD was 87% and 95% respectively in total Pb extraction, 92% and 97% in non-residual fractions, 15% and 49% in residual fraction. Approximately 81% and 80% of the anthropogenic Pb was contributed by coal combustion in China in the dry deposition of AD and NAD respectively while the remainder was derived from industrial Pb contamination. The research result proposes that sequential extractions with Pb isotope analysis are a useful tool for the discrimination of anthropogenic and geogenic origins in highly contaminated AD and NAD. - Highlights:

  16. Dust Storm Feature Identification and Tracking from 4D Simulation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Yang, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms cause significant damage to health, property and the environment worldwide every year. To help mitigate the damage, dust forecasting models simulate and predict upcoming dust events, providing valuable information to scientists, decision makers, and the public. Normally, the model simulations are conducted in four-dimensions (i.e., latitude, longitude, elevation and time) and represent three-dimensional (3D), spatial heterogeneous features of the storm and its evolution over space and time. This research investigates and proposes an automatic multi-threshold, region-growing based identification algorithm to identify critical dust storm features, and track the evolution process of dust storm events through space and time. In addition, a spatiotemporal data model is proposed, which can support the characterization and representation of dust storm events and their dynamic patterns. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations for the algorithm are conducted to test the sensitivity, and capability of identify and track dust storm events. This study has the potential to assist a better early warning system for decision-makers and the public, thus making hazard mitigation plans more effective.

  17. PREVAILING DUST-TRANSPORT DIRECTIONS ON COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Tobias; Noack, Matthias [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik, Takustrasse 7, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-10

    Dust transport and deposition behind larger boulders on the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P/C–G) have been observed by the Rosetta mission. We present a mechanism for dust-transport vectors based on a homogeneous surface activity model incorporating in detail the topography of 67P/C–G. The combination of gravitation, gas drag, and Coriolis force leads to specific dust transfer pathways, which for higher dust velocities fuel the near-nucleus coma. By distributing dust sources homogeneously across the whole cometary surface, we derive a global dust-transport map of 67P/C–G. The transport vectors are in agreement with the reported wind-tail directions in the Philae descent area.

  18. Lead in Chinese villager house dust: Geographical variation and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan; Yang, Wenlin

    2015-12-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to Pb exposure of children. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decoration materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with a median concentration of 42 mg/kg. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decoration materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that elemental compositions of the house dust were controlled by both anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the Pb bearing particles in the house dust were also studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Its location in the Mediterranean region and its physical characteristics render Mt. Cimone (44°11′ N, 10°42′ E, the highest peak of the Italian northern Apennines (2165 m asl, particularly suitable to study the transport of air masses from the north African desert area to Europe. During these northward transports 12 dust events were registered in measurements of the aerosol concentration at the station during the period June–December 2000, allowing the study of the impact of mineral dust transports on free tropospheric ozone concentrations, which were also measured at Mt. Cimone. Three-dimensional backward trajectories were used to determine the air mass origin, while TOMS Aerosol Index data for the Mt. Cimone area were used to confirm the presence of absorbing aerosol over the measurement site. A trajectory statistical analysis allowed identifying the main source areas of ozone and aerosols. The analysis of these back trajectories showed that central Europe and north and central Italy are the major pollution source areas for ozone and fine aerosol, whereas the north African desert regions were the most important source areas for coarse aerosol and low ozone concentrations. During dust events, the Mt. Cimone mean volume concentration for coarse particles was 6.18 µm3/cm3 compared to 0.63 µm3/cm3 in dust-free conditions, while the ozone concentrations were 4% to 21% lower than the monthly mean background values. Our observations show that surface ozone concentrations were lower than the background values in air masses coming from north Africa, and when these air masses were also rich in coarse particles, the lowest ozone values were registered. Moreover, preliminary results on the possible impact of the dust events on PM10 and ozone values measured in Italian urban and rural areas showed that during the greater number of the considered dust events, significant PM10 increases and ozone decreases have occurred in the Po valley.

  20. Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Litnovsky, A.; West, W.P.; Yu, J.H.; Boedo, J.A.; Bray, B.D.; Brezinsek, S.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.M.; Huber, A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Lasnier, C.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Pigarov, A.Y.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Smirnov, R.D.; Sharpe, J.P.; Solomon, W.M.; Watkins, J.G.; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Direct heating of the dust particles by the neutral beam injection (NBI) and acceleration of dust particles by the plasma flows are observed. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. Large flakes or debris falling into the plasma may result in a disruption. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by introducing micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with ∼30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure (∼0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate the core plasma and only moderately perturbed the edge plasma, as evidenced by an increase of the edge carbon content.

  1. Estimation of micrometeorites and satellite dust flux surrounding Mars in the light of MAVEN results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, J. P.; Bhalodi, P. J.

    2017-05-01

    Recently, MAVEN observed dust around Mars from ∼150 km to ∼1000 km and it is a puzzling question to the space scientists about the presence of dust at orbital altitudes and about its source. A continuous supply of dust from various sources could cause existence of dust around Mars and it is expected that the dust could mainly be from either the interplanetary source or the Phobos/Deimos. We have studied incident projectiles or micrometeorites at Mars using the existing model, in this article. Comparison of results with the MAVEN results gives a new value of the population index S, which is reported here. The index S has been referred in a power law model used to describe the number of impacting particles on Mars. In addition, the secondary ejecta from natural satellites of Mars can cause a dust ring or torus around Mars and remain present for its lifetime. The dust particles whose paths are altered by the solar wind over its lifetime, could present a second plausible source of dust around Mars. We have investigated escaping particles from natural satellites of Mars and compared with the interplanetary dust flux estimation. It has been found that flux rate at Mars is dominated (∼2 orders of magnitude higher) by interplanetary particles in comparison with the satellite originated dust. It is inferred that the dust at high altitudes of Mars could be interplanetary in nature and our expectation is in agreement with the MAVEN observation. As a corollary, the mass loss from Martian natural satellites is computed based on the surface erosion by incident projectiles.

  2. Model development of dust emission and heterogeneous chemistry within the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and its application over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model has been further developed in terms of simulating natural wind-blown dust in this study, with a series of modifications aimed at improving the model's capability to predict the emission, transport, and chemical reactions of dust. The default parameterization of initial threshold friction velocity constants are revised to correct the double counting of the impact of soil moisture in CMAQ by the reanalysis of field experiment data; source-dependent speciation profiles for dust emission are derived based on local measurements for the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in East Asia; and dust heterogeneous chemistry is also implemented. The improved dust module in the CMAQ is applied over East Asia for March and April from 2006 to 2010. The model evaluation result shows that the simulation bias of PM10 and aerosol optical depth (AOD is reduced, respectively, from −55.42 and −31.97 % by the original CMAQ to −16.05 and −22.1 % by the revised CMAQ. Comparison with observations at the nearby Gobi stations of Duolun and Yulin indicates that applying a source-dependent profile helps reduce simulation bias for trace metals. Implementing heterogeneous chemistry also results in better agreement with observations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, sulfate (SO42−, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous oxides (NOx, and nitrate (NO3−. The investigation of a severe dust storm episode from 19 to 21 March 2010 suggests that the revised CMAQ is capable of capturing the spatial distribution and temporal variation of dust. The model evaluation also indicates potential uncertainty within the excessive soil moisture used by meteorological simulation. The mass contribution of fine-mode particles in dust emission may be underestimated by 50 %. The revised CMAQ model provides a useful tool for future studies to investigate the emission, transport, and impact of wind-blown dust over East Asia and elsewhere.

  3. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Jonathan I

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass. From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies, focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient, and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles. Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates

  4. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wonnyon [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Doh, Seong-Jae [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjdoh@korea.ac.kr; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. - Magnetic quantification of anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust.

  5. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye

    2008-01-01

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. - Magnetic quantification of anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust

  6. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (?200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in ...

