WorldWideScience

Sample records for dust obscured star-formation

  1. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    One of the aspects of the understanding of the Universe evolution is its star formation history. In order to gain a complete picture of the Universe evolution it is important to know when the stars we see today were formed. One of the method to study this problem is to use far-infrared and radio...... emission of galaxies. In this way it is possible to investigate the sites of star formation that are totally obscured by dust and therefore invisible at the optical wavelengths. It is because the energy absorbed by dust in the optical is re-emitted in the infrared, whereas radio emission is unaffected...

  2. Star formation and dust obscuration in the tidally distorted galaxy NGC 2442

    CERN Document Server

    Pancoast, Anna; Lacy, Mark; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rho, Jeonghee

    2010-01-01

    Abridged: We present a detailed investigation of the morphological distribution and level of star formation and dust obscuration in the nearby tidally distorted galaxy NGC2442. Spitzer images in the IR at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0um, and 24um and GALEX images at 1500\\AA{} and 2300\\AA{} allow us to resolve the galaxy on scales between 240-600pc. We supplement these with archival data in the B, J, H, and K bands. We use the 8um, 24um and FUV (1500\\AA) emission to study the star formation rate (SFR). We find that globally, these tracers of star formation give a range of results of ~6-11\\msun/yr, with the dust-corrected FUV giving the highest value of SFR. We can reconcile the UV and IR-based estimates by adopting a steeper UV extinction curve that lies in between the starburst (Calzetti) and SMC extinction curves. However, the regions of highest SFR intensity along the spiral arms are consistent with a starburst-like extinction. Overall, the level of star-formation we find is higher than previously published for this g...

  3. Star formation and dust obscuration at z~2: galaxies at the dawn of downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Pannella, M; Daddi, E; Cracken, H J Mc; Owen, F N; Renzini, A; Strazzullo, V; Civano, F; Koekemoer, A M; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Aussel, H; Kneib, J P; Ilbert, O; Mellier, Y; Salvato, M; Thompson, D; Willott, C J

    2009-01-01

    We present first results of a study aimed to constrain the star formation rate and dust content of galaxies at z~2. We use a sample of BzK-selected star-forming galaxies, drawn from the COSMOS survey, to perform a stacking analysis of their 1.4 GHz radio continuum as a function of different stellar population properties, after removing AGN contaminants from the sample. Dust unbiased star formation rates are derived from radio fluxes assuming the local radio-IR correlation. The main results of this work are: i) specific star formation rates are constant over about 1 dex in stellar mass and up to the highest stellar mass probed; ii) the dust attenuation is a strong function of galaxy stellar mass with more massive galaxies being more obscured than lower mass objects; iii) a single value of the UV extinction applied to all galaxies would lead to grossly underestimate the SFR in massive galaxies; iv) correcting the observed UV luminosities for dust attenuation based on the Calzetti recipe provide results in very ...

  4. Dust-Obscured Star-Formation in Intermediate Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Rose A; Rudnick, Gregory; Poggianti, Bianca; Bell, Eric F; Hinz, Joannah; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Moustakas, John; Rines, Kenneth; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS 24-micron observations of 16 0.45A, and ~75% exhibit optical signatures of dusty starbursts. On average, the fraction of cluster LIRGs increases with projected cluster-centric radius but remains systematically lower than the field fraction over the area probed (< 1.5xR200). The amount of obscured star formation declines significantly over the 2.4 Gyr interval spanned by the EDisCS sample, and the rate of decline is the same for the cluster and field populations. Our results are consistent with an expo nentially declining LIRG fraction, with the decline in the field delayed by ~1 Gyr relative to the clusters.

  5. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853 (United States); Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H., E-mail: jhodge@nrao.edu [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.

  6. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  7. A Connection between Obscuration and Star Formation in Luminous Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chien-Ting J; Alberts, Stacey; Harrison, Chris M; Alexander, David M; Assef, Roberto; Brown, Michael J I; Del Moro, Agnese; Forman, William R; Gorjian, Varoujan; Goulding, Andrew D; Hainline, Kevin N; Jones, Christine; Kochanek, Christopher S; Murray, Stephen S; Pope, Alexandra; Rovilos, Emmanouel; Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a measurement of the star formation properties of a uniform sample of mid-IR selected, unobscured and obscured quasars (QSO1s and QSO2s) in the Bo\\"otes survey region. We use an spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis for photometric data spanning optical to far-IR wavelengths to decompose AGN and host galaxy components. We find that when compared to a matched sample of QSO1s, the QSO2s have higher far-IR detection fractions, far-IR fluxes and infrared star formation luminosities ($L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm SF}$) by a factor of $\\sim2$. Correspondingly, we show that the AGN obscured fraction rises from 0.3 to 0.7 between $4-40\\times10^{11}L_\\odot$. We also find evidence associating the absorption in the X-ray emission with the presence of far-IR emitting dust. Overall, these results are consistent with galaxy evolution models in which quasar obscurations can be associated with a dust-enshrouded starburst galaxies.

  8. Dust-obscured star-formation in the outskirts of XMMU J2235.3-2557, a massive galaxy cluster at z=1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J S; Popesso, P; Strazzullo, V; Valtchanov, I; Berta, S; Bohringer, H; Conversi, L; Demarco, R; Edge, A C; Lidman, C; Lutz, D; Metcalfe, L; Mullis, C R; Pintos-Castro, I; Sanchez-Portal, M; Rawle, T D; Rosati, P; Swinbank, A M; Tanaka, M

    2013-01-01

    Star-formation in the galaxy populations of local massive clusters is reduced with respect to field galaxies, and tends to be suppressed in the core region. Indications of a reversal of the star-formation--density relation have been observed in a few z >1.4 clusters. Using deep imaging from 100-500um from PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel, we investigate the infrared properties of spectroscopic and photo-z cluster members, and of Halpha emitters in XMMU J2235.3-2557, one of the most massive, distant, X-ray selected clusters known. Our analysis is based mostly on fitting of the galaxies spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame 8-1000um. We measure total IR luminosity, deriving star formation rates (SFRs) ranging from 89-463 Msun/yr for 13 galaxies individually detected by Herschel, all located beyond the core region (r >250 kpc). We perform a stacking analysis of nine star-forming members not detected by PACS, yielding a detection with SFR=48 Msun/yr. Using a color criterion based on a star-forming galaxy ...

  9. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Gettings, Daniel P; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mancone, Conor L; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2013-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies...

  10. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mancone, Conor L.; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z = 0.3 to 1.5 using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver 250 μm imaging and utilizing 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). These clusters were selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Boötes field. This sample allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFR = SFR/M⋆) of stellar mass-limited (M ≥ 1.3 × 1010 M⊙), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star-forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z ≳ 1.2 in the cluster cores (r 0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the SF in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.

  11. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. XVII. Examining Obscured Star Formation with Synthetic Ultraviolet Flux Maps in M31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Simones, Jacob E.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Kapala, Maria; Rosenfield, Philip; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We present synthetic far- and near-ultraviolet ({FUV} and {NUV}) maps of M31, both with and without dust reddening. These maps were constructed from spatially resolved star formation histories (SFHs) derived from optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging of resolved stars, taken as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program. We use stellar population synthesis modeling to generate synthetic UV maps with a spatial resolution of ∼100 pc (∼24 arcsec), projected. When reddening is included, these maps reproduce all of the main morphological features in the GALEX imaging, including rings and large star-forming complexes. The predicted UV flux also agrees well with the observed flux, with median ratios between the modeled and observed flux of {{log}}10({f}{FUV}{syn}/{f}{FUV}{obs})=0.03+/- 0.24 and {{log}}10({f}{NUV}{syn}/{f}{NUV}{obs})=-0.03+/- 0.16 in the {FUV} and {NUV}, respectively. This agreement is particularly impressive given that we used only optical photometry to construct these UV maps. Having verified the synthetic reddened maps, we use the dust-free maps to examine properties of obscured flux and star formation. We compare our dust-free and reddened maps of {FUV} flux with the observed GALEX {FUV} flux and {FUV} + 24 μm flux to examine the fraction of obscured flux. We find that the maps of synthetic flux require that ∼90% of the {FUV} flux in M31 is obscured by dust, while the GALEX -based methods suggest that ∼70% of the {FUV} flux is absorbed by dust. This 30% increase in the estimate of the obscured flux is driven by significant differences between the dust-free synthetic {FUV} flux and that derived when correcting the observed {FUV} flux for dust absorption with 24 μm emission observations. The difference is further illustrated when we compare the SFRs derived from the {FUV} + 24 μm flux with the 100 Myr average SFR from the CMD-based SFHs. We find that the 24 μm corrected {FUV} flux underestimates the SFR by a factor of 2.3–2

  12. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury XVII. Examining Obscured Star Formation with Synthetic Ultraviolet Flux Maps in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Alexia R; Johnson, Benjamin D; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R; Dolphin, Andrew E; Williams, Benjamin F; Bell, Eric F; Fouesneau, Morgan; Kapala, Maria; Rosenfield, Philip; Schruba, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present synthetic far- and near-ultraviolet (FUV and NUV) maps of M31, both with and without dust reddening. These maps were constructed from spatially-resolved star formation histories (SFHs) derived from optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging of resolved stars, taken as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program. We use stellar population synthesis modeling to generate synthetic UV maps with projected spatial resolution of $\\sim$100 pc ($\\sim$24 arcseconds) The predicted UV flux agrees well with the observed flux, with median ratios between the modeled and observed flux of $\\log_{10}(f^{syn}/f^{obs}) = 0.03\\pm0.24$ and $-0.03\\pm0.16$ in the FUV and NUV, respectively. This agreement is particularly impressive given that we used only optical photometry to construct these UV maps. We use the dust-free maps to examine properties of obscured flux and star formation by comparing our reddened and dust-free FUV flux maps with the observed FUV and FUV+24{\\mu}m flux to examine the fraction of obscu...

  13. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (∼1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5–2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation (∼2.6–4 M⊙ yr‑1). The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner ∼400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT ∼ 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT ∼ 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe Kα equivalent width in this source ({EW}={2.5}-1.0+2.6 {keV}), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density (NH > 1.25 × 1024 cm‑2) and an intrinsic hard (2–10 keV) X-ray luminosity of ∼3–8 × 1042 erg s‑1 (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe Kα EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe Kα EWs (i.e., >2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  14. How Dead are Dead Galaxies? Mid-Infrared Fluxes of Quiescent Galaxies at Redshift 0.3Star Formation Rates and Dust Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; vanDokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; DaCunha, Elisabete; FoersterSchreiber, Natascha M.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 star formation rates for quiescent galaxies (sSFR approx. 10(exp -12)/yr. However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS-24 micron images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 micron detections, we find sSFR approx. 10(exp -11.9) × (1 + z)(sup 4)/yr. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  15. Star formation associated with the infrared dust bubble N68

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Peng Zhang; Jun-Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the environment of the infrared dust bubble N68 and searched for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings.We performed a multiwavelength study of the nebula with data taken from several large-scale surveys:GLIMPSE,MIPSGAL,IRAS,NVSS,GRS and JCMT.We analyzed the spectral profile and the distribution of the molecular gas (13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2),and the dust in the environment of N68.The position-velocity diagram clearly shows that N68 may be expanding outward.We used two three-color images of the mid-infrared emission to explore the physical environment,and one color-color diagram to investigate the distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs).We found that the 24 μm emission is surrounded by the 8.0 μm emission.Morphologically,the 1.4 GHz continuum strongly correlates with the 24 μm emission,and the 13CO J =1-0 and J =3-2 emissions correlate well with the 8.0 μm emission.We investigated two compact cores located in the shell of N68.The spectral intensity ratios of 13CO J =3-2 to J =1-0 range from 5 to 0.3.In addition,YSOs,masers,IRAS and UC HII regions are distributed in the shell of the bubble.The active region may be triggered by the expansion of the bubble N68.

  16. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured, Hyperluminous Quasars at Redshifts ˜ 0.5-3. I. ALMA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, M.; Kimball, A. E.; Blain, A.; Whittle, M.; Wilkes, B.; Stern, D.; Condon, J.; Kim, M.; Assef, R. J.; Tsai, C.-W.; Efstathiou, A.; Jones, S.; Eisenhardt, P.; Bridge, C.; Wu, J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Jones, K.; Jarrett, T.; Smith, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7\\lt {log}({P}\\text{3.0 GHz}/{{{W}} {Hz}}-1)\\lt 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 DOGs” (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (MISM/M⊙) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M⊙ yr-1, depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10-15 Myr) compact starburst.

  17. A Multi-Wavelength Census of Dust and Star Formation in Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Redshift of z ~ 2 is an important era in the history of the universe, as it contains the peak of star formation rate density and quasar activity. We study the galaxy properties during this era from two different, yet complementary, aspects: by studying formation of stars and mass assembly, and exploring the properties of galactic dust. We use a wealth of multi-wavelength data, from UV to far-IR, to obtain a complete census of obscured and unobscured star formation in galaxies. Our data consists of rest-frame optical spectra from the MOSDEF survey, rest-frame UV and optical photometric data from the 3D-HST survey, and mid- and far-IR data obtained by the Spitzer and Herschel telescopes. In the MOSDEF survey, we acquired rest-frame optical spectra of ~ 1500 galaxies with the MOSFIRE spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. MOSDEF is currently the largest survey of the rest-frame optical properties of galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 3.80. Using the multi-wavelength data sets, we show that Hα SFRs, corrected for dust attenuation using the Hβ line, accurately trace SFRs up to ~ 300 M⊙ yr-1, when compared with panchromatic (UV-to-far-IR) SED models. Using Hα SFRs for a large sample of ~ 200 galaxies at z ~ 2, we explore the SFR-M* relation and show that the slope of this relation is shallower than previously measured. We conclude that the scatter in the SFR-M* relation is dominated by uncertainties in dust correction and cannot be used to measure the star formation stochasticity. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron flux as an SFR indicator and its variation with ISM physical parameters. We find that 24 micron flux, which at z ~ 2 traces the emission from the PAH grains, significantly depends on metallicity, such that there is a PAH deficiency in metal-poor galaxies. We demonstrate that commonly-used conversions of 24 micron flux to IR luminosity underestimate the IR luminosity of low-mass galaxies by more than a factor of 2. Our results

  18. UVOT Measurements of Dust and Star Formation in the SMC and M33

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Lea M Z; Gronwall, Caryl A; Hoversten, Erik A; Vargas, Angelica; Immler, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    When measuring star formation rates using ultraviolet light, correcting for dust extinction is a critical step. However, with the variety of dust extinction curves to choose from, the extinction correction is quite uncertain. Here, we use Swift/UVOT to measure the extinction curve for star-forming regions in the SMC and M33. We find that both the slope of the curve and the strength of the 2175 Angstrom bump vary across both galaxies. In addition, as part of our modeling, we derive a detailed recent star formation history for each galaxy.

  19. Dust obscuration by an evolving galaxy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najita, Joan; Silk, Joseph; Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an evolving luminosity function (LF) on the ability of foreground galaxies to obscure background sources is discussed, using the Press-Schechter/CDM standard evolving LF model. Galaxies are modeled as simplified versions of local spirals and Poisson statistics are used to estimate the fraction of sky covered by intervening dusty galaxies and the mean optical depths due to these galaxies. The results are compared to those obtained in the case of nonevolving luminosity function in a low-density universe. It is found that evolution of the galaxy LF does not allow the quasar dust obscuration hypothesis to be sustained for dust disks with plausible sizes. Even in a low-density universe, where evolution at z = less than 10 is unimportant, large disk radii are needed to achieve the desired obscuring effect. The mean fraction of sky covered is presented as a function of the redshift z along with adequate diagram illustrations.

  20. Embedded Star Formation in S4G Galaxy Dust Lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comeron, Sebastien; Efremov, Yuri N; Gadotti, Dimitri A; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark; Sheth, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 microns and Halpha but not in the u,g,r,i,z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky survey (SDSS), are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ~3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ~5x10^4 Msun. These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ~10^7 Msun. The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous a...

  1. The role of dust in "active" and "passive" low-metallicity star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, N

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role of dust in star formation activity of extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Observations suggest that star formation in BCDs occurs in two different regimes: "active" and "passive". The "active" BCDs host super star clusters (SSCs), and are characterised by compact size, rich H2 content, large dust optical depth, and high dust temperature; the "passive" BCDs are more diffuse with cooler dust, and lack SSCs and large amounts of H2. By treating physical processes concerning formation of stars and dust, we are able to simultaneously reproduce all the above properties of both modes of star formation (active and passive). We find that the difference between the two regimes can be understood through the variation of the "compactness" of the star-forming region: an "active" mode emerges if the region is compact (with radius $\\la 50$ pc) and dense (with gas number density $\\ga 500$ cm$^{-3}$). The dust, supplied from Type II supernovae in a compact star-forming region, effec...

  2. Far-IR Emission From Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calanog, J A; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A; Assef, R J; Bock, J; Casey, C M; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Kartaltepe, J; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Viero, M; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a UV-faint, IR-bright galaxy population that reside at z~2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and AGN activity. We present far-IR observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg^2 of COSMOS. The 3077 DOGs have =1.9+/-0.3 and are selected from 24 um and r+ observations using a color cut of r+ - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S24 >= 100 uJy. Based on the mid-IR SEDs, 47% are star-formation dominated and 10% are AGN-dominated. We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from HerMES to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 um (>=3sigma). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Detected and undetected DOGs have average IR luminosities of (2.8+/-0.4) x 10^12 L_Sun and (0.77+/-0.08) x 10^12L_Sun, and dust temperatures of 34+/-7 K and 31+/-3 K, respectively. Using far-IR observations, DOGs contribute 30% to the 24 um-select...

  3. Global Star Formation Rates and Dust Emission Over the Galaxy Interaction Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Lanz, Lauranne; Brassington, Nicola; Smith, Howard A; Ashby, Matthew L N; da Cunha, Elisabete; Fazio, Giovanni G; Hayward, Christopher C; Hernquist, Lars; Jonsson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    We measured and modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFR), specific star formation rates (sSFR), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increase...

  4. Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the MBM 18--19 High-Latitude Cloud Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristen A.; Reed, Cyrus M.

    Projected on the plane of the sky, the MBM 19 molecular cloud extends from the MBM 18 high-latitude cloud toward the Taurus star-forming regions. We present a new CO(J = 1--0) map of MBM 19 that shows clumpy emission with line intensities above 3 K in some regions despite low, relatively smooth 100 micron emission and modest visual extinction. This map complements data that show extremely high polarization efficiency of dust aligned along the bridge axis and low values of the ratio of total-to-selective extinction throughout the complex. In addition, several ongoing searches for spectral signatures of young stars have found evidence for star formation associated with MBM 18--19. We discuss variation in the molecular gas fraction and dust-to-gas ratio estimates, as well as the implications all these data have for understanding star formation in the region. Results of this study and others like it will provide insight into dust and gas of the translucent interstellar medium and star formation at high galactic latitude. This research was supported by the American Astronomical Society's Small Research Grant Program.

  5. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  6. Obscured Star-Formation in Merging Galaxies: High Resolution Radio Imaging of a Time-Ordered Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, S. G.; Campion, S. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new, deep, high resolution 6cm and 4cm radio continuum images of the central regions of a time-ordered sequence of seven large galaxy mergers. The radio observations are able to detect star-forming re- gions that are completely obscured at optical wavelengths. In all systems, we detect numerous compact radio sources embedded in more diffuse ra- dio emission, with limiting luminosities of approx. 1-5 x 10(exp l8) W Hz or approx. 1-5 times the luminosity of Cas A. Many of the compact radio sources are loosely associated with active starforming regions but not with specific optical or W emission sources. Several of the compact radio sources are coincident with Ultra-luminous X-ray objects (ULX's). In most systems, we are able to measure reliable spectral indices for the stronger sources. We find that the fraction of compact radio cources with nominally flat radio spectral indices (indicating they ae dominated by thermal radio emission from HII regions) decreases with merger age, while the fraction of sources with nonimally steep spectral indices (indicating they are dominated by nonthermal emission from supernova remnants) increases. For the flat-spectrum sources, we estimate the numbers of young massive stars, associated ionized gas masses, we estimate supernova rates and required star-formation rates, We compare these results with those from other well-studied merging galaxy systems and from other determinations of star-formation rates. We gratefully acknowledge use of the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLA Archive. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Herschel reveals the obscured star formation in HiZELS Hα emitters at z = 1.47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibar, E.; Sobral, D.; Best, P. N.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Arumugam, V.; Berta, S.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Cava, A.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Geach, J.; Ikarashi, S.; Kohno, K.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lutz, D.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Schulz, B.; Seymour, N.; Smith, A. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-10-01

    obscured star-forming regions, especially in massive galaxies where these dominate. The luminosity-limited HiZELS sample tends to lie above of the so-called main sequence for star-forming galaxies, especially at low stellar masses, indicating high star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. This work has implications for SFR indicators and suggests that obscured star formation is linked to the assembly of stellar mass, with deeper potential wells in massive galaxies providing dense, heavily obscured environments in which stars can form rapidly.

  8. Earliest phases of star formation (EPoS): Dust temperature distributions in isolated starless cores

    CERN Document Server

    Lippok, N; Henning, Th; Beuther, Z Balog H; Kainulainen, J; Krause, O; Linz, H; Nielbock, M; Ragan, S E; Robitaille, T P; Sadavoy, S I; Schmiedeke, A

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the temperature and density structure of dense molecular cloud cores is fundamental for understanding the initial conditions of star formation. We use Herschel observations of the thermal FIR dust emission from nearby isolated molecular cloud cores and combine them with ground-based submillimeter continuum data to derive observational constraints on their temperature and density structure. The aim of this study is to verify the validity of a ray-tracing inversion technique developed to derive the dust temperature and density structure of isolated starless cores directly from the dust emission maps and to test if the resulting temperature and density profiles are consistent with physical models. Using this ray-tracing inversion technique, we derive the dust temperature and density structure of six isolated starless cloud cores. We employ self-consistent radiative transfer modeling to the derived density profiles, treating the ISRF as the only heating source. The best-fit values of local strength o...

  9. A physical model for z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Dey, Arjun; Hayward, Christopher C.; Cox, Thomas J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F.; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-09-01

    We present a physical model for the origin of z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) selected at 24μm which are particularly optically faint (F24μm/FR > 1000). By combining N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of high-redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 >~ 0.3mJy at z ~ 2) are well modelled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5 × 1012-1013Msolar) haloes, with elevated star formation rates (SFR; ~500-1000Msolaryr-1) and/or significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth , whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. At final coalescence, merger-driven DOGs transition from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a `bump' to a power-law (PL) shaped mid-IR (Infrared Array Camera, IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). After the DOG phase, the galaxy settles back to exhibiting a `bump' SED with bluer colours and lower SFRs. While canonically PL galaxies are associated with being AGN dominated, we find that the PL mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution and to a heavily dust obscured stellar bump at times that the galaxy is starburst dominated. Thus, PL galaxies can be either starburst or AGN dominated. Less luminous DOGs can be well-represented either by mergers or by massive (Mbaryon ~ 5 × 1011Msolar) secularly evolving gas-rich disc galaxies (with SFR >~ 50Msolaryr-1). By utilizing similar models as those employed in the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) formation study of Narayanan et al., we investigate the connection between DOGs and SMGs. We find that the most heavily star-forming merger-driven DOGs can be selected as submillimetre galaxies, while both merger-driven and secularly evolving DOGs typically satisfy the BzK selection criteria. The model SEDs from the simulated galaxies match observed data reasonably well, though Mrk 231 and Arp 220 templates provide

  10. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured Quasars at Redshifts ~0.3-3, I: ALMA Obseravtions

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Kimball, Amy E; Blain, Andrew; Whittle, Mark; Wilkes, Belinda; Stern, Dan; Condon, Jim; Kim, Minjin; Assef, Roberto J; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Efstathiou, Andreas; Jones, Suzy; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jinwen; Lonsdale, Colin J; Jones, Kristen; Jarrett, Tom; Smith, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA 870 micron (345 GHz) data for 49 high redshift (0.47dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies which possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from WISE with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared (MIR) colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 microns, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7 < log P3.0 GHz (W/Hz) < 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log M(BH) (Msun) < 10.2. The rest frame 1-5 um SEDs are very similar to the "Hot DOGs" (Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estim...

  11. Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Mergers: The Effects of Dust and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Stickley, Nathaniel R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of stellar evolution and dust on measurements of stellar velocity dispersion in mergers of disk galaxies. $N$-body simulations and radiative transfer analysis software are used to obtain mass-weighted and flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion. We find that the distribution of dust with respect to the distribution of young stars in such systems is more important than the total degree of attenuation. The presence of dust typically causes flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion to be elevated with respect to mass-weighted measurements because dust preferentially obscures young stars, which tend to be dynamically cooler than older stellar populations in such systems. In exceptional situations, in which young stars are not preferentially obscured by dust, flux-weighted velocity dispersion measurements tend to be negatively offset with respect to mass-weighted measurements because the dynamically cool young stellar populations are more luminous, per u...

  12. Spitzer Analysis of HII Region Complexes in the Magellanic Clouds: Determining a Suitable Monochromatic Obscured Star Formation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Lawton, Brandon; Babler, Brian; Block, Miwa; Bolatto, Alberto D; Bracker, Steve; Carlson, Lynn R; Engelbracht, Charles W; Hora, Joseph L; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Meade, Marilyn; Meixner, Margaret; Misselt, Karl; Oey, M S; Oliveira, Joana M; Robitaille, Thomas; Sewilo, Marta; Shiao, Bernie; Vijh, Uma P; Whitney, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    HII regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the bolometric IR flux (TIR), which can then be used to estimate an obscured SFR. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 LMC and 16 SMC HII region complexes using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS bands. UV rocket data and SHASSA H-alpha data are also included. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC HII region SEDs peak around 70um, from ~10 to ~400 pc from the central sources. As a result, the sizes of HII regions as probed by 70um is approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (about 70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70um flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70um ~ 0.45 TIR); the 1-sigma standard deviation of the 7...

  13. Dust emission and star formation toward a redshift 5.5 QSO

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoldi, F

    2003-01-01

    We report observations of the low-luminosity z = 5.50 quasar RD J030117+002025 (RD0301 hereafter) at 250 GHz (1.20mm) using the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer (MAMBO) array at the IRAM 30-meter telescope. The quasar was detected with a 1.2mm flux density of 0.87 +-0.20 mJy. The lack of detectable 1.4 GHz radio emission indicates that the millimeter emission is of thermal nature, making RD0301 the most distant dust-emission source known. When matching a 50K grey body thermal far-infrared (FIR) spectrum to the observed millimeter flux we imply a FIR luminosity ~4x10^12 L_sun, which is comparable to the quasar's optical luminosity. If the FIR luminosity arises from massive star formation, the implied star formation rate would be ~600 M_sun/yr, comparable to that of the starburst galaxies which dominate the average star formation and FIR emission in the early Universe. The FIR luminosity of RD0301 is close to the average of that found in optically far more luminous high-redshift quasars. The comparably high mill...

  14. Star Formation in High Pressure, High Energy Density Environments: Laboratory Experiments of ISM Dust Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breugel, W; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Bringa, E; Dai, Z; Felter, T; Graham, G; Kucheyev, S; Torres, D; Tielens, A; Baragiola, R; Dukes, C; Loeffler, M

    2005-01-05

    Dust grains control the chemistry and cooling, and thus the gravitational collapse of interstellar clouds. Energetic particles, shocks and ionizing radiation can have a profound influence on the structure, lifetime and chemical reactivity of the dust, and therefore on the star formation efficiency. This would be especially important in forming galaxies, which exhibit powerful starburst (supernovae) and AGN (active galactic nucleus) activity. How dust properties are affected in such environments may be crucial for a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The authors present the results of experiments at LLNL which show that irradiation of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust analog forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) with swift heavy ions (10 MeV Xe) and a large electronic energy deposition amorphizes its crystalline structure, without changing its chemical composition. From the data they predict that silicate grains in the ISM, even in dense and cold giant molecular clouds, can be amorphized by heavy cosmic rays (CR's). This might provide an explanation for the observed absence of crystalline dust in the ISM clouds of the Milky Way galaxy. This processing of dust by CR's would be even more important in forming galaxies and galaxies with active black holes.

  15. Slow Evolution of the Specific Star Formation Rate at z>2: The Impact of Dust, Emission Lines, and A Rising Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Valentino; llingworth, Garth; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Magee, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We measure the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR / Mstar) between redshift 4 and 6 to investigate the previous reports of "constant" sSFR at z>2. We obtain photometry on a large sample of galaxies at z~4-6 located in the HUDF and the ERS fields that have high quality imaging from HST and Spitzer. We have derived stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) through stellar population modeling of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We estimate the dust extinction from the observed UV colors. In the SED fitting process we have studied the effects of assuming a star formation history (SFH) both with constant SFR and one where the SFR rises exponentially with time. The latter SFH is chosen to match the observed evolution of the UV luminosity function. We find that neither the mean SFRs nor the mean stellar masses change significantly when the rising SFR (RSF) model is assumed instead of the constant SFR model. When focusing on galaxies with Mstar ~ 5x10^9 Msun, we find that the sS...

  16. Evolution of Infrared Luminosity functions of Galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Deep field: Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, H; Takeuchi, T T; Pearson, C; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Oyabu, S; Ohyama, Y; Malkan, M; Lee, H M; Lee, M G; Inami, H; Hwang, N; Hanami, H; Im, M; Imai, K; Ishigaki, T; Serjeant, S; Shim, H

    2010-01-01

    Dust-obscured star-formation becomes much more important with increasing intensity, and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with the AKARI. We construct restframe 8um, 12um, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15

  17. Infrared Survey of Pulsating Giant Stars in the Spiral Galaxy M33: Dust Production, Star Formation History, and Galactic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a near-IR monitoring campaign of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33, carried out with the UK IR Telescope (UKIRT). The pulsating giant stars are identified and their distributions are used to derive the star formation rate as a function of age. We here present the star formation history for the central square kiloparsec. These stars are also important dust factories; we measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry.

  18. The large scale gas and dust distribution in the galaxy: Implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, T. J.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kerr, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Observations are presented for the diffuse infrared (IR) emissions from the galactic plane at wavelengths of 60 and 100 microns and the total far infrared intensity and its longitudinal variations in the disk were derived. Using available CO, 5 GHz radio-continuum, and HI data, the IR luminosity per hydrogen mass and the ingrared excess (IRE) ratio in the Galaxy were derived. The longitudinal profiles of the 60 and 100 micron emission were linearly decomposed into three components that are associated with molecular (H2), neutral (HI), and ionized (HII) phases in the interstellar medium (ISM), and the relevant dust properties were derived in each phase. Implications of the findings for various models of the diffuse IR emisison and for star formation in the galactic disk are discussed.