  7. Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.; Litnovsky, A.; West, W.; Yu, J.; Boedo, J.; Bray, B.; Brezinsek, S.; Brooks, N.; Fenstermacher, M.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.; Huber, A.; Hyatt, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lasnier, C.; Moyer, R.; Pigarov, A.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszezyk, A.; Smirnov, R.; Sharpe, J.; Solomon, W.; Watkins, J.; Wong, C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for the estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by injecting micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with ∼30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure (∼0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. Individual dust particles are observed moving at velocities of 10-100 m/s, predominantly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the drag force from the deuteron flow and in agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. Dust is launched either in the beginning of a discharge or at the initiation of NBI, preferentially in a direction perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate

  8. Spatio-temporal evolution of the dust particle size distribution in dusty argon rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killer, Carsten; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André

    2015-01-01

    An imaging Mie scattering technique has been developed to measure the spatially resolved size distribution of dust particles in extended dust clouds. For large dust clouds of micrometre-sized plastic particles confined in an radio frequency (rf) discharge, a segmentation of the dust cloud into populations of different sizes is observed, even though the size differences are very small. The dust size dispersion inside a population is much smaller than the difference between the populations. Furthermore, the dust size is found to be constantly decreasing over time while the particles are confined in an inert argon plasma. The processes responsible for the shrinking of the dust in the plasma have been addressed by mass spectrometry, ex situ microscopy of the dust size, dust resonance measurements, in situ determination of the dust surface temperature and Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR). It is concluded that both a reduction of dust size and its mass density due to outgassing of water and other volatile constituents as well as chemical etching by oxygen impurities are responsible for the observations. (paper)

  9. House dust in seven Danish offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  10. Analysing and Correcting the Differences between Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Spatial Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yingying; Luo, Ruisen; Feng, Haikuan; Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Jinling; Zhu, Yining; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Differences exist among analysis results of agriculture monitoring and crop production based on remote sensing observations, which are obtained at different spatial scales from multiple remote sensors in same time period, and processed by same algorithms, models or methods. These differences can be mainly quantitatively described from three aspects, i.e. multiple remote sensing observations, crop parameters estimation models, and spatial scale effects of surface parameters. Our research proposed a new method to analyse and correct the differences between multi-source and multi-scale spatial remote sensing surface reflectance datasets, aiming to provide references for further studies in agricultural application with multiple remotely sensed observations from different sources. The new method was constructed on the basis of physical and mathematical properties of multi-source and multi-scale reflectance datasets. Theories of statistics were involved to extract statistical characteristics of multiple surface reflectance datasets, and further quantitatively analyse spatial variations of these characteristics at multiple spatial scales. Then, taking the surface reflectance at small spatial scale as the baseline data, theories of Gaussian distribution were selected for multiple surface reflectance datasets correction based on the above obtained physical characteristics and mathematical distribution properties, and their spatial variations. This proposed method was verified by two sets of multiple satellite images, which were obtained in two experimental fields located in Inner Mongolia and Beijing, China with different degrees of homogeneity of underlying surfaces. Experimental results indicate that differences of surface reflectance datasets at multiple spatial scales could be effectively corrected over non-homogeneous underlying surfaces, which provide database for further multi-source and multi-scale crop growth monitoring and yield prediction, and their corresponding

  11. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  12. Radioactive dust concentration around the Ranger uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasnicka, Jiri.

    1988-07-01

    Environmental dust sampling and wind direction/velocity monitory were carried out between July and November 1987 at five points around the Ranger Uranium Mines project near Jabiru, Northern Territory. The measured radioactive dust alpha activities in the air were used to calculate the radioactive dust source-term and develop a site-specific air dispersion model which takes the depletion of the dust plume into account. The above model was used to estimate the effective committed dose equivalent as 15 μSv/year to children in Jabiru East. This corresponds to an increase of 2.6 x 10 -4 Bq. m -3 in the annual average dust alpha activity above the natural background. The dose to the children in Jabiru is about 5 μSv/year, so that the critical group of the public is in Jabiru East. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 2 maps

  13. Charge-fluctuation-induced heating of dust particles in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulina, O S; Khrapak, S A; Nefedov, A P; Petrov, O F

    1999-11-01

    Random charge fluctuations are always present in dusty plasmas due to the discrete nature of currents charging the dust particle. These fluctuations can be a reason for the heating of the dust particle system. Such unexpected heating leading to the melting of the dust crystals was observed recently in several experiments. In this paper we show by analytical evaluations and numerical simulation that charge fluctuations provide an effective source of energy and can heat the dust particles up to several eV, in conditions close to experimental ones.

  14. Spatially Resolved Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the Dwarf Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Draine, B. T.; Roussel, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Heyer, M. H.; Wall, W. F.; Grasha, K.; Battisti, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Puschnig, J.; Yun, M.; Östlin, G.; Evans, A. S.; Tang, Y.; Lowenthal, J.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the relation between gas and star formation in subgalactic regions, ∼360 pc to ∼1.5 kpc in size, within the nearby starburst dwarf NGC 4449, in order to separate the underlying relation from the effects of sampling at varying spatial scales. Dust and gas mass surface densities are derived by combining new observations at 1.1 mm, obtained with the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope, with archival infrared images in the range 8–500 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We extend the dynamic range of our millimeter (and dust) maps at the faint end, using a correlation between the far-infrared/millimeter colors F(70)/F(1100) (and F(160)/F(1100)) and the mid-infrared color F(8)/F(24) that we establish for the first time for this and other galaxies. Supplementing our data with maps of the extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) surface density, we measure both the SFR–molecular gas and the SFR–total gas relations in NGC 4449. We find that the SFR–molecular gas relation is described by a power law with an exponent that decreases from ∼1.5 to ∼1.2 for increasing region size, while the exponent of the SFR–total gas relation remains constant with a value of ∼1.5 independent of region size. We attribute the molecular law behavior to the increasingly better sampling of the molecular cloud mass function at larger region sizes; conversely, the total gas law behavior likely results from the balance between the atomic and molecular gas phases achieved in regions of active star formation. Our results indicate a nonlinear relation between SFR and gas surface density in NGC 4449, similar to what is observed for galaxy samples. Based on observations obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano—a binational collaboration between INAOE (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts–Amherst (USA).

  15. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  16. Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, K.

    2007-07-01

    Vehicles affect the concentrations of ambient airborne particles through exhaust emissions, but particles are also formed in the mechanical processes in the tire-road interface, brakes, and engine. Particles deposited on or in the vicinity of the road may be re-entrained, or resuspended, into air through vehicle-induced turbulence and shearing stress of the tires. A commonly used term for these particles is 'road dust'. The processes affecting road dust emissions are complex and currently not well known. Road dust has been acknowledged as a dominant source of PM10 especially during spring in the sub-arctic urban areas, e.g. in Scandinavia, Finland, North America and Japan. The high proportion of road dust in sub-arctic regions of the world has been linked to the snowy winter conditions that make it necessary to use traction control methods. Traction control methods include dispersion of traction sand, melting of ice with brine solutions, and equipping the tires with either metal studs (studded winter tires), snow chains, or special tire design (friction tires). Several of these methods enhance the formation of mineral particles from pavement wear and/or from traction sand that accumulate in the road environment during winter. When snow and ice melt and surfaces dry out, traffic-induced turbulence makes some of the particles airborne. A general aim of this study was to study processes and factors underlying and affecting the formation and emissions of road dust from paved road surfaces. Special emphasis was placed on studying particle formation and sources during tire road interaction, especially when different applications of traction control, namely traction sanding and/or winter tires were in use. Respirable particles with aerodynamic diameter below 10 micrometers (PM10) have been the main concern, but other size ranges and particle size distributions were also studied. The following specific research questions were addressed: (i) How do traction

  17. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2012-01-01

    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that approx. 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of sN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history .

  18. Radiative transfer in spherical circumstellar dust envelopes. III. Dust envelope models of some well known infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiative transfer techniques described elsewhere by the author have been employed to construct dust envelope models of several well known infrared stars. The resulting calculations indicate that the infrared emissivity of circumstellar grains generally must be higher than that which many calculations of small nonsilicate grains yield. This conclusion is dependent to some degree on the (unknown) size of the stellar envelopes considered, but is quite firm in the case of the spatially resolved envelope of IRC+10216. Further observations of the spatial distribution of the infrared radiation from stellar envelopes will be invaluable in deciphering the properties of the circumstellar grains

  19. Long-range Transport of Asian Dust Storms: A Satellite/Surface Perspective on Societal and Scientific Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Among the many components contributing to air pollution, airborne mineral dust plays an important role due to its biogeochemical impact on the ecosystem and its radiative forcing effect on the weather/climate system. As much as one-third to half of the global dust emissions, estimated about 800 Tg, are introduced annually into Earth's atmosphere from various deserts in China. Asian dust storm outbreaks are believed to have persisted for hundreds and thousands years over the vast territory of north and northwest China, but not until recent decades that many studies reveal the compelling evidence in recognizing the importance of these eolian dust particles for forming Chinese Loess Plateau and for biogeochemical cycling in the North Pacific Ocean to as far as in the Greenland ice-sheets through long-range transport. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites and its evolution monitored by satellite and surface network. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm, called Deep Blue, to retrieve aerosol properties, particularly but not limited to, over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Recently, many field campaigns were designed and executed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. We will provide an overview of the outbreak of Asian dust storms, near source/sink and their evolution along transport pathway, from space and surface observations. The climatic effects and societal impacts of the Asian dusts will be addressed in depth. (to be presented in the International Workshop on Semi-Arid Land Surface-