  19. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  20. Slow Evolution of the Specific Star Formation Rate at z > 2: The Impact of Dust, Emission Lines, and a Rising Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Valentino; Bouwens, Rychard; Illingworth, Garth; Labbé, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Magee, Dan

    2014-01-01

    We measure the evolution of the specific star formation rate (sSFR = SFR/M stellar) between redshift 4 and 6 to assess the reported "constant" sSFR at z > 2. We derive stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for a large sample of 750 z ~ 4-6 galaxies in the GOODS-S field by fitting stellar population models to their spectral energy distributions. Dust extinction is derived from the observed UV colors. We evaluate different star formation histories (SFHs, constant and rising with time) and the impact of optical emission lines. The SFR and M stellar values are insensitive to whether the SFH is constant or rising. The derived sSFR is very similar (within 0.1 dex) in two M stellar bins centered at 1 and 5 × 109 M ⊙. The effect of emission lines was, however, quite pronounced. Assuming no contribution from emission lines, the sSFR for galaxies at 5 × 109 M ⊙ evolves weakly at z > 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)0.6 ± 0.1), consistent with previous results. When emission lines are included in the rest-frame optical bands, consistent with the observed Infrared Array Camera [3.6] and [4.5] fluxes, the sSFR shows higher values at high redshift following sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)1.0 ± 0.1, i.e., the best-fit evolution shows a sSFR ~2.3 × higher at z ~ 6 than at z ~ 2. This is, however, a substantially weaker trend than that found at z 2 (sSFR(z)vprop(1 + z)2.5). Even accounting for emission lines, the observed sSFR(z) trends at z > 2 are still in tension with theoretical expectations.

  1. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, University of Colorado UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  2. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a 350 μm dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350 μm = 114-650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3-34 × 107 M ⊙ and 0.03%-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  3. HST Morphologies of z ~ 2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies II: Bump Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Lotz, J; Armus, L; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Eisenhardt, P; Higdon, J; Higdon, S; Jannuzi, B T; Floc'h, E Le; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T; Weedman, D

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z~2 with extremely red R-[24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6um associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call "bump DOGs", have star-formation rates of 400-4000 Msun/yr and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission --- a sign of vigorous on-going star-formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power-law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs), and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey (XFLS). Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 +/-...

  4. FMOS near-IR spectroscopy of Herschel selected galaxies: star formation rates, metallicity and dust attenuation at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Roseboom, I G; Sumiyoshi, M; Wang, L; Dalton, G; Akiyama, M; Bock, J; Bonfield, D; Buat, V; Casey, C; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Curtis-Lake, E; Cooray, A; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Ham, S J; Ibar, E; Iwamuro, F; Kimura, M; Lewis, I; Macaulay, E; Magdis, G; Maihara, T; Marsden, G; Mauch, T; Moritani, Y; Ohta, K; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Takato, N; Tamura, N; Totani, T; Yabe, K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties (e.g. star formation rate, dust attentuation, stellar mass and metallicity) of a sample of infrared luminous galaxies at z \\sim 1 via near-IR spectroscopy with Subaru-FMOS. Our sample consists of Herschel SPIRE and Spitzer MIPS selected sources in the COSMOS field with photometric redshifts in the range 0.7 = 0.51\\pm0.27 for = 10^12 Lsol sources at = 1.36. By comparing star formation rates estimated from the IR and from the dust uncorrected H{\\alpha} line we find a strong relationship between dust attenuation and star formation rate. This relation is broadly consistent with that previously seen in star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.1. Finally, we investigate the metallicity via the N2 ratio, finding that z ~ 1 IR-selected sources are indistinguishable from the local mass-metallicity relation. We also find a strong correlation between dust attentuation and metallicity, with the most metal-rich IR-sources experiencing the largest levels of dust attenuation.

  5. Galaxy Zoo: star formation versus spiral arm number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.

    2017-06-01

    Spiral arms are common features in low-redshift disc galaxies, and are prominent sites of star formation and dust obscuration. However, spiral structure can take many forms: from galaxies displaying two strong 'grand design' arms to those with many 'flocculent' arms. We investigate how these different arm types are related to a galaxy's star formation and gas properties by making use of visual spiral arm number measurements from Galaxy Zoo 2. We combine ultraviolet and mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from GALEX and WISE to measure the rates and relative fractions of obscured and unobscured star formation in a sample of low-redshift SDSS spirals. Total star formation rate has little dependence on spiral arm multiplicity, but two-armed spirals convert their gas to stars more efficiently. We find significant differences in the fraction of obscured star formation: an additional ˜10 per cent of star formation in two-armed galaxies is identified via MIR dust emission, compared to that in many-armed galaxies. The latter are also significantly offset below the IRX-β relation for low-redshift star-forming galaxies. We present several explanations for these differences versus arm number: variations in the spatial distribution, sizes or clearing time-scales of star-forming regions (i.e. molecular clouds), or contrasting recent star formation histories.

  6. Embedded star formation in S{sup 4}G galaxy dust lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija [Department of Physical Sciences/Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 (Finland); Efremov, Yuri N. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); De Paz, Armando Gil [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMTO Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín [Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio 43, CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mizusawa, Trisha [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 μm and Hα but not in the u, g, r, i, z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ∼3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ∼5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}. These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral-shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous appearance of equally spaced complexes suggests that the dust lanes, and perhaps the arms too, are relatively young.

  7. Faint Radio Sources and Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Haarsma, D B; Windhorst, R A; Richards, E A; 10.1086/317225

    2010-01-01

    The centimeter-wave luminosity of local radio galaxies correlates well with their star formation rate. We extend this correlation to surveys of high-redshift radio sources to estimate the global star formation history. The star formation rate found from radio observations needs no correction for dust obscuration, unlike the values calculated from optical and ultraviolet data. Three deep radio surveys have provided catalogs of sources with nearly complete optical identifications and nearly 60% complete spectroscopic redshifts: the Hubble Deep Field and Flanking Fields at 12h+62d, the SSA13 field at 13h+42d, and the V15 field at 14h+52d. We use the redshift distribution of these radio sources to constrain the evolution of their luminosity function. The epoch dependent luminosity function is then used to estimate the evolving global star formation density. At redshifts less than one, our calculated star formation rates are significantly larger than even the dust-corrected optically-selected star formation rates;...

  8. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, Roderik; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S; Martin, D Christopher; Neill, James D; Rich, R Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshift. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z<0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high redshift samples (LBGs, BzK, and sub-mm galaxies at z=2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z=2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on...

  9. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  10. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assef, R. J.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  11. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marchetti, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  12. Embedded Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, R I; Hester, J J; Thompson, Rodger I.; Smith, Bradford A.

    2002-01-01

    M16=NGC 6611, the Eagle Nebula, is a well studied region of star formation and the source of a widely recognized Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. High spatial resolution infrared observations with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on HST reveal the detailed morphology of two embedded star formation regions that are heavily obscured at optical wavelengths. It is striking that only limited portions of the visually obscured areas are opaque at 2.2 microns. Although the optical images imply substantial columns of material, the infrared images show only isolated clumps of dense gas and dust. Rather than being an active factory of star production, only a few regions are capable of sustaining current star formation. Most of the volume in the columns may be molecular gas and dust, protected by capstones of dense dust. Two active regions of star formation are located at the tips of the optical northern and central large ``elephant trunk'' features shown in the WFPC2 images. They are em...

  13. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF MAJOR MERGER PAIRS AT z = 0: DUST MASS AND STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chen [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Xu, Cong Kevin; Lu, Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joe [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Domingue, Donovan; Ronca, Joseph; Jacques, Allison [Georgia College and State University, CBX 82, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille—LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cheng, Yi-Wen [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Gao, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Sun, Wei-Hsin [Institute of Astrophysics, National Taiwan University and The National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hong [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yun, Min S., E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxu@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter imaging observations for a large K-band selected sample of 88 close major-merger pairs of galaxies (H-KPAIRs) in 6 photometric bands (70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm). Among 132 spiral galaxies in the 44 spiral–spiral (S+S) pairs and 44 spiral–elliptical (S+E) pairs, 113 are detected in at least 1 Herschel band. The star formation rate (SFR) and dust mass (M{sub dust}) are derived from the IR SED fitting. The mass of total gas (M{sub gas}) is estimated by assuming a constant dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01. Star-forming spiral galaxies (SFGs) in S+S pairs show significant enhancements in both specific star formation rate (sSFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE), while having nearly the same gas mass compared to control galaxies. On the other hand, for SFGs in S+E pairs, there is no significant sSFR enhancement and the mean SFE enhancement is significantly lower than that of SFGs in S+S pairs. This suggests an important role for the disk–disk collision in the interaction-induced star formation. The M{sub gas} of SFGs in S+E pairs is marginally lower than that of their counterparts in both S+S pairs and the control sample. Paired galaxies with and without interaction signs do not differ significantly in their mean sSFR and SFE. As found in previous works, this much larger sample confirms that the primary and secondary spirals in S+S pairs follow a Holmberg effect correlation on sSFR.

  14. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Chary, R -R; Laskar, T; Chornock, R; Tanvir, N R; Stanway, E R; Levan, A J; Levesque, E M; Davies, J E

    2014-01-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  15. Search for Hyper Infrared-Luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies selected with WISE and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We aim to search for hyperliminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity $L_{{\\rm IR}}$ $>$ 10$^{13}$ $L_{\\odot}$ by applying the selection method of Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, hence they are a crucial population for understanding the star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5,311 IR-bright DOGs with $i$ -- [22] $>$ 7.0 and flux at 22 $\\mu$m $>$ 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg$^2$, where $i$ and [22] are $i$-band and 22 $\\mu$m AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the SED fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically-...

  16. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a 350 micron dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S_350 = 114-650 mJy and S/N > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust contents for a sample of 16 local DOGs that consists of 12 bump and 4 power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of warm dust component are 3-34$\\times10^{7} M_\\odot$ and 0.03-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller ...

  17. Star formation histories, extinction, and dust properties of strongly lensed z ~ 1.5-3 star-forming galaxies from the Herschel Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklias, P.; Zamojski, M.; Schaerer, D.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Rawle, T.; Richard, J.; Boone, F.; Simpson, J. M.; Smail, I.; van der Werf, P.; Altieri, B.; Kneib, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    × 1011L⊙, stellar masses between 2 × 109M⊙ and 2 × 1011M⊙, and IR/UV luminosity ratios spanning a wide range. The dust masses of our galaxies are in the range [2-17] × 107M⊙, extending previous studies at the same redshift down to lower masses. We do not find any particular trend of the dust temperature Tdust with LIR, suggesting an overall warmer dust regime at our redshift regardless of IR luminosity. Conclusions: Gravitational lensing enables us to study the detailed physical properties of individual IR-detected z ~ 1.5-3 galaxies up to a factor of ~10 fainter than achieved with deep blank field observations. We have in particular demonstrated that multi-wavelength observations combining stellar and dust emission can constrain star formation histories and extinction laws of star-forming galaxies, as proposed in an earlier paper. Fixing the extinction based on the IR/UV observations successfully breaks the age-extinction degeneracy often encountered in obscured galaxies. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Dust Obscured Quasars: A Missing Link in Quasar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Eilat; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Lacy, M.

    2007-12-01

    A host of observational evidence over several decades of research has suggested a formation and evolutionary link between the growth of supermassive black holes, quasar activity and the build-up of the stellar populations in their host galaxies. Such evolutionary scenarios have been invoked to explain the presence of buried AGN seen in ultraluminous infrared galaxies, a high fraction of which also show evidence of merging and interaction. However, the morphologies of luminous, blue quasars show no signs of interaction. Their hosts are mostly undistrubed elliptical galaxies. These seemingly conflicting observations suggest a missing link in the evolutionary path where the dust that completely buried the ULIRG is being cleared, eventually to reveal an unobscured, luminous quasar. This missing link may be a population of highly reddened, but not completely obscured quasars. We have constructed asample of dust obscured quasars using FIRST and 2MASS. We find that for K CRATES flat-spectrum radio catalog.

  19. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: sedona@berkeley.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  20. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  1. Inferred H⍺ Flux as a Star Formation Rate Indicator at z ~ 4-5: Implications for Dust Properties, Burstiness, and the z = 4-8 Star Formation Rate Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Renske; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Oesch, Pascal A.

    2016-12-01

    We derive Hα fluxes for a large spectroscopic and photometric-redshift-selected sample of sources over GOODS-North and South in the redshift range z = 3.8-5.0 with deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based observations. The Hα flux is inferred based on the offset between the IRAC 3.6 μm flux and that predicted from the best-fit spectral energy distribution (SED). We demonstrate that the Hα flux correlates well with dust-corrected UV star formation rate (SFR) and therefore can serve as an independent SFR indicator. However, we also find a systematic offset in the {{SFR}}{{H}α }/{{SFR}}{UV+β } ratios for z ˜ 4-5 galaxies relative to local relations (assuming the same dust corrections for nebular regions and stellar light). We show that we can resolve the modest tension in the inferred SFRs by assuming bluer intrinsic UV slopes (increasing the dust correction), a rising star formation history, or assuming a low-metallicity stellar population with a hard ionizing spectrum (increasing the {L}{{H}α }/{SFR} ratio). Using Hα as an SFR indicator, we find a normalization of the star formation main sequence in good agreement with recent SED-based determinations and also derive the SFR functions at z˜ 4{--}8. In addition, we assess for the first time the burstiness of star formation in z˜ 4 galaxies on <100 Myr timescales by comparing UV and Hα-based sSFRs; their one-to-one relationship argues against significantly bursty star formation histories.

  2. Evolution of infrared luminosity functions of galaxies in the AKARI NEP-deep field. Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Pearson, C.; Wada, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Oyabu, S.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Inami, H.; Hwang, N.; Hanami, H.; Im, M.; Imai, K.; Ishigaki, T.; Serjeant, S.; Shim, H.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: Dust-obscured star-formation increases with increasing intensity and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal the cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with AKARI. Methods: We constructed restframe 8 μm, 12 μm, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15 < z < 2.2 using 4128 infrared sources in the AKARI NEP-deep field. A continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelength (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24 μm) by the AKARI satellite allowed us to estimate restframe 8 μm and 12 μm luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on an SED fit, which was the largest uncertainty in previous work. Results: We find that all 8 μm (0.38 < z < 2.2), 12 μm (0.15 < z < 1.16), and TIR LFs (0.2 < z <1.6) show continuous and strong evolution toward higher redshift. Our direct estimate of 8 μm LFs is useful since previous work often had to use a large extrapolation from the Spitzer 24 μm to 8 μm, where SED modeling is more difficult because of the PAH emissions. In terms of cosmic infrared luminosity density (Ω_IR), which was obtained by integrating analytic fits to the LFs, we find good agreement with previous work at z<1.2. We find the Ω_IR evolves as propto(1 + z)4.4± 1.0. When we separate contributions to Ω_IR by LIRGs and ULIRGs, we found more IR luminous sources are increasingly more important at higher redshift. We find that the ULIRG (LIRG) contribution increases by a factor of 10 (1.8) from z = 0.35 to z = 1.4. This research is based on the observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  3. Star formation in the Galactic Center GMC cores: Sagittarius B2 and the dust ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, D. C.; Menten, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    The total far-infrared luminosity and the ionizing flux inferred from radio continuum observations of the Galactic center region imply a rate of star formation per unit mass of molecular material comparable to that in the Galactic disk. However, H2O and OH masers commonly found in sites of high-mass star formation are relatively rare in the nuclear disk. Far-infrared studies suggest that the formation rate of stars with masses greater than approximately 20 Solar Mass is reduced in the central region compared to the Galactic disk. Star formation might be suppressed currently in the central region as a result of the different geometry and strength of the magnetic fields there, which arguably might tend to inhibit cloud collapse. High gas pressures implied by observations of the diffuse X-ray emission suggest that giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the nuclear disk may be held together by external pressure rather than self-gravity. The gravitational collapse leading to the formation of high density cores may thus be suppressed in all but the most massive clouds.

  4. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, Roberto J; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Wylezalek, Dominika; Blain, Andrew W; Bridge, Carrie R; Donoso, Emilio; Gonzales, Alexandria; Griffith, Roger L; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    The WISE mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift ($z=1-4.6$), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm IR} > 10^{13}~L_{\\odot}$, and sometimes exceeding $10^{14}~L_{\\odot}$. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-IR SEDs are significantly hotter than expected for star-formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-IR SEDs for a large sample of these so-called "Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies" (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured AGN that dominates the rest-frame emission at $\\lambda > 1\\mu\\rm m$ and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as $10^{11}-10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$, the AGN emission, with luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either...

  5. The Cosmic Star-Formation History The UV finds most

    CERN Document Server

    Adelberger, K L

    2001-01-01

    This is a summary of arguments in favor of observing high-redshift star formation in the UV as presented at the Ringberg meeting in September 2000. The most rapidly star-forming galaxies are very dusty, easier to detect at 850um than in the UV, but less rapidly star-forming galaxies are less obscured by dust and as a result the comparatively faint galaxies that hosted most high-redshift star formation are easiest to detect in the UV. The correlation of star-formation rate and dust obscuration implies that extremely luminous dusty galaxies are usually as bright in the UV as the less luminous dust-free galaxies, and that any UV survey at a given redshift 0star formation occurs in galaxies that are completely hidden from UV surveys. I review recent attempts to estimate star-formation rates for high-redshift galaxies from UV data alone. The strength of UV surveys is that the...

  6. HELP: star formation as function of galaxy environmentwith Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Duivenvoorden, S; Buat, V; Darvish, B; Efstathiou, A; Farrah, D; Griffin, M; Hurley, P D; Ibar, E; Jarvis, M; Papadopoulos, A; Sargent, M T; Scott, D; Scudder, J M; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Viero, M P; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) brings together a vast range of data from many astronomical observatories. Its main focus is on the Herschel data, which maps dust obscured star formation over 1300 deg$^2$. With this unprecedented combination of data sets, it is possible to investigate how the star formation vs stellar mass relation (main-sequence) of star-forming galaxies depends on environment. In this pilot study we explore this question between 0.1 2. We also estimate the evolution of the star formation rate density in the COSMOS field and our results are consistent with previous measurements at z 2 but we find a $1.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ times higher peak value of the star formation rate density at $z \\sim 1.9$.

  7. Relating dust, gas and the rate of star formation in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S

    2010-01-01

    We derive distributions of dust temperature and dust opacity across M31 at 45" resolution using the Spitzer data. With the opacity map and a standard dust model we de-redden the Ha emission yielding the first de-reddened Ha map of M31. We compare the emissions from dust, Ha, HI and H2 by means of radial distributions, pixel-to-pixel correlations and wavelet cross-correlations. The dust temperature steeply decreases from 30K near the center to 15K at large radii. The mean dust optical depth at the Ha wavelength along the line of sight is about 0.7. The radial decrease of the dust-to-gas ratio is similar to that of the oxygen abundance. On scales<2kpc, cold dust emission is best correlated with that of neutral gas and warm dust emission with that of ionized gas. Ha emission is slightly better correlated with emission at 70um than at 24um. In the area 6kpc

  8. Swift/UVOT Measurements of the UV Dust Extinction Curve and the Recent Star Formation History of the SMC and M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Siegel, Michael; Hoversten, Erik A.; Gronwall, Caryl; Immler, Stefan; Vargas, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    The Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is uniquely suited to study star formation and dust extinction in nearby galaxies. I will discuss results from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and M33, for which we have unprecedented observations in three near-UV bands from 1700-3000Å at 2.5" resolution. We combine our UV imaging with archival optical and infrared data to model the spectral energy distributions of individual regions of each galaxy, simultaneously fitting for the dust extinction curve properties, total dust, stellar mass, and age. We have created the first-ever maps of the UV dust extinction curve, which show previously-unconfirmed spatial variation: both the slope and 2175Å bump vary considerably over the face of both the SMC and M33. I will discuss the implications of these results on studies of star formation and galaxy evolution at both low and high redshift.

  9. Clustering of Dust-Obscured Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J I; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Desai, Vandana; Jannuzi, Buell T; Floc'h, Emeric Le

    2008-01-01

    We present the angular autocorrelation function of 2603 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. DOGs are red, obscured galaxies, defined as having R-[24] \\ge 14 (F_24/F_R \\ga 1000). Spectroscopy indicates that they are located at 1.5 \\la z \\la 2.5. We find strong clustering, with r_0 = 7.40^{+1.27}_{-0.84} Mpc/h for the full F_24 > 0.3 mJy sample. The clustering and space density of the DOGs are consistent with those of submillimeter galaxies, suggestive of a connection between these populations. We find evidence for luminosity-dependent clustering, with the correlation length increasing to r_0 = 12.97^{+4.26}_{-2.64} Mpc/h for brighter (F_24 > 0.6 mJy) DOGs. Bright DOGs also reside in richer environments than fainter ones, suggesting these subsamples may not be drawn from the same parent population. The clustering amplitudes imply average halo masses of log M = 12.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2} Msun for the full DOG sample, rising to log M = 13.0^{+0.4}_{-0.3} Msun for brighter...

  10. Inferred H{\\alpha} Flux as a Star-Formation Rate Indicator at z ~ 4-5: Implications for Dust Properties, Burstiness, and the z = 4-8 Star-Formation-Rate Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Smit, Renske; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Wilkins, Stephen M; Oesch, Pascal A

    2015-01-01

    We derive H{\\alpha} fluxes for a large spectroscopic and photometric-redshift-selected sample of sources over GOODS-North and South in the redshift range z = 3.8-5.0 with deep HST, Spitzer/IRAC, and ground-based observations. The H{\\alpha} flux is inferred based on the offset between the IRAC 3.6 {\\mu}m flux and that predicted from the best-fit SED. We demonstrate that the H{\\alpha} flux correlates well with dust- corrected UV star-formation rate (SFR) and therefore can serve as an independent SFR indicator. However, we also find a systematic offset in the SFR_H{\\alpha}/SFR_UV ratios for z ~ 4-5 galaxies relative to local relations (assuming the same dust corrections for nebular regions and stellar light). We show that we can resolve the modest tension in the inferred SFRs by assuming bluer intrinsic UV slopes (increasing the dust correction), a rising star-formation history or assuming a low metallicity stellar population with a hard ionizing spectrum (increasing the L_H{\\alpha}/SFR ratio). Using H{\\alpha} a...

  11. Molecular gas, stars, and dust in sub-L* star-forming galaxies at z~2: evidence for universal star formation and nonuniversal dust-to-gas ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, A. Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    Only recently have CO measurements become possible in main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z=1-3, but are still biased toward high star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses (Ms), because of instrumental sensitivity limitations. It is essential to extend these studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by IR luminosities LIRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-L*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to the gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. Combined with our compilation of CO-detected galaxies from the literature, we revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), molecular gas fractions (fgas), dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift. These correlations betray the interplay between gas, dust, and star formation in galaxies.All the LIR, L'CO(1-0) data are best-fitted with a single relation, which spans 5 orders of magnitude in LIR, covers redshifts from z=0 to z=5.3, and samples spirals, main sequence SFGs, and starbursts. This favors a universal star formation. We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between molecular gas and SFR at galactic scales. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an L* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals, and local ULIRGs

  12. Molecular gas and star formation towards the IR dust bubble S24 and its environs

    CERN Document Server

    Cappa, C E; Firpo, V; Vasquez, J; López-Caraballo, C H; Rubio, M; Vazzano, M M

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the infrared dust bubble S24, and its environs, with the aim of investigating the characteristics of the molecular gas and the interstellar dust linked to them, and analyzing the evolutionary status of the young stellar objects (YSOs) identified there. Using APEX data, we mapped the molecular emission in the CO(2-1), $^{13}$CO(2-1), C$^{18}$O(2-1), and $^{13}$CO(3-2) lines in a region of about 5'x 5' in size around the bubble. The cold dust distribution was analyzed using ATLASGAL and Herschel images. Complementary IR and radio data were also used.The molecular gas linked to the S24 bubble, G341.220-0.213, and G341.217-0.237 has velocities between -48.0 km sec$^{-1}$ and -40.0 km sec$^{-1}$. The gas distribution reveals a shell-like molecular structure of $\\sim$0.8 pc in radius bordering the bubble. A cold dust counterpart of the shell is detected in the LABOCA and Herschel images.The presence of extended emission at 24 $\\mu$m and radio continuum emission inside the b...

  13. Fitting the full SED of galaxies to put constraints on dust attenuation and star formation determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, Veronique; Giovannoli, Elodie; Boquien, Mederic; Heinis, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The combination of far-IR and UV-optical rest-frame data has proved to be very efficient to extract physical parameters from the SEDs of galaxies. Using Herschel and ancillary data from the Herschel Reference Survey and GOODS-Herschel Key Projects, we show how dust attenuation properties can be estimated inside local galaxies as well as in the distant Universe.

  14. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Piconcelli, E; Bianchi, S; Zappacosta, L; Fritz, J; Lanzuisi, G; Miniutti, G; Bongiorno, A; Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Maiolino, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a Hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (>= 10^47 erg/s), dust-enshrouded objects at z > 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Gamma ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kalpha emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ 2 x 10^44 erg/s is a fraction (~ 5 x 10^45 erg/s by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~ 75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~ 2100 Msun/yr). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive ga...

  15. Dust-Corrected Star Formation Rates of Galaxies. I. Combinations of H-alpha and Infrared Tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, Robert C Jr; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Benjamin D; Lee, Janice C

    2009-01-01

    We combine H-alpha emission-line and infrared continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to HII regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite H-alpha+IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01 -- 80 solar mass per year) and attenuations (0 -- 2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of H-alpha and total infrared luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of H-alpha measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 micron and 8 micron perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for HII regions (Calzetti et al. 2007), with the difference attributable to a more evolved ...

  16. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  17. Dust-Obscured Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ho Seong

    2013-01-01

    We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), AKARI, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) data to select local analogs of high-redshift (z~2) dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). We identify 47 local DOGs with S_{12\\mu m}/S_{0.22 \\mu m}>892 and S_{12\\mu m}>20 mJy at 0.05

  18. Expanding Shell and Star Formation in the Infrared Dust Bubble N6

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a multi-wavelength study of the infrared dust bubble N6 to extensively investigate the molecular environs and star-forming activities therein. Mapping observations in 12CO J=1-0 and 13CO J=1-0 performed with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7-m telescope have revealed four velocity components. Comparison between distributions of each component and the infrared emission suggests that three components are correlated with N6. There are ten molecular clumps detected. Among them, five have reliable detection in both 12CO and 13CO and have similar LTE and non-LTE masses ranging from 200 to higher than 5,000 M_sun. With larger gas masses than virial masses, these five clumps are gravitationally unstable and have potential to collapse to form new stars. The other five clumps are only reliably detected in 12CO and have relatively small masses. Five clumps are located on the border of the ring structure and four of them are elongated along the shell. This is well in agreement with the collect and ...

  19. Evolution of cosmic star formation in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, N; Merlin, E; Parsa, S; Schreiber, C; Castellano, M; Conselice, C J; Coppin, K E K; Farrah, D; Fontana, A; Geach, J E; Halpern, M; Knudsen, K K; Michalowski, M J; Mortlock, A; Santini, P; Scott, D; Shu, X W; Simpson, C; Simpson, J M; Smith, D J B; van der Werf, P

    2016-01-01

    We present a new exploration of the cosmic star-formation history and dust obscuration in massive galaxies at redshifts $0.510^{10}M_\\odot$ galaxies at $0.510$. One third of this is accounted for by 450$\\mu$m-detected sources, while one fifth is attributed to UV-luminous sources (brighter than $L^\\ast_{UV}$), although even these are largely obscured. By extrapolating our results to include all stellar masses, we estimate a total SFRD that is in good agreement with previous results from IR and UV data at $z\\lesssim3$, and from UV-only data at $z\\sim5$. The cosmic star-formation history undergoes a transition at $z\\sim3-4$, as predominantly unobscured growth in the early Universe is overtaken by obscured star formation, driven by the build-up of the most massive galaxies during the peak of cosmic assembly.

  20. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and Their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.; Rich, R. Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z ~= 2-6.

  1. Swift Ultraviolet Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (SUMaC). I. Shape of the Ultraviolet Dust Extinction Law and Recent Star Formation History of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen, Lea M Z; Hoversten, Erik A; Gronwall, Caryl; Immler, Stefan; Hagen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from the Swift Ultraviolet Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (SUMaC), the highest resolution ultraviolet (UV) survey of the Magellanic Clouds yet completed. In this paper, we focus on the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). When combined with multi-wavelength optical and infrared observations, the three near-UV filters on the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope are conducive to measuring the shape of the dust extinction curve and the strength of the 2175\\AA\\ dust bump. We divide the SMC into UV-detected star-forming regions and large 200" (58~pc) pixels and then model the spectral energy distributions using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the ages, masses, and dust curve properties. We find that the majority of the SMC has a 2175\\AA\\ dust bump, which is larger to the northeast and smaller to the southwest, and that the extinction curve is universally steeper than the Galactic curve. We also derive a star formation history and find evidence for peaks in the star formation ra...

  2. HerMES: dust attenuation and star formation activity in UV-selected samples from z~4 to z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, S; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Conley, A; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Ilbert, O; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Rigopoulou, D; Roehlly, Y; Schulz, B; Symeonidis, M; Viero, M; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the link between observed ultraviolet luminosity, stellar mass, and dust attenuation within rest-frame UV-selected samples at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. We measure by stacking at 250, 350, and 500 um in the Herschel/SPIRE images from the HerMES program the average infrared luminosity as a function of stellar mass and UV luminosity. We find that dust attenuation is mostly correlated with stellar mass. There is also a secondary dependence with UV luminosity: at a given UV luminosity, dust attenuation increases with stellar mass, while at a given stellar mass it decreases with UV luminosity. We provide new empirical recipes to correct for dust attenuation given the observed UV luminosity and the stellar mass. Our results also enable us to put new constraints on the average relation between star formation rate and stellar mass at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. The star formation rate-stellar mass relations are well described by power laws (SFR~ M^0.7), with the amplitudes being similar at z~4 and z~3, and decreasing by a fact...

  3. The Era of Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Zeimann, G R; Snyder, G F; Mancone, C L; Pope, A; Eisenhardt, P R; Stern, D; Alberts, S; Ashby, M L N; Brown, M J I; Chary, R -R; Dey, Arjun; Galametz, A; Gettings, D P; Jannuzi, B T; Miller, E D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at $1 1.35$. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/MIPS observations at 24 $\\mu$m, along with robust optical+IRAC photometric redshifts and SED-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that $z\\sim 1.4$ represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at $z>1.4$ environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. Combining these obse...

  4. Dust and star-formation properties of a complete sample of local galaxies drawn from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, M S; De Zotti, G; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Bonavera, L; Cosco, G; Guarese, G; Boaretto, L; Salucci, P; Baccigalupi, C; Clements, D L; Danese, L; Lapi, A; Mandolesi, N; Partridge, R B; Perrotta, F; Serjeant, S; Scott, D; Toffolatti, L

    2013-01-01

    We combine Planck HFI data at 857, 545, 353 & 217GHz with data from WISE, Spitzer, IRAS & Herschel to investigate the properties of a flux limited sample of local star-forming galaxies. A 545GHz flux density limit was chosen so that the sample is 80% complete at this frequency, giving a sample of 234 local galaxies. We investigate the dust emission and star formation properties of the sample via various models & calculate the local dust mass function. Although 1-component modified black bodies fit the dust emission longward of 80um very well (median beta=1.83) the degeneracy between dust temp & beta also means that the SEDs are very well described by a dust emissivity index fixed at beta=2 and 10dust component is required to fit shorter wavelength data, & contributes ~1/3 of the total infrared emission, its mass is negligible. No evidence is found for a very cold (6-10 K) dust component. The temp of the cold dust component is strongly influenced by ...

  5. The era of star formation in galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, C. L.; Gettings, D. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Zeimann, G. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Snyder, G. F.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pope, A.; Alberts, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Eisenhardt, P. R.; Stern, D.; Moustakas, L. A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Chary, R.-R. [Spitzer Science Center, MC 220-6, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Galametz, A. [INAF—Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Jannuzi, B. T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85121 (United States); Miller, E. D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We present new spectroscopic confirmation for six of these high-redshift clusters, five of which are at z > 1.35. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations at 24 μm, along with robust optical + IRAC photometric redshifts and spectral-energy-distribution-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that z ∼ 1.4 represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift, the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at z > 1.4 environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. By combining these observations with complementary studies showing a rapid increase in the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, a stochastic star formation history, and a major merging episode at the same epoch in this cluster sample, we suggest that the starburst activity is likely merger-driven and that the subsequent quenching is due to feedback from merger-fueled AGNs. The totality of the evidence suggests we are witnessing the final quenching period that brings an end to the era of star formation in galaxy clusters and initiates the era of passive evolution.

  6. HELP*: star formation as a function of galaxy environment with Herschel†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, S.; Oliver, S.; Buat, V.; Darvish, B.; Efstathiou, A.; Farrah, D.; Griffin, M.; Hurley, P. D.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sargent, M. T.; Scott, D.; Scudder, J. M.; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Viero, M. P.; Wang, L.

    2016-10-01

    The Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) brings together a vast range of data from many astronomical observatories. Its main focus is on the Herschel data, which maps dust-obscured star formation over 1300 deg2. With this unprecedented combination of data sets, it is possible to investigate how the star formation versus stellar mass relation (main sequence) of star-forming galaxies depends on environment. In this pilot study, we explore this question within 0.1 2. We also estimate the evolution of the star formation rate density in the COSMOS field, and our results are consistent with previous measurements at z 2 but we find a 1.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2} times higher peak value of the star formation rate density at z ˜ 1.9.

  7. The Star Formation History of Galaxies Measured from Individual Pixels. I. The Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, A; Hopkins, A M; Budavari, T; Szalay, A S; Csabai, I; Schmidt, S J; Adams, C; Petrovic, N D; Conti, Alberto; Connolly, Andrew J.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Szalay, Alex S.; Csabai, Istvan; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Adams, Carla; Petrovic, Nada

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the photometric information contained in individual pixels of galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN) using a new technique, _pixel-z_, that combines predictions of evolutionary synthesis models with photometric redshift template fitting. Each spectral energy distribution template is a result of modeling of the detailed physical processes affecting gas properties and star formation efficiency. The criteria chosen to generate the SED templates is that of sampling a wide range of physical characteristics such as age, star formation rate, obscuration and metallicity. A key feature of our method is the sophisticated use of error analysis to generate error maps that define the reliability of the template fitting on pixel scales and allow for the separation of the interplay among dust, metallicity and star formation histories. This technique offers a number of advantages over traditional integrated color studies. As a first application, we derive the star formation and metallicity histories of gal...

  8. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buat, V. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Charmandaris, V.; Magdis, G. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borgne, D. Le [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France); Lin, L. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States); and others

    2015-07-10

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.

  9. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  10. UVI colour gradients of 0.4 < z < 1.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies in CANDELS: dust extinction and star formation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Faber, S. M.; Liu, F. S.; Guo, Yicheng; Pacifici, Camilla; Koo, David C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Mao, Shude; Fang, Jerome J.; Chen, Zhu; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Ashby, M. L. N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper uses radial colour profiles to infer the distributions of dust, gas and star formation in z = 0.4-1.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies. We start with the standard UVJ-based method to estimate dust extinction and specific star formation rate (sSFR). By replacing J with I band, a new calibration method suitable for use with ACS+WFC3 data is created (i.e. UVI diagram). Using a multi-wavelength multi-aperture photometry catalogue based on CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), UVI colour profiles of 1328 galaxies are stacked in stellar mass and redshift bins. The resulting colour gradients, covering a radial range of 0.2-2.0 effective radii, increase strongly with galaxy mass and with global AV. Colour gradient directions are nearly parallel to the Calzetti extinction vector, indicating that dust plays a more important role than stellar population variations. With our calibration, the resulting AV profiles fall much more slowly than stellar mass profiles over the measured radial range. sSFR gradients are nearly flat without central quenching signatures, except for M⋆ > 1010.5 M⊙, where central declines of 20-25 per cent are observed. Both sets of profiles agree well with previous radial sSFR and (continuum) AV measurements. They are also consistent with the sSFR profiles and, if assuming a radially constant gas-to-dust ratio, gas profiles in recent hydrodynamic models. We finally discuss the striking findings that SFR scales with stellar mass density in the inner parts of galaxies, and that dust content is high in the outer parts despite low stellar mass surface densities there.

  11. K band SINFONI spectra of two $z \\sim 5$ SMGs: upper limits to the un-obscured star formation from [O II] optical emission line searches

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; López, Javier Piqueras; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Arribas, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present deep SINFONI K band integral field spectra of two submillimeter (SMG) galaxy systems: BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, at $z=4.69$ and $4.55$ respectively. Spectra extracted for each object in the two systems do not show any signature of the [O II]$\\lambda\\lambda$3726,29\\AA$\\,$ emission-lines, placing upper flux limits of $3.9$ and $2.5 \\times 10^{-18}\\,$${\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}\\,\\,cm^{-2} \\,}$ for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0234, respectively. Using the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the luminosity of the [O II] doublet from Kennicutt (1998), we estimate unobscured SFR upper limits of $\\sim$ $10-15\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ and $\\sim$ $30-40\\,\\rm M_\\odot\\,yr^{-1} \\,$ for the objects of the two systems, respectively. For the SMGs, these values are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those derived from SED and IR luminosities. The differences on the SFR values would correspond to internal extinction of, at least, $3.4 - 4.9$ and $2.1 - 3.6$ mag in the visual for BR 1202-0725 and J1000+0...

  12. GOODS-HERSCHEL: star formation, dust attenuation and the FIR-radio correlation on the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies up to z~4

    CERN Document Server

    Pannella, Maurilio; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark E; Hwang, Ho Seong; Schreiber, Corentin; Strazzullo, Veronica; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Buat, Veronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Cibinel, Anna; Juneau, Stephanie; Ivison, Rob; Borgne, Damien Le; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Leiton, Roger; Lin, Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn E; Mullaney, James R; Onodera, Masato; Renzini, Alvio; Salim, Samir; Sargent, Mark T; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We use the deep panchromatic dataset available in the GOODS-N field, spanning all the way from GALEX ultra-violet to VLA radio continuum data, to select a star-forming galaxy sample at z~[0.5-4] and robustly measure galaxy photometric redshifts, star formation rates, stellar masses and UV rest-frame properties. We quantitatively explore, using mass-complete samples, the evolution of the star formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies up to z~4. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) we find that the slope of the SFR-M correlation is consistent with being constant, and equal to ~0.8 at least up to z~1.5, while the normalization keeps increasing to the highest redshift, z~4, we are able to explore; ii) for the first time in this work, we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z~4; iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-f...

  13. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z~2-3 in the COSMOS field: I. A Far-Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Riguccini, L; Mullaney, J R; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Calanog, J; Capak, P; Cooray, A; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; McCracken, H; Oliver, S; Roseboom, I; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E

    2015-01-01

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 um flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and ma...

  14. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78 721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-near-IR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star-forming main sequence varies from ˜0.55 mag up to ˜1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at M3.4 μm ≈ -21.5, corresponding to M* ≈ 3 × 1010 M⊙. This behaviour stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed to reliably probe to higher luminosities, and were insensitive to the decrease in attenuation with increasing luminosity for the brightest star-forming discs. Back-of-the-envelope scaling relations predict the strong variation of dust optical depth with specific star formation rate and stellar mass. More in-depth comparisons using the scaling relations to model the relative attenuation require the inclusion of star-dust geometry to reproduce the details of these variations (especially at high luminosities), highlighting the importance of these geometrical effects.

  15. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  16. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Page, M J; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodr'iguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    The old, red stars which constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly from accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproven, that the tight correlation in mass of the black hole and stellar components results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, while powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared to submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report observations in the submillimetre and X-ray which show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 Gyrs old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10^44 erg/s. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxies of powerful AGN ...

  17. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  18. The earliest phases of star formation observed with Herschel (EPoS): The dust temperature and density distributions of B68

    CERN Document Server

    Nielbock, M; Steinacker, J; Stutz, A M; Balog, Z; Beuther, H; Bouwman, J; Henning, Th; Hily-Blant, P; Kainulainen, J; Krause, O; Linz, H; Lippok, N; Ragan, S; Risacher, C; Schmiedeke, A

    2012-01-01

    (Abriged) In the framework of the Herschel GTKP "The earliest phases of star formation", we have imaged B68 between 100 and 500 um. Ancillary (sub)mm data, spectral line maps of the 12/13CO(2-1) transitions as well as a NIR extinction map were added to the analysis. We employed a ray-tracing algorithm to derive the 2D mid-plane dust temperature and volume density distribution without suffering from LoS averaging effects of simple SED fitting procedures. Additional 3D radiative transfer calculations were employed to investigate the connection between the external irradiation and the peculiar crescent shaped morphology found in the FIR maps. For the first time, we spatially resolve the dust temperature and density distribution of B68. We find T_dust dropping from 16.7 K at the edge to 8.2 K in the centre, which is about 4 K lower than the result of the simple SED fitting approach. N_H peaks at 4.3x10^22 cm^-2 and n_H at 3.4x10^5 cm^-3 in the centre. B68 has a mass of 3.1 M_sun of material with A_K > 0.2 mag for...

  19. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Brightman, M; Stern, D; Alexander, D; Bauer, F; Blain, A W; Diaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R M; Finkelstein, S L; Hickox, R C; Tsai, C -W; Wu, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the WISE mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures ($T>60~\\rm K$). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured AGN that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of 8 Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot D...

  20. The dust un-biased cosmic star formation history from the 20 cm VLA-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Zamorani, G; Bell, E F; Bondi, M; Carilli, C L; Ciliegi, P; Mobasher, B; Paglione, T; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N

    2008-01-01

    We derive the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) out to z=1.3 using a sample of ~350 radio-selected star-forming galaxies, a far larger sample than in previous, similar studies. We attempt to differentiate between radio emission from AGN and star-forming galaxies, and determine an evolving 1.4 GHz luminosity function based on these VLA-COSMOS star forming galaxies. We precisely measure the high-luminosity end of the star forming galaxy luminosity function (SFR>100 M_Sol/yr; equivalent to ULIRGs) out to z=1.3, finding a somewhat slower evolution than previously derived from mid-infrared data. We find that more stars are forming in luminous starbursts at high redshift. We use extrapolations based on the local radio galaxy luminosity function; assuming pure luminosity evolution, we derive $L_* \\propto (1+z)^{2.1 \\pm 0.2}$ or $L_* \\propto (1+z)^{2.5 \\pm 0.1}$, depending on the choice of the local radio galaxy luminosity function. Thus, our radio-derived results independently confirm the ~1 order of magnitude de...

  1. A Dust-Obscured Massive Maximum-Starburst Galaxy at a Redshift of 6.34

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Clements, D L; Dowell, C D; Perez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Bridge, C; Conley, A; Fu, Hai; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Calanog, J; Cooray, A; Hurley, P; Neri, R; Kamenetzky, J; Aguirre, J E; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Benford, D J; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dunlop, J S; Earle, L; Farrah, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Kovacs, A; Krips, M; Lupu, R E; Maloney, P R; Martinez-Navajas, P; Matsuhara, H; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Petitpas, G; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Scott, D; Smith, A J; Staguhn, J G; Streblyanska, A; Thomson, A P; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J

    2013-01-01

    Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts - that is, increased rates of star formation - in the most massive dark matter halos at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang such massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in redshift owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems out to redshift z~5. Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at redshift 6.34 through a submillimeter color-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40% of the baryonic mass. A "maximum st...

  2. GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC): Star Formation Rates, Stellar Masses and Dust Attenuations of 700,000 Low-redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Salim, Samir; Janowiecki, Steven; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickinson, Mark; Boquien, Médéric; Burgarella, Denis; Salzer, John J; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC), a catalog of physical properties (stellar masses, dust attenuations and star formation rates (SFRs)) of ~700,000 galaxies with SDSS redshifts below 0.3. GSWLC contains galaxies within the GALEX footprint, regardless of a UV detection, covering 90% of SDSS. The physical properties were obtained from UV/optical SED fitting following Bayesian methodology of Salim et al. (2007), with improvements such as blending corrections for low-resolution UV photometry, flexible dust attenuation laws, and emission line corrections. GSWLC includes mid-IR SFRs derived from IR templates based upon 22 micron WISE observations. These estimates are independent of UV/optical SED fitting, in order to separate possible systematics. The paper argues that the comparison of specific SFRs (SSFRs) is more informative and physically motivated than the comparison of SFRs. SSFRs resulting from the UV/optical SED fitting are compared to the mid-IR SSFRs, and to SSFRs from three...

  3. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    CERN Document Server

    Devour, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78,721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-NIR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star forming main sequence varies from ~0.55 mag up to ~1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at $M_{3.4\\mu m} \\approx -21.5$, corresponding to $M_* \\approx 3\\times 10^{10}M_{Sun}$. This behavior stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed...

  4. Dust continuum and Polarization from Envelope to Cores in Star Formation: A Case Study in the W51 North region

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M; Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We present the first high-angular resolution (up to 0.7", ~5000 AU) polarization and thermal dust continuum images toward the massive star-forming region W51 North. The observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in both the subcompact (SMA-SubC) and extended (SMA-Ext) configurations at a wavelength of 870 micron. W51 North is resolved into four cores (SMA1 to SMA4) in the 870 micron continuum image. The associated dust polarization exhibits more complex structures than seen at lower angular resolution. We analyze the inferred morphologies of the plane-of-sky magnetic field (B_bot) in the SMA1 to SMA4 cores and in the envelope using the SMA-Ext and SMA-SubC data. These results are compared with the B_bot archive images obtained from the CSO and JCMT. A correlation between dust intensity gradient position angles (phi_{nabla I}) and magnetic field position angles (phi_B) is found in the CSO, JCMT and both SMA data sets. This correlation is further analyzed quantitatively. A systematically t...

  5. COMBINED CO AND DUST SCALING RELATIONS OF DEPLETION TIME AND MOLECULAR GAS FRACTIONS WITH COSMIC TIME, SPECIFIC STAR-FORMATION RATE, AND STELLAR MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Burkert, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Saintonge, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Magnelli, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); García-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Neri, R.; Boissier, J. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Contini, T.; Boone, F.; Bouché, N. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Planétologie, Universite de Toulouse, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lilly, S.; Carollo, M. [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, CH-8093 ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Colina, L. [CSIC Instituto Estructura Materia, C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cooper, M. C., E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t {sub depl}) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M {sub mol} {sub gas}/M{sub *} ) of SFGs near the star formation ''main-sequence'' with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M{sub *} ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H{sub 2} mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M {sub *})), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t {sub depl} scales as (1 + z){sup –0.3} × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M {sub *})){sup –0.5}, with little dependence on M {sub *}. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M {sub mol} {sub gas}/M {sub *} ≈ (1 + z){sup 3} mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M{sub *} are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M {sub *} relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M {sub *}. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M {sub mol} {sub gas}-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M {sub mol} {sub gas} with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.

  6. Infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition of WISE-selected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submm/mm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submm-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are: 1) Hot DOGs in our submm-detected sample are hyperluminous, with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, averagely contributing ~24% of total IR luminosity. 2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submm at rest-frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at 10-50um suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. 3) Hot DOGs have both high dust temperatures ~73K and IR luminosity of cold dust. The T-L relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust tem...

  7. The role of star-formation and AGN in dust heating of z = 0.3-2.8 galaxies - I. Evolution with redshift and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from $z=0.3-2.8$. We diagnose the presence of an AGN by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star-formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGN, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright $S_{24}$, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2-1000 $\\mu$m). We fit the far-IR emission using a two temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures ($T_c$ and $T_w$). We find that $T_c$ does not depend on mid-IR classification, while $T_w$ shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}$. AGN, composites...

  8. First direct implications for the dust extinction and star formation of typical Ly{\\alpha} emitters from their faint infrared luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ouchi, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the IR luminosity of galaxies is crucial for reliably deriving their dust extinction and stellar population. By stacking publicly available deep Spitzer/MIPS 24um and Herschel PACS images for 213 z~2.18 Ly alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the GOODS-South, we obtain a strong upper limit to the IR luminosity of typical high-redshift LAEs and constrain the extinction law for the first time. Our 3sigma upper limit L_{TIR} = 1.1 * 10^{10} L_{sun} gives IRX = L_{TIR}/L_{UV} 44%, are both significantly higher than the cosmic averages at the same epoch. We find that the SMC extinction law is consistent with the IRX and the UV slope beta = -1.4^{+0.2}_{-0.2} of our stacked LAE, while the Calzetti law predicts a 3.8 times higher IRX at this beta. SED fitting using the Calzetti law also gives a ~10 times higher SFR than that calculated from the IR and UV luminosities, SFR_{tot}=1.5-3.3 M_{sun}/yr. With the stellar mass 6.3^{+0.8}_{-2.0} *10^8 M_{sun}, our LAEs lie on a lower-mass extrapolation of the star formation ma...

  9. The Role of Star-Formation and AGN in Dust Heating of z=0.3-2.8 Galaxies - II. Informing IR AGN fraction estimates through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roebuck, Eric; Hayward, Christopher C; Pope, Alexandra; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Hernquist, Lars; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A key question in extragalactic studies is the determination of the relative roles of stars and AGN in powering dusty galaxies at $z\\sim$1-3 where the bulk of star-formation and AGN activity took place. In Paper I, we present a sample of $336$ 24$\\mu$m-selected (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies, (U)LIRGs, at $z \\sim 0.3$-$2.8$, where we focus on determining the AGN contribution to the IR luminosity. Here, we use hydrodynamic simulations with dust radiative transfer of isolated and merging galaxies, to investigate how well the simulations reproduce our empirical IR AGN fraction estimates and determine how IR AGN fractions relate to the UV-mm AGN fraction. We find that: 1) IR AGN fraction estimates based on simulations are in qualitative agreement with the empirical values when host reprocessing of the AGN light is considered; 2) for star-forming galaxy-AGN composites our empirical methods may be underestimating the role of AGN, as our simulations imply $>$50% AGN fractions, $\\sim$3$\\times$ higher than previous...

  10. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 I. H\\alpha -based star formation rates and dust extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Kashino, D; Rodighiero, G; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Daddi, E; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, H J; Nagao, T; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Kewley, L J; Koekemoer, A M; Kovač, K; Fèvre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6\\lesssim A_H\\alpha\\ \\lesssim 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction b...

  11. The Role of Star Formation and an AGN in Dust Heating of z = 0.3-2.8 Galaxies. I. Evolution with Redshift and Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.3-2.8. We diagnose the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGNs, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright S24, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2-1000 μm). We fit the far-IR emission using a two-temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures (Tc and Tw). We find that Tc does not depend on mid-IR classification, while Tw shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to LIR. AGNs, composites, and SFGs separate in S8/S3.6 and S250/S24, providing a useful diagnostic for estimating relative amounts of these sources. We estimate that >40% of IR-selected samples host an AGN, even at faint selection thresholds (S24 > 100 μJy). Our decomposition technique and color diagnostics are relevant given upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Observing gas and dust in simulations of star formation with Monte Carlo radiation transport on Voronoi meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Hubber, D A; Dale, J

    2015-01-01

    Ionising feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionisation/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of an hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields onto Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionisation calculations, results in significant ...

  13. Obscuration in active galactic nuclei: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, L.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Davies, R. I.; Janssen, A.; Lutz, D.; Rosario, D.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2015-06-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log lmir{} = 42.5 (log lx{} = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near- to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AV^hot = 5 ldots 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AV^hot = 15 ldots 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.

  14. Star Formation Laws in Both Galactic Massive Clumps and External Galaxies: Extensive Study with Dust Coninuum, HCN (4-3), and CS (7-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott

    2016-10-01

    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of ˜100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L TIR) and molecular line luminosities ({L}{mol}\\prime ) of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L TIR ˜ 103 L ⊙. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L TIR-{L}{mol}\\prime correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and σ line/σ vir. Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L TIR-L‧mol correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L TIR larger than L TIR ˜ 104.5 L ⊙. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M clump-L‧mol and L TIR-L‧mol relations.

  15. GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC): Star Formation Rates, Stellar Masses, and Dust Attenuations of 700,000 Low-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Samir; Lee, Janice C.; Janowiecki, Steven; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickinson, Mark; Boquien, Médéric; Burgarella, Denis; Salzer, John J.; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC), a catalog of physical properties (stellar masses, dust attenuations, and star formation rates [SFRs]) for ˜700,000 galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) redshifts below 0.3. GSWLC contains galaxies within the Galaxy Evolution Explorer footprint, regardless of a UV detection, covering 90% of SDSS. The physical properties were obtained from UV/optical spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting following Bayesian methodology of Salim et al., with improvements such as blending corrections for low-resolution UV photometry, flexible dust attenuation laws, and emission-line corrections. GSWLC also includes mid-IR SFRs derived from IR templates based on 22 μ {{m}} Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations. These estimates are independent of UV/optical SED fitting, in order to separate possible systematics. The paper argues that the comparison of specific SFRs (sSFRs) is more informative and physically motivated than the comparison of SFRs. The sSFRs resulting from the UV/optical SED fitting are compared to the mid-IR sSFRs and to sSFRs from three published catalogs. For “main-sequence” galaxies with no active galactic nucleus (AGN) all sSFRs are in very good agreement (within 0.1 dex on average). In particular, the widely used aperture-corrected SFRs from the MPA/JHU catalog show no systematic offsets, in contrast to some integral field spectroscopy results. For galaxies below the main sequence (log sSFR \\lt -11), mid-IR (s)SFRs based on fixed luminosity-SFR conversion are severely biased (up to 2 dex) because the dust is primarily heated by old stars. Furthermore, mid-IR (s)SFRs are overestimated by up to 0.6 dex for galaxies with AGNs, presumably due to nonstellar dust heating. UV/optical (s)SFRs are thus preferred to IR-based (s)SFRs for quenched galaxies and those that host AGNs.

  16. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals

  17. ISM Masses and Star Formation at z = 1 to 6 ALMA Observations of Dust Continuum in 180 Galaxies in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N; Aussel, H; Bout, P Vanden; Capak, P; Bongiorno, A; Casey, C M; Murchikova, L; Koda, J; Pope, A; Toft, S; Ivison, R; Sanders, D; Manohar, S; Lee, N

    2015-01-01

    ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 180 star-forming (SF) galaxies are used to investigate the evolution of ISM masses at z = 1 to 6.4. The ISM masses exhibit strong increases from z = 0 to $\\rm $ = 1.15 and further to $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8, particularly amongst galaxies above the SF galaxy main sequence (MS). The galaxies with highest SFRs at $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8 have gas masses 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80\\%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4$\\times$ their stellar masses. For the full sample of galaxies, we find a single, very simple SF law: $\\rm SFR \\propto M_{\\rm ISM}^{0.9}$, i.e. a `linear' dependence on the ISM mass -- on and above the MS. Thus, the galaxies above the MS are converting their larger ISM masses into stars on a timescale similar to those on the MS. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\\sim$5 - 10$\\times$ shorter gas depletion times ($\\sim0.2$ Gyr) than galaxies at low redshift. These {\\bf shorter deplet...

  18. Direct measurement of dust attenuation in z~1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Sedona H; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 $\\le$ z $\\le$ 1.5 with H$\\alpha$ SNR $\\ge$ 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions ($A_{V,HII}$ is 1.81 times the integrated $A_{V,star}$), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galax...

  19. New Observational Constraints and Modeling of the Infrared Background: Dust Obscured Star-Formation at z>1 and Dust in the Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2010-01-01

    We provide measurements of the integrated galaxy light at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron using deep far-infrared and submillimeter data from space (Spitzer) and balloon platform (BLAST) extragalactic surveys. We use the technique of stacking at the positions of 24 micron sources, to supplement the fraction of the integrated galaxy light that is directly resolved through direct detections. We demonstrate that the integrated galaxy light even through stacking, falls short by factors of 2-3 in resolving the extragalactic far-infrared background. We also show that previous estimates of the integrated galaxy light (IGL) through stacking, have been biased towards high values. This is primarily due to multiple counting of the far-infrared/submillimeter flux from 24 micron sources which are clustered within the large point spread function of a brighter far-infrared source. Using models for the evolution of the luminosity function at z1, which are remarkably, below the values derived from the extinction corrected ul...

  20. Ultra-faint ultraviolet galaxies at z ∼ 2 behind the lensing cluster A1689: The luminosity function, dust extinction, and star formation rate density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Richard, Johan [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: anahita.alavi@email.ucr.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbits) filters. These images are used to identify z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break, in the same manner that galaxies are typically selected at z ≥ 3. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the lensing cluster, we detect galaxies 100× fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing all multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample in the range –19.5 < M {sub 1500} < –13 AB mag. Because the mass distribution of A1689 is well constrained, we are able to calculate the intrinsic sensitivity of the observations as a function of source plane position, allowing for accurate determinations of effective volume as a function of luminosity. We fit the faint-end slope of the luminosity function to be α = –1.74 ± 0.08, which is consistent with the values obtained for 2.5 < z < 6. Notably, there is no turnover in the luminosity function down to M {sub 1500} = –13 AB mag. We fit the UV spectral slopes with photometry from existing Hubble optical imaging. The observed trend of increasingly redder slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of (E(B – V)) = 0.15 mag. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z {sub ☉}) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z {sub ☉}), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived values for dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2 is 4.31{sub −0.60}{sup +0.68}×10{sup 26} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} Mpc{sup –3}, more than 70% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity range of our sample. Finally, we determine the global star formation rate density from UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 (assuming a constant dust

  1. Obscuration of Quasars by Dust and the Reddening Mechanism in Parkes-Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Masci, F J

    1998-01-01

    A majority of quasar surveys have been based on criteria which assume strong blue continua or a UV-excess. Any amount of dust along the line-of-sight is expected to drastically extinguish the optical/UV flux leading to a selection bias. Radio surveys however should suffer no bias against extinction by dust. Recently, a large complete sample of radio-selected quasars has become available (the `Parkes sample'). A majority of these sources exhibit optical--to--near-infrared continua that are exceedingly `red', very unlike those of quasars selected optically. The purpose of this thesis, broadly speaking, is to explore the problem of incompleteness in optical quasar surveys due to obscuration by dust, and to interpret the relatively `red' continua observed in the Parkes quasar sample. The first part of this thesis explores the observational consequences of an intervening (foreground) cosmological dust component, such as that located in galaxies and clusters. The second part examines the continuum properties of Par...

  2. Heavy Dust Obscuration of z = 7 Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue

    2013-10-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ~ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 108-3 × 1010 M ⊙ with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f esc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (AV ~ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (~10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.

  3. THE ROLE OF STAR FORMATION AND AN AGN IN DUST HEATING OF z = 0.3–2.8 GALAXIES. I. EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stierwalt, Sabrina, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.3–2.8. We diagnose the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGNs, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright S{sub 24}, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2–1000 μm). We fit the far-IR emission using a two-temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures (T{sub c} and T{sub w}). We find that T{sub c} does not depend on mid-IR classification, while T{sub w} shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to L{sub IR}. AGNs, composites, and SFGs separate in S{sub 8}/S{sub 3.6} and S{sub 250}/S{sub 24}, providing a useful diagnostic for estimating relative amounts of these sources. We estimate that >40% of IR-selected samples host an AGN, even at faint selection thresholds (S{sub 24} > 100 μJy). Our decomposition technique and color diagnostics are relevant given upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  4. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. I. Hα-BASED STAR FORMATION RATES AND DUST EXTINCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashino, D.; Sugiyama, N. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Rodighiero, G. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Sanders, D. B.; Zahid, H. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G.; Kewley, L. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nagao, T. [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Capak, P. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Kajisawa, M. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Koekemoer, A. M., E-mail: daichi@nagoya-u.jp [HST and JWST Instruments/Science Division, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the first results from a near-IR spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4 < z < 1.7. The high-resolution mode is implemented to detect Hα in emission between 1.6-1.8 μm with f {sub Hα} ∼> 4 × 10{sup –17} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. Here, we specifically focus on 271 sBzK-selected galaxies that yield a Hα detection thus providing a redshift and emission line luminosity to establish the relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6 ∼< A {sub Hα} ∼< 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction between stellar and nebular emission E {sub star}(B – V)/E {sub neb}(B – V) is 0.7-0.8, dissimilar to that typically seen at low redshift. After correcting for extinction, we derive an Hα-based main sequence with a slope (0.81 ± 0.04) and normalization similar to previous studies at these redshifts.

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN COOL CLUSTER CORES AND HERSCHEL-DETECTED STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Fiedler, A.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Portouw, J.; Walth, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Smith, G. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) analysis of 68 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at 0.08 < z < 1.0. Deriving total infrared luminosities directly from Spitzer and Herschel photometry spanning the peak of the dust component (24-500 {mu}m), we calculate the obscured star formation rate (SFR). 22{sup +6.2}{sub -5.3}% of the BCGs are detected in the far-infrared, with SFR = 1-150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The infrared luminosity is highly correlated with cluster X-ray gas cooling times for cool-core clusters (gas cooling time <1 Gyr), strongly suggesting that the star formation in these BCGs is influenced by the cluster-scale cooling process. The occurrence of the molecular gas tracing H{alpha} emission is also correlated with obscured star formation. For all but the most luminous BCGs (L{sub TIR} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), only a small ({approx}<0.4 mag) reddening correction is required for SFR(H{alpha}) to agree with SFR{sub FIR}. The relatively low H{alpha} extinction (dust obscuration), compared to values reported for the general star-forming population, lends further weight to an alternate (external) origin for the cold gas. Finally, we use a stacking analysis of non-cool-core clusters to show that the majority of the fuel for star formation in the FIR-bright BCGs is unlikely to originate from normal stellar mass loss.

  6. The evolution of the star formation rate function and cosmic star formation rate density of galaxies at z ˜ 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsianis, A.; Tescari, E.; Blanc, G.; Sargent, M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy star formation rate function (SFRF) and cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD) of z ˜ 1-4 galaxies, using cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations and a compilation of ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR) and Hα observations. These tracers represent different populations of galaxies with the IR light being a probe of objects with high star formation rates and dust contents, while UV and Hα observations provide a census of low star formation galaxies where mild obscuration occurs. We compare the above SFRFs with the results of SPH simulations run with the code P-GADGET3(XXL). We focus on the role of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and supernovae in form of galactic winds. The AGN feedback prescription that we use decreases the simulated CSFRD at z < 3 but is not sufficient to reproduce the observed evolution at higher redshifts. We explore different wind models and find that the key factor for reproducing the evolution of the observed SFRF and CSFRD at z ˜ 1-4 is the presence of a feedback prescription that is prominent at high redshifts (z ≥ 4) and becomes less efficient with time. We show that variable galactic winds which are efficient at decreasing the SFRs of low-mass objects are quite successful in reproducing the observables.