  20. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  1. Control of dust production in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Ciattaglia, S.; Elbez-Uzan, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last years dust has been observed in a number of fusion devices and is being studied more in detail for understanding in particular the physical phenomena related to its formation, its composition, physical and chemical characteristics, and the amount of produced dust. The extrapolation of dust formation to ITER predicts (with large error bars), a large mass of dust production with a scattered size distribution. To evaluate the impact of dust on safety, assumptions have also been made on radionuclide inventory, and mobility in off-normal events, as well as any postulated contributions the dust may make to effluents or accidental releases. Solid activation products in structures are generally not readily mobilisable in incidental and accidental situations, so that activated dust, tritium and activated corrosions products are the important in-vessel source terms in postulated scenarios that assume a mobilisation and release of some fraction of this inventory. Such a release would require the simultaneous leak or bypass of several robust confinement barriers. Further concerns for dust may be the potential for chemical reactions between dust and coolant in the event of an in-vessel leak, and the theoretical possibility of a dust explosion, either of which could in principle cause a pressure rise that challenges one or more of the confinement barriers. Although these hazards can - and will - be controlled by other measures in the ITER design, application of the principle of Defence in Depth dictates that the dust inventory should also be minimised and controlled to prevent the potential hazard. A well-coordinated R-and-D programme is required to support this dust production control. This document provides from the safety point of view, an overview of existing data given in '' Dossier d'Options de Surete '', the first safety report presented in 2001 to the French Safety Authorities, and ITER documents; it also gathers information on status of studies on activated

  2. Density currents as a desert dust mobilization mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Solomos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation and propagation of density currents are well studied processes in fluid dynamics with many applications in other science fields. In the atmosphere, density currents are usually meso-β/γ phenomena and are often associated with storm downdrafts. These storms are responsible for the formation of severe dust episodes (haboobs over desert areas. In the present study, the formation of a convective cool pool and the associated dust mobilization are examined for a representative event over the western part of Sahara desert. The physical processes involved in the mobilization of dust are described with the use of the integrated atmospheric-air quality RAMS/ICLAMS model. Dust is effectively produced due to the development of near surface vortices and increased turbulent mixing along the frontal line. Increased dust emissions and recirculation of the elevated particles inside the head of the density current result in the formation of a moving "dust wall". Transport of the dust particles in higher layers – outside of the density current – occurs mainly in three ways: (1 Uplifting of preexisting dust over the frontal line with the aid of the strong updraft (2 Entrainment at the upper part of the density current head due to turbulent mixing (3 Vertical mixing after the dilution of the system. The role of the dust in the associated convective cloud system was found to be limited. Proper representation of convective processes and dust mobilization requires the use of high resolution (cloud resolving model configuration and online parameterization of dust production. Haboob-type dust storms are effective dust sources and should be treated accordingly in dust modeling applications.

  3. Assessment of elemental contamination in road dust using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Road dust samples were collected in different locations of heavy traffic, medium traffic, express way and industrial areas of Mumbai. The concentrations of various elements (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in road dust samples were analyzed using EDXRF. The average elemental profile of road dust in Mumbai was comparable with studies carried out in other countries with slight variations. The estimated geo accumulation indices and enrichment factors indicated moderate elemental contamination and enrichment of anthropogenic elements in road dust samples. Factor analysis of elemental data resolved four sources namely crustal, tyre wear, vehicular/industrial emissions and break wear. (author)

  4. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  5. Influence of Agricultural Operations on Dust Emission During the 1930a Dust Bowl, Baca County, CO, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, A. T.; Bolles, K.; Forman, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The drought that struck the U.S. Great Plains during the 1930s was one of the most intensedroughts in the region in the last millennium, spurring a major environmental and public healthcrisis. A prominent explanation for the cause of the "dust bowl" centers on the expansion ofagriculture and poor land management practices leading to widespread soil erosion. Thisprevalent hypothesis largely excludes the impacts of naturally occurring land surface processesthat contribute to eolian erosion and dust emissivity, particularly during periods of drought. Priorwork generally focuses on economic and sociological factors in agricultural decision-making forindividual fields or farms.This study utilizes early aerial photography collected by the Soil Conservation Service in 1936 ofBaca County, Colorado, to identify and quantify spatial relationships between geomorphicprocesses and anthropogenic activities impacting dust emission. From the holdings at theNational Archives, 25 photos covering 125 km2 scanned at 1200dpi are combined into acontinuous mosaic, and geo-referenced at RMSE 78.6 m2 . Detailed land cover analyses areundertaken in ArcGIS to classify uncultivated and cultivated surfaces; cultivated surfaces arefurther divided by surface agricultural operations in relation to erosion and dust emission (e.g.listing, contour furrows, terraces, circuitous plowing, listing, eolian transport, and fallow fieldswith and without vegetation). The classified surface is overlaid with National ResourceConservation Service surveys and Soil Conservation Service reconnaissance surveys of land useand erosion carried out in 1936 to infer to potential emissivity of a given cultivated surface. Inthis way, it becomes possible to evaluate human influence on dust emission in one of theworst-struck counties of the Dust Bowl and potentially identify other causative factors to thissignificant period in American history.

  6. Validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method for non cylindrical homogeneous sources using MC simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Ramírez, Pablo, E-mail: rapeitor@ug.uchile.cl; Ruiz, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the gamma spectroscopy systems is a common practice in these days. The most popular softwares to do this are MCNP and Geant4 codes. The intrinsic spatial efficiency method is a general and absolute method to determine the absolute efficiency of a spectroscopy system for any extended sources, but this was only demonstrated experimentally for cylindrical sources. Due to the difficulty that the preparation of sources with any shape represents, the simplest way to do this is by the simulation of the spectroscopy system and the source. In this work we present the validation of the intrinsic spatial efficiency method for sources with different geometries and for photons with an energy of 661.65 keV. In the simulation the matrix effects (the auto-attenuation effect) are not considered, therefore these results are only preliminaries. The MC simulation is carried out using the FLUKA code and the absolute efficiency of the detector is determined using two methods: the statistical count of Full Energy Peak (FEP) area (traditional method) and the intrinsic spatial efficiency method. The obtained results show total agreement between the absolute efficiencies determined by the traditional method and the intrinsic spatial efficiency method. The relative bias is lesser than 1% in all cases.

  7. Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S R; Jamieson, H E; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-10-01

    Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 μm spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.

  8. Nine-year spatial and temporal evolution of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia as revealed by CALIOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Proestakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a 3-D climatology of the desert dust distribution over South and East Asia derived using CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data. To distinguish desert dust from total aerosol load we apply a methodology developed in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network. The method involves the use of the particle linear depolarization ratio and updated lidar ratio values suitable for Asian dust, applied to multiyear CALIPSO observations (January 2007–December 2015. The resulting dust product provides information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of dust aerosols over South and East Asia along with the seasonal transition of dust transport pathways. Persistent high D_AOD (dust aerosol optical depth values at 532 nm, of the order of 0.6, are present over the arid and semi-arid desert regions. Dust aerosol transport (range, height and intensity is subject to high seasonality, with the highest values observed during spring for northern China (Taklimakan and Gobi deserts and during summer over the Indian subcontinent (Thar Desert. Additionally, we decompose the CALIPSO AOD (aerosol optical depth into dust and non-dust aerosol components to reveal the non-dust AOD over the highly industrialized and densely populated regions of South and East Asia, where the non-dust aerosols yield AOD values of the order of 0.5. Furthermore, the CALIPSO-based short-term AOD and D_AOD time series and trends between January 2007 and December 2015 are calculated over South and East Asia and over selected subregions. Positive trends are observed over northwest and east China and the Indian subcontinent, whereas over southeast China trends are mostly negative. The calculated AOD trends agree well with the trends derived from Aqua MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, although significant differences are observed over specific regions.

  9. EEG/MEG Source Reconstruction with Spatial-Temporal Two-Way Regularized Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Tian Siva; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Shen, Haipeng; Li, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a spatial-temporal two-way regularized regression method for reconstructing neural source signals from EEG/MEG time course measurements. The proposed method estimates the dipole locations and amplitudes simultaneously

  10. Constraining the Dust Opacity Law in Three Small and Isolated Molecular Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, K. A.; Thanjavur, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3800 Finnerty Road, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Di Francesco, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, R.; Vicente, J. Abreu; Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Shirley, Y. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stutz, A., E-mail: kawebb@uvic.ca [Departmento de Astronomìa, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barro Universitario, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-11-01

    Density profiles of isolated cores derived from thermal dust continuum emission rely on models of dust properties, such as mass opacity, that are poorly constrained. With complementary measures from near-infrared extinction maps, we can assess the reliability of commonly used dust models. In this work, we compare Herschel -derived maps of the optical depth with equivalent maps derived from CFHT WIRCAM near-infrared observations for three isolated cores: CB 68, L 429, and L 1552. We assess the dust opacities provided from four models: OH1a, OH5a, Orm1, and Orm4. Although the consistency of the models differs between the three sources, the results suggest that the optical properties of dust in the envelopes of the cores are best described by either silicate and bare graphite grains (e.g., Orm1) or carbonaceous grains with some coagulation and either thin or no ice mantles (e.g., OH5a). None of the models, however, individually produced the most consistent optical depth maps for every source. The results suggest that either the dust in the cores is not well-described by any one dust property model, the application of the dust models cannot be extended beyond the very center of the cores, or more complex SED fitting functions are necessary.

  11. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  12. The Paleozoic Dust Bowl: Dust Deposition in Tropical Western Pangaea (Midcontinent U.S.) at the Terminus of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Benison, K. C.; Soreghan, M. J.; Mahowald, N. M.; Foster, T.; Zambito, J.; Sweet, A.; Kane, M.

    2012-12-01

    modeling possible causes and consequences of this massive dust record, which may include (1) partial glacial genesis in the CPM, (2) the action of the Pangaean mega-monsoon, and (3) particularly effective dust traps in the Midcontinent region. Modeling constrains the erosivity (the effect of winds and soil moisture effects) of a range of possible climate states on dust mobilization and underscores the relative difficulty of sourcing dust directly from the Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic system under most circumstances. Combining data and modeling helps constrain the erodibility (sediment availability, coherence, etc.) of dust sources. Reconstructions of marine dust deposition to the south and the west of the Anadarko basin suggest glacial-interglacial timescale erodibility changes were similar to those seen in the Midcontinent in the last 20,000 years, when it was at a much higher latitude.

  13. Infrared astronomy and the galactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The existence, in the Galaxy, of small absorbing dust grains has been known for a long time, as they redden the light of stars located behind them, and obscure by amounts which can often even be several magnitudes... In the infrared, where absorption is smaller, one can see through the dust, while at the same time, one can observe the emission of cold dust clouds. After a brief review of technical developments, the reasons for studying the infrared, and the principles of diagnostics, are given. The analysis of the spectral features leads to identification of ice, graphite, and various silicates, as main constituents of the dust. In the fifth section, examples are given of the various sources that one meets when travelling in the Galaxy: protostars, cold and dilute, dense envelopes of young stars (cold or hot), dilute envelopes of not so young stars, and ejected clouds surrounding evolved objects... The simultaneous observation of dust, molecules and atoms, in the same regions, shows that the knowledge of the circumstellar dense regions might be of a great interest, in the study of the origin of life, and of the evolution of the Universe. (Auth.)

  14. Atmospheric Dust Modeling from Meso to Global Scales with the Online NMMB/BSC-Dust Model Part 2: Experimental Campaigns in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Perez, C.; Baldasano, J. M.; Jorba, O.; Basart, S.; Miller, R. L.; Janjic, Z.; Black, T.; Nickovic, S.; Todd, M. C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Perez et al., 2011) develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6-0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1) in 2006 and the Bodele Dust Experiment (BoDEx) in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ) and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are well reproduced

  15. Injection of mineral dust into the free troposphere during fire events observed with polarization lidar at Limassol, Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nisantzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four-year observations (2010–2014 with EARLINET polarization lidar and AERONET sun/sky photometer at Limassol (34.7° N, 33° E, Cyprus, were used to study the soil dust content in lofted fire smoke plumes advected from Turkey. This first systematic attempt to characterize less than 3-day-old smoke plumes in terms of particle linear depolarization ratio (PDR, measured with lidar, contributes to the more general effort to properly describe the life cycle of free-tropospheric smoke–dust mixtures from the emission event to phases of long-range transport (> 4 days after emission. We found significant PDR differences with values from 9 to 18% in lofted aerosol layers when Turkish fires contributed to the aerosol burden and of 3–13 % when Turkish fires were absent. High Ångström exponents of 1.4–2.2 during all these events with lofted smoke layers, occurring between 1 and 3 km height, suggest the absence of a pronounced particle coarse mode. When plotted vs. travel time (spatial distance between Limassol and last fire area, PDR decreased strongly from initial values around 16–18% (1 day travel to 4–8% after 4 days of travel caused by deposition processes. This behavior was found to be in close agreement with findings described in the literature. Computation of particle extinction coefficient and mass concentrations, derived from the lidar observations, separately for fine-mode dust, coarse-mode dust, and non-dust aerosol components show extinction-related dust fractions on the order of 10% (for PDR =4%, travel times > 4 days and 50% (PDR =15%, 1 day travel time and respective mass-related dust fractions of 25% (PDR =4% to 80% (PDR =15%. Biomass burning should therefore be considered as another source of free tropospheric soil dust.

  16. Simulating southwestern U.S. desert dust influences on supercell thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerach, David G.; Cotton, William R.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to evaluate potential southwestern U.S. dust indirect microphysical and direct radiative impacts on a real severe storms outbreak. Increased solar absorption within the dust plume led to modest increases in pre-storm atmospheric stability at low levels, resulting in weaker convective updrafts and less widespread precipitation. Dust microphysical impacts on convection were minor in comparison, due in part to the lofted dust concentrations being relatively few in number when compared to the background (non-dust) aerosol population. While dust preferentially serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) versus giant CCN had opposing effects on warm rain production, both scenarios resulted in ample supercooled water and subsequent glaciation aloft, yielding larger graupel and hail. Associated latent heating from condensation and freezing contributed little to overall updraft invigoration. With reduced rain production overall, the simulations that included dust effects experienced slightly reduced grid-cumulative precipitation and notably warmer and spatially smaller cold pools. Dust serving as ice nucleating particles did not appear to play a significant role. The presence of dust ultimately reduced the number of supercells produced but allowed for supercell evolution characterized by consistently higher values of relative vertical vorticity within simulated mesocyclones. Dust radiative and microphysical effects were relatively small in magnitude when compared to those from altering the background convective available potential energy and vertical wind shear. It is difficult to generalize such findings from a single event, however, due to a number of case-specific environmental factors. These include the nature of the low-level moisture advection and characteristics of the background aerosol distribution.

  17. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Anthony; Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Grün, Eberhard; Horányi, Mihály; Kempf, Sascha; Mocker, Anna; Munsat, Tobin; Northway, Paige; Srama, Ralf; Sternovsky, Zoltán; Thomas, Evan

    2012-07-01

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Institüt für Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10(-7) torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10(-10) torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  18. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha; Thomas, Evan [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Northway, Paige [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Gruen, Eberhard [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mocker, Anna [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munsat, Tobin [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Srama, Ralf [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

    2012-07-15

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -7} torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -10} torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  19. Trace-metal concentrations in African dust: effects of long-distance transport and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia; Lamothe, Paul; Morman, Suzette; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Gilkes, Robert; Prakongkep, Nattaporn

    2010-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel lose billions of tons of eroded mineral soils annually to the Americas and Caribbean, Europe and Asia via atmospheric transport. African dust was collected from a dust source region (Mali, West Africa) and from downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad-Tobago (TT) and U.S. Virgin Islands (VI)] and analysed for 32 trace-elements. Elemental composition of African dust samples was similar to that of average upper continental crust (UCC), with some enrichment or depletion of specific trace-elements. Pb enrichment was observed only in dust and dry deposition samples from the source region and was most likely from local use of leaded gasoline. Dust particles transported long-distances (VI and TT) exhibited increased enrichment of Mo and minor depletion of other elements relative to source region samples. This suggests that processes occurring during long-distance transport of dust produce enrichment/depletion of specific elements. Bioaccessibility of trace-metals in samples was tested in simulated human fluids (gastric and lung) and was found to be greater in downwind than source region samples, for some metals (e.g., As). The large surface to volume ratio of the dust particles (<2.5 µm) at downwind sites may be a factor.

  20. Hypervelocity Dust Impacts in Space and the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) Team

    2013-10-01

    Interplanetary dust particles continually bombard all objects in the solar system, leading to the excavation of material from the target surfaces, the production of secondary ejecta particles, plasma, neutral gas, and electromagnetic radiation. These processes are of interest to basic plasma science, planetary and space physics, and engineering to protect humans and instruments against impact damages. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) has recently completed a 3 MV dust accelerator, and this talk will summarize our initial science results. The 3 MV Pelletron contains a dust source, feeding positively charged micron and sub-micron sized particles into the accelerator. We will present the technical details of the facility and its capabilities, as well as the results of our initial experiments for damage assessment of optical devices, and penetration studies of thin films. We will also report on the completion of our dust impact detector, the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), is expected to be flying onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission by the time of this presentation. LDEX was tested, and calibrated at our dust accelerator. We will close by offering the opportunity to use this facility by the planetary, space and plasma physics communities.