  7. The evolution of the star formation rate function and cosmic star formation rate density of galaxies at $z \\sim 1-4$

    CERN Document Server

    Katsianis, Antonios; Blanc, Guillermo; Sargent, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy Star Formation Rate Function (SFRF) and Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density (CSFRD) of $z\\sim 1-4 $ galaxies, using cosmological Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations and a compilation of UV, IR and H$\\alpha$ observations. These tracers represent different populations of galaxies with the IR light being a probe of objects with high star formation rates and dust contents, while UV and H$\\alpha$ observations provide a census of low star formation galaxies where mild obscuration occurs. We compare the above SFRFs with the results of SPH simulations run with the code {\\small{P-GADGET3(XXL)}}. We focus on the role of feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and supernovae in form of galactic winds. The AGN feedback prescription that we use decreases the simulated CSFRD at $z < 3$ but is not sufficient to reproduce the observed evolution at higher redshifts. We explore different wind models and find that the key factor for reproducing the evolution of the ob...

  8. Dust to Dust: Monitoring the Evolution of a New Class of Self-Obscured Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Christopher; Adams, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this proposal is to understand a new class of explosive transients associated with the most massive AGB stars. Today these sources are true creatures of the mid-IR, being optically invisible and very faint in the near-IR. By coarsely monitoring them with Spitzer and HST we can examine the evolution of the luminosity, dust optical depth and dust radius/temperature at a key time when their observed fluxes are approaching those of the two known progenitors. At its very simplest, if they do not stop fading in the mid-IR or start to brighten in the near-IR, then they are almost certainly examples of the theoretically expected but observationally missing electron capture supernovae (ecSNe). The exciting result from Cycle 11 is that the sources continued to fade and two are clearly substantially fainter than their progenitors. If this continues in Cycle 13, the ecSNe interpretation becomes far stronger.

  9. Irradiated Interfaces in the Ara OB1, Carina, Eagle Nebula, and Cyg OB2 Massive Star Formation Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Hartigan, P; Cleeves, L I

    2013-01-01

    Regions of massive star formation offer some of the best and most easily-observed examples of radiation hydrodynamics. Boundaries where fully-ionized H II regions transition to neutral/molecular photodissociation regions (PDRs) are of particular interest because marked temperature and density contrasts across the boundaries lead to evaporative flows and fluid dynamical instabilities that can evolve into spectacular pillar-like structures. When detached from their parent clouds, pillars become ionized globules that often harbor one or more young stars. H2 molecules at the interface between a PDR and an H II region absorb ultraviolet light from massive stars, and the resulting fluoresced infrared emission lines are an ideal way to trace this boundary independent of obscuring dust. This paper presents H2 images of four regions of massive star formation that illustrate different types of PDR boundaries. The Ara OB1 star formation region contains a striking long wall that has several wavy structures which are pres...

  10. Interferometric Follow-Up of WISE Hyper-Luminous Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Bridge, Carrie R; Benford, Dominic J; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J; Gelino, Christopher R; Moustakas, Leonidas; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    WISE has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies which are faint in the two bluer passbands ($3.4\\, \\mu$m and $4.6\\, \\mu$m) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE ($12\\, \\mu$m and $22\\, \\mu$m). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the CARMA and SMA interferometer arrays at submm/mm wavelengths. We report continuum detections at $\\sim$ 1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1-2 arcsec and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and 3.9$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. W...

  11. The most-luminous heavily-obscured quasars have a high merger fraction: morphological study of WISE-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that WISE-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick AGNs. High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at $z\\sim3$ using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction ($62\\pm 14 \\%$). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of S\\'ersic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most of Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity ($\\sim10^{14}L_\\odot$) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR SEDs decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction (Hickox et al. 2014). Both the high merger fraction in IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in UV/optical-se...

  12. The Void Galaxy Survey: Star Formation Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Beygu, B; van der Hulst, J M; Jarrett, T H; Peletier, R; van de Weygaert, R; van Gorkom, J H; Aragon-Calvo, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from $\\rm{H\\alpha}$ and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 4.6 $\\rm{\\mu m}$, 12 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ and 22 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ WISE emission is used as star formation and mass indicator. Infrared and optical colours show that the VGS sample displays a wide range of dust and metallicity properties. We combine these measurements with stellar and HI masses to measure the specific SFRs ($\\rm{SFR/M_{*}}$) and star formation efficiencies ($\\rm{SFR/M_{HI}}$). We compare the star formation properties of our sample with galaxies in the more moderate density regions of the cosmic web, 'the field'. We find that specific SFRs of the VGS galaxies as a function of stellar and HI mass are similar to those of the galaxies in these field regions. Their $\\rm{SFR\\alpha}$ is slightly elevated than the galaxies in the field for a given total HI mass. ...

  13. Star formation history written in spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Ellerbroek

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the process of star formation is mapped from large to small scales, using the world's most advanced observatories. Discoveries of several young stars with peculiar environments are reported. Dynamics of circumstellar gas and dust are analyzed in a diverse ensemble of young stars. The

  14. Notes on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  15. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  16. PAHs and star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, AGGM; Peeters, E; Bakes, ELO; Spoon, HWW; Hony, S; Johnstone, D; Adams, FC; Lin, DNC; Neufeld, DA; Ostriker, EC

    2004-01-01

    Strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 mum are a common characteristic of regions of massive star formation. These features are carried by large (similar to 50 C-atom) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules which are pumped by the strong FUV photon flux from these stars. Thes

  17. Star Formation in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Star formation is one of the least understood processes in cosmic evolution. It is difficult to formulate a general theory for star formation in part because of the wide range of physical processes involved. The interstellar gas out of which stars form is a supersonically turbulent plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics. This is hard enough by itself, since we do not understand even subsonic hydrodynamic turbulence very well, let alone supersonic non-ideal MHD turbulence. However, the behavior of star-forming clouds in the ISM is also obviously influenced by gravity, which adds complexity, and by both continuum and line radiative processes. Finally, the behavior of star-forming clouds is influenced by a wide variety of chemical processes, including formation and destruction of molecules and dust grains (which changes the thermodynamic behavior of the gas) and changes in ionization state (which alter how strongly the gas couples to magnetic fields). As a result of these complexities, there is nothing like a g...

  18. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Joana M

    2008-01-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2 - 3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  19. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Exploring the Effect of AGN Activity on the Relationships Between Molecular Gas, Dust, and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Aretxaga, Itziar; Armus, Lee; Calzetti, Daniela; Helou, George; Montana, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F Peter; Shi, Yong; Vega, Olga; Yun, Min

    2014-01-01

    The molecular gas, H$_2$, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of $L_{\\rm IR}$ to $L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ is an observational estimation of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous AGN has on the ratio $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm tot}$ results in a mean $L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm SF}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ for our entire sample consistent with the mean $L_{\\rm IR}/L^\\prime_{\\rm CO}$ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies fro...

  20. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lenkic, Laura; Gallagher, Sarah; Desjardins, Tyler; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann; Durrell, Pat; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended timescales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by \\citet{tzanavaris10} and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFR$_{\\mathrm{UV}}$) using the UVOT uvw2photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFR$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-"red"), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific star formation rates, and tend to lie in H~{\\sc i}-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-"blue") have redder ...

  1. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  2. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  3. Inner Milky Way Raging with Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    More than 444,580 frames from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope were stitched together to create this portrait of the raging star-formation occurring in the inner Milky Way. As inhabitants of a flat galactic disk, Earth and its solar system have an edge-on view of their host galaxy, like looking a glass dish from its edge. From our perspective, most of the galaxy is condensed into a blurry narrow band of light that stretches completely around the sky, also known as the galactic plane. In this mosaic the galactic plane is broken up into five components: the far-left side of the plane (top image); the area just left of the galactic center (second to top); galactic center (middle); the area to the right of galactic center (second to bottom); and the far-right side of the plane (bottom). Together, these panels represent more than 50 percent of our entire Milky Way galaxy. The red haze that permeates the picture comes from organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are illuminated by light from massive baby stars. On Earth, these molecules are found in automobile exhaust, or charred barbeque grills anywhere carbon molecules are burned incompletely. The patches of black are dense, obscuring dust clouds impenetrable by even Spitzer's super-sensitive infrared eyes. Bright arcs of white throughout the image are massive stellar incubators. The bluish-white haze that hovers heavily in the middle panel is starlight from the older stellar population towards the center of the galaxy. This picture was taken with Spitzer's infrared array camera, as part of the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) project. This is a four-color composite where blue is 3.6-micron light, green is 4.5 microns, orange is 5.8 microns and red is 8.0 microns.

  4. Interferometric follow-up of WISE hyper-luminous hot, dust-obscured galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, R. Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Petric, Andreea [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av., Santiago, Ejército Libertador 441 (Chile); Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: jingwen@astro.ucla.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ∼1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  5. NGC 281: A Bustling Hub of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NGC 281 is a bustling hub of star formation about 10,000 light years away. This composite image of optical and X-ray emission includes regions where new stars are forming and older regions containing stars about 3 million years old. The optical data (seen in red, orange, and yellow) show a small open cluster of stars, large lanes of obscuring gas and dust, and dense knots where stars may still be forming. The X-ray data (purple), based on a Chandra observation lasting more than a day, shows a different view. More than 300 individual X-ray sources are seen, most of them associated with IC 1590, the central cluster. The edge-on aspect of NGC 281 allows scientists to study the effects of powerful X-rays on the gas in the region, the raw material for star formation. A second group of X-ray sources is seen on either side of a dense molecular cloud, known as NGC 281 West, a cool cloud of dust grains and gas, much of which is in the form of molecules. The bulk of the sources around the molecular cloud are coincident with emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a family of organic molecules containing carbon and hydrogen. There also appears to be cool diffuse gas associated with IC 1590 that extends toward NGC 281 West. The X-ray spectrum of this region shows that the gas is a few million degrees and contains significant amounts of magnesium, sulfur and silicon. The presence of these elements suggests that supernova recently went off in that area.

  6. A CANDELS-3D-HST synergy: Resolved star formation patterns at 0.7 < z < 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabe [European Southern Observatory, Alonson de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Chang, Yu-Yen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Faber, Sandra M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colby College, Waterville, ME 0490 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E., E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, with multi-wavelength broadband imaging from CANDELS and Hα surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec resolution from 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Hα morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Hα dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Hα/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called 'main sequence of star formation' established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced Hα equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Hα/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  7. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  8. Measurement of Star-Formation Rate from H-$\\alpha$ in field galaxies at z = 1

    CERN Document Server

    Glazebrook, K; Economou, F; Lilly, S; Colless, M; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Economou, Frossie; Lilly, Simon; Colless, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    We report the results of J-band infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 13 z=1 field galaxies drawn from the Canada-France Redshift Survey, targeting galaxies whose redshifts place the rest frame H-alpha line emission from HII regions in between the bright night sky OH lines. As a result we detect emission down to a flux limit of ~10^{-16} ergs/cm^2/s corresponding to a luminosity limit of these luminosities we derive estimates of the star-formation rates in these galaxies which are independent of previous estimates based upon their rest-frame ultraviolet (2800 Angstroms) luminosity. The mean star-formation rate at z=1, from this sample, is found to be three times as high as the ultraviolet estimates. The dust extinction in these galaxies is inferred to be moderate, with a typical A_V=0.5-1.0 mags, comparable to local field galaxies. This suggests that the bulk of star-formation is not heavily obscured. Star-forming galaxies have the bluest colours and a preponderance of disturbed/interacting morphologies. We al...

  9. A Comparative Study of Knots of Star Formation in Interacting vs. Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Struck, Curtis; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published H-alpha images, we have compared the star formation rates of ~700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high star formation rates than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The star formation rates of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest star formation rates, the apparent dust a...

  10. The influence of binarity on dust obscuration events in the planetary nebula M 2-29 and its analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Köppen, J; Rauch, T; Acker, A; Cohen, M; Frew, D J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Jones, A F; Udalski, A

    2011-01-01

    The central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) M 2-29 shows an extraordinary R Coronae Borealis-like fading event in its optical lightcurve. The only other CSPN to show these events are CPD-568032 (Hen 3-1333) and V651 Mon (NGC 2346). Dust cloud formation in the line of sight appears responsible but the exact triggering mechanism is not well understood. Understanding how planetary nebulae (PNe) trigger dust obscuration events may help understand the same process in a wide range of objects including Population-I WC9 stars, symbiotic stars and perhaps Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars with long secondary periods (LSPs). A binary scenario involving an eccentric, wide companion that triggers dust formation via interaction at periastron is a potential explanation that has been suggested for LSP variables. Model fits to the lightcurves of CPD-568032 and M 2-29 show the dust forms in excess of 70 AU at the inner edge of a dust disk. In the case of CPD-568032 this radius is far too large to coincide with a binary ...

  11. Coronet: A Star-Formation Neighbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    While perhaps not quite as well known as its star-formation cousin Orion, the Corona Australis region (containing, at its heart, the Coronet cluster) is one of the nearest and most active regions of ongoing star formation. At only about 420 light-years away, the Coronet is over three times closer than the Orion nebula is to Earth. The Coronet contains a loose cluster of a few dozen young stars with a wide range of masses and at various stages of evolution, giving astronomers an opportunity to observe embryonic stars simultaneously in several wavelengths. This composite image shows the Coronet in X-rays from Chandra (purple) and infrared from Spitzer (orange, green, and cyan). The Spitzer data show young stars plus diffuse emission from dust. Due to the host of young stars in different life stages in the Coronet, astronomers can use these data to pinpoint details of how the youngest stars evolve.

  12. Gravity, Turbulence, and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, B G

    2004-01-01

    The azimuthal power spectra of optical emission from star formation and dust in spiral galaxies resembles the azimuthal power spectra of HI emission from the LMC. These and other power spectra of whole galaxies all resemble that of velocity in incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence. The reasons for this are unknown but it could be simply that star and cloud formation are the result of a mixture of processes and each gives a power spectrum similar to Kolmogorov turbulence, within the observable errors. The important point is that star and cloud formation are not random but are correlated over large distances by forces that span several orders of magnitude in scale. These forces are probably the usual combination of self-gravity, turbulence, and compression from stellar winds and supernovae, but they have to work in concert to create the structures we see in galaxies. In addition, the identification of flocculant spirals with swing amplified instabilities opens the possibility that a high fraction of turbulence i...

  13. Modeling Mid-infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan, Lin

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a ~109 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 μm absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 μm, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  14. MODELING MID-INFRARED DIAGNOSTICS OF OBSCURED QUASARS AND STARBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Jonsson, Patrik; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Cox, Thomas J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, C-208 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yan Lin, E-mail: gsnyder@cfa.harvard.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z {approx} 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z {approx} 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a {approx}10{sup 9} yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 {mu}m absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 {mu}m, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  15. Exploring the Connection Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman. T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Schiminovich, D.; O'Dowd, M.; Bertincourt, B.

    2012-01-01

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from SDSS and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic con- tributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [NeII] 12.8 micron emission-line is well correlated with the star formation rate (SFR) measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGN show a clear excess of [NeIII] 15.6 micron emission relative to star forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including: the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [NeV] 14.3 micron to [NeII] micron 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7, 11.3, and 17 micron PAH features, and the optical "D" parameter which measures the distance a source lies from the locus of star forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN-dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 micron feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  16. Bulges and discs in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, L.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.; Concas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We use a sample built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue and the bulge-disc decomposition of Simard et al. (2011, ApJS, 196, 11) to study how the bulge and disc components contribute to the parent galaxy's star formation activity, by determining its position in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane at 0.02 age or metallicity content, suggesting different evolutionary paths for bulges on the MS and green valley with respect to those in the quiescence region. The disc g-r colour anti-correlates at any mass with the distance from the MS, getting redder when approaching the MS lower envelope and the quiescence region. The anti-correlation flattens as a function of the stellar mass, likely due to a higher level of dust obscuration in massive SF galaxies. We conclude that the position of a galaxy in the Log SFR - Log M⋆ plane depends on the star formation activity of its components: above the MS both bulge and disc are actively star forming. The nuclear activity is the first to be suppressed, moving the galaxies on the MS. Once the disc stops forming stars as well, the galaxy moves below the MS and eventually to the quiescence region. This is confirmed by a significant percentage ( 45%) of passive galaxies with a secure two component morphology, coexisting with a population of pure spheroidals. Our findings are qualitatively in agreement with the compaction-depletion scenario, in which subsequent phases of gas inflow in the centre of a galaxy and depletion due to high star formation activity move the galaxy across the MS before the final quenching episode takes place.

  17. EXPLORING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ptak, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, D.; Bertincourt, B. [Columbia University, Department of Astronomy, New York, NY 10027 (United States); O' Dowd, M. [Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    We study a combined sample of 264 star-forming, 51 composite, and 73 active galaxies using optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. We examine optical and mid-IR spectroscopic diagnostics that probe the amount of star formation and relative energetic contributions from star formation and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Overall we find good agreement between optical and mid-IR diagnostics. Misclassifications of galaxies based on the SDSS spectra are rare despite the presence of dust obscuration. The luminosity of the [Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m emission line is well correlated with the star formation rate measured from the SDSS spectra, and this holds for the star-forming, composite, and AGN-dominated systems. AGNs show a clear excess of [Ne III] 15.6 {mu}m emission relative to star-forming and composite systems. We find good qualitative agreement between various parameters that probe the relative contributions of the AGN and star formation, including the mid-IR spectral slope, the ratio of the [Ne V] 14.3 {mu}m to [Ne II] {mu}m 12.8 fluxes, the equivalent widths of the 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 17 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, and the optical 'D' parameter which measures the distance at which a source lies from the locus of star-forming galaxies in the optical BPT emission-line diagnostic diagram. We also consider the behavior of the three individual PAH features by examining how their flux ratios depend upon the degree of AGN dominance. We find that the PAH 11.3 {mu}m feature is significantly suppressed in the most AGN-dominated systems.

  18. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Elizabeth J; Zentner, Andrew R; Bullock, James S; Wechsler, Risa H

    2007-01-01

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxi...

  19. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  20. Star Formation in Isolated Disk Galaxies. I. Models and Star Formation Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y; Klessen, R S; Li, Yuexing; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2005-01-01

    We model star formation in a wide range of isolated disk galaxies composed of a dark matter halo and a disk of stars and isothermal gas, using a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Absorbing sink particles are used to directly measure the mass of gravitationally collapsing gas. They reach masses characteristic of stellar clusters. In this paper, we describe our galaxy models and numerical methods, followed by an investigation of the gravitational instability in these galaxies. Gravitational collapse forms star clusters with correlated positions and ages, as observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Gravitational instability alone acting in unperturbed galaxies appears sufficient to produce flocculent spiral arms, though not more organized patterns. Unstable galaxies show collapse in thin layers in the galactic plane; associated dust will form thin dust lanes in those galaxies, in agreement with observations. We find an exponential relationship between the global star formation timescale and ...

  1. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  2. THE STELLAR, MOLECULAR GAS, AND DUST CONTENT OF THE HOST GALAXIES OF TWO z {approx} 2.8 DUST-OBSCURED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinez-Sansigre, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ridgway, S. E. [NOAO, Colina El Pino s/n, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Sajina, A. [Tuffs University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    We present optical through radio observations of the host galaxies of two dust-obscured, luminous quasars selected in the mid-infrared, at z = 2.62 and z = 2.99, including a search for CO emission. Our limits on the CO luminosities are consistent with these objects having masses of molecular gas {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, several times less than those of luminous submillimeter-detected galaxies at comparable redshifts. Their near-infrared spectral energy distributions, however, imply that these galaxies have high stellar masses ({approx}10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). The relatively small reservoirs of molecular gas and low dust masses are consistent with them being relatively mature systems at high-z.

  3. Star Formation Relations in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Evans, Neal J., II; Heyer, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The relations between star formation and properties of molecular clouds (MCs) are studied based on a sample of star-forming regions in the Galactic Plane. Sources were selected by having radio recombination lines to provide identification of associated MCs and dense clumps. Radio continuum emission and mid-infrared emission were used to determine star formation rates (SFRs), while 13CO and submillimeter dust continuum emission were used to obtain the masses of molecular and dense gas, respectively. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of SFR. We also test two specific theoretical models, one relying on the molecular mass divided by the free-fall time, the other using the free-fall time divided by the crossing time. Neither is supported by the data. The data are also compared to those from nearby star-forming regions and extragalactic data. The star formation “efficiency,” defined as SFR divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all of the molecular gas.

  4. Star Formation in Various Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, N; Spector, O; Zitrin, A

    2008-01-01

    We describe studies of star formation in various galaxies using primarily observations from the Wise Observatory. In addition to surface photometry in the broad band UBVRI, we also use a set of narrow-band H-alpha filters tuned to different redshifts to isolate the emission line. With these observational data, and using models of evolutionary stellar populations, we unravel the star formation histories of the galaxies and connect them to other parameters, such as the galaxy environment.

  5. A CANDELS-3d-HST Synergy: Resolved Star Formation Patterns at 0.7 less than z less than 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabe; Chang, Yu-Yen; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Genzel, Reinhard; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lundgren, Britt; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Rosario, David; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 stars are being formed. We find the Halpha morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Halpha dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Halpha/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called "main sequence of star formation" established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced H alpha equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Halpha/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  6. Heavy dust obscuration of z=7 galaxies in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with Wide Field Camera 3/IR reveal that galaxies at z~7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5x10^8-3x10^{10} Msun with three parameters, the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (\\fesc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A_V~1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a sig...

  7. How dead are dead galaxies? Mid-Infrared fluxes of quiescent galaxies at redshift 0.3 < z < 2.5: implications for star formation rates and dust heating

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G; Franx, Marijn; van Dokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; da Cunha, Elisabete; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  8. Star-formation in active galaxies to z~2: a perspective from Herschel studies

    CERN Document Server

    Rosario, D J

    2013-01-01

    In the era of deep, large-area far-infrared (FIR) surveys from the Herschel Space Telescope, the bulk of the star-formation in distant galaxies, once hidden by dust, is now being revealed. The FIR provides probably the cleanest view of SF in the host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over cosmic time. We report results from studies of the relationships between SF, AGN activity and AGN obscuration out to z=2.5, which employ some of the deepest Herschel and X-ray datasets currently available, while spanning orders of magnitude in the dynamic range of AGN properties. We highlight the role of gaseous supply in modulating both SF and AGN activity without necessarily implying a direct causal connection between these phenomenon. The role of starburst- or major merger-fueled AGN activity at low and high redshifts is discussed in the context of our results.

  9. Evolution and constrains in the star formation histories of IR-bright star forming galaxies at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklias, Panos; Schaerer, Daniel; Elbaz, David

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and constraining the early cosmic star formation history of the Universe is a key question of galaxy evolution. A large fraction of star formation is dust obscured, so it is crucial to have access to the IR emission of galaxies to properly study them.Utilizing the multi-wavelength photometry from GOODS-Herschel, we perform SED fitting with different variable star formation histories (SFHs), which we constrain thanks to the observed IR luminosities, on a large sample of individually IR-detected sources from z~1 to 4. We explore how (and to which extent) constraining dust attenuation thanks to the IR luminosities allows to reduce the scatter (expected when using variable SFHs, in contrast to IR+UV standard calibrations) in physical properties and relations such as mass-SFR and the so-called star-forming Main Sequence (MS).Although limited at the high-z end, our analysis shows a change of trends in SFHs between low and high z, that follows the established cosmic SFR density, with galaxies found to prefer rising SFRs at z~3-4, and declining SFRs at z≤1. We show that a fraction of galaxies (~20%), mainly at z≤2, can have lower SFRs than IR-inferred, but still being compatible with the observations, indicative of being post-starbursts/undergoing quenching while bright in the IR, in agreement with theoretical work. The IR-constrained stellar population models we obtain also indicate that the two main modes of star formation - MS and starburst - evolve differently with time, with the former being mostly slow evolving and lying on the MS for long lasting periods, and the latter being very recent, rapidly increasing bursts (or on the decline, when belonging to the aforementioned "quenched" category). Finally, we illustrate how spectroscopic observation of nebular emission lines further enables as to constrain effectively the SFHs of galaxies.

  10. Tracing the Mass during Low-Mass Star Formation. III. Models of the Submillimeter Dust Continuum Emission from Class 0 Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Shirley, Y L; Shirley, Yancy L.; II, Neal J. Evans; Rawlings, Jonathan M. C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven Class 0 sources mapped with SCUBA at 850 and 450 micron are modeled using a one dimensional radiative transfer code. The modeling takes into account heating from an internal protostar, heating from the ISRF, realistic beam effects, and chopping to model the normalized intensity profile and spectral energy distribution. Power law density models, n(r) ~ r^{-p}, fit all of the sources; best fit values are mostly p = 1.8 +/- 0.1, but two sources with aspherical emission contours have lower values (p ~ 1.1). Including all sources, = 1.63 +/- 0.33. Based on studies of the sensitivity of the best-fit p to variations in other input parameters, uncertainties in p for an envelope model are \\Delta p = +/- 0.2. If an unresolved source (e.g., a disk) contributes 70% of the flux at the peak, p is lowered in this extreme case and \\Delta p = ^{+0.2}_{-0.6}. The models allow a determination of the internal luminosity ( = 4.0 \\lsun) of the central protostar as well as a characteristic dust temperature for mass determina...

  11. Star formation in Galactic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation in clouds that form in Galactic scale flows as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. We use the Lagrangian nature of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to trace how the star-forming gas is gathered into self-gravitating cores that collapse to form stars. Large-scale flows that arise due to Galactic dynamics create shocks of the order of 30 km s-1 that compress the gas and form dense clouds (n > several × 102 cm-3) in which self-gravity becomes relevant. These large-scale flows are necessary for creating the dense physical conditions for gravitational collapse and star formation. Local gravitational collapse requires densities in excess of n > 103 cm-3 which occur on size scales of ≈1 pc for low-mass star-forming regions (M 103 M⊙). Star formation in the 250 pc region lasts throughout the 5 Myr time-scale of the simulation with a star formation rate of ≈10-1 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2. In the absence of feedback, the efficiency of the star formation per free-fall time varies from our assumed 100 per cent at our sink accretion radius to values of <10-3 at low densities.

  12. NuSTAR observations of WISE J1036+0449, a galaxy at z ∼ 1 obscured by hot dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in par...

  13. Physics of primordial star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  14. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  15. Intense star formation within resolved compact regions in a galaxy at z = 2.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, A M; Smail, I; Longmore, S; Harris, A I; Baker, A J; De Breuck, C; Richard, J; Edge, A C; Ivison, R J; Blundell, R; Coppin, K E K; Cox, P; Gurwell, M; Hainline, L J; Krips, M; Lundgren, A; Neri, R; Siana, B; Siringo, G; Stark, D P; Wilner, D; Younger, J D

    2010-04-01

    Massive galaxies in the early Universe have been shown to be forming stars at surprisingly high rates. Prominent examples are dust-obscured galaxies which are luminous when observed at sub-millimetre wavelengths and which may be forming stars at a rate of 1,000 solar masses (M(middle dot in circle)) per year. These intense bursts of star formation are believed to be driven by mergers between gas-rich galaxies. Probing the properties of individual star-forming regions within these galaxies, however, is beyond the spatial resolution and sensitivity of even the largest telescopes at present. Here we report observations of the sub-millimetre galaxy SMMJ2135-0102 at redshift z = 2.3259, which has been gravitationally magnified by a factor of 32 by a massive foreground galaxy cluster lens. This magnification, when combined with high-resolution sub-millimetre imaging, resolves the star-forming regions at a linear scale of only 100 parsecs. We find that the luminosity densities of these star-forming regions are comparable to the dense cores of giant molecular clouds in the local Universe, but they are about a hundred times larger and 10(7) times more luminous. Although vigorously star-forming, the underlying physics of the star-formation processes at z approximately 2 appears to be similar to that seen in local galaxies, although the energetics are unlike anything found in the present-day Universe.

  16. Star formation history of the galaxy merger Mrk848 with SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang-Ting; Shen, Shiyin; Hao, Lei; Fernandez, Maria Argudo

    2017-03-01

    With the 3D data of SDSS-IV MaNGA (Bundy et al. 2015) spectra and multi-wavelength SED modeling, we expect to have a better understanding of the distribution of dust, gas and star formation of galaxy mergers. For a case study of the merging galaxy Mrk848, we use both UV-to-IR broadband SED and the MaNGA integral field spectroscopy to obtain its star formation histories at the tail and core regions. From the SED fitting and full spectral fitting, we find that the star formation in the tail regions are affected by the interaction earlier than the core regions. The core regions show apparently two times of star formation and a strong burst within 500Myr, indicating the recent star formation is triggered by the interaction. The star formation histories derived from these two methods are basically consistent.

  17. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ℓ ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ℓ ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M⊙) = 12

  18. Obscuration in AGNs: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Davies, R I; Janssen, A; Lutz, D; Rosario, D; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lin, M -Y; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L

    2015-01-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. T...

  19. Star Formation in Henize 206

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    from that explosion impacted a cloud of nearby hydrogen gas, compressed it, and started a new generation of star formation. The death of one star led to the birth of many new stars. This is particularly evident in the MIPS inset, where the 24-micron emission peaks correspond to newly formed stars. The ultraviolet and visible-light photons from the new stars are absorbed by surrounding dust and re-radiated at longer infrared wavelengths, where it is detected by Spitzer. This emission nebula was cataloged by Karl Henize (HEN-eyes) while spending 1948-1951 in South Africa doing research for his Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Michigan. Henize later became a NASA astronaut and, at age 59, became the oldest rookie to fly on the Space Shuttle during an eight-day flight of the Challenger in 1985. He died just short of his 67th birthday in 1993 while attempting to climb the north face of Mount Everest, the world's highest peak.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of star formation in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Turner, Jean L.

    1987-01-01

    The Brackett alpha and beta lines with 7.2 seconds angular and 350 km/s velocity resolution were observed in 11 infrared-bright galaxies. From these measurements extinctions, Lyman continuum fluxes, and luminosities due to OB stars were derived. The galaxies observed to date are NGC3690, M38, NGC 5195, Arp 220, NGC 520, NGC660, NGC1614, NGC 3079, NGC 6946, NGC 7714, and Maffei 2, all of which were suggested at some time to be starburst ogjects. The contributions of OB stars to the luminosities of these galaxies can be quantified from the measurements and range from insignificant to sufficient to account for the total energy output. The OB stellar luminosities observed are as high as 10 to the 12th solar luminosities in the galaxy NGC 1614. It is noteworthy that star formation can play very different roles in the infrared energy output of galaxies of similar luminosity, as for example Arp 220 and NGC 1614. In addition to probing the star formation process in these galaxies, the Brackett line measurements, when compared to radio and infrared continuum results, have revealed some unexpected and at present imperfectly understood phenomena: in some very luminous sources the radio continuum appears to be suppressed relative to the infrared recombination lines; in many galaxies there is a substantial excess of 10 micron flux over that predicted from simple models of Lyman alpha heating of dust if young stars are the only significant energy source.

  1. Clustering of Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Revealed by the Hyper Suprime-Cam and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Oogi, Taira; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Coupon, Jean; Strauss, Michael A.; Wang, Wei-Hao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niida, Mana; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Noboriguchi, Akatoki; Usuda, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of the clustering properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining 125 deg2 of wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, we have discovered 4367 IR-bright DOGs with {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0 and flux density at 22 μ {{m}}> 1.0 mJy. We calculate the angular autocorrelation function (ACF) for a uniform subsample of 1411 DOGs with 3.0 mJy r 0 = 12.0 ± 2.0 and 10.3 ± 1.7 {h}-1 Mpc, respectively. IR-bright DOGs reside in massive dark matter halos with a mass of {log}[ /({h}-1 {M}ȯ )]={13.57}-0.55+0.50 and {13.65}-0.52+0.45 in the two cases, respectively.

  2. Hyper-luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies discovered by the Hyper Suprime-Cam on Subaru and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki; Strauss, Michael A; Aoki, Kentaro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Inami, Hanae; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Oi, Nagisa; Onoue, Masafusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Manobu M; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Turner, Edwin L; Uchida, Tomohisa; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the photometric properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR (MIR) images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered 48 DOGs with $i - K_\\mathrm{s} > 1.2$ and $i - [22] > 7.0$, where $i$, $K_\\mathrm{s}$, and [22] represent AB magnitude in the $i$-band, $K_\\mathrm{s}$-band, and 22 $\\mu$m, respectively, in the GAMA 14hr field ($\\sim$ 9 deg$^2$). Among these objects, 31 ($\\sim$ 65 %) show power-law spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the near-IR (NIR) and MIR regime, while the remainder show a NIR bump in their SEDs. Assuming that the redshift distribution for our DOGs sample is Gaussian, with mean and sigma $z$ = 1.99 $\\pm$ 0.45, we calculated their total IR luminosity using an empirical relation between 22 $\\mu$m luminosity and total IR luminosity. The average value of the total IR luminosity is (3.5 $\\pm$ 1.1) $\\ti...

  3. Unveiling The Physics of Star Formation and Feedback in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S; Kramer, C; Schinnerer, E; Beckman, J; Knapen, J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show the importance of feedback in the evolution of the star formation rate in the Universe. However, the nature and physics of the feedback are still pressing questions. Radio continuum observations can provide unique dust-unbiased tracers of massive star formation and of the interstellar medium (ISM) and hence are ideal to address the regulation of star formation in galaxies. Our multi-frequency and multi-resolution radio surveys in nearby galaxies enable us to trace various phases of star formation and dissect the thermal and nonthermal ISM in galaxies. Mapping the cosmic ray electron energy index and magnetic field strength, we have found observational evidence that massive star formation significantly affects the energy balance in the ISM through the injection and acceleration of cosmic rays and the amplification of magnetic fields. How the next generation of stars could form in such a magnetized and turbulent ISM will be addressed in our 'EVLA cloud-scale survey of the local group galaxy ...

  4. Detecting Star Formation in Brightest Cluster Galaxies with GALEX

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, Amalia; Donahue, Megan

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of GALEX observations of 17 cool core (CC) clusters of galaxies. We show that GALEX is easily capable of detecting star formation in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) out to $z\\ge 0.45$ and 50-100 kpc. In most of the CC clusters studied, we find significant UV luminosity excesses and colors that strongly suggest recent and/or current star formation. The BCGs are found to have blue UV colors in the center that become increasingly redder with radius, indicating that the UV signature of star formation is most easily detected in the central regions. Our findings show good agreement between UV star formation rates and estimates based on H$\\alpha$ observations. IR observations coupled with our data indicate moderate-to-high dust attenuation. Comparisons between our UV results and the X-ray properties of our sample suggest clear correlations between UV excess, cluster entropy, and central cooling time, confirming that the star formation is directly and incontrovertibly related to the cooling g...

  5. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Ge; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies.Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought.Widespread recent star formation,cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs.We make use of the radial profiles of g - r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores.By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data,we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus.From the results of stellar population synthesis,we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young,spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr.In 14 galaxies with H I observations,we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55.The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction,and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H l gas mass.The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment,e.g.in the denser environment the H 1 gas is less and the total SFR is lower.We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  6. Heart of Darkness: dust obscuration of the central stellar component in globular clusters younger than ~100Myr in multiple stellar population models

    CERN Document Server

    Longmore, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    To explain the observed anomalies in stellar populations within globular clusters, many globular cluster formation theories require two independent episodes of star formation. A fundamental prediction of these models is that the clusters must accumulate large gas reservoirs as the raw material to form the second stellar generation. We show that young clusters containing the required gas reservoir should exhibit the following observational signatures: (i) a dip in the measured luminosity profile or an increase in measured reddening towards the cluster centre, with Av >10mag within a radius of a few pc; (ii) bright (sub)mm emission from dust grains; (iii) bright molecular line emission once the gas is dense enough to begin forming stars. Unless the IMF is anomalously skewed towards low-mass stars, the clusters should also show obvious signs of star formation via optical emission lines (e.g. H_alpha) after the stars have formed. These observational signatures should be readily observable towards any compact clus...

  7. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at Z Approx. 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  8. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at zeta approx 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A.W.; Zhang, William W.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(sub BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(sub Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(sub H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  9. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z~1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chang, C. S.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S.; Lansbury, G. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stalevski, M.; Stanley, F.; Treister, E.; Tsai, C.-W.; Walton, D. J.; Wu, J. W.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z> 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z∼ 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ({L}{Bol}≃ 8× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg ii, which would imply a black hole mass of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}8 {M}ȯ and an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}≃ 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of {N}{{H}}≃ (2{--}15)× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. The source has an intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity of ∼ 6× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared/X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z≲ 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  10. Star Formation in MUSCEL Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary star-formation histories for a subset of the low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in the MUSCEL (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry, and Evolution of LSB galaxies) program. These histories are fitted against ground-based IFU spectra in tandem with space-based UV and IR photometry. MUSCEL aims to use these histories along with kinematic analyses to determine the physical processes that have caused the evolution of LSB galaxies to diverge from their high surface brightness counterparts.

  11. Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, C M; Funes, J G; Ribeiro, M B

    2006-01-01

    We present narrow-band observations of the H$\\alpha$ emission in a sample of 31 satellite orbiting isolated giant spiral galaxies. The sample studied spans the range $-19star formation rates are 0.68 and 3.66 M$_\\sun$ yr$^{-1}$ respectively. Maps of the spatial distribution of ionized gas are presented. The star-forming regions show a rich structure in which frequently discrete complexes are imposed over more diffuse structures. In general, the current star formation rates are smaller that the mean values in the past obtained from the current stellar content; this probably indicates a declining rhythm with time in the generation of new stars. However, the reserve of gas is enough to continue fueling the current levels of star formation activity for at least another Hubble time. Four of the o...

  12. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  13. The ultraviolet and infrared star formation rates of compact group galaxies: an expanded sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkić, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Durrell, Pat R.; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-07-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 μm photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-`red'), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-`blue') have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in H I-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M⊙ yr-1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  14. Monsters In The Dark: Exploring The Star-Forming Hosts Of Massive, Dust-Obscured Quasars At Z 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, Clare; Banerji, Manda; Hewett, Paul; DES Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We perform the first population study of luminous, but heavily-reddened quasars in the rest-frame UV at z = 1.5 - 2.7 - a peak epoch of both star formation and black hole accretion. We find resolved, blue emission in the DES imaging, consistent with a star forming host galaxy. Via SED fitting, we derive instantaneous SFRs for the sample and find a trend between quasar luminosity and SFR.

  15. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  16. The Star-Formation Histories of z~2 DOGs and SMGs

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Armus, L; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Gonzalez, A H; Jannuzi, B T; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ~ 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs, both of which have extremely red R-[24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6um associated with stellar emission ("bump DOGs"), while the other set of 51 DOGs has a power-law dominated mid-IR SED with spectral features typical of obscured AGN ("power-law DOGs"). We use stellar population synthesis models applied self-consistently to broad-band photometry in the rest-frame ultra-violet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations and test a variety of stellar population synthesis codes, star-formation histories (SFHs), and initial mass functions (IMFs). Assuming a simp...

  17. RCW36: characterizing the outcome of massive star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellerbroek, L E; Kaper, L; Maaskant, K M; Paalvast, M; Tramper, F; Sana, H; Waters, L B F M; Balog, Z

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars play a dominant role in the process of clustered star formation, with their feedback into the molecular cloud through ionizing radiation, stellar winds and outflows. The formation process of massive stars is poorly constrained because of their scarcity, the short formation timescale and obscuration. By obtaining a census of the newly formed stellar population, the star formation history of the young cluster and the role of the massive stars within it can be unraveled. We aim to reconstruct the formation history of the young stellar population of the massive star-forming region RCW 36. We study several dozens of individual objects, both photometrically and spectroscopically, look for signs of multiple generations of young stars and investigate the role of the massive stars in this process. We obtain a census of the physical parameters and evolutionary status of the young stellar population. Using a combination of near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy we estimate ages and masses of individual ...

  18. The Dust & Gas Properties of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, K; Mentuch, E; Bendo, G; Dariush, A; Parkin, T; Pohlen, M; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Madden, S; Page, M J; Spinoglio,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the dust and gas properties of the nearby, barred galaxy M83, which is part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey. Using images from the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, we examine the dust temperature and dust mass surface density distribution. We find that the nuclear, bar and spiral arm regions exhibit higher dust temperatures and masses compared to interarm regions. However, the distribution of dust temperature and mass are not spatially coincident. Assuming a trailing spiral structure, the dust temperature peaks in the spiral arms lie ahead of the dust surface density peaks. The dust mass surface density correlates well with the distribution of molecular gas as traced by CO (J=3-2) images (JCMT) and the star formation rate as traced by H?2 with a correction for obscured star formation using 24 micron emission. Using HI images from THINGS to trace the atomic gas component, we make total gas mass surface density maps and calculate the gas-to-dust ratio. We find a mean gas-to-dust ratio of 84 \\...

  19. Star formation and gas supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, B.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of how gas cycles in and around galaxies, and how it depends on galaxy properties such as stellar mass and star formation rate, is crucial to understand galaxy formation and evolution. We take advantage of the most sensitive surveys of cold gas in massive galaxies, GASS and COLD GASS, as well as of the state-of-the-art HI blind survey ALFALFA to investigate how molecular and atomic hydrogen reservoirs vary along and across the main sequence of star-forming galaxies.

  20. Star formation in M33 (HerM33es)

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, C; Braine, J; Buchbender, C; Calzetti, D; Gratier, P; Mookerjea, B; Relano, M; Verley, S

    2011-01-01

    Within the key project "Herschel M33 extended survey" (HerM33es), we are studying the physical and chemical processes driving star formation and galactic evolution in the nearby galaxy M33, combining the study of local conditions affecting individual star formation with properties only becoming apparent on global scales. Here, we present recent results obtained by the HerM33es team. Combining Spitzer and Herschel data ranging from 3.6um to 500um, along with HI, Halpha, and GALEX UV data, we have studied the dust at high spatial resolutions of 150pc, providing estimators of the total infrared (TIR) brightness and of the star formation rate. While the temperature of the warm dust at high brightness is driven by young massive stars, evolved stellar populations appear to drive the temperature of the cold dust. Plane-parallel models of photon dominated regions (PDRs) fail to reproduce fully the [CII], [OI], and CO maps obtained in a first spectroscopic study of one 2'x2' subregion of M33, located on the inner, nor...

  1. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  2. Collisional debris as laboratories to study star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Boquien, M; Wu, Y; Charmandaris, V; Lisenfeld, U; Braine, J; Brinks, E; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Xu, C K

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the question whether star formation is driven by local processes or the large scale environment. To do so, we investigate star formation in collisional debris where the gravitational potential well and velocity gradients are shallower and compare our results with previous work on star formation in non-interacting spiral and dwarf galaxies. We have performed multiwavelength spectroscopic and imaging observations (from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared) of 6 interacting systems, identifying a total of 60 star-forming regions in their collision debris. Our analysis indicates that in these regions a) the emission of the dust is at the expected level for their luminosity and metallicity, b) the usual tracers of star formation rate display the typical trend and scatter found in classical star forming regions, and c) the extinction and metallicity are not the main parameters governing the scatter in the properties of intergalactic star forming regions; age effects and variations in the...

  3. Cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution near and far: from AKARI to SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution, since their most intense stages are often obscured by dust. Japanese infrared satellite, AKARI, provided unique data sets to probe these both at low and high redshifts. The AKARI performed an all sky survey in 6 IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160$\\mu$m) with 3-10 times better sensitivity than IRAS, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can measure the total infrared luminosity ($L_{TIR}$) of individual galaxies much more precisely, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density of the local Universe. In the AKARI NEP deep field, we construct restframe 8$\\mu$m, 12$\\mu$m, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15$

  4. Cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution near and far: AKARI reveals both

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution, since their most intense stages are often obscured by dust. Japanese infrared satellite, AKARI, provided unique data sets to probe this both at low and high redshifts. The AKARI performed all sky survey in 6 IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160$\\mu$m) with 3-10 times better sensitivity than IRAS, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can much more precisely measure the total infrared luminosity ($L_{TIR}$) of individual galaxies, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density of the local Universe. In the AKARI NEP deep field, we construct restframe 8$\\mu$m, 12$\\mu$m, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15$

  5. Radio and millimeter properties of $z \\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in the COSMOS field: limits on radio AGN, submm galaxies, and dust obscuration

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Wang, R; Schinnerer, E; Taniguchi, Y; Smolcic, V; Bertoldi, F; Ajiki, M; Nagao, T; Sasaki, S S; Shioya, Y; Aguirre, J E; Blain, A W; Scoville, N Z; Sanders, D B

    2006-01-01

    We present observations at 1.4 and 250 GHz of the $z\\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE) in the COSMOS field found by Murayama et al.. At 1.4 GHz there are 99 LAEs in the lower noise regions of the radio field. We do not detect any individual source down to 3$\\sigma$ limits of $\\sim 30\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 1.4 GHz, nor do we detect a source in a stacking analysis, to a 2$\\sigma$ limit of $2.5\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$. At 250 GHz we do not detect any of the 10 LAEs that are located within the central regions of the COSMOS field covered by MAMBO ($20' \\times 20'$) to a typical 2$\\sigma$ limit of $S_{250} 6\\times 10^{24}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ in the LAE sample. The radio and millimeter observations also rule out any highly obscured, extreme starbursts in the sample, ie. any galaxies with massive star formation rates $> 1500$ M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in the full sample (based on the radio data), or 500 M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ for the 10% of the LAE sample that fall in the central MAMBO field. The stacking analysis implies an upper li...

  6. Star Formation Rates for z>1 Galaxy Clusters in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey Using WFC3 IR Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimann, Gregory; Stanford, A.; Brodwin, M.; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Gonzalez, A.

    2011-05-01

    We present new HST WFC3 grism data for 17 z>1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). Using the G141 grism (λ = 1.10 - 1.65 μm, 46.5 A/pixel), we identified ˜5-15 new cluster members in each cluster candidate with a visual inspection of emission line galaxies in the reduced 1-d and 2-d spectral extractions. Given the redshift range of the cluster candidates and the wavelength coverage of the G141 grism, the emission line most identified was the blended Hα+NII. Correlations found in the literature between the EW of Hα+NII and the line ratio of NII to Hα were used to deblend the two fluxes. Hα emission was used as an indicator of star formation. Our program is sensitive to an unobscured star formation rate of 4 M⊙ / Year for z=1.5 and a nominal 1:4 ratio of NII to Hα. Concurrent MIPS 24μm data allows for the comparison of different SFR tracers. Whenever possible, we also use the ratio of Hβ/Hα to estimate dust obscuration and correct the SFRs. This dataset allows the study of a wide-range of star formation rates in dense cluster cores during the peak epoch of galaxy formation.

  7. On Star Formation Rates and Star Formation Histories of Galaxies out to z ~ 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wuyts, Stijn; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Altieri, Bruno; Andreani, Paola; Aussel, Herve; Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Cimatti, Andrea; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Genzel, Reinhard; Koekemoer, Anton M; Magnelli, Benjamin; Maiolino, Roberto; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Garcia, Ana Perez; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Popesso, Paola; Pozzi, Francesca; Sanchez-Portal, Miguel; Sturm, Eckhard; Tacconi, Linda; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We compare multi-wavelength SFR indicators out to z~3 in GOODS-South. Our analysis uniquely combines U-to-8um photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24um and PACS 70, 100, and 160um photometry from the PEP survey, and Ha spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24um to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of LIR that are in the median consistent with the LIR derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low to intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR_IR/SFR_UV ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR_UV+IR \\gtrsim 100 Msun/yr) and redshifts (z \\gtrsim 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that Ha-based SFRs at 1.5

  8. Star Formation in NGC 5194 (M51a). II. The Spatially-Resolved Star Formation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, Robert C; Walter, Fabian; Helou, George; Hollenbach, David J; Armus, Lee; Bendo, George; Dale, Daniel A; Draine, Bruce T; Engelbracht, Charles W; Gordon, Karl D; Prescott, Moire K M; Regan, Michael W; Thornley, Michele D; Bot, Caroline; Brinks, Elias; de Blok, Erwin; de Mello, Duilia; Meyer, Martin; Moustakas, John; Murphy, Eric J; Sheth, Kartik; Smith, J D T

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) surface density and gas surface density in the spiral galaxy M51a (NGC 5194), using multi-wavelength data obtained as part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). We introduce a new SFR index based on a linear combination of H-alpha emission-line and 24 micron continuum luminosities, that provides reliable extinction-corrected ionizing fluxes and SFR densities over a wide range of dust attenuations. The combination of these extinction-corrected SFR densities with aperture synthesis HI and CO maps has allowed us to probe the form of the spatially-resolved star formation law on scales of 0.5 to 2 kpc. We find that the resolved SFR vs gas surface density relation is well represented by a Schmidt power law, which is similar in form and dispersion to the disk-averaged Schmidt law. We observe a comparably strong correlation of the SFR surface density with the molecular gas surface density, but no significant correlation with the ...

  9. Control of star formation by supersonic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    MacLow, M M; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the formation of stars in galaxies is central to much of modern astrophysics. For several decades it has been thought that stellar birth is primarily controlled by the interplay between gravity and magnetostatic support, modulated by ambipolar diffusion. Recently, however, both observational and numerical work has begun to suggest that support by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields controls star formation. In this review we outline a new theory of star formation relying on the control by turbulence. We demonstrate that although supersonic turbulence can provide global support, it nevertheless produces density enhancements that allow local collapse. Inefficient, isolated star formation is a hallmark of turbulent support, while efficient, clustered star formation occurs in its absence. The consequences of this theory are then explored for both local star formation and galactic scale star formation. (Abstract abbreviated)

  10. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Kurk, J.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Combes, F.; Freundlich, J. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Nordon, R. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Cox, P. [Department of Physics, Le Conte Hall, University of California, 94720 Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, M. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lutz, D., E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-08-10

    We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the H{alpha} line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the ''Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey'' (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a ''mixed'' extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlog{Sigma}{sub starform}/dlog{Sigma}{sub molgas}, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 {+-} 0.1.

  11. Magnetic Fields and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loo, S; Falle, S A E G

    2012-01-01

    Research performed in the 1950s and 1960s by Leon Mestel on the roles of magnetic fields in star formation established the framework within which he and other key figures have conducted subsequent investigations on the subject. This short tribute to Leon contains a brief summary of some, but not all, of his ground breaking contributions in the area. It also mentions of some of the relevant problems that have received attention in the last few years. The coverage is not comprehensive, and the authors have drawn on their own results more and touched more briefly on those of others than they would in a normal review. Theirs is a personal contribution to the issue honouring Leon, one of the truly great gentlemen, wits, and most insightful of astrophysicists.

  12. Cosmic evolution of star formation properties of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun

    2014-01-01

    Development of bolometer array and camera at submillimeter wavelength has played an important role in detecting submillimeter bright galaxies, so called submillimeter galaxies. These galaxies seem to be progenitors of present-day massive galaxies and account for their considerable contributions to the light from the early universe and their expected high star formation rates if there is a close link between the submillimeter galaxies and the star formation activities, and the interstellar dust in galaxies is mainly heated by the star light. We review assembly of submillimeter galaxies chosen from the AzTEC and the Herschel SPIRE/PACS data archives, and investigate their spectral energy distribution fits including the data at other wavelengths to deduce details about stellar parameters including star formation rates and parameters yielding the metallicity, composition and abundance in dust, and disc structure of these galaxies. This work has been supported in part by Mid-career Researcher Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology 2011-0028001.

  13. Smoothly rising star formation histories during the reionization epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations robustly predict that high-redshift galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) are smoothly rising and vary with mass only by a scalefactor. We use our latest simulations to test whether this scenario can account for recent observations at z≥ 6 from WFC3/IR, NICMOS and IRAC. Our simulations broadly reproduce the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions and stellar mass densities and their evolution at z= 6-8, all of which are non-trivial tests of the mean SFH. In agreement with observations, simulated galaxies possess blue UV continua owing to young ages (50-150 Myr), low metallicities (0.1-0.5 Z⊙) and low dust columns [E(B-V) ≤ 0.05]. Our predicted Balmer breaks at z= 7, while significant, are ≈0.5 mag weaker than observed even after accounting for nebular line emission, suggesting observational systematic errors and/or numerical resolution limitations. Observations imply a near-unity slope in the stellar mass-star formation rate relation at all z= 6-8, confirming the prediction that SFH shapes are invariant. Dust extinction suppresses the UV luminosity density by a factor of 2-3, with suppression increasing modestly to later times owing to increasing metallicities. Current surveys detect the majority of galaxies with stellar masses exceeding 109 M⊙ and few galaxies less massive than 108.5 M⊙, implying that they probe no more than the brightest ≈30 per cent of the complete star formation and stellar mass densities at z≥ 6. Finally, we demonstrate that there is no conflict between smoothly rising SFHs and recent clustering observations. This is because momentum-driven outflows suppress star formation in low-mass haloes such that the fraction of haloes hosting observable galaxies (the ‘occupancy’) is 0.2-0.4 even though the star formation duty cycle is unity. This leads to many interesting predictions at z≥ 4, among them that (1) optically selected and UV-selected samples largely overlap; (2) few galaxies

  14. Suppression of Star Formation in NGC1266

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Lanz, L; Bitsakis, T; Appleton, P N; Nyland, K; Cales, S L; Chang, P; Davis, T A; de Zeeuw, P T; Lonsdale, C J; Martín, S; Meier, D S; Ogle, P M

    2014-01-01

    NGC1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at $\\dot{M}_{\\rm out} \\approx 110 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 $M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact ($\\lesssim50$pc) source that could either be p...

  15. Star Formation in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Research on Galactic Center star formation is making great advances, in particular due to new data from interferometers spatially resolving molecular clouds in this environment. These new results are discussed in the context of established knowledge about the Galactic Center. Particular attention is paid to suppressed star formation in the Galactic Center and how it might result from shallow density gradients in molecular clouds.

  16. Quantifying & Understanding Variations in Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Sami

    2017-07-01

    I will discuss some aspects of the variability in the outcome of the star formation process. In particular, I will focus on the origin of the scatter in the star formation scaling relations in galactic disks and on the variability of the IMF in young star forming regions.

  17. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Elmegreen, Debra M; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is firmly established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies, we identified tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample- nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and difficult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the ...

  18. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Philip C., E-mail: pmyers@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically {approx}1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of {approx}2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  19. Star formation in dense clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion, and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star IMF from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosi...

  20. Towards universal hybrid star formation rate estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Boquien, M; Calzetti, D; Dale, D; Galametz, M; Sauvage, M; Croxall, K; Draine, B; Kirkpatrick, A; Kumari, N; Hunt, L; De Looze, I; Pellegrini, E; Relano, M; Smith, J -D; Tabatabaei, F

    2016-01-01

    To compute the SFR of galaxies from the rest-frame UV it is essential to take into account the obscuration by dust. To do so, one of the most popular methods consists in combining the UV with the emission from the dust itself in the IR. Yet, different studies have derived different estimators, showing that no such hybrid estimator is truly universal. In this paper we aim at understanding and quantifying what physical processes drive the variations between different hybrid estimators. Doing so, we aim at deriving new universal UV+IR hybrid estimators to correct the UV for dust attenuation, taking into account the intrinsic physical properties of galaxies. We use the CIGALE code to model the spatially-resolved FUV to FIR SED of eight nearby star-forming galaxies drawn from the KINGFISH sample. This allows us to determine their local physical properties, and in particular their UV attenuation, average SFR, average specific SFR (sSFR), and their stellar mass. We then examine how hybrid estimators depend on said p...

  1. The total infrared luminosity may significantly overestimate the star formation rate of recently quenched galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Christopher C; Ashby, Matthew L N; Fazio, Giovanni; Hernquist, Lars; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; Noeske, Kai; Smith, Howard A; Wuyts, Stijn; Zezas, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The total infrared (IR) luminosity is very useful for estimating the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies, but converting the IR luminosity into an SFR relies on assumptions that do not hold for all galaxies. We test the effectiveness of the IR luminosity as an SFR indicator by applying it to synthetic spectral energy distributions generated from three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of isolated disc galaxies and galaxy mergers. In general, the SFR inferred from the IR luminosity agrees well with the true instantaneous SFR of the simulated galaxies. However, for the major mergers in which a strong starburst is induced, the SFR inferred from the IR luminosity can overestimate the instantaneous SFR during the post-starburst phase by greater than two orders of magnitude. Even though the instantaneous SFR decreases rapidly after the starburst, the stars that were formed in the starburst remain dust-obscured and thus produce significant IR luminosity. Consequently, use of the IR luminosity as an SFR indica...

  2. Panchromatic Estimation of Star Formation Rates in BzK Galaxies at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kurczynski, Peter; Huynh, Minh; Ivison, Rob J; Treister, Ezequiel; Smail, Ian; Blanc, Guillermo A; Cardamone, Carolin N; Greve, Thomas R; Schinnerer, Eva; Urry, Meg; van der Werf, Paul; Walter, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    We determine Star Formation Rates (SFRs) in a sample of color selected, star forming (sBzK) galaxies (K(AB)<21.8) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field - South (ECDF-S). To avoid AGN, we eliminate 12% of the original sample that have X-ray detections in Chandra catalogs. X-ray stacking, including in the 4 Ms CDF-S, shows that the remaining 597 sBzK galaxies are not dominated by obscured AGN. Photometric redshift binned, average flux densities are measured with stacking analyses in Chandra, Spitzer-MIPS, submillimeter, and radio data. We include averages of aperture fluxes in MUSYC UBVRIz'JHK images to determine UV-through-radio Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We determine total IR luminosities, compare SFR calibrations from X-ray, UV, 24 micron, FIR and radio wavebands, and we find preferred calibrations for each waveband. We find consistency with our best estimator, SFR(IR+UV), to within a factor of two for dust corrected UV and the preferred radio SFR calibration. Our results show that 24 micron-only ...

  3. Evolution of Galaxies and the Star Formation Rate in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahre, Michael A.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A central goal of extragalactic observational astronomy is to understand how normal galaxies evolve with redshift, and particularly when galaxies formed their stars. While optical and rest-frame UV observations have begun to address these issues, the interpretation of such data is particularly challenging because of the sensitivity to dust obscuration (at optical and UV wavelengths). The absorbed light is re-radiated at IR wavelengths, hence the optimal indicators of the star formation rate (SFR) is at a rest-frame wavelength of approx. 60 microns. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission is revolutionizing the study of the global properties and evolution of galaxies. Spitzer reaches nearly two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than previous IR space missions. This research program is to study the SFR using statistical samples of galaxies in the local universe, at intermediate redshifts, and set the stage for continuing studies up to z=5. The overall research program is divided into three main investigations: A Mid-IR Hubble Atlas and SFR estimators in the local universe, Evolution of the SFR at 0 formation and evolution at 1 < z < 5. The first papers from Spitzer were published during the last year, including ten refereed journal papers where the PI was first or co-author.

  4. Smoothly-Rising Star Formation Histories During the Reionization Epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Finlator, Kristian; Davé, Romeel

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations robustly predict that high-redshift galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) are smoothly-rising and vary with mass only by a scale factor. We use our latest simulations to test whether this scenario can account for recent observations at z>=6 from WFC3/IR, NICMOS, and IRAC. Our simulations broadly reproduce the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions and stellar mass densities and their evolution at z=6-8, all of which are nontrivial tests of the mean SFH. In agreement with observations, simulated galaxies possess blue UV continua owing to young ages (50-150 Myr), low metallicities (0.1-0.5 Zsun), and low dust columns (E(B-V) =6. Finally, we demonstrate that there is no conflict between smoothly-rising SFHs and recent clustering observations. This is because momentum-driven outflows suppress star formation in low-mass halos, leading to overall occupancies of 0.2-0.4 even though the star formation duty cycle is one. This leads to many interesting predictions at z>=4,...

  5. On the Star Formation-AGN Connection at zeta (is) approximately greater than 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Urry, C. Megan

    2013-01-01

    Using the spectra of a sample of approximately 28,000 nearby obscured active galaxies from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we probe the connection between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation over a range of radial scales in the host galaxy. We use the extinction-corrected luminosity of the [O iii] 5007A line as a proxy of intrinsic AGN power and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion rate. The star formation rates (SFRs) are taken from the MPA-JHU value-added catalog and are measured through the 3 inch SDSS aperture. We construct matched samples of galaxies covering a range in redshifts. With increasing redshift, the projected aperture size encompasses increasing amounts of the host galaxy. This allows us to trace the radial distribution of star formation as a function of AGN luminosity. We find that the star formation becomes more centrally concentrated with increasing AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. This implies that such circumnuclear star formation is associated with AGN activity, and that it increasingly dominates over omnipresent disk star formation at higher AGN luminosities, placing critical constraints on theoretical models that link host galaxy star formation and SMBH fueling. We parameterize this relationship and find that the star formation on radial scales (is) less than 1.7 kpc, when including a constant disk component, has a sub-linear dependence on SMBH accretion rate: SFR in proportion to solar mass(sup 0.36), suggesting that angular momentum transfer through the disk limits accretion efficiency rather than the supply from stellar mass loss.

  6. Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, KONG; Lin, LIN; Jin-rong, LI; Xu, ZHOU; Hu, ZOU; Hong-yu, LI; Fu-zhen, CHEN; Wei, DU; Zhou, FAN; Ye-wei, MAO; Jing, WANG; Yi-nan, ZHU; Zhi-min, ZHOU

    2014-10-01

    In recent years the number of worldwide 8∼10 m-class ground-based telescopes is continually increased, the 4 m-diameter or smaller telescopes have become the small and medium-sized telescopes. In order to obtain some noticeable scientific results by using these existing small and medium-sized telescopes, we have to consider very carefully what we can do, and what we can not. For this reason, the Time Allocation Committee of the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical observatories of China (NAOC) has decided to support some key projects since 2013. The long-term project “Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies” proposed by us is one of three key projects, it is supported by the committee with 30 dark/grey nights in each of three years. The primary goal of this project is to make the spectroscopic observations of the star formation regions along the directions parallel and perpendicular to the main-axes of 20 nearby galaxies with the NAO 2.16 m telescope and the Hec-tospec multi-fiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT (Multiple Mirror Telescope) via the Telescope Access Program (TAP). With the spectra of a large sample of star formation regions, combining with the exising multi-wavelength data from UV to IR, we can study the galaxy dust extinction, star formation rate, metal abundance, and the two-dimensional distributions of stellar population proper-ties, as well as the relationships of the galaxy two-dimensional properties with the galaxy morphologies and environments. As the first paper of this project, we describe here the scientific objectives, sample selection, observation strategy, and present the preliminary result of the spectroscopic observation towards the galaxy NGC 2403.