  1. Organic carbon in Antarctic snow: spatial trends and possible sources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, R.; Mahalinganathan, K.; Thamban, M.; Nair, S.

    PELtransect(Figure2d)andfrom427to2018μg L C01 in the DML transect (Figure 2h). The majority (>70%) of particles were concentrated in the 1 μm size fraction. TOC did not show any relation with the total dust concentration or with dust concentration in any of the size...

  2. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  3. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS). IV. Discovery of High-redshift AGB Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Whitelock, P. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O. C.; Javadi, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The survey for DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) identified several candidate Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in nearby dwarf galaxies and showed that dust can form even in very metal-poor systems ({\\boldsymbol{Z}}∼ 0.008 {Z}ȯ ). Here, we present a follow-up survey with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), using filters that are capable of distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) stars: F127M, F139M, and F153M. We include six star-forming DUSTiNGS galaxies (NGC 147, IC 10, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans B, Sextans A, and Sag DIG), all more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds and spanning 1 dex in metallicity. We double the number of dusty AGB stars known in these galaxies and find that most are carbon rich. We also find 26 dusty M-type stars, mostly in IC 10. Given the large dust excess and tight spatial distribution of these M-type stars, they are most likely on the upper end of the AGB mass range (stars undergoing Hot Bottom Burning). Theoretical models do not predict significant dust production in metal-poor M-type stars, but we see evidence for dust excess around M-type stars even in the most metal-poor galaxies in our sample (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.26{--}7.50). The low metallicities and inferred high stellar masses (up to ∼10 {M}ȯ ) suggest that AGB stars can produce dust very early in the evolution of galaxies (∼30 Myr after they form), and may contribute significantly to the dust reservoirs seen in high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14073.

  4. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  5. Product screening for sources of halogenated flame retardants in Canadian house and office dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Golnoush [Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto M5S 3G3 (Canada); Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada); Goosey, Emma [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto M5S 3B1 (Canada); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Human exposure to halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their replacements, can be related to exposure to indoor dust and direct contact with HFR-containing products. This study aimed to identify electronic products that contributed to HFRs measured in indoor dust and to develop a screening method for identifying HFRs in hard polymer products. Concentrations of 10 PBDEs and 12 halogenated replacements in dust and surface wipe samples of hard polymer casings of electronic products plus Br in the surfaces of those casing measured using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were analyzed from 35 homes and 10 offices in Toronto (ON, Canada). HFR concentrations in dust and product wipes were positively correlated. Thus, we hypothesize that electronic products with the highest HFR concentrations contribute the most to concentrations in dust, regardless of the volatility of the HFR. Abundant HFRs in dust and product wipes were PBDEs (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), TDCPP, DBDPE, EH-TBB and BEHTBP. Older CRT TVs had the highest concentration of BDE-209 of all products tested. This was followed by higher concentrations of HFRs in PCs, Audio/Video (A/V) devices, small household appliances (HHAs) and flat screen TVs. The removal of HFRs from polymer surfaces using wipes supports concerns that HFRs could be transferred from these surfaces to hands as a result of direct contact with HFR-containing products. Surface wipe testing shows promise for screening additive HFRs. In comparison, the Br-content obtained using a handheld XRF analyzer did not correspond to concentrations obtained from surface wipe testing. - Highlights: • Concentrations of flame retardants in dust correlated with product surface wipes • Most abundant FRs in electronics were PBDEs, TDCPP, DBDPE, EH-TBB and BEHTBP. • Descending order of FRs in CRTs, TVs, PCs, A-V devices, and small household appliances • Product wipe testing, but not XRF, useful for non

  6. Product screening for sources of halogenated flame retardants in Canadian house and office dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Golnoush; Saini, Amandeep; Goosey, Emma; Diamond, Miriam L.

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their replacements, can be related to exposure to indoor dust and direct contact with HFR-containing products. This study aimed to identify electronic products that contributed to HFRs measured in indoor dust and to develop a screening method for identifying HFRs in hard polymer products. Concentrations of 10 PBDEs and 12 halogenated replacements in dust and surface wipe samples of hard polymer casings of electronic products plus Br in the surfaces of those casing measured using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were analyzed from 35 homes and 10 offices in Toronto (ON, Canada). HFR concentrations in dust and product wipes were positively correlated. Thus, we hypothesize that electronic products with the highest HFR concentrations contribute the most to concentrations in dust, regardless of the volatility of the HFR. Abundant HFRs in dust and product wipes were PBDEs (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), TDCPP, DBDPE, EH-TBB and BEHTBP. Older CRT TVs had the highest concentration of BDE-209 of all products tested. This was followed by higher concentrations of HFRs in PCs, Audio/Video (A/V) devices, small household appliances (HHAs) and flat screen TVs. The removal of HFRs from polymer surfaces using wipes supports concerns that HFRs could be transferred from these surfaces to hands as a result of direct contact with HFR-containing products. Surface wipe testing shows promise for screening additive HFRs. In comparison, the Br-content obtained using a handheld XRF analyzer did not correspond to concentrations obtained from surface wipe testing. - Highlights: • Concentrations of flame retardants in dust correlated with product surface wipes • Most abundant FRs in electronics were PBDEs, TDCPP, DBDPE, EH-TBB and BEHTBP. • Descending order of FRs in CRTs, TVs, PCs, A-V devices, and small household appliances • Product wipe testing, but not XRF, useful for non

  7. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  8. Heavy Metals Speciation in Dust Samples from Various Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dust on our roads constitutes a major source of environmental hazard. Little attention is paid to the enormous challenges resulting from its polluting effect and health implications. In this investigation, twenty five dust samples were collected from 5 locations within Ebonyi North, South and Central Senatorial Zones between ...

  9. Ibmdbpy-spatial : An Open-source implementation of in-database geospatial analytics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avipsa; Fouché, Edouard; Rodriguez Morales, Rafael; Moehler, Gregor

    2017-04-01

    As the amount of spatial data acquired from several geodetic sources has grown over the years and as data infrastructure has become more powerful, the need for adoption of in-database analytic technology within geosciences has grown rapidly. In-database analytics on spatial data stored in a traditional enterprise data warehouse enables much faster retrieval and analysis for making better predictions about risks and opportunities, identifying trends and spot anomalies. Although there are a number of open-source spatial analysis libraries like geopandas and shapely available today, most of them have been restricted to manipulation and analysis of geometric objects with a dependency on GEOS and similar libraries. We present an open-source software package, written in Python, to fill the gap between spatial analysis and in-database analytics. Ibmdbpy-spatial provides a geospatial extension to the ibmdbpy package, implemented in 2015. It provides an interface for spatial data manipulation and access to in-database algorithms in IBM dashDB, a data warehouse platform with a spatial extender that runs as a service on IBM's cloud platform called Bluemix. Working in-database reduces the network overload, as the complete data need not be replicated into the user's local system altogether and only a subset of the entire dataset can be fetched into memory in a single instance. Ibmdbpy-spatial accelerates Python analytics by seamlessly pushing operations written in Python into the underlying database for execution using the dashDB spatial extender, thereby benefiting from in-database performance-enhancing features, such as columnar storage and parallel processing. The package is currently supported on Python versions from 2.7 up to 3.4. The basic architecture of the package consists of three main components - 1) a connection to the dashDB represented by the instance IdaDataBase, which uses a middleware API namely - pypyodbc or jaydebeapi to establish the database connection via

  10. The representation of dust transport and missing urban sources as major issues for the simulation of PM episodes in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flaounas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its adverse effects on human health, atmospheric particulate matter (PM constitutes a growing challenge for air quality management. It is also a complex subject of study. The understanding of its atmospheric evolution is indeed made difficult by the wide number of sources and the numerous processes that govern its evolution in the troposphere. As a consequence, the representation of particulate matter in chemistry-transport models needs to be permanently evaluated and enhanced in order to refine our comprehension of PM pollution events and to propose consistent environmental policies. The study presented here focuses on two successive summer particulate pollution episodes that occurred on the French Mediterranean coast. We identify and analyze the constitutive elements of the first and more massive episode and we discuss their representation within a eulerian model.