  7. Physics of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, F

    2002-01-01

    Begining with a historical introduction, ""Star Formation: The Early History"", this text then presents two long articles on ""Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters"" and ""Observations of Young Stellar Objects"".

  8. Molecular cloud evolution and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the relationship between molecular clouds and young stars is reviewed. The determination of physical parameters from molecular line observations is summarized, and evidence for fragmentation of molecular clouds is discussed. Hierarchical fragmentation is reviewed, minimum fragment scales are derived, and the stability against fragmentation of both spherically and anisotropically collapsing clouds is discussed. Observational evidence for high-velocity flows in clouds is summarized, and the effects of winds from pre-main sequence stars on molecular gas are discussed. The triggering of cloud collapse by enhanced pressure is addressed, as is the formation of dense shells by spherical outflows and their subsequent breakup. A model for low-mass star formation is presented, and constraints on star formation from the initial mass function are examined. The properties of giant molecular clouds and massive star formation are described. The implications of magnetic fields for cloud evolution and star formation are addressed.

  9. Massive Star Formation: The Power of Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Beuther, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents recent work to constrain the physical and chemical properties in high-mass star formation based largely on interferometric high-spatial-resolution continuum and spectral line studies at (sub)mm wavelengths. After outlining the concepts, potential observational tests, a proposed evolutionary sequence and different possible definitions for massive protostars, four particular topics are highlighted: (a) What are the physical conditions at the onset of massive star formation? (b) What are the characteristics of potential massive accretion disks and what do they tell us about massive star formation in general? (c) How do massive clumps fragment, and what does it imply to high-mass star formation? (d) What do we learn from imaging spectral line surveys with respect to the chemistry itself as well as for utilizing molecules as tools for astrophysical investigations?

  10. Star Formation in Turbulent Interstellar Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Klessen, R S

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the star formation process is central to much of modern astrophysics. For several decades it has been thought that stellar birth is primarily controlled by the interplay between gravity and magnetostatic support, modulated by ambipolar diffusion. Recently, however, both observational and numerical work has begun to suggest that supersonic interstellar turbulence rather than magnetic fields controls star formation. Supersonic turbulence can provide support against gravitational collapse on global scales, while at the same time it produces localized density enhancements that allow for collapse on small scales. The efficiency and timescale of stellar birth in Galactic molecular clouds strongly depend on the properties of the interstellar turbulent velocity field, with slow, inefficient, isolated star formation being a hallmark of turbulent support, and fast, efficient, clustered star formation occurring in its absence.

  11. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  12. Obscuring Active Galactic Nuclei with Nuclear Starburst Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2008-01-01

    We assess the potential of nuclear starburst disks to obscure the Seyfert-like AGN that dominate the hard X-ray background at z~1. Over 1200 starburst disk models, based on the theory developed by Thompson et al., are calculated for five input parameters: the black hole mass, the radial size of the starburst disk, the dust-to-gas ratio, the efficiency of angular momentum transport in the disk, and the gas fraction at the outer disk radius. We find that a large dust-to-gas ratio, a relatively small starburst disk, a significant gas mass fraction, and efficient angular momentum transport are all important to produce a starburst disk that can potentially obscure an AGN. The typical maximum star-formation rate in the disks is ~10 solar masses per year. Assuming no mass-loss due to outflows, the starburst disks feed gas onto the black hole at rates sufficient to produce hard X-ray luminosities of 10^{43}-10^{44} erg s^{-1}. The starburst disks themselves should be detectable at mid-infrared and radio wavelengths; ...

  13. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  14. Probes of Cosmic Star Formation History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranab Ghosh

    2002-03-01

    I summarize X-ray diagnostic studies of cosmic star formation history in terms of evolutionary schemes for X-ray binary evolution in normal galaxies with evolving star formation. Deep X-ray imaging studies by Chandra and XMM-Newton are now beginning to constrain both the X-ray luminosity evolution of galaxies and the log – log diagnostics of the X-ray background. I discuss these in the above context, summarizing current understanding and future prospects.

  15. MAGNETIC EFFECTS IN GLOBAL STAR FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-M. Mac Low

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the effects of magnetic fields on star formation in galaxies. This includes the effects of the magnetorotational instability (MRI at galactic scales, magneto-Jeans and swing instabilities, Parker instabilities, and the effects of magnetic fields on the evolution of supernova-driven turbulence. I argue that currently turbulent support by the MRI appears likely to be the most important of these processes to regulating star formation.

  16. Magnetic Effects in Global Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2008-01-01

    I review the effects of magnetic fields on star formation in galaxies. This includes the effects of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at galactic scales, magneto-Jeans and swing instabilities, Parker instabilities, and the effects of magnetic fields on the evolution of supernova-driven turbulence. I argue that currently turbulent support by the MRI appears likely to be the most important of these processes to regulating star formation.

  17. Star Formation in Isolated Disk Galaxies. II. Schmidt Laws and Star Formation Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Y; Klessen, R S; Li, Yuexing; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2005-01-01

    We model star formation in a wide range of isolated disk galaxies, using a three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The model galaxies include a dark matter halo and a disk of stars and isothermal gas. Absorbing sink particles are used to directly measure the mass of gravitationally collapsing gas. Below the density at which they are inserted, the collapsing gas is fully resolved. The star formation rate measured in our models declines exponentially with time. Radial profiles of atomic and molecular gas and star formation rate reproduce observed behavior. We derive from our models and discuss both the global and local Schmidt laws for star formation: power-law relations between surface densities of gas and star formation rate. The global Schmidt law observed in disk galaxies is quantitatively reproduced by our models. We find that the surface density of star formation rate directly correlates with the strength of local gravitational instability. The local Schmidt laws of individual galaxies in...

  18. Star formation history in forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.; Kravchuk, S. G.

    The processes of formation and evolution of isolated dwarf galaxies over the Hubble timescale is followed by means of SPH techniques. As an initial protogalaxy perturbation we consider an isolated, uniform, solid -- body rotated sphere involved into the Hubble flow and made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10:1 ratio. The simulations are carried out for the set of models having spin parameters lambda in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 and the total mass of dark matter 1011 M_odot . Our model includes gasdynamics, radiative processes, star formation, supernova feedback and simplified chemistry. The application of modified star formation criterion which accounts for chaotic motions and the time lag between initial development of suitable conditions for star formation and star formation itself (Berczik P.P, Kravchuk S.G. 1997, Ap.Sp.Sci.) provides the realistic description of the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Two parameters: total mass and initial angular momentum of the dwarf protogalaxy play the crucial role in its star formation activity. After the 15 Gyr of the evolution the rapidly rotated dwarf galaxies manifest themselves as an extremly gasrich, heavy element deficient objects showing the initial burst of star formation activity in several spatially separated regions. Slowly rotating objects manifest themselves finally as typical evolved dwarf galaxies.

  19. HOW GALACTIC ENVIRONMENT REGULATES STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie/Königstuhl 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-10

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars—internal structure versus external, environmental influences—providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating turbulent (isothermal) cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and at the same time provides a mapping between this relation and the closer-to-linear molecular star formation relation measured on larger scales in galaxies. The key is that pressure regulates not only the molecular content of the ISM but also the cloud surface density. I provide a straightforward prescription for the pressure regulation of star formation that can be directly implemented in numerical models. Predictions for the dense gas fraction and star formation efficiency measured on large-scales within galaxies are also presented, establishing the basis for a new picture of star formation regulated by galactic environment.

  20. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J -H

    2015-01-01

    A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young super star cluster that may provide an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection and imaging, with the Submillimeter Array, of the J= 3-2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster associated with the supernebula. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent, and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by Wolf-Rayet stars within the embedded star cluster. Its star formation efficiency exceeds 50%, ten times higher than clouds in the Milky Way: this cloud is a factory of stars and soot. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  1. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C O; Clark, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (HI) and molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) in isolated, low metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution ($m_{\\rm gas}$ = 4 M$_\\odot$, $N_{\\rm ngb}$ = 100) SPH simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from an interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H$_2$ formation, H$_2$-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H$_2$ mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities $n <$ 1 cm$^{-3}$. Because of the long chemical timescales, the H$_2$ mass remains out of chemical equilibrium throughout the simulation. Star formation is well-correlated with cold ( T $\\leqslant$ 100 K ) gas, but this dense and cold gas - the reservoir for star formation - is dominated by HI, not H$_2...

  2. Star formation in the massive cluster merger Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Richard, J; Santos, J S; Valtchanov, I; Walth, G; Bouy, H; Haines, C P; Okabe, N

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of star-forming (SF) galaxies in the HST Frontier Field recent cluster merger A2744 (z=0.308). Wide-field, ultraviolet-infrared (UV-IR) imaging enables a direct constraint of the total star formation rate (SFR) for 53 cluster galaxies, with SFR{UV+IR}=343+/-10 Msun/yr. Within the central 4 arcmin (1.1 Mpc) radius, the integrated SFR is complete, yielding a total SFR{UV+IR}=201+/-9 Msun/yr. Focussing on obscured star formation, this core region exhibits a total SFR{IR}=138+/-8 Msun/yr, a mass-normalised SFR{IR} of Sigma{SFR}=11.2+/-0.7 Msun/yr per 10^14 Msun and a fraction of IR-detected SF galaxies f{SF}=0.080(+0.010,-0.037). Overall, the cluster population at z~0.3 exhibits significant intrinsic scatter in IR properties (total SFR{IR}, Tdust distribution) apparently unrelated to the dynamical state: A2744 is noticeably different to the merging Bullet cluster, but similar to several relaxed clusters. However, in A2744 we identify a trail of SF sources including jellyfish galax...

  3. Star Formation Efficiency in the Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N.; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ~ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ~0.05 M sun yr-1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ~5 M sun yr-1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14+18 - 8%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  4. A Systematic Investigation of Cold Gas and Dust in "Normal" Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts at Redshifts 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Capak, Peter L.; COSMOS, HerMES

    2016-01-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We present some of the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations of the cold gas and dust with the most powerful facilities, i.e., the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation encompasses a systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in massive dusty starbursts and (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  5. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: spatially resolving the environmental quenching of star formation in GAMA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, A. L.; Croom, S. M.; Allen, J. T.; Brough, S.; Medling, A. M.; Ho, I.-T.; Scott, N.; Richards, S. N.; Pracy, M. B.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Norberg, P.; Alpaslan, M.; Bauer, A. E.; Bekki, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bloom, J. V.; Bryant, J. J.; Couch, W. J.; Driver, S. P.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Foster, C.; Goldstein, G.; Green, A. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Owers, M. S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Taylor, E. N.; van de Sande, J.; Walcher, C. J.; Wong, O. I.

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-Object Integral Field Spectrograph Galaxy Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to investigate the spatially resolved signatures of the environmental quenching of star formation in galaxies. Using dust-corrected measurements of the distribution of Hα emission, we measure the radial profiles of star formation in a sample of 201 star-forming galaxies covering three orders of magnitude in stellar mass (M*; 108.1-1010.95 M⊙) and in fifth nearest neighbour local environment density (Σ5; 10-1.3-102.1 Mpc-2). We show that star formation rate gradients in galaxies are steeper in dense (log10(Σ5/Mpc2) > 0.5) environments by 0.58 ± 0.29 dex re^{-1} in galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10^{10} measure the degree to which the star formation is centrally concentrated using the unitless scale-radius ratio (r50,Hα/r50,cont), which compares the extent of ongoing star formation to previous star formation. With this metric, we find that the fraction of galaxies with centrally concentrated star formation increases with environment density, from ˜5 ± 4 per cent in low-density environments (log10(Σ5/Mpc2) 1.0). These lines of evidence strongly suggest that with increasing local environment density, the star formation in galaxies is suppressed, and that this starts in their outskirts such that quenching occurs in an outside-in fashion in dense environments and is not instantaneous.

  6. What triggers star formation in galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Processes that promote the formation of dense cold clouds in the interstellar media of galaxies are reviewed. Those that involve background stellar mass include two-fluid instabilities, spiral density wave shocking, and bar accretion. Young stellar pressures trigger gas accumulation on the periphery of cleared cavities, which often take the form of rings by the time new stars form. Stellar pressures also trigger star formation in bright-rim structures, directly squeezing the pre-existing clumps in nearby clouds and clearing out the lower density gas between them. Observations of these processes are common. How they fit into the empirical star formation laws, which relate the star formation rate primarily to the gas density, is unclear. Most likely, star formation follows directly from the formation of cold dense gas, whatever the origin of that gas. If the average pressure from the weight of the gas layer is large enough to produce a high molecular fraction in the ambient medium, then star formation should fo...

  7. Interactions, star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Heckman, Timothy M; White, Simon D M; Jing, Y P

    2007-01-01

    It has long been known that galaxy interactions are associated with enhanced star formation. In a companion paper, we explored this connection by applying a variety of statistics to SDSS data. In particular, we showed that specific star formation rates of galaxies are higher if they have close neighbours. Here we apply exactly the same techniques to AGN in the survey, showing that close neighbours are not associated with any similar enhancement of nuclear activity. Star formation is enhanced in AGN with close neighbours in exactly the same way as in inactive galaxies, but the accretion rate onto the black hole, as estimated from the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity, is not influenced by the presence or absence of companions. Previous work has shown that galaxies with more strongly accreting black holes contain more young stars in their inner regions. This leads us to conclude that star formation induced by a close companion and star formation associated with black hole accretion are distinct events. Th...

  8. Star Formation Timescales and the Schmidt Law

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, Barry F

    2010-01-01

    We offer a simple parameterization of the rate of star formation in galaxies. In this new approach, we make explicit and decouple the timescales associated (a) with disruptive effects the star formation event itself, from (b) the timescales associated with the cloud assembly and collapse mechanisms leading up to star formation. The star formation law in near-by galaxies, as measured on sub-kiloparsec scales, has recently been shown by Bigiel et al. to be distinctly non-linear in its dependence on total gas density. Our parameterization of the spatially resolved Schmidt-Sanduleak relation naturally accommodates that dependence. The parameterized form of the relation is rho_* ~ epsilon x rho_g/(tau_s + rho_g ^{-n}), where rho_g is the gas density, epsilon is the efficiency of converting gas into stars, and rho_g^{-n} captures the physics of cloud collapse. Accordingly at high gas densities quiescent star formation is predicted to progress as rho_* ~ rho_g, while at low gas densities rho_* ~ rho_g^{1+n}, as is n...

  9. Star formation in quasar hosts and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Petric, Andreea; Dicken, Daniel; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Hickox, Ryan C; Ho, Luis C; Krolik, Julian H; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Strauss, Michael A; Geach, James E; Oguri, Masamune; Strateva, Iskra V

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from radio-quiet quasars may be due to star formation in the quasar host galaxy, to a jet launched by the supermassive black hole, or to relativistic particles accelerated in a wide-angle radiatively-driven outflow. In this paper we examine whether radio emission from radio-quiet quasars is a byproduct of star formation in their hosts. To this end we use infrared spectroscopy and photometry from Spitzer and Herschel to estimate or place upper limits on star formation rates in hosts of ~300 obscured and unobscured quasars at z<1. We find that low-ionization forbidden emission lines such as [NeII] and [NeIII] are likely dominated by quasar ionization and do not provide reliable star formation diagnostics in quasar hosts, while PAH emission features may be suppressed due to the destruction of PAH molecules by the quasar radiation field. While the bolometric luminosities of our sources are dominated by the quasars, the 160 micron fluxes are likely dominated by star formation, but they too should...

  10. Obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many obscured AGN show evidence of significant starburst emission dominating below 2 keV. Therefore wide-field X-ray surveys sensitive enough to luminosities below approximately 10^42 ergs per second will result in detections of galaxies with contributions of both obscured AGN and starburst emission. We will discuss Bayesian approaches to assessing the relative contribution of each component, minimizing survey biases and using the resultant posterior probabilities for the AGN and starburst components to determine their evolution.

  11. The star formation activity in cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Varela, Jesus; Quilis, Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of cosmic voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we study the star formation activity of void galaxies. The properties of galaxies living in voids are compared with those of galaxies living in the void shells and with a control sample, representing the general galaxy population. Void galaxies appear to form stars more efficiently than shell galaxies and the control sample. This result can not be interpreted as a consequence of the bias towards low masses in underdense regions, as void galaxy subsamples with the same mass distribution as the control sample also show statistically different specific star formation rates. This highlights the fact that galaxy evolution in voids is slower with respect to the evolution of the general population. Nevertheless, when only the star forming galaxies are considered, we find that the star formation rate is insensitive to the environment, as the main sequence is remarkably constant in the three samples under consideration. This fact...

  12. Quenching star formation in cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Taranu, Dan S; Balogh, Michael L; Smith, Russell J; Power, Chris; Krane, Brad

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the processes that quench star formation within rich clusters, we construct a library of subhalo orbits drawn from lambdaCDM cosmological N-body simulations of four rich clusters. The orbits are combined with models of star formation followed by quenching in the cluster environment to predict colours and spectroscopic line indices of satellite galaxies. Simple models with only halo mass-dependent quenching and without environmental (i.e. cluster-dependent) quenching fail to reproduce the observed cluster-centric colour and absorption linestrength gradients. Models in which star formation is instantly quenched at the virial radius also fail to match the observations. Better matches to the data are achieved by more complicated bulge-disc models in which the bulge stellar populations depend only on the galaxy subhalo mass while the disc quenching depends on the cluster environment. In the most successful models quenching begins at pericentre, operating on an exponential timescale of 2 -- 3...

  13. A law for star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Andres

    2011-01-01

    We study the galactic-scale triggering of star formation. We find that the largest mass-scale not stabilized by rotation, a well defined quantity in a rotating system and with clear dynamical meaning, strongly correlates with the star formation rate in a wide range of galaxies. We find that this relation can be understood in terms of self-regulation towards marginal Toomre stability and the amount of turbulence allowed to sustain the system in this self-regulated quasi-stationary state. We test such an interpretation by computing the predicted star formation rates for a galactic interstellar medium characterized by lognormal probability distribution function and find good agreement with the observed relation.

  14. Star formation in proto dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lin, D. N. C.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the onset of star formation on the residual gas in primordial low-mass Local-Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies is studied by a series of hydrodynamical simulations. The models have concentrated on the effect of photoionization. The results indicate that photoionization in the presence of a moderate gas density gradient can eject most of the residual gas on a time scale of a few 10 to the 7th power years. High central gas density combined with inefficient star formation, however, may prevent mass ejection. The effect of supernova explosions is discussed briefly.

  15. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.

  16. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN SPIRAL ARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Martínez-García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of our research, relative to the triggering of star formation by large-scale galactic shocks associated with spiral density waves. Around a third of the galaxies in our sample do not seem suitable for this kind of study, because they present an e ect, probably due to opacity, that is not well understood. The remaining objects seem to favor the idea of density wave triggering of star formation in the arms. The comparison with stellar population synthesis models, and the orbital resonance positions for these galaxies (derived by means of spiral pattern angular speeds corroborate this hypothesis.

  17. Low-metallicity Star Formation (IAU S255)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2009-01-01

    'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 16. Damped Lyα systems as probes of chemical evolution over cosmological timescales Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky; 17. Connecting high-redshift galaxy populations through observations of local damped Lyman alpha dwarf galaxies Regina E. Schulte-Ladbeck; 18. Chemical enrichment and feedback in low metallicity environments: constraints on galaxy formation Francesca Matteucci; 19. Effects of reionization on dwarf galaxy formation Massimo Ricotti; 20. The importance of following the evolution of the dust in galaxies on their SEDs A. Schurer, F. Calura, L. Silva, A. Pipino, G. L. Granato, F. Matteucci and R. Maiolino; 21. About the chemical evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar globular cluster ωCen) Andrea Marcolini and Annibale D'Ercole; 22. Young star clusters in the small Magellanic cloud: impact of local and global conditions on star formation Elena Sabbi, Linda J. Smith, Lynn R. Carlson, Antonella Nota, Monca Tosi, Michele Cignoni, Jay S. Gallagher III, Marco Sirianni and Margaret Meixner; 23. Modeling the ISM properties of metal-poor galaxies and gamma-ray burst hosts Emily M. Levesque, Lisa J. Kewley, Kirsten Larson and Leonie Snijders; 24. Dwarf galaxies and the magnetisation of the IGM Uli Klein; Session III. Explosive Events in Low-Metallicity Environments: 25. Supernovae and their evolution in a low metallicity ISM Roger A. Chevalier; 26. First stars - type Ib supernovae connection Ken'ichi Nomoto, Masaomi Tanaka, Yasuomi Kamiya, Nozomu Tominaga and Keiichi Maeda; 27. Supernova nucleosynthesis in the early universe Nozomu Tominaga, Hideyuki Umeda, Keiichi Maeda, Ken'ichi Nomoto and Nobuyuki Iwamoto; 28. Powerful explosions at Z = 0? Sylvia Ekström, Georges Meynet, Raphael Hirschi and André Maeder; 29. Wind anisotropy and stellar evolution Cyril Georgy, Georges Meynet and André Maeder; 30. Low-mass and metal-poor gamma-ray burst

  18. CO J = 2-1 LINE EMISSION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1: FUELING STAR FORMATION IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagg, Jeff [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Armus, Lee; Desai, Vandana [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Bussmann, Robert S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Le Floc' h, Emeric [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Melbourne, Jason [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: jwagg@eso.org [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We present observations of CO J = 2-1 line emission in infrared-luminous cluster galaxies at z {approx} 1 using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our two primary targets are optically faint, dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) found to lie within 2 Mpc of the centers of two massive (>10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) galaxy clusters. CO line emission is not detected in either DOG. We calculate 3{sigma} upper limits to the CO J = 2-1 line luminosities, L'{sub CO} < 6.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and <6.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. Assuming a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor derived for ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the local universe, this translates to limits on the cold molecular gas mass of M{sub H{sub 2}}< 4.86 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and M{sub H{sub 2}}< 5.30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. Both DOGs exhibit mid-infrared continuum emission that follows a power law, suggesting that an active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes to the dust heating. As such, estimates of the star formation efficiencies in these DOGs are uncertain. A third cluster member with an infrared luminosity, L{sub IR} < 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }, is serendipitously detected in CO J = 2-1 line emission in the field of one of the DOGs located roughly two virial radii away from the cluster center. The optical spectrum of this object suggests that it is likely an obscured AGN, and the measured CO line luminosity is L'{sub CO} = (1.94 {+-} 0.35) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, which leads to an estimated cold molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}}= (1.55{+-}0.28) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. A significant reservoir of molecular gas in a z {approx} 1 galaxy located away from the cluster center demonstrates that the fuel can exist to drive an increase in star formation and AGN activity at the outskirts of high-redshift clusters.

  19. Herschel -ATLAS: revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples - I. Scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vis, P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Bauer, A. E.; Viaene, S.; Schofield, S. P.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Wright, A. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (H I) in an H I-selected sample of local galaxies (z sample reveals a population of very high gas fraction (>80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust- and stellar-mass-selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fractions (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to near-ultraviolet - r (specific star formation rate) and gas fraction; these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows that the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ˜75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion time-scale. We link this trend to the changing efficiency of conversion of H I to H2 as galaxies increase in stellar mass surface density during their evolution. Finally, we show that galaxies start out barely obscured and increase in obscuration as they evolve, yet there is no clear and simple link between obscuration and global galaxy properties.

  20. A simple law of star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-01-01

    with {\\cal M}_a by less than a factor of two. We propose a simple star formation law, based on the empirical fit to the minimum epsilonff, and depending only on t ff/t dyn: epsilonff ˜ epsilonwindexp (– 1.6 t ff/t dyn). Because it only depends on the mean gas density and rms velocity, this law...

  1. Star Formation History In Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Li-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are known to trigger starbursts. Young massive star clusters formed in interacting galaxies and mergers may become young globular clusters. The ages of these clusters can provide clues about the timing of interaction-triggered events, and thus provide an important way to reconstruct the star formation history of merging galaxies. Numerical simulations of galaxy mergers can implement different star formation rules. For instance, star formation dependent on gas density or triggered by shocks, predicts significantly different star formation histories. To test the validity of these models, multi-object spectroscopy was used to map the ages of young star clusters throughout the bodies and tails of a series of galaxy mergers at different stages (Arp 256, NGC 7469, NGC 4676, Arp 299, IC 883 and NGC 2623). We found that the cumulative distribution of ages becomes shallower as the stage of merger advances. This result suggests a trend of cluster ages as a function of merger stage. In NGC 4676 we fo...

  2. Is molecular gas necessary for star formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, S C O

    2011-01-01

    On galactic scales, the surface density of star formation appears to be well correlated with the surface density of molecular gas. This has lead many authors to suggest that there exists a causal relationship between the chemical state of the gas and its ability to form stars -- in other words, the assumption that the gas must be molecular before star formation can occur. We test this hypothesis by modelling star formation within a dense cloud of gas with properties similar to a small molecular cloud using a series of different models of the chemistry, ranging from one in which the formation of molecules is not followed and the gas is assumed to remain atomic throughout, to one that tracks the formation of both H2 and CO. We find that presence of molecules in the gas has little effect on the ability of the gas to form stars: star formation can occur just as easily in atomic gas as in molecular gas. At low densities (< 10^4 cm^-3), the gas is able to cool via C+ fine-structure emission almost as efficiently...

  3. Magnetic Fields and Galactic Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loo, Sven; Falle, Sam A E G

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of molecular clouds within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas ($n_{\\rm{H}}>10^5\\:{\\rm{cm}^{-3}}$) at an efficiency of 2\\% per local free fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated $B$-field case of $80\\:{\\rm{\\mu}}$G. However, our chosen kpc scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbu...

  4. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  5. The Star Formation History of RCW 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ellerbroek; L. Kaper; A. Bik; K.M. Maaskant; L. Podio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of massive-star forming regions indicate that they can contain multiple generations of young stars. These observations suggest that star formation in these regions is sequential and/or triggered by a previous generation of (massive) stars. Here we present new observations of the star

  6. The Star Formation History of M32

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Trager, Scott C.; Lauer, Tod R.; Hidalgo, Sebastián L.; Freedman, Wendy; Dressler, Alan; Grillmair, Carl; Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    We use deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel observations of a field within M32 (F1) and an M31 background field (F2) to determine the star formation history (SFH) of M32 from its resolved stellar population. We find that 2-5 Gyr old stars contribute ~40% ±

  7. Star Formation Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Park, Changbom; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2017-08-01

    We study the star formation activity of nearby galaxies with bars using a sample of late-type galaxies at 0.02≤slant z≤slant 0.05489 and {M}rmass and redshift distributions similar to barred galaxies. We find that the star formation activity of strongly barred galaxies probed by starburstiness, g-r, {NUV}-r, and mid-infrared [3.4]-[12] colors is, on average, lower than that of non-barred galaxies. However, weakly barred galaxies do not show such a difference between barred and non-barred galaxies. The amounts of atomic and molecular gas in strongly barred galaxies are smaller than those in non-barred galaxies, and the gas metallicity is higher in strongly barred galaxies than in non-barred galaxies. The gas properties of weakly barred galaxies again show no difference from those of non-barred galaxies. We stack the optical spectra of barred and non-barred galaxies in several mass bins and fit to the stacked spectra with a spectral fitting code, STARLIGHT. We find no significant difference in stellar populations between barred and non-barred galaxies for both strongly and weakly barred galaxies. Our results are consistent with the idea that the star formation activity of barred galaxies was enhanced in the past along with significant gas consumption, and is currently lower than or similar to that of non-barred galaxies. The past star formation enhancement depends on the strength of bars.

  8. The Star Formation Rate Functions at z = 0-1: the Latter Half of the History of Visible and Hidden Star Formation in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T. T.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Giovannoli, E.; Murata, K. L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Hernández-Fernández, J.

    2010-06-01

    We found that the rapid decline of SFR density from z = 1 to z = 0 is accompanied by a rapid decline of the contribution of infrared (IR) galaxies [1]. Making use of FUV (GALEX) and FIR (IRAS/Spitzer) data, we have established a method to estimate the star-formation luminosity function (LF), that is a LF of galaxy luminosity produced by newly formed stars [1]. In this work, we have calculated the distribution function of SFR of galaxies (SFR function) as a function of redshift at z = 0-1 from UV and FIR selected galaxies in the CDFS. We found that, though the FUV- and FIR-based SFR functions agree until z = 0.7, the FUV-based one becomes significantly lower than FIR based one at z = 1. As for integrated value, this means that the SFR density is at least 40% underestimated, even after adding the contribution from obscured star formation.

  9. Exploring the Obscured Milky Way with Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negueruela, I.; Clark, J. S.; Dorda, R.; González-Fernández, C.; Marco, A.; Monguió, M.

    2016-10-01

    Most of the Milky Way is hidden by dust clouds. Along many sightlines extinction grows to several magnitudes within just 2 or 3 kpc. High-mass stars on the other hand are so luminous that they can be seen, at least in the infrared, out to very large distances. They are short-lived and thus trace recent star formation and Galactic structure. If we were able to identify them in the middle of crowded Galactic Plane fields, we could probe a range of distances and extinctions that most spectroscopic surveys (and even Gaia) will fail to cover. Is it possible to tell a highly-reddened distant high-mass star from a nearby intrinsically faint and red star? We have been developing selection criteria that allow the identification of candidate obscured high-mass stars in different Galactic environments. Here we present a selection of results from several test observations carried out with AF2, AAOmega and FLAMES along different sightlines. The results are extremely encouraging. With the advent of large-scale photometric surveys, such as VVV, IPHAS or VPHAS+, we can refine search criteria to the point that next-generation instruments, such as WEAVE or MOONS, can be used to explore most of the obscured Milky Way.

  10. Star Formation in the LMC: Gravitational Instability and Dynamical Triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y H; Yang, C C

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for triggered star formation is difficult to establish because energy feedback from massive stars tend to erase the interstellar conditions that led to the star formation. Young stellar objects (YSOs) mark sites of {\\it current} star formation whose ambient conditions have not been significantly altered. Spitzer observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) effectively reveal massive YSOs. The inventory of massive YSOs, in conjunction with surveys of interstellar medium, allows us to examine the conditions for star formation: spontaneous or triggered. We examine the relationship between star formation and gravitational instability on a global scale, and we present evidence of triggered star formation on local scales in the LMC.

  11. Hierarchical Star Formation Across Galactic Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    Most stars form in clusters. This fact has emerged from the finding that "embedded clusters account for the 70 - 90% fraction of all stars formed in Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs)." While this is the case at scales of few 10 parsecs, typical for GMCs, a look at star-forming galaxies in the Local Group (LG) shows significant populations of enormous loose complexes of early-type stars extending at scales from few 100 to few 1000 parsecs. The fact that these stellar complexes host extremely large numbers of loosely distributed massive blue stars implies either that stars form also in an unbound fashion or they are immediately dislocated from their original compact birthplaces or both. The Legacy Extra-Galactic UV Survey (LEGUS) has produced remarkable collections of resolved early-type stars in 50 star-forming LG galaxies, suited for testing ideas about recent star formation. I will present results from our ongoing project on star formation across LEGUS disk galaxies. We characterize the global clustering behavior of the massive young stars in order to understand the morphology of star formation over galactic scales. This morphology appears to be self-similar with fractal dimensions comparable to those of the molecular interstellar medium, apparently driven by large-scale turbulence. Our clustering analysis reveals compact stellar systems nested in larger looser concentrations, which themselves are the dense parts of unbound complexes and super-structures, giving evidence of hierarchical star formation up to galactic scales. We investigate the structural and star formation parameters demographics of the star-forming complexes revealed at various levels of compactness. I will discuss the outcome of our correlation and regression analyses on these parameters in an attempt to understand the link between galactic disk dynamics and morphological structure in spiral and ring galaxies of the local universe.

  12. Insights from simulations of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard B [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Although the basic physics of star formation is classical, numerical simulations have yielded essential insights into how stars form. They show that star formation is a highly nonuniform runaway process characterized by the emergence of nearly singular peaks in density, followed by the accretional growth of embryo stars that form at these density peaks. Circumstellar discs often form from the gas being accreted by the forming stars, and accretion from these discs may be episodic, driven by gravitational instabilities or by protostellar interactions. Star-forming clouds typically develop filamentary structures, which may, along with the thermal physics, play an important role in the origin of stellar masses because of the sensitivity of filament fragmentation to temperature variations. Simulations of the formation of star clusters show that the most massive stars form by continuing accretion in the dense cluster cores, and this again is a runaway process that couples star formation and cluster formation. Star-forming clouds also tend to develop hierarchical structures, and smaller groups of forming objects tend to merge into progressively larger ones, a generic feature of self-gravitating systems that is common to star formation and galaxy formation. Because of the large range of scales and the complex dynamics involved, analytic models cannot adequately describe many aspects of star formation, and detailed numerical simulations are needed to advance our understanding of the subject. 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers.' Richard W Hamming, in Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (1962) 'There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.' William Shakespeare, in Hamlet, Prince of Denmark (1604) (key issues review)

  13. A ram-pressure threshold for star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Whitworth, A P

    2016-01-01

    In turbulent fragmentation, star formation occurs in condensations created by converging flows. The condensations must be sufficiently massive, dense and cool to be gravitationally unstable, so that they start to contract; {\\it and} they must then radiate away thermal energy fast enough for self-gravity to remain dominant, so that they continue to contract. For the metallicities and temperatures in local star forming clouds, this second requirement is only met robustly when the gas couples thermally to the dust, because this delivers the capacity to radiate across the full bandwidth of the continuum, rather than just in a few discrete spectral lines. This translates into a threshold for vigorous star formation, which can be written as a minimum ram-pressure Pcrit ~ 4 10^-11 dyne. Pcrit is independent of temperature, and corresponds to flows with molecular hydrogen number-density nH2 and velocity v satisfying nH2 v^2 > 800 cm^-3 (km/s)^2. This in turn corresponds to a minimum molecular hydrogen column-density ...

  14. The Recent Star Formation in NGC 6822: an Ultraviolet Study

    CERN Document Server

    Efremova, Boryana V; Thilker, David A; Neill, James D; Burgarella, Denis; Wyder, Ted K; Madore, Barry F; Rey, Soo-Chang; Barlow, Tom A; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the star formation in the low-metallicity galaxy NGC 6822 over the past few hundred million years, using GALEX far-UV (FUV, 1344-1786 A) and near-UV (NUV, 1771-2831 A) imaging, and ground-based Ha imaging. From GALEX FUV image, we define 77 star-forming (SF) regions with area >860 pc^2, and surface brightness <=26.8 mag(AB)arcsec^-2, within 0.2deg (1.7kpc) of the center of the galaxy. We estimate the extinction by interstellar dust in each SF region from resolved photometry of the hot stars it contains: E(B-V) ranges from the minimum foreground value of 0.22mag up to 0.66+-0.21mag. The integrated FUV and NUV photometry, compared with stellar population models, yields ages of the SF complexes up to a few hundred Myr, and masses from 2x10^2 Msun to 1.5x10^6 Msun. The derived ages and masses strongly depend on the assumed type of interstellar selective extinction, which we find to vary across the galaxy. The total mass of the FUV-defined SF regions translates into an average star formation rat...

  15. How chemistry influences cloud structure, star formation, and the IMF

    CERN Document Server

    Hocuk, S; Spaans, M; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01

    In the earliest phases of star-forming clouds, stable molecular species, such as CO, are important coolants in the gas phase. Depletion of these molecules on dust surfaces affects the thermal balance of molecular clouds and with that their whole evolution. For the first time, we study the effect of grain surface chemistry (GSC) on star formation and its impact on the initial mass function (IMF). We follow a contracting translucent cloud in which we treat the gas-grain chemical interplay in detail, including the process of freeze-out. We perform 3d hydrodynamical simulations under three different conditions, a pure gas-phase model, a freeze-out model, and a complete chemistry model. The models display different thermal evolution during cloud collapse. The equation of state (EOS) of the gas becomes softer with CO freeze-out and the results show that at the onset of star formation, the cloud retains its evolution history such that the number of formed stars differ (by 7%) between the three models. While the stel...

  16. Inefficient star formation in extremely metal poor galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gu, Qiusheng

    2014-10-16

    The first galaxies contain stars born out of gas with few or no 'metals' (that is, elements heavier than helium). The lack of metals is expected to inhibit efficient gas cooling and star formation, but this effect has yet to be observed in galaxies with an oxygen abundance (relative to hydrogen) below a tenth of that of the Sun. Extremely metal poor nearby galaxies may be our best local laboratories for studying in detail the conditions that prevailed in low metallicity galaxies at early epochs. Carbon monoxide emission is unreliable as a tracer of gas at low metallicities, and while dust has been used to trace gas in low-metallicity galaxies, low spatial resolution in the far-infrared has typically led to large uncertainties. Here we report spatially resolved infrared observations of two galaxies with oxygen abundances below ten per cent of the solar value, and show that stars formed very inefficiently in seven star-forming clumps in these galaxies. The efficiencies are less than a tenth of those found in normal, metal rich galaxies today, suggesting that star formation may have been very inefficient in the early Universe.

  17. NuSTAR observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z$\\sim1$ obscured by hot dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, C; Stern, D; Nikutta, R; Alexander, D M; Asmus, D; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Blain, A W; Boggs, S; Boorman, P G; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Chen, C -T J; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Díaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Jun, H D; Koss, M J; LaMassa, S; Lansbury, G B; Markwardt, C B; Stalevski, M; Stanley, F; Treister, E; Tsai, C -W; Walton, D J; Wu, J W; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs), selected from the WISE all sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known, and might represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known Hot DOGs are at $z> 1.5$, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 Hot DOG candidates at $z\\sim 1$, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift $z=1.009$, and an SED similar to higher redshift Hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ($L_{\\rm\\,Bol}\\simeq 8\\times 10^{46}\\rm\\,erg\\,s^{-1}$), using data from Keck/LRIS and NIRSPEC, SDSS, and CSO. We find evidence of a broadened component in MgII, which, if due to the gravitational potential of the supermassive black hole, would imply a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm\\,BH}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^8 M_{\\odot}$, and an Eddington ratio of $\\lambda_{\\rm\\,Edd...

  18. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Montaña, Alfredo; Battisti, Andrew; Limousin, Marceau; Marchesini, Danilo; Wilson, Grant W.; Alberts, Stacey; Aretxaga, Itziar; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Ramón Bermejo-Climent, José; Brammer, Gabriel; Bravo-Alfaro, Hector; Calzetti, Daniela; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David; Kado-Fong, Erin; Keller, Erica; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Labbe, Ivo; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Lowenthal, James; Murphy, Eric; Oesch, Pascal; Rosa Gonzalez, Daniel; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Shipley, Heath; Stefanon, Mauro; Vega, Olga; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Christina C.; Yun, Min; Zavala, Jorge A.; Zeballos, Milagros

    2017-04-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717_Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model (μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 1010 L ⊙ and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M ⊙ yr‑1, which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 109 M ⊙, MACS0717_Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX-β) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  19. Star Formation and the Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Braiding, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. This thesis describes a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, presenting similarity solutions that demonstrate that the Hall effect has a profound influence on the dynamics of collapse. ... Hall diffusion also determines the strength of the magnetic diffusion and centrifugal shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally-supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion onto the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, whic...

  20. How galactic environment regulates star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Meidt, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    In a new simple model I reconcile two contradictory views on the factors that determine the rate at which molecular clouds form stars -- internal structure vs. external, environmental influences -- providing a unified picture for the regulation of star formation in galaxies. In the presence of external pressure, the pressure gradient set up within a self-gravitating isothermal cloud leads to a non-uniform density distribution. Thus the local environment of a cloud influences its internal structure. In the simple equilibrium model, the fraction of gas at high density in the cloud interior is determined simply by the cloud surface density, which is itself inherited from the pressure in the immediate surroundings. This idea is tested using measurements of the properties of local clouds, which are found to show remarkable agreement with the simple equilibrium model. The model also naturally predicts the star formation relation observed on cloud scales and, at the same time, provides a mapping between this relatio...

  1. Deuterium Fractionation just after the Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, D.; Sakai, N.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have recently conducted a five-point strip observation of the DCO+, H13CO+, DNC, HN13C, and N2H+ lines toward low mass Class I protostar L1551 IRS5, and have evaluated the deuterium fractionation ratios DCO+/HCO+ and DNC/HNC. The DCO+/HCO+ ratio is found to be lower toward the protostar position than those toward the adjacent positions. On the other hand, the DNC/HNC ratio does not show such a decrease toward the protostar position. This suggests that the deuterium fractionation ratio of the neutral species is conserved after the star formation. If so, the deuterium fractionation of the neutral species can be used as a novel tracer to investigate the initial condition of the star formation process.

  2. Star Formation at milli-arcsecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Oudmaijer, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use and possibilities of optical and infrared interferometry to study star formation. The chapter starts with a brief overview of the star formation process and highlights the open questions from an observational point of view. These are found at the smallest scales, as this is, inevitably, where all the action such as accretion and outflows, occurs. We then use basic astrophysical concepts to assess which scales and conditions can be probed with existing interferometric set-ups for which we use the ESO/VLTI instrument suite as example. We will concentrate on the more massive stars observed at high resolution with continuum interferometry. Throughout, some of the most recent interferometric results are used as examples of the various processes discussed.

  3. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  4. Characterizing spiral arm and interarm star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Schinnerer, E; Groves, B; Adamo, A; Hughes, A; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy's star formation budget, and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we identify 391 HII regions at 35pc resolution over 12 kpc^2. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate HII regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. We find that most HII region physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of Halpha luminosity due to the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) background contaminating each HII region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within HII regions compared to the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm HII regions. Use of the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio map instead of the Halpha surface brightness to identify HII region boundaries does not ch...

  5. The interstellar medium and star formation in nearby galaxies. Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, F.; Cormier, D.; Schmidt, T.

    In this overview article we present some of the key projects we pursue in our Emmy Noether group. Our work is focused on nearby galaxies, where we use multi-wavelength, state-of-the-art survey data to probe distribution, abundance and properties of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) on [Si II] kpc scales. We study the average, radial distributions of atomic (H I) and molecular hydrogen (H2) across the disks of spiral galaxies and assess local (on 1 kpc scales) correlations between H I, H2 and star formation rate (SFR) surface densities across the inner, optical disks of our sample of [Si II] 30 spiral galaxies. The short H2 depletion times ([Si II] 2 Gyr) we find raises the question of if and how star formation is refueled in galactic disks. We look for such signatures of radial gas flows in our H I data and find compelling evidence at least in one case. We extend and compare our gas-SFR studies to the outer disks of galaxies, where conditions change significantly in the ISM, e.g., low metallicity and dust abundance. We focus on star formation at low-metallicity further with detailed ISM studies in dwarf galaxies, where we combine spectroscopic observations in the infrared with detailed modelling to learn about composition and detailed physical properties of the ISM. Of particular interest is the question of what drives large scale star formation in galaxies at low metallicity.

  6. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H

    2015-03-19

    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City TN 37614 (United States); Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Struck, Curtis, E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  8. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Iono, D; Honey, M; Ramya, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and follow up Halpha imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most under dense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Halpha line luminosities. CO(1--0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)E+9 Msun. The H$\\alpha$ imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star forma...

  9. Star formation in Kiso measle galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B. G.

    2012-05-01

    The Kiso sample of several thousand local ultraviolet-bright galaxies includes galaxies classified as irregular disk galaxies with large star-forming complexes (I,g). We selected a sample of all I,g galaxies with both Sloan Digital Sky Survey images and spectra. They contain up to several dozen giant clumps each, so we refer to them as measle galaxies. We determined ages and masses of the clumps based on a comparison of photometry with population synthesis models of cluster evolution. The spectra were used to determine global star formation rates. Several hundred clumps were measured in the sample, with masses ranging from 10^5 to several x10^8 solar masses, scaling with galaxy absolute g magnitude of -14 to -21 mag. The galaxies are starbursting, sitting above the Groth strip “main sequence” of star formation rate versus galaxy mass by an order of magnitude. These Kiso measle galaxies have 10x the star formation rates of the Kiso tadpole galaxies. We compare their clump luminosity distribution functions with normal disk galaxies.

  10. Triggered Star Formation and Its Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shule; Blackman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Star formation can be triggered by compression from wind or supernova driven shock waves that sweep over molecular clouds. Because these shocks will likely contain processed elements, triggered star formation has been proposed as an explanation for short lived radioactive isotopes (SLRI) in the Solar System. Previous studies have tracked the triggering event to the earliest phases of collapse and have focused on the shock properties required for both successful star formation and mixing of SLRI's. In this paper, we use Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation methods, including sink particles, to simulate the full collapse and subsequent evolution of a stable Bonnor-Ebert sphere subjected to a shock and post-shock wind. We track the flow of the cloud material after a star (a sink particle) has formed. For non-rotating clouds we find robust triggered collapse and little bound circumstellar material remaining around the post-shock collapsed core. When we add initial cloud rotation we observe the formation of d...

  11. Modes of star formation from Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, Leonardo; Longmore, S

    2012-01-01

    We summarize some of the results obtained from Herschel surveys of the nearby star forming regions and the Galactic plane. We show that in the nearby star forming regions the starless core spatial surface density distribution is very similar to that of the young stellar objects. This, taken together with the similarity between the core mass function and the initial mass function for stars and the relationship between the amount of dense gas and star formation rate, suggest that the cloud fragmentation process defines the global outcome of star formation. This "simple" view of star formation may not hold on all scales. In particular dynamical interactions are expected to become important at the conditions required to form young massive clusters. We describe the successes of a simple criterion to identify young massive cluster precursors in our Galaxy based on (sub-)millimetre wide area surveys. We further show that in the location of our Galaxy where the best candidate for a precursor of a young massive cluste...

  12. Star Formation on Galactic Scales: Empirical Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    Empirical star formation laws from the last 20 years are reviewed with a comparison to simulations. The current form in main galaxy disks has a linear relationship between the star formation rate per unit area and the molecular cloud mass per unit area with a timescale for molecular gas conversion of about 2 Gyr. The local ratio of molecular mass to atomic mass scales nearly linearly with pressure, as determined from the weight of the gas layer in the galaxy. In the outer parts of galaxies and in dwarf irregular galaxies, the disk can be dominated by atomic hydrogen and the star formation rate per unit area becomes directly proportional to the total gas mass per unit area, with a consumption time of about 100 Gyr. The importance of a threshold for gravitational instabilities is not clear. Observations suggest such a threshold is not always important, while simulations generally show that it is. The threshold is difficult to evaluate because it is sensitive to magnetic and viscous forces, the presence of spira...

  13. The roles of star formation and AGN activity of IRS sources in the HerMES fields

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, Anna; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Frtiz, Jacopo; Franceschini, Alberto; Bock, Jamie; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo A; Ibar, Edo; Isaak, Kate G; Faro, Barbara Lo; Marchetti, Lucia; Oliver, Seb J; Page, Mathew J; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Roseboom, Isaac G; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vaccari, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    In this work we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in these same galaxies. To do this we apply a multi-component, multi-band spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 micron selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, with IRS spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fit hot dust model (torus). We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate (SFR) derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, SFR_IR and SFR_PAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, L_PAH, with SFR_FIR taking higher values than SFR_PAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of L_PAH to that of the starburst co...

  14. UV Star Formation Rates in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Salim, Samir; Charlot, Stéphane; Brinchmann, Jarle; Johnson, Benjamin D; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Mallery, Ryan; Heckman, Timothy M; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Szalay, Alexander S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2007-01-01

    We measure star formation rates of ~50,000 optically-selected galaxies in the local universe (z~0.1), spanning a range from gas-rich dwarfs to massive ellipticals. We obtain dust-corrected SFRs by fitting the GALEX (UV) and SDSS (optical) photometry to a library of population synthesis models that include dust attenuation. For star-forming galaxies, our UV-based SFRs compare remarkably well with those derived from SDSS H alpha. Deviations from perfect agreement between these two methods are due to differences in the dust attenuation estimates. In contrast to H alpha, UV provides reliable SFRs for galaxies with weak or no H alpha emission, and where H alpha is contaminated with an emission from an AGN. We use full-SED SFRs to calibrate a simple prescription that uses GALEX UV magnitudes to produce good SFRs for normal star-forming galaxies. The specific SFR is considered as a function of stellar mass for (1) star-forming galaxies with no AGN, (2) those hosting an AGN, and for (3) galaxies without H alpha emiss...

  15. Variations in the Galactic star formation rate and density thresholds for star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longmore, S N; Testi, L; Purcell, C R; Walsh, A J; Bressert, E; Pestalozzi, M; Molinari, S; Ott, J; Cortese, L; Battersby, C; Murray, N; Lee, E; Kruijssen, D

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of gas into stars is a fundamental process in astrophysics and cosmology. Stars are known to form from the gravitational collapse of dense clumps in interstellar molecular clouds, and it has been proposed that the resulting star formation rate is proportional to either the amount of mass above a threshold gas surface density, or the gas volume density. These star-formation prescriptions appear to hold in nearby molecular clouds in our Milky Way Galaxy's disk as well as in distant galaxies where the star formation rates are often much larger. The inner 500 pc of our Galaxy, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), contains the largest concentration of dense, high-surface density molecular gas in the Milky Way, providing an environment where the validity of star-formation prescriptions can be tested. Here we show that by several measures, the current star formation rate in the CMZ is an order-of-magnitude lower than the rates predicted by the currently accepted prescriptions. In particular, the region 1...

  16. Star Formation Beyond the Solar Circle: A Survey of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerton, Charles R.

    2013-06-01

    This talk will review and distill the results of major radio, infrared, and combined radio/IR, surveys that have focused on the identification and characterization of active regions of star formation in the outer Galaxy. These surveys reveal that, in terms of star formation activity, the Milky Way beyond the solar circle is not a vast wasteland, but rather it is an area containing numerous regions of star formation well placed for detailed individual study, for large-scale studies of star formation within spiral arms, and for comparative studies with star formation occurring in different environments such as the inner Galaxy and Galactic center.

  17. Cloud and Star Formation in Disk Galaxy Models with Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    We include feedback in global hydrodynamic simulations in order to study the star formation properties, and gas structure and dynamics, in models of galactic disks. We extend previous models by implementing feedback in gravitationally bound clouds: momentum is injected at a rate proportional to the star formation rate. This mechanical energy disperses cloud gas back into the surrounding ISM, truncating star formation in a given cloud, and raising the overall level of ambient turbulence. Propagating star formation can however occur as expanding shells collide, enhancing the density and triggering new cloud and star formation. By controlling the momentum injection per massive star and the specific star formation rate in dense gas, we find that the negative effects of high turbulence outweigh the positive ones, and in net feedback reduces the fraction of dense gas and thus the overall star formation rate. The properties of the large clouds that form are not, however, very sensitive to feedback, with cutoff masse...

  18. Shocks, star formation and the JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusdorf, A.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and γ-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the interstellar medium as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and what is their contribution to the cycle of matter in galaxies ? What is the energetic impact of shocks on their surroundings on various scales, and hence what is the feedback of stars on the galaxies ? What are the scenarios of star formation, whether this star formation leads to the propagation of shocks, or whether it is triggered by shock propagation ? What is the role of shocks in the acceleration of cosmic rays ? Can they shed light on their composition and diffusion processes ? In order to progress on these questions, it is paramount to interpret the most precise observations with the most precise models of shocks. From the observational point of view, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a powerful tool to better address the above questions, as it will allow to observe numerous shock tracers in the infrared range at an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution.

  19. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  20. High Redshift Quasars and Star Formation History

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Dietrich, Matthias; Hamann, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Quasars are among the most luminous objects in the universe, and they can be studied in detail up to the highest known redshift. Assuming that the gas associated with quasars is closely related to the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, quasars can be used as tracer of the star formation history in the early universe. We have observed a small sample of quasars at redshifts 3= 10, corresponding to an age of the universe of less than 5*10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7).

  1. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  2. The Center for Star Formation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, D.; Bell, K. R.; Laughlin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Center for Star Formation Studies, a consortium of scientists from the Space Science Division at Ames and the Astronomy Departments of the University of California at Berkeley and Santa Cruz, conducts a coordinated program of theoretical research on star and planet formation. Under the directorship of D. Hollenbach (Ames), the Center supports postdoctoral fellows, senior visitors, and students; meets regularly at Ames to exchange ideas and to present informal seminars on current research; hosts visits of outside scientists; and conducts a week-long workshop on selected aspects of star and planet formation each summer.

  3. Upper limit on star formation and metal enrichment in minihaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    2017-02-01

    An analysis of negative radiative feedback from resident stars in minihaloes is performed. It is found that the most effective mechanism to suppress star formation is provided by infrared photons from resident stars via photodetachment of H-. It is shown that a stringent upper bound on (total stellar mass, metallicity) of (˜1000 M⊙, -3.3 ± 0.2) in any newly minted atomic cooling halo can be placed, with the actual values possibly significantly lower. This has both important physical ramifications on formation of stars and supermassive black seeds in atomic cooling haloes at high redshift, pertaining to processes of low-temperature metal cooling, dust formation and fragmentation, and direct consequences on the faint end galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and cosmological reionization. The luminosity function of galaxies at the epoch of reionization may be substantially affected due to the combined effect of a diminished role of minihaloes and an enhanced contribution from Population III stars in atomic cooling haloes. Upcoming results on reionization optical depth from Planck High-Frequency Instrument data may provide a significant constraint on and a unique probe of this star formation physical process in minihaloes. As a numerical example, in the absence of significant contributions from minihaloes with virial masses below 1.5 × 108 M⊙, the reionization optical depth is expected to be no greater than 0.065, whereas allowing for minihaloes of masses as low as (107 M⊙, 106.5 M⊙) to form stars unconstrained by this self-regulation physical process, the reionization optical depth is expected to exceed (0.075, 0.085), respectively.

  4. Properties of Bulgeless Disk Galaxies II. Star Formation as a Function of Circular Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Linda C; Lisenfeld, Ute; Wong, Man-Hong; Boeker, Torsten; Schinnerer, Eva

    2012-01-01

    We study the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in twenty moderately-inclined, bulgeless disk galaxies (Sd-Sdm Hubble types) using CO(1-0) data from the IRAM 30m telescope, HI emission line data from the VLA/EVLA, H-alpha data from the MDM Observatory, and PAH emission data derived from Spitzer IRAC observations. We specifically investigate the efficiency of star formation as a function of circular velocity (v_circ). Previous work found that the vertical dust structure and disk stability of edge-on, bulgeless disk galaxies transition from diffuse dust lanes with large scale heights and gravitationally-stable disks at v_circ 120 km/s. We find no transition in star formation efficiency (Sigma_SFR/Sigma_HI+H2) at v_circ = 120 km/s, or at any other circular velocity probed by our sample (v_circ = 46 - 190 km/s). Contrary to previous work, we find no transition in disk stability at any circular velocity in our sample. Assuming our sample has the same dust structure transition as t...

  5. An Empirical Calibration of Star Formation Rate Estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa-Gonzalez, D; Terlevich, R J

    2002-01-01

    (Abridged) The observational determination of the behaviour of the star formation rate (SFR) with look-back time or redshift has two main weaknesses: 1- the large uncertainty of the dust/extinction corrections, and 2- that systematic errors may be introduced by the fact that the SFR is estimated using different methods at different redshifts. To assess the possible systematic differences among the different SFR estimators and the role of dust, we have compared SFR estimates using H$\\alpha$, SFR(H$\\alpha$), [OII]$\\lambda$3727\\AA, SFR(OII), UV, SFR(UV) and FIR, SFR(FIR) luminosities of a sample comprising the 31 nearby star forming galaxies having high quality photometric data in the UV, optical and FIR. We review the different "standard" methods for the estimation of the SFR and find that while the standard method provides good agreement between SFR(H$\\alpha$) and SFR(FIR), both SFR(OII) and SFR(UV) are systematically higher than SFR(FIR), irrespective of the extinction law. We show that the excess in the SFR(...

  6. Star formation law in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    The Schmidt law (SF law) in the Milky Way was investigated using 3D distribution maps of H ii regions and H i and molecular (H2) gases with spatial resolutions of ∼1 kpc in the Galactic plane and a few tens of pc in the vertical direction. H ii regions were shown to be distributed in a star-forming (SF) disk with nearly constant vertical full thickness 92 pc in spatial coincidence with the molecular gas disk. The vertically averaged volume star formation rate (SFR) ρSFR in the SF disk is related to the surface SFR ΣSFR by ρSFR/[M⊙ yr-1 kpc-3] = 9.26 × ΣSFR/[M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2]. The SF law fitted by a single power law of gas density in the form of Σ _SFR∝ ρ _SFR∝ ρ _gas^α and ∝ Σ _gas^β showed indices of α =0.78 ± 0.05 for ρ _H_2 and 2.15 ± 0.08 for ρtotal, and β = 1.14 ± 0.23 for Σtotal, where ρ and Σ denote volume and surface densities, respectively. The star formation rate is shown to be directly related to the molecular gas, but indirectly to H i and total gas densities. The dependence of the SF law on the gaseous phase is explained by the phase transition theory between H i and H2.

  7. The Hall effect in star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Braiding, Catherine R

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. We present a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, and similarity solutions that demonstrate the profound influence of the Hall effect on the dynamics of collapse. The solutions show that the size and sign of the Hall parameter can change the size of the protostellar disc by up to an order of magnitude and the protostellar accretion rate by fifty per cent when the ratio of the Hall to ambipolar diffusivities is varied between -0.5 <= eta_H / eta_A <= 0.2. These changes depend upon the orien...

  8. Particularly Efficient Star Formation in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Gardan, E; Schuster, K F; Brouillet, N; Sievers, A

    2007-01-01

    The Star Formation (SF) rate in galaxies is an important parameter at all redshifts and evolutionary stages of galaxies. In order to understand the increased SF rates in intermediate redshift galaxies one possibility is to study star formation in local galaxies with properties frequently found at this earlier epoch like low metallicity and small size. We present sensitive observations of the molecular gas in M 33, a small Local Group spiral at a distance of 840 kpc which shares many of the characteristics of the intermediate redshift galaxies. The observations were carried out in the CO(2--1) line with the HERA heterodyne array on the IRAM 30 m telescope. A 11\\arcmin$\\times$22\\arcmin region in the northern part of M 33 was observed, reaching a detection threshold of a few 10$^{3}$ \\msol. The correlation in this field between the CO emission and tracers of SF (8\\mum, 24\\mum, \\Ha, FUV) is excellent and CO is detected very far North, showing that molecular gas forms far out in the disk even in a small spiral wit...

  9. Star Formation Across the W3 Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Román-Zúñiga, C G; Megias, G; Tapia, M; Lada, E A; Alves, J F

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images, combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex, and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters, and constructed K-band luminosity functions (KLF) that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients ...

  10. Filamentary Star Formation in NGC 1275

    CERN Document Server

    Canning, R E A; Gallagher, J S; Kotulla, R; O'Connell, R W; Fabian, A C; Johnstone, R M; Conselice, C J; Hicks, A; Rosario, D; Wyse, R F G

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation in the outer halo of NGC~1275, the central galaxy in the Perseus cluster (Abell 426), using far ultraviolet and optical images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We have identified a population of very young, compact star clusters with typical ages of a few Myr. The star clusters are organised on multiple-kiloparsec scales. Many of these star clusters are associated with "streaks" of young stars, the combination of which has a cometary appearance. We perform photometry on the star clusters and diffuse stellar streaks, and fit their spectral energy distributions to obtain ages and masses. These young stellar populations appear to be normal in terms of their masses, luminosities and cluster formation efficiency; <10% of the young stellar mass is located in star clusters. Our data suggest star formation is associated with the evolution of some of the giant gas filaments in NGC~1275 that become gravitationally unstable on reaching and possibly stalling in the outer galaxy. ...

  11. Star formation law in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Schmidt law (SF law) in the Milky Way was investigated using 3D distribution maps of H II regions and H I and molecular (H2) gases with spatial resolutions of ˜1 kpc in the Galactic plane and a few tens of pc in the vertical direction. H II regions were shown to be distributed in a star-forming (SF) disk with nearly constant vertical full thickness 92 pc in spatial coincidence with the molecular gas disk. The vertically averaged volume star formation rate (SFR) ρSFR in the SF disk is related to the surface SFR ΣSFR by ρSFR/[M⊙ yr-1 kpc-3] = 9.26 × ΣSFR/[M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2]. The SF law fitted by a single power law of gas density in the form of Σ _SFR∝ ρ _SFR∝ ρ _gas^α and ∝ Σ _gas^β showed indices of α =0.78 ± 0.05 for ρ _H_2 and 2.15 ± 0.08 for ρtotal, and β = 1.14 ± 0.23 for Σtotal, where ρ and Σ denote volume and surface densities, respectively. The star formation rate is shown to be directly related to the molecular gas, but indirectly to H I and total gas densities. The dependence of the SF law on the gaseous phase is explained by the phase transition theory between H I and H2.

  12. Star Formation History in the Solar Vicinity

    CERN Document Server

    Gianpaolo, B; Gianpaolo, Bertelli; Emma, Nasi

    2000-01-01

    The star formation history in the solar neighbourhood is inferred comparing a sample of field stars from the Hipparcos Catalog with synthetic CMDs. We considered separately the main sequence and the red giant region of the HR diagram. The criteria for our best solutions are based on the $\\chi^{2}$ minimization of star distributions in selected zones of the HR diagram. Our analysis suggests that: a) the solutions are compatible with a Salpeter IMF and with {\\sl a star formation rate increasing, in a broad sense, from the beginning to the present time}; b) the deduced volume mass densities and the corresponding absolute scale of the SFR solutions are strongly influenced by the initial mass function slope of low mass stars (below 0.5 Mo); c) the stellar evolutionary models are not completely adequate: in fact {\\sl the theoretical ratio between the He-burning and MS star numbers is always a factor 1.5 greater than the observational value}. This fact could indicate the need of a more efficient overshoot in the evo...

  13. Filamentary star formation in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, R. E. A.; Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kotulla, R.; O'Connell, R. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Johnstone, R. M.; Conselice, C. J.; Hicks, A.; Rosario, D.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2014-10-01

    We examine the star formation in the outer halo of NGC 1275, the central galaxy in the Perseus cluster (Abell 426), using far-ultraviolet and optical images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We have identified a population of very young, compact star clusters with typical ages of a few Myr. The star clusters are organized on multiple kiloparsec scales. Many of these star clusters are associated with `streaks' of young stars, the combination of which has a cometary appearance. We perform photometry on the star clusters and diffuse stellar streaks, and fit their spectral energy distributions to obtain ages and masses. These young stellar populations appear to be normal in terms of their masses, luminosities and cluster formation efficiency; <10 per cent of the young stellar mass is located in star clusters. Our data suggest star formation is associated with the evolution of some of the giant gas filaments in NGC 1275 that become gravitationally unstable on reaching and possibly stalling in the outer galaxy. The stellar streaks then could represent stars moving on ballistic orbits in the potential well of the galaxy cluster. We propose a model where star-forming filaments, switched on ˜50 Myr ago and are currently feeding the growth of the NGC 1275 stellar halo at a rate of ≈-2 to 3 M⊙ yr-1. This type of process may also build stellar haloes and form isolated star clusters in the outskirts of youthful galaxies.