    The results show that the model fails in reproducing the variability and the amplitude of dust import from western Africa, and that it constitutes a strong bias in PM daily forecasts. We then focus on the lack of diurnal variability in the model, which is attributed to missing urban sources in standard emission inventories, and notably the resuspension of particles by urban road traffic. Through a sensitivity study based on PM and NOx measurements, we assess the sensitivity of PM to local emissions and the need to reconsider road traffic PM sources. In parallel, by coupling the CHIMERE-DUST model outputs to our simulation, we show that the representation of transcontinental dust transport allows a much better representation of atmospheric particles in southern France, and that it is needed in the frame of air quality management for the quantification of the anthropogenic part of particulate matter pollution.

  11. Diagnostic evaluation of the Community Earth System Model in simulating mineral dust emission with insight into large-scale dust storm mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sagar Prasad; Yang, Zong-Liang; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Large amounts of mineral dust are injected into the atmosphere during dust storms, which are common in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where most of the global dust hotspots are located. In this work, we present simulations of dust emission using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2.2 (CESM 1.2.2) and evaluate how well it captures the spatio-temporal characteristics of dust emission in the MENA region with a focus on large-scale dust storm mobilization. We explicitly focus our analysis on the model's two major input parameters that affect the vertical mass flux of dust-surface winds and the soil erodibility factor. We analyze dust emissions in simulations with both prognostic CESM winds and with CESM winds that are nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis values. Simulations with three existing erodibility maps and a new observation-based erodibility map are also conducted. We compare the simulated results with MODIS satellite data, MACC reanalysis data, AERONET station data, and CALIPSO 3-d aerosol profile data. The dust emission simulated by CESM, when driven by nudged reanalysis winds, compares reasonably well with observations on daily to monthly time scales despite CESM being a global General Circulation Model. However, considerable bias exists around known high dust source locations in northwest/northeast Africa and over the Arabian Peninsula where recurring large-scale dust storms are common. The new observation-based erodibility map, which can represent anthropogenic dust sources that are not directly represented by existing erodibility maps, shows improved performance in terms of the simulated dust optical depth (DOD) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) compared to existing erodibility maps although the performance of different erodibility maps varies by region.

  12. Saharan dust detection using multi-sensor satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriharsha Madhavan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T and Aqua (A MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. Previous work by Hao and Qu (2007 had considered a limited number of thermal infrared channels which led to a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.765 between the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT at 550 nm and the modeled dust index. In this work, we extend the thermal infrared based dust detection by employing additional channels: the 8.55 μm which has shown high sensitivity to the Saharan dust, along with water vapor channel of 7.1 μm and cloud top channel of 13.1 μm. Also, the dust pixels were clearly identified using the OMI based aerosol types. The dust pixels were cleanly segregated from the other aerosol types such as sulfates, biomass, and other carbonaceous aerosols. These improvements led to a much higher correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.85 between the modified dust index and the AOT in comparison to the previous work. The key limitations from the current AOT products based on MODIS and were put to test by validating the improved dust detection algorithm. Two improvements were noted. First, the dust measurement radiometry using MODIS is significantly improved by at least an order of 2. Second the spatial measurements are enhanced by a factor of at least 10.

  13. Submillimeter Observations of CLASH 2882 and the Evolution of Dust in this Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G; Kovacs, Attila; Decarli, Roberto; Egami, Eiichi; Michalowski, Michal J.; Rawle, Timothy D.; Toft, Sune; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Two millimeter observations of the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster have detected a source that was consistent with the location of the lensed MACS 1149-JD galaxy at z = 9.6. A positive identification would have rendered this galaxy as the youngest dust forming galaxy in the universe. Follow up observation with the AzTEC 1.1 mm camera and the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) at 1.3 mm have not confirmed this association. In this paper we show that the NOEMA observations associate the 2 mm source with [PCB2012] 2882,12 source number 2882 in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) catalog of MACS J1149.6 +2223. This source, hereafter referred to as CLASH 2882, is a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy at z = 0.99. We combine the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO) 2 mm and NOEMA 1.3 mm fluxes with other (rest frame) UV to far-IR observations to construct the full spectral energy distribution of this galaxy, and derive its star formation history, and stellar and interstellar dust content. The current star formation rate of the galaxy is 54/mu/Solar Mass/yr, and its dust mass is about 5 × 10(exp 7)/mu Solar Mass, where mu is the lensing magnification factor for this source, which has a mean value of 2.7. The inferred dust mass is higher than the maximum dust mass that can be produced by core collapse supernovae and evolved AGB stars. As with many other star forming galaxies, most of the dust mass in CLASH 2882 must have been accreted in the dense phases of the interstellar medium.

  14. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  15. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict

  16. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more

  17. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2) to 30 cm(2), whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  18. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheda Arman Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2 to 30 cm(2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  19. Atmospheric dust modeling from meso to global scales with the online NMMB/BSC-Dust model – Part 2: Experimental campaigns in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haustein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The new NMMB/BSC-Dust model is intended to provide short to medium-range weather and dust forecasts from regional to global scales. It is an online model in which the dust aerosol dynamics and physics are solved at each model time step. The companion paper (Pérez et al., 2011 develops the dust model parameterizations and provides daily to annual evaluations of the model for its global and regional configurations. Modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD was evaluated against AERONET Sun photometers over Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe with correlations around 0.6–0.7 on average without dust data assimilation. In this paper we analyze in detail the behavior of the model using data from the Saharan Mineral dUst experiment (SAMUM-1 in 2006 and the Bodélé Dust Experiment (BoDEx in 2005. AOD from satellites and Sun photometers, vertically resolved extinction coefficients from lidars and particle size distributions at the ground and in the troposphere are used, complemented by wind profile data and surface meteorological measurements. All simulations were performed at the regional scale for the Northern African domain at the expected operational horizontal resolution of 25 km. Model results for SAMUM-1 generally show good agreement with satellite data over the most active Saharan dust sources. The model reproduces the AOD from Sun photometers close to sources and after long-range transport, and the dust size spectra at different height levels. At this resolution, the model is not able to reproduce a large haboob that occurred during the campaign. Some deficiencies are found concerning the vertical dust distribution related to the representation of the mixing height in the atmospheric part of the model. For the BoDEx episode, we found the diurnal temperature cycle to be strongly dependant on the soil moisture, which is underestimated in the NCEP analysis used for model initialization. The low level jet (LLJ and the dust AOD over the Bodélé are

  20. DustEM: Dust extinction and emission modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiègne, M.; Verstraete, L.; Jones, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Flagey, N.; Le Bourlot, J.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.

    2013-07-01

    DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.

  1. Trace Metals and Mineral Composition of Harmattan Dust Haze in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... ABSTRACT: Trace metals and mineralogical composition of harmattan dust haze was carried out on samples collected at Ilorin (80 32'N, ... Sahara desert which transports the dust by wind. Junge (1979) reported that on the .... Schwela et al 2002, it was observed that road transport emission sources ...

  2. Determination of combustible volatile matter in coal mine roadway dusts by backscatter of x-rays from a radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailwood, C.R.; Bunch, K.; Fookes, R.A.; Gravitis, V.L.; Watt, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The combustible volatile matter in coal mine roadway dusts (CVM) has been determined using x-ray backscatter techniques. The correlation between x-ray and chemical techniques is reasonably good for the 92 samples from collieries on the Bulli seam, and the maximum error expected at the maximum level of 11.5 weight per cent CVM permitted in the N.S.W. Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1912, as amended, is about +- 2.5 weight per cent. This x-ray technique can be used only when the combustible volatile content of the coal matter (CVM) varies within a limited range, and a separate calibration is required for each coal seam. Portable equipment based on a radioisotope x-ray source and digital ratemeter makes possible simple and rapid analysis, and with adaptation to use in coal mines should lead to much more comprehensive testing of roadways and hence improved overall prevention of coal dust explosions. (author)

  3. Spatial Regression and Prediction of Water Quality in a Watershed with Complex Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-08-16

    Fast economic development, burgeoning population growth, and rapid urbanization have led to complex pollution sources contributing to water quality deterioration simultaneously in many developing countries including China. This paper explored the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on ambient total nitrogen (TN) concentration in a heavily polluted watershed and make predictions across the region. Regression results have confirmed the substantial impact on TN concentration by a variety of point and non-point pollution sources. In addition, spatial regression has yielded better performance than ordinary regression in predicting TN concentrations. Due to its best performance in cross-validation, the river distance based spatial regression model was used to predict TN concentrations across the watershed. The prediction results have revealed a distinct pattern in the spatial distribution of TN concentrations and identified three critical sub-regions in priority for reducing TN loads. Our study results have indicated that spatial regression could potentially serve as an effective tool to facilitate water pollution control in watersheds under diverse physical and socio-economical conditions.

  4. Reducing uncertainty in dust monitoring to detect aeolian sediment transport responses to land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, N.; Chappell, A.; Van Zee, J.; Toledo, D.; Duniway, M.; Billings, B.; Tedela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC) influence global rates of wind erosion and dust emission, yet our understanding of the magnitude of the responses remains poor. Field measurements and monitoring provide essential data to resolve aeolian sediment transport patterns and assess the impacts of human land use and management intensity. Data collected in the field are also required for dust model calibration and testing, as models have become the primary tool for assessing LULCC-dust cycle interactions. However, there is considerable uncertainty in estimates of dust emission due to the spatial variability of sediment transport. Field sampling designs are currently rudimentary and considerable opportunities are available to reduce the uncertainty. Establishing the minimum detectable change is critical for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport, detecting potential impacts of LULCC and land management, and for quantifying the uncertainty of dust model estimates. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of common sampling designs (e.g., simple random sampling, systematic sampling) used to measure and monitor aeolian sediment transport rates. Using data from the US National Wind Erosion Research Network across diverse rangeland and cropland cover types, we demonstrate how only large changes in sediment mass flux (of the order 200% to 800%) can be detected when small sample sizes are used, crude sampling designs are implemented, or when the spatial variation is large. We then show how statistical rigour and the straightforward application of a sampling design can reduce the uncertainty and detect change in sediment transport over time and between land use and land cover types.

  5. Attraction of likely charged nano-sized grains in dust-electron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, Vladimir I., E-mail: eksvar@ukr.net [Physical-Chemical Institute for Environmental and Human Protection, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    Dust-electron plasma, which contains only the dust grains and electrons, emitted by them, is studied. Assumption of almost uniform spatial electrons distribution, which deviates from the uniformity only near the dust grains, leads to the grain charge division into two parts: first part is the individual for each grain “visible” charge and the second part is the common charge of the neutralized background. The visible grain charge can be both negative and positive, while the total grain charge is only positive. The attraction of likely charged grains is possible, because the grain interaction is determined by the visible charges. The equilibrium state between attraction and repulsion of grains is demonstrated.

  6. Improvement of spatial discretization error on the semi-analytic nodal method using the scattered source subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the scattered source subtraction (SSS) method is newly proposed to improve the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. In the SSS method, the scattered source is subtracted from both side of the diffusion or the transport equation to make spatial variation of the source term to be small. The same neutron balance equation is still used in the SSS method. Since the SSS method just modifies coefficients of node coupling equations (those used in evaluation for the response of partial currents), its implementation is easy. Validity of the present method is verified through test calculations that are carried out in PWR multi-assemblies configurations. The calculation results show that the SSS method can significantly improve the spatial discretization error. Since the SSS method does not have any negative impact on execution time, convergence behavior and memory requirement, it will be useful to reduce the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. (author)

  7. An overview of mineral dust modeling over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Kang, Litai; Yang, Ben; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yuzhi; Yuan, Tiangang; Wang, Tianhe; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-08-01

    East Asian dust (EAD) exerts considerable impacts on the energy balance and climate/climate change of the earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud properties, and precipitation efficiency. Providing an accurate description of the life cycle and climate effects of EAD is therefore critical to better understanding of climate change and socioeconomic development in East Asia and even worldwide. Dust modeling has undergone substantial development since the late 1990s, associated with improved understanding of the role of EAD in the earth system. Here, we review the achievements and progress made in recent decades in terms of dust modeling research, including dust emissions, long-range transport, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of dust particles over East Asia. Numerous efforts in dust/EAD modeling have been directed towards furnishing more sophisticated physical and chemical processes into the models on higher spatial resolutions. Meanwhile, more systematic observations and more advanced retrieval methods for instruments that address EAD related science issues have made it possible to evaluate model results and quantify the role of EAD in the earth system, and to further reduce the uncertainties in EAD simulations. Though much progress has been made, large discrepancies and knowledge gaps still exist among EAD simulations. The deficiencies and limitations that pertain to the performance of the EAD simulations referred to in the present study are also discussed.

  8. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from? Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young. Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds. Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  9. Long-range Transported African Dust in the Caribbean Region: Dust Concentrations and Water-soluble Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Avilés-Piñeiro, G. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2017-12-01

    Long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) particles reach the Caribbean region every year during the summer months causing an increase in PM10 concentrations and by consequence degradation of air quality. During African dust (AD) incursions at the Caribbean region, PM10 concentration could exceeds the exposure limit of 50 µg/m³ 24-hour mean established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To have a better understanding of the impacts of AD particles to climate and public health at the Caribbean region it is necessary to study and determine the spatial and temporal distribution of dust particles. In order to address this, aerosols samples were collected during and absence of AD incursions during the summer of 2017 using a Hi-Volume (Hi-Vol) sampler for total suspended particles (TSP) at two sampling stations in Puerto Rico. The first station is a marine site located at Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ) Nature Reserve in Fajardo, and the second station is an urban site located at the Facundo Bueso (FB) building at the University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras. Aerosol samples were collected using Whatman 41 grade filters from which we determined the concentration of dust particles and the water-soluble ions (e.g., Na+, NH4+, Ca+2, Cl-, SO4-2) in the presence and absence of LRTAD particles. Saharan Air Layer (SAL) imagery, the results from the air mass backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the spectral coefficients from measurements at CSJ were used to monitor and confirm the presence of air masses coming from North Africa. Average dust concentrations using the Stacked-Filter Units (SFUs) at CSJ are around 4 μg/m3. LRTAD concentrations and ionic speciation results using the Hi-Vol for the marine and urban sites will be presented at the conference.

  10. DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indebetouw, R.; Chevalier, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matsuura, M.; Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Dwek, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zanardo, G. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bouchet, P. [CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fransson, C.; Lundqvist, P. [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gaensler, B. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Kirshner, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakićević, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Long, K. S.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Martí-Vidal, I. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 μm, 870 μm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M {sub ☉}). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.

  11. Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Perry, A. T.; Scanza, R. A.; Zender, C. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Maggi, V.; Kok, J. F.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2014-09-01

    Aerosol-climate interactions constitute one of the major sources of uncertainty in assessing changes in aerosol forcing in the anthropocene as well as understanding glacial-interglacial cycles. Here we focus on improving the representation of mineral dust in the Community Atmosphere Model and assessing the impacts of the improvements in terms of direct effects on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. We simulated the dust cycle using different parameterization sets for dust emission, size distribution, and optical properties. Comparing the results of these simulations with observations of concentration, deposition, and aerosol optical depth allows us to refine the representation of the dust cycle and its climate impacts. We propose a tuning method for dust parameterizations to allow the dust module to work across the wide variety of parameter settings which can be used within the Community Atmosphere Model. Our results include a better representation of the dust cycle, most notably for the improved size distribution. The estimated net top of atmosphere direct dust radiative forcing is -0.23 ± 0.14 W/m2 for present day and -0.32 ± 0.20 W/m2 at the Last Glacial Maximum. From our study and sensitivity tests, we also derive some general relevant findings, supporting the concept that the magnitude of the modeled dust cycle is sensitive to the observational data sets and size distribution chosen to constrain the model as well as the meteorological forcing data, even within the same modeling framework, and that the direct radiative forcing of dust is strongly sensitive to the optical properties and size distribution used.

  12. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  13. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-01-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of 137 Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total 137 Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and 137 Cs in spring. Deposition of 137 Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m -2 and accounted for 67% of the total 137 Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high 137 Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to 137 Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric 137 Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent

  14. Adapting MODIS Dust Mask Algorithm to Suomi NPP VIIRS for Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciren, P.; Liu, H.; Kondragunta, S.; Laszlo, I.

    2012-12-01

    Despite pollution reduction control strategies enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), large regions of the United States are often under exceptional events such as biomass burning and dust outbreaks that lead to non-attainment of particulate matter standards. This has warranted the National Weather Service (NWS) to provide smoke and dust forecast guidance to the general public. The monitoring and forecasting of dust outbreaks relies on satellite data. Currently, Aqua/MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and Terra/MODIS provide measurements needed to derive dust mask and Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) products. The newly launched Suomi NPP VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) instrument has a Suspended Matter (SM) product that indicates the presence of dust, smoke, volcanic ash, sea salt, and unknown aerosol types in a given pixel. The algorithm to identify dust is different over land and ocean but for both, the information comes from AOT retrieval algorithm. Over land, the selection of dust aerosol model in the AOT retrieval algorithm indicates the presence of dust and over ocean a fine mode fraction smaller than 20% indicates dust. Preliminary comparisons of VIIRS SM to CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) aerosol type product indicate that the Probability of Detection (POD) is at ~10% and the product is not mature for operational use. As an alternate approach, NESDIS dust mask algorithm developed for NWS dust forecast verification that uses MODIS deep blue, visible, and mid-IR channels using spectral differencing techniques and spatial variability tests was applied to VIIRS radiances. This algorithm relies on the spectral contrast of dust absorption at 412 and 440 nm and an increase in reflectivity at 2.13 μm when dust is present in the atmosphere compared to a clear sky. To avoid detecting bright desert surface as airborne dust, the algorithm uses the reflectances at 1.24 μm and 2.25 μm to flag bright pixels. The

  15. Study on an intense dust storm over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Nastos, P. T.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.

    Springtime constitutes the most favorable period for Sahara dust outbreaks and transport over Eastern Mediterranean. This study investigates the aerosol properties during April 2005 using remote-sensing and ground-based measurements. Three dust events with high aerosol optical depth (AOD) values have been observed during the measuring period, with duration of two days, i.e. 11-12, 16-17 and 25-26 April 2005. In this paper we mainly focus on the intense dust event of 16-17 April 2005, when a thick dust layer transported from Libya affected the whole Greek territory. Very high AOD values obtained from Aqua-MODIS sensor were observed over Greece (mean 2.42 ± 1.25) on 17 April, while the respective mean April value was 0.31 ± 0.09. The AOD at 550 nm (AOD 550) values over Crete were even larger, reaching ˜4.0. As a consequence, the PM 10 concentrations over Athens dramatically increased reaching up to 200 μg m -3. On the other hand, the fine-mode fraction values obtained from Terra-MODIS showed a substantial decrease in the whole Greek area on 17 April with values below 0.2 in the Southern regions. The intense dust layer showed a complex behavior concerning its spatial and temporal evolution and allowed us to study the changes in the optical properties of the desert dust particles along their transport routes due to the mixing processes with other aerosol types. The results from different measurements (ground-based and remote-sensing) did not contradict each other and, therefore, are adequate for monitoring of dust load over the Eastern Mediterranean.

  16. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  17. Investigations of Wind/WAVES Dust Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Cyr, O. C.; Wilson, L. B., III; Rockcliffe, K.; Mills, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Adrian, M. L.; Malaspina, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft launched in November 1994 with a primary goal to observe and understand the interaction between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. The waveform capture detector, TDS, of the radio and plasma wave investigation, WAVES [Bougeret et al., 1995], onboard Wind incidentally detected micron-sized dust as electric field pulses from the recollection of the impact plasma clouds (an unintended objective). TDS has detected over 100,000 dust impacts spanning almost two solar cycles; a dataset of these impacts has been created and was described in Malaspina & Wilson [2016]. The spacecraft continues to collect data about plasma, energetic particles, and interplanetary dust impacts. Here we report on two investigations recently conducted on the Wind/WAVES TDS database of dust impacts. One possible source of dust particles is the annually-recurring meteor showers. Using the nine major showers defined by the American Meteor Society, we compared dust count rates before, during, and after the peak of the showers using averaging windows of varying duration. However, we found no statistically significant change in the dust count rates due to major meteor showers. This appears to be an expected result since smaller grains, like the micron particles that Wind is sensitive to, are affected by electromagnetic interactions and Poynting-Robertson drag, and so are scattered away from their initial orbits. Larger grains tend to be more gravitationally dominated and stay on the initial trajectory of the parent body so that only the largest dust grains (those that create streaks as they burn up in the atmosphere) are left in the orbit of the parent body. Ragot and Kahler [2003] predicted that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun could effectively scatter dust grains of comparable size to those observed by Wind. Thus, we examined the dust count rates immediately before, during, and after the passage of the 350 interplanetary CMEs observed by Wind over its 20+ year

  18. Energetics study of West African dust haze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotosho, J.B.

    1988-10-01

    The causes of the large and often persistent negative anomalies of equivalent potential temperature observed in the 900-700 hpa layer and which occurs in association with dust haze outbreaks over Kano in winter is investigated. Energetics results indicate that the primary mechanism for such anomalies is the horizontal transport of drier and, to a lesser extent, colder air at the upper levels by eddy motions, with consequent destabilization of the atmospheric boundary layer over the station. This is suggested as the mobilization mechanism responsible for raising dust from the surface over the Bilma/Faya-Largeau source region much further poleward. Temperature inversions were also found to be more pronounced during dust spells than in clear periods. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Electromagnetically Interacting Dust Streams During Ulysses' Second Jupiter Encounter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.; Forsyth, R.J.; Graps, A.L.; Gruen, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Jupiter system is a source of collimated burst-like streams of electrically charged 10-nm dust particles. In 2004 the Ulysses spacecraft had its second flyby at Jupiter and from late 2002 to early 2005 it measured a total of 24 dust streams between 0.8 and 3.4 AU from the planet. The grains show strong coupling to the interplanetary magnetic field: their impact directions correlate with the orientation and strength of the interplanetary magnetic field vector (namely its tangential and radial components) and they occur at 26 day intervals, closely matching the solar rotation period. Ulysses measured the dust streams over a large range in jovian latitude (+75 deg. to -35 deg.). Enhanced dust emission was measured along the jovian equator

  20. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    current radio astronomy research, and the idea was largely forgotten. In the 1990s this perception began to change when scientists and engineers designed sensitive instruments to detect the faint afterglow of the Big Bang, which is seen in the Universe as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. While making detailed maps of this faint and cold radiation, scientists also detected signals at approximately the same wavelength and intensity as the background radiation, but clearly emanating from within the Milky Way's galactic plane. The researchers expected to detect some emission from the Milky Way, but what they encountered was much brighter than anticipated. This discovery caused some concern among researchers because of the need to have a very clear "window" on the Universe to study the background radiation in great detail. If there were a source of radio emission in our own galactic "back yard," then studies of the microwave background radiation would need to recognize these emissions and correct for them. "We want to be clear, however, that nothing we have found invalidates the current interpretation of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation," assured Finkbeiner. "Nobody has done anything wrong in neglecting these signals - so far." Scientists considered several plausible mechanisms for this anomalous emission, but these theories failed to explain the observed spatial distribution of this emission across the sky. This predicament prompted theorists to rethink the spinning dust idea, leading to a 1998 model by Bruce Draine (Princeton University) and Alex Lazarian (University of Wisconsin), which proposed rotational dust-grain emission as an important mechanism. Draine and Lazarian assumed that small dust grains, perhaps having no more than 100 atoms each, would populate many interstellar dust clouds in the Galaxy. Each grain would have a small electric dipole and would therefore react to the charged ions that race through the clouds at tremendous speeds. As an ion

  1. Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi dust solutions in f (R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Jaime, Luisa G.

    2017-12-01

    We derive a class of non-static inhomogeneous dust solutions in f(R) gravity described by the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric. The field equations are fully integrated for all parameter subcases and compared with analogous subcases of LTB dust solutions of GR. Since the solutions do not admit regular symmetry centres, we have two possibilities: (i) a spherical dust cloud with angle deficit acting as the source of a vacuum Schwarzschild-like solution associated with a global monopole, or (ii) fully regular dust wormholes without angle deficit, whose rest frames are homeomorphic to the Schwarzschild-Kruskal manifold or to a 3d torus. The compatibility between the LTB metric and generic f(R) ansatzes furnishes an ‘inverse procedure’ to generate LTB solutions whose sources are found from the f(R) geometry. While the resulting fluids may have an elusive physical interpretation, they can be used as exact non-perturbative toy models in theoretical and cosmological applications of f(R) theories.

  2. Infrared spectrophotometry and radiative transfer in optically thick circumstellar dust envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Two-Micron Sky Survey of Neugebauer and Leighton and, more recently, the AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey of Walker and Price have detected numerous compact, isolated, bright infrared sources which are not identified with previously cataloged stars. Observations of many such objects suggest that extensive circumstellar dust envelopes modify the flux from a central source. The present investigations employ broad bandpass photometry at lambda lambda 1.65 μm to 12.5 μm and narrow bandpass spectrophotometry (Δ lambda/lambda approximately 0.015) at lambda lambda 2-4 μm and lambda lambda 8-13 μm to determine the properties of a large sample of such infrared sources. Infrared spectrophotometry can clearly differentiate between normal stars of spectral types M(''oxygen-rich'') and C (''carbon-rich'') on the basis of characteristic absorption bands arising in cool stellar atmospheres. Most of the 2 μ Sky Survey and many of the AFCRL Sky Survey sources appear to be stars of spectral types M and C which are differentiated from normal cool comparison stars only by the presence of extensive circumstellar dust envelopes. Due to the large optical depth of the envelopes, the flux from the star and from the dust cannot be simply separated. Hence solutions of radiative transfer through spherically symmetric envelopes of arbitrary optical depth were generated by a generalized computer code which employed opacities of real dust