  14. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  15. Delayed Star Formation in Isolated Dwarf Galaxies: HST Star Formation History of the Aquarius Dwarf Irregular

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Andrew A; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; McConnachie, Alan W; Brooks, Alyson M; Leaman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ~10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ~10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ~2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ~6-8 Gyr ago (z ~ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M(HI)/M(stellar), dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CD...

  16. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2016-06-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (H I) and molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated, low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution (mgas = 4 M⊙, Nngb = 100) smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from a uniform and constant interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H2 formation, H2-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H2 mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities n feedback at small radii and by the assumed radiation field at large radii. The decreasing cold gas fractions result in a rapid increase in depletion time (up to 100 Gyr) for total gas surface densities Σ _{H I+H_2} ≲ 10 M⊙ pc-2, in agreement with observations of dwarf galaxies in the Kennicutt-Schmidt plane.

  17. Effect of the star formation histories on the SFR-M∗ relation at z ≥ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarà, L. P.; Maccagni, D.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Zamorani, G.; Schaerer, D.; Lemaux, B. C.; Cassata, P.; Le Brun, V.; Pentericci, L.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Fontana, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Pforr, J.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effect of different star formation histories (SFHs) on the relation between stellar mass (M∗) and star formation rate (SFR) using a sample of galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshift zspec> 2 drawn from the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS). We produce an extensive database of dusty model galaxies, calculated starting from a new library of single stellar population (SSPs) models, weighted by a set of 28 different star formation histories based on the Schmidt function, and characterized by different ratios of the gas infall timescale τinfall to the star formation efficiency ν. Dust extinction and re-emission were treated by means of the radiative transfer calculation. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique was performed by using GOSSIP+, a tool able to combine both photometric and spectroscopic information to extract the best value of the physical quantities of interest, and to consider the intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation as a free parameter. We find that the main contribution to the scatter observed in the SFR-M∗ plane is the possibility of choosing between different families of SFHs in the SED fitting procedure, while the redshift range plays a minor role. The majority of the galaxies, at all cosmic times, are best fit by models with SFHs characterized by a high τinfall/ν ratio. We discuss the reliability of a low percentage of dusty and highly star-forming galaxies in the context of their detection in the far infrared (FIR).

  18. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Spatially resolving the environmental quenching of star formation in GAMA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, A L; Allen, J T; Brough, S; Medling, A M; Ho, I -T; Scott, N; Richards, S N; Pracy, M B; Gunawardhana, M L P; Norberg, P; Alpaslan, M; Bauer, A E; Bekki, K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bloom, J V; Bryant, J J; Couch, W J; Driver, S P; Fogarty, L M R; Foster, C; Goldstein, G; Green, A W; Hopkins, A M; Konstantopoulos, I S; Lawrence, J S; López-Sánchez, A R; Lorente, N P F; Owers, M S; Sharp, R; Sweet, S M; Taylor, E N; van de Sande, J; Walcher, C J; Wong, O I

    2016-01-01

    We use data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-Object Integral Field Spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey and the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to investigate the spatially-resolved signatures of the environmental quenching of star formation in galaxies. Using dust-corrected measurements of the distribution of H$\\alpha$ emission we measure the radial profiles of star formation in a sample of 201 star-forming galaxies covering three orders of magnitude in stellar mass (M$_{*}$; $10^{8.1}$-$10^{10.95}\\, $M$_{\\odot}$) and in $5^{th}$ nearest neighbour local environment density ($\\Sigma_{5}$; $10^{-1.3}$-$10^{2.1}\\,$Mpc$^{-2}$). We show that star formation rate gradients in galaxies are steeper in dense ($\\log_{10}(\\Sigma_{5}/$Mpc$^{2})>0.5$) environments by $0.58\\pm 0.29\\, dex\\, $r$_{e}^{-1}$ in galaxies with stellar masses in the range $10^{10}1.0$). These lines of evidence strongly suggest that with increasing local environment density the star formation in galaxies is suppressed, and that this starts in their ou...

  19. A Numerical Simulation of Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred-Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, W.

    2014-01-01

    We use grid-based hydrodynamic simulations to study star formation history in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We assume infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and unmagnetized gaseous disk. To investigate effects of spiral arm potential, we calculate both models with and without spiral. We find that star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is determined by the mass inflow rate to the ring rather than the total gas mass in the ring. In case of models without spiral arms, the SFR shows a strong primary burst at early time, and declines to small values after after that. The primary burst is caused by the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth. On the other hand, models with spiral arms show multiple star bursts at late time caused by additional gas inflow from outside bar region. When the SFR is low, ages of young star clusters exhibit a bipolar azimuthal gradient along the ring since star formation occurs near the contact points between dust lanes and the nuclear ring. When the SFR is large, there are no age gradient of star clusters since star formation sites are widely distributed throughout the whole ring region.

  20. The Star Formation Relation for Regions in the Galactic Plane: The Effect of Spatial Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Battersby, Cara

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relations between molecular gas surface density and star formation rate surface density in a 11 square degree region of the Galactic Plane. Dust continuum at 1.1 mm from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and 22 micron emission from the WISE All-sky survey were used as tracers of molecular gas and star formation rate, respectively, across Galactic longitude of 31.5 > l > 20.5 and Galactic latitude of 0.5 > b > -0.5. The relation was studied over a range of resolutions from 33 arcsecond to 20 arcminute by convolving images to larger scales. The pixel-by-pixel correlation between 1.1 mm and 22 micron increases rapidly at small scales and levels off at the scale of 5 - 8 arcminute. We studied the star formation relation based on pixel-by-pixel analysis and 1.1 mm and 22 micron peaks analysis. The star formation relation was found to be nearly linear with no significant changes in the form of the relation across all spatial scales and lie above the extragalactic relation from Kennicutt (1998). The ...

  1. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  2. Mid- to Far-IR Emission and Star Formation in Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, L M; Lucero, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Many early-type galaxies have been detected at wavelengths of 24 to 160 micron, but the emission is usually dominated by heating from an AGN or from the evolved stellar population. Here we present Spitzer MIPS observations of a sample of elliptical and lenticular galaxies that are rich in cold molecular gas, and we investigate whether the MIR to FIR emission could be associated with star formation activity. The 24 micron images show a rich variety of structures, including nuclear point sources, rings, disks, and smooth extended emission. Comparisons to matched-resolution CO and radio continuum images suggest that the bulk of the 24 micron emission can be traced to star formation with some notable exceptions. The 24 micron luminosities of the CO-rich galaxies are typically a factor of 15 larger than what would be expected from the dust associated with their evolved stars. In addition, FIR/radio flux density ratios are consistent with star formation. We conclude that the star formation rates in z=0 elliptical a...

  3. The MOSDEF Survey: The strong agreement between H-alpha and UV-to-FIR star formation rates for z~2 star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen A; Shapley, Alice E; Barro, Guillermo; Conroy, Charlie; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; Azadi, Mojegan; Pasha, Imad; Inami, Hanae

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic SED-based SFRs for z~2 galaxies. For this comparison we used 17 star-forming galaxies selected from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, with $3\\sigma$ detections for H$\\alpha$ and at least two IR bands (Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160$\\mu$m, and in some cases Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500$\\mu$m). The galaxies have total IR (8-1000$\\mu$m) luminosities of $\\sim10^{11.4}-10^{12.4}\\,\\textrm{L}_\\odot$ and star-formation rates (SFRs) of $\\sim30-250\\,\\textrm{M}_\\odot\\,\\mathrm{yr^{-1}}$. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models - which include both stellar and dust emission - and compare the inferred SFRs with the SFR(H$\\alpha$,H$\\beta$) values corrected for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements. The two SFRs agree with a scatter of 0.17 dex. Our results imply that the Balmer decrement accurately predicts the obscuration of the nebular lines and can be used t...

  4. Star formation along the Hubble sequence. Radial structure of the star formation of CALIFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Pérez, E.; García-Benito, R.; López Fernández, R.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; Vale Asari, N.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Mast, D.; Alves, J.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mollá, M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The spatially resolved stellar population content of today's galaxies holds important information for understanding the different processes that contribute to the star formation and mass assembly histories of galaxies. The aim of this paper is to characterize the radial structure of the star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies in the nearby Universe as represented by a uniquely rich and diverse data set drawn from the CALIFA survey. The sample under study contains 416 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy, covering a wide range of Hubble types and stellar masses ranging from M⋆ ~ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to the datacubes to derive 2D maps and radial profiles of the intensity of the star formation rate in the recent past (ΣSFR), as well as related properties, such as the local specific star formation rate (sSFR), defined as the ratio between ΣSFR and the stellar mass surface density (μ⋆). To emphasize the behavior of these properties for galaxies that are on and off the main sequence of star formation (MSSF), we stack the individual radial profiles in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd), and several stellar masses. Our main results are: (a) the intensity of the star formation rate shows declining profiles that exhibit very small differences between spirals with values at R = 1 half light radius (HLR) within a factor two of ΣSFR ~ 20 M⊙Gyr-1pc-2. The dispersion in the ΣSFR(R) profiles is significantly smaller in late type spirals (Sbc, Sc, Sd). This confirms that the MSSF is a sequence of galaxies with nearly constant ΣSFR. (b) sSFR values scale with Hubble type and increase radially outward with a steeper slope in the inner 1 HLR. This behavior suggests that galaxies are quenched inside-out and that this process is faster in the central, bulge-dominated part than in the disks. (c) As a whole and at all radii, E and S0 are off the MSSF with SFR much smaller than spirals of the

  5. Star formation in the local Universe from the CALIFA sample. I. Calibrating the SFR using integral field spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Marino, R. A.; Walcher, C. J.; Husemann, B.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; González Delgado, R. M.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Del Olmo, A.; Galbany, L.; Gomes, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Vilchez, J. M.; Califa Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    Context. The star formation rate (SFR) is one of the main parameters used to analyze the evolution of galaxies through time. The need for recovering the light reprocessed by dust commonly requires the use of low spatial resolution far-infrared data. Recombination line luminosities provide an alternative, although uncertain dust-extinction corrections based on narrowband imaging or long-slit spectroscopy have traditionally posed a limit to their applicability. Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is clearly the way to overcome this kind of limitation. Aims: We obtain integrated Hα, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR)-based SFR measurements for 272 galaxies from the CALIFA survey at 0.005 extinction-corrected Hα luminosities provide a good measure of the SFR and to shed light on the origin of the discrepancies between tracers. Updated calibrations referred to Hα are provided. The well-defined selection criteria and large statistics allow us to carry out this analysis globally and split by properties, including stellar mass and morphological type. Methods: We derive integrated, extinction-corrected Hα fluxes from CALIFA, UV surface and asymptotic photometry from GALEX and integrated WISE 22 μm and IRAS fluxes. Results: We find that the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity agrees with the hybrid updated SFR estimators based on either UV or Hα plus IR luminosity over the full range of SFRs (0.03-20 M⊙ yr-1). The coefficient that weights the amount of energy produced by newly-born stars that is reprocessed by dust on the hybrid tracers, aIR, shows a large dispersion. However, this coefficient does not became increasingly small at high attenuations, as expected if significant highly-obscured Hα emission were missed, i.e., after a Balmer decrement-based attenuation correction is applied. Lenticulars, early-type spirals, and type-2 AGN host galaxies show smaller coefficients because of the contribution of optical photons and AGN to dust heating. Conclusions: In the

  6. On the nature of the most obscured C-rich AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Dell'Agli, F; García-Hernández, D A; Boyer, M L; Di Criscienzo, M

    2016-01-01

    The stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the largest degree of obscuration are used to probe the highly uncertain physics of stars in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Carbon stars in particular, provide key information on the amount of third dredge-up (TDU) and mass loss. We use two independent stellar evolution codes to test how a different treatment of the physics affects the evolution on the AGB. The output from the two codes are used to determine the rates of dust formation in the circumstellar envelope, where the method used to determine the dust is the same for each case. The stars with the largest degree of obscuration in the LMC and SMC are identified as the progeny of objects of initial mass $2.5-3~M_{\\odot}$ and $\\sim 1.5~M_{\\odot}$, respectively. This difference in mass is motivated by the difference in the star formation histories of the two galaxies, and offers a simple explanation of the redder infrared colours of C-stars in the LMC compared to their counterparts in the SMC. ...

  7. Incidence of WISE -selected obscured AGNs in major mergers and interactions from the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Madalyn E.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Brodwin, Mark; Mann, Justin; Cooper, Andrew; McConnell, Adam; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2017-02-01

    We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to confirm a connection between dust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy merging. Using a new, volume-limited (z ≤ 0.08) catalogue of visually selected major mergers and galaxy-galaxy interactions from the SDSS, with stellar masses above 2 × 1010 M⊙, we find that major mergers (interactions) are 5-17 (3-5) times more likely to have red [3.4] - [4.6] colours associated with dust-obscured or `dusty' AGNs, compared to non-merging galaxies with similar masses. Using published fibre spectral diagnostics, we map the [3.4] - [4.6] versus [4.6] - [12] colours of different emission-line galaxies and find that one-quarter of Seyferts have colours indicative of a dusty AGN. We find that AGNs are five times more likely to be obscured when hosted by a merging galaxy, half of AGNs hosted by a merger are dusty, and we find no enhanced frequency of optical AGNs in merging over non-merging galaxies. We conclude that undetected AGNs missed at shorter wavelengths are at the heart of the ongoing AGN-merger connection debate. The vast majority of mergers hosting dusty AGNs are star forming and located at the centres of Mhalo < 1013 M⊙ groups. Assuming plausibly short-duration dusty-AGN phases, we speculate that a large fraction of gas-rich mergers experience a brief obscured AGN phase, in agreement with the strong connection between central star formation and black hole growth seen in merger simulations.

  8. The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Two modes of star formation in AGN hosts?

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, D; Rafferty, D; Shao, L; Hasinger, G; Weiss, A; Walter, F; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S; Coppin, K; Schreiber, N M Forster; Gawiser, E; Genzel, R; Greve, T R; Ivison, R J; Koekemoer, A M; Kurczynski, P; Menten, K M; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Wardlow, J; Xue, Y Q

    2010-01-01

    We study the co-existence of star formation and AGN activity in X-ray selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870um submm emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, obtained with LABOCA at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z~1 is detected at a mean submm flux of 0.49+-0.04mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate around 30Msun/yr for a T=35K, beta=1.5 greybody far-infrared SED. The good S/N permits stacking analyses for subgroups. We observe a trend of star formation rate increasing with redshift. An increase of star formation rate with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L_2-10>~1E44erg/s luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects. This suggests a transition between two modes in the coexistence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk...

  9. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  10. Collapse and Outflow Towards an Integrated Theory of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Pudritz, R E; Ouyed, R

    1997-01-01

    Observational advances over the last decade reveal that star formation is associated with the simultaneous presence of gravitationally collapsing gas, bipolar outflow, and an accretion disk. Two theoretical views of star formation suppose that either stellar mass is determined from the outset by gravitational instability, or by the outflow which sweeps away the collapsing envelope of initially singular density distributions. Neither picture appears to explain all of the facts. This contribution examines some of the key issues facing star formation theory.

  11. Modeling of Astrochemistry during Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric; Chang, Qiang; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Aikawa, Yuri; Furuya, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    Interstellar matter is not inert, but is constantly evolving. On the one hand, its physical characteristics such as its density and its temperature, and on the other hand, its chemical characteristics such as the abundances of the species and their distribution, can change drastically. The phases of this evolution spread over different timescales, and this matter evolves to create very different objects such as molecular clouds (T ˜ 10 K, n ˜ 10^4 cm-3, t ˜ 10^6 years), collapsing prestellar cores (inner core : T ˜ 1000 K, n ˜ 1016 cm-3, t ˜ 10^4 years), protostellar cores (inner core : T ˜ 10^5 K, n ˜ 1024 cm-3, t ˜ 10^6 years), or protoplanetary disks (T ˜ 10-1000 K, n ˜ 109-1012 cm-3, t ˜ 10^7 years). These objects are the stages of the star formation process. Starting from the diffuse cloud, matter evolves to form molecular clouds. Then, matter can condense to form prestellar cores, which can collapse to form a protostar surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. The protostar can evolve in a star, and planets and comets can be formed in the disk. Thus, modeling of astrochemistry during star formation should consider chemical and physical evolution in parallel. We present a new gas-grain chemical network involving deuterated species, which takes into account ortho, para, and meta states of H_2, D_2, H_3^+, H_2D^+, D_2H^+, and D_3^+. It includes high temperature gas phase reactions, and some ternary reactions for high density, so that it should be able to simulate media with temperature equal to [10;800] K and density equal to [˜10^4;˜1012] cm-3. We apply this network to the modeling of low-mass and high-mass star formation, using a gas-grain chemical code coupled to a time dependent physical structure. Comparisons with observational constraints, such as the HDO/H_2O ratio in high mass star forming region, give good agreement which is promising. Besides, high density conditions have highlighted some limitations of our grain surface modeling. We present a

  12. Observational studies of regions of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Heather Danielle Blythe

    2013-03-01

    Massive stars have a profound influence on their surroundings. However, relatively little is known about their formation. The study of massive star formation is hindered by a lack of observational evidence, primarily due to difficulties observing massive stars at early stages in their development. The Red MSX Source survey (RMS survey) is a valuable tool with which to address these issues. Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra were taken for 247 candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), selected from the RMS survey. 195 (∼80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (LBOL>5E3L⊙, M>8 M⊙). This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date. This study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties, with HI, H2 Fe II, and CO among the most commonly observed lines. Evidence for disks and outflows was frequently seen. Comparisons of Brγ and H2 emission with low mass YSOs suggest that the emission mechanism for these lines is the same for low-, intermediate-, and high-mass YSOs, i.e. high-mass YSOs appear to resemble scaled-up versions of low-mass YSOs. It was found that the YSOs form an evolutionary sequence, based on their spectra, consistent with the existing theoretical models. Type I YSOs have strong H2 emission, no ionized lines, and are redder than the other two subtypes. As such, these are considered to be the youngest sources. The Type III sources are bluest, and therefore considered to be the oldest subtype. They have strong H I lines and fluorescent Fe II 1.6878 μm emission. They may also have weak H2 emission. Type III sources may even be beginning to form a mini-H II region. XSHOOTER data from 10 Herbig Be stars were analysed. The evidence suggests that winds and disks are common among Herbig stars, as they are among their main sequence classical Be star counterparts. Line

  13. Gas, dust, and star formation in distant radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuland, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss recent observations of distant (z > 2) radio galaxies. There is strong evidence that radio galaxies are the progenitors of the brightest cluster ellipticals and are among the most luminous and massive galaxies at any epoch, allowing relatively detailed studies of their forma

  14. A Spectroscopically Confirmed Excess of 24 micron Sources in a Super Galaxy Group at z=0.37: Enhanced Dusty Star Formation Relative to the Cluster and Field Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Kim-Vy H; Moustakas, John; Bai, Lei; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Holden, Bradford P; Zaritsky, Dennis; Kautsch, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    To trace how dust-obscured star formation varies with environment, we compare the fraction of 24 micron sources in a super galaxy group to the field and a rich galaxy cluster at z~0.35. We draw on multi-wavelength observations that combine Hubble, Chandra, and Spitzer imaging with extensive optical spectroscopy (>1800 redshifts) to isolate galaxies in each environment and thus ensure a uniform analysis. We focus on the four galaxy groups in supergroup 1120-12 that will merge to form a galaxy cluster comparable in mass to Coma. We find that 1) the fraction of supergroup galaxies with SFR(IR)>3 Msun/yr is four times higher than in the cluster (32% vs. 7%); 2) the supergroup's infrared luminosity function confirms that it has a higher density of IR members compared to the cluster and includes bright IR sources not found in galaxy clusters at z0.5 Mpc); once their star formation is quenched, most will evolve into faint red galaxies. Our analysis indicates that the supergroup's 24 micron population also differs fr...

  15. Cloud and Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Clare

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from simulations of GMC formation in spiral galaxies. First we discuss cloud formation by cloud-cloud collisions, and gravitational instabilities, arguing that the former is prevalent at lower galactic surface densities and the latter at higher. Cloud masses are also limited by stellar feedback, which can be effective before clouds reach their maximum mass. We show other properties of clouds in simulations with different levels of feedback. With a moderate level of feedback, properties such as cloud rotations and virial parameters agree with observations. Without feedback, an unrealistic population of overly bound clouds develops. Spiral arms are not found to trigger star formation, they merely gather gas into more massive GMCs. We discuss in more detail interactions of clouds in the ISM, and argue that these are more complex than early ideas of cloud-cloud collisions. Finally we show ongoing work to determine whether the Milky Way is a flocculent or grand design spiral.

  16. Violent Star Formation in NGC 2363: Erratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Rosa M.; Perez, Enrique; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Vilchez, Jose M.; Terlevich, Elena; Terlevich, Roberto; Telles, Eduardo; Rodríguez Espinosa, Jose M.; Mas-Hesse, Miguel; Garcia-Vargas, Maria Luisa; Diaz, Angeles I.; Cepa, Jordi; Castaneda, Hector

    1996-12-01

    In the paper "Violent Star Formation in NGC 2363" by Rosa M. Gonzalez- Delgado, Enrique Perez, Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle, Jose M. Vilchez, Elena Terlevich, Roberto Terlevich, Eduardo Telles, Jose M. Rodriguez-Espinosa, Miguel Mas-Hesse, Maria Luisa Garcia-Vargas, Angeles I. Diaz, Jordi Cepa, and Hector Castaneda (ApJ, 437,239 [1994)), there are three errors in Section 5.4. The Paschen discontinuity in knot A is (0.82 +/- 0.19) x 10^-16^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^ A^-1^, the coefficient in the formula in page 258 is 2.445 x 10^11^, and the units in the ordinate axis of Figure 16 are 10^-15^ ergs cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^. These are typographical errors, and they do not affect the determination of the electron temperature using the Paschen jump and the discussion and conclusions in this paper.

  17. The History of Star Formation in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Calzetti, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    If we are to develop a comprehensive and predictive theory of galaxy formation and evolution, it is essential that we obtain an accurate assessment of how and when galaxies assemble their stellar populations, and how this assembly varies with environment. There is strong observational support for the hierarchical assembly of galaxies, but by definition the dwarf galaxies we see today are not the same as the dwarf galaxies and proto-galaxies that were disrupted during the assembly. Our only insight into those disrupted building blocks comes from sifting through the resolved field populations of the surviving giant galaxies to reconstruct the star formation history, chemical evolution, and kinematics of their various structures. To obtain the detailed distribution of stellar ages and metallicities over the entire life of a galaxy, one needs multi-band photometry reaching solar-luminosity main sequence stars. The Hubble Space Telescope can obtain such data in the outskirts of Local Group galaxies. To perform the...

  18. The History of Star Formation in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; Calzetti, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    If we are to develop a comprehensive and predictive theory of galaxy formation and evolution, it is essential that we obtain an accurate assessment of how and when galaxies assemble their stellar populations, and how this assembly varies with environment. There is strong observational support for the hierarchical assembly of galaxies, but our insight into this assembly comes from sifting through the resolved field populations of the surviving galaxies we see today, in order to reconstruct their star formation histories, chemical evolution, and kinematics. To obtain the detailed distribution of stellar ages and metallicities over the entire life of a galaxy, one needs multi-band photometry reaching solar-luminosity main sequence stars. The Hubble Space Telescope can obtain such data in the low-density regions of Local Group galaxies. To perform these essential studies for a fair sample of the Local Universe, we will require observational capabilities that allow us to extend the study of resolved stellar popula...

  19. Outflow forces in intermediate mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Belloche, A; Klaassen, P D; Leurini, S; Jose-Garcia, I San; Aykutalp, A; Choi, Y; Endo, A; Frieswijk, W; Harsono, D; Karska, A; Koumpia, E; van der Marel, N; Nagy, Z; Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Risacher, C; van Weeren, R J; Wyrowski, F; Yildiz, U A; Guesten, R; Boland, W; Baryshev, A

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate mass protostarsprovide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Emerging molecular outflows can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the correlation of outflow forces of intermediate mass protostars with the luminosity. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodology. By comparing CO 6--5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, optical depths, temperatures, densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line wi...

  20. Star-formation knots in IRAS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchings, J B

    1995-01-01

    Images of IRAS galaxies with a range of IR properties are examined for bright knots, both within and outside the galaxy. These are found almost exclusively in galaxies with steep IR spectra, but over a wide range of IR luminosity, and usually without strong nuclear activity. In most cases, the knots are likely to be star-formation induced by tidal interactions, and are seen in the early stages of such interactions. Detailed photometry is presented of knots in six representative galaxies. The knots appear to have a wide range of colour and luminosity, but it is argued that many are heavily reddened. Knots formed outside the parent galaxy may be a new generation of what later become globular clusters, but they appear to have a wide range of luminosities.

  1. Shocks, Star Formation, and the JWST

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and $\\gamma$-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the ISM as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and ...

  2. Searching for Star Formation Beyond Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, E J; Smith, J D T; Papovich, C; Hernquist, L; Springel, V; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Dav'e, Romeel; Smith, John-David T.; Papovich, Casey; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The goal of searching back in cosmic time to find star formation during the epoch of reionization will soon be within reach. We assess the detectability of high-redshift galaxies by combining cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation, stellar evolution models appropriate for the first generations of stars, and estimates of the efficiency for Lyman alpha to escape from forming galaxies into the intergalactic medium. Our simulated observations show that Lyman alpha emission at z ~ 8 may be observable in the near-infrared with 8-meter class telescopes and present-day technology. Not only is the detection of early star-forming objects vital to understanding the underlying cause of the reionization of the universe, but the timely discovery of a z > 7 star-forming population -- or even an interesting upper limit on the emergent flux from these objects -- will have implications for the design of the next generation of ground- and space-based facilities.

  3. THE STAR FORMATION REGION NGC 6334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tapia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The bright nebular complex NGC 6334 contains some of the most active sites of massive star formation known in our Galaxy. It is located at a distance from the Sun of 1.62 kpc and has a total mass of a few 105M . The physical characteristics of the active spots range widely, from well developed expanding HII regions to deeply embedded, still contracting, young objects detected only as millimeter sources, thus at their earliest observable stage of their evolution. The oldest optically visible round HII regions with central O-type stars are found in the southern parts, and the youngest along a molecular ridge. On the latter, no clear spatial evolutionary correlation is apparent.

  4. STAR FORMATION ACROSS THE W3 COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana–Ensenada, Ensenada 22860 (Mexico); Megías, Guillermo D. [Facultad de Física. Universidad de Sevilla. Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla, E-41080 (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, FL 32611 (United States); Alves, Joáo F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the history of star formation in the W3 complex. Using deep, near-infrared ground-based images combined with images obtained with Spitzer and Chandra observatories, we identified and classified young embedded sources. We identified the principal clusters in the complex and determined their structure and extension. We constructed extinction-limited samples for five principal clusters and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compare with those of artificial clusters with varying ages. This analysis provided mean ages and possible age spreads for the clusters. We found that IC 1795, the centermost cluster of the complex, still hosts a large fraction of young sources with circumstellar disks. This indicates that star formation was active in IC 1795 as recently as 2 Myr ago, simultaneous to the star-forming activity in the flanking embedded clusters, W3-Main and W3(OH). A comparison with carbon monoxide emission maps indicates strong velocity gradients in the gas clumps hosting W3-Main and W3(OH) and shows small receding clumps of gas at IC 1795, suggestive of rapid gas removal (faster than the T Tauri timescale) in the cluster-forming regions. We discuss one possible scenario for the progression of cluster formation in the W3 complex. We propose that early processes of gas collapse in the main structure of the complex could have defined the progression of cluster formation across the complex with relatively small age differences from one group to another. However, triggering effects could act as catalysts for enhanced efficiency of formation at a local level, in agreement with previous studies.

  5. "Revealing a Population of Heavily Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei at z=0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Alexander, D M; Brusa, M; Bauer, F E; Comastri, A; Fabian, A C; Gilli, R; Lehmer, B D; Rafferty, D A; Schneider, D P; Vignali, C

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) We identify a numerically significant population of heavily obscured AGNs at z~0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South by selecting 242 X-ray undetected objects with infrared-based star formation rates (SFRs) substantially higher (a factor of 3.2 or more) than their SFRs determined from the UV after correcting for dust extinction. An X-ray stacking analysis of 23 candidates in the central CDF-S region using the 4 Ms Chandra data reveals a hard X-ray signal with an effective power-law photon index of Gamma=0.6_{-0.4}^{+0.3}, indicating a significant contribution from obscured AGNs. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that 74+-25% of the selected galaxies host obscured AGNs, within which ~95% are heavily obscured and ~80% are Compton-thick (CT; NH>1.5x10^{24} cm^{-2}). The heavily obscured objects in our sample are of moderate intrinsic X-ray luminosity [ ~ (0.9-4)x10^{42} erg/s in the 2-10 keV band]. The space density of the CT AGNs is (1.6+-0.5)...

  6. Star formation and black hole accretion activity in rich local clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, Matteo; Fadda, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation and central black hole accretion activity of the galaxies hosted in the two nearby (z$\\sim$0.2) rich galaxy clusters Abell 983 and 1731. Aims: We are able to quantify both the obscured and unobscured star formation rates, as well as the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the environment in which the galaxy is located. Methods: We targeted the clusters with unprecedented deep infrared Spitzer observations (0.2 mJy @ 24 micron), near-IR Palomar imaging and optical WIYN spectroscopy. The extent of our observations ($\\sim$ 3 virial radii) covers the vast range of possible environments, from the very dense cluster centre to the very rarefied cluster outskirts and accretion regions. Results: The star forming members of the two clusters present star formation rates comparable with those measured in coeval field galaxies. The analysis of the spatial arrangement of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals an elongated distribution for A1731 with re...

  7. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectric heating—heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons—has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity—as is expected with photoelectric heating, but not with supernovae—reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space- and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time, suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.

  8. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C; Krumholz, Mark R; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-07-28

    Photoelectric heating--heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons--has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity--as is expected with photoelectric heating,but not with supernovae--reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time,suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.

  9. An Empirical Model for the Galaxy Luminosity and Star-Formation Rate Function at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Using the most recent measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) and dust estimates of early galaxies, we derive updated dust-corrected star-formation rate functions (SFRFs) at z~4-8, which we model to predict the evolution to higher redshifts, z>8. We employ abundance matching techniques to calibrate a relation between galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and host halo mass M{_h} by mapping the shape of the observed SFRFs at z~4-8 to that of the halo mass function. The resulting scaling law remains roughly constant over this redshift range. We apply the average SFR-M{_h} relation to reproduce the observed SFR functions at 4 10 indicate that JWST will be able to detect galaxies out to z~15 with an extensive treasury sized program. We also derive the redshift evolution of the star formation rate density and associated reionization history by galaxies for which we find that the inclusion of galaxies with SFRs well below the current detection limit leads to a fully reionized universe by z~6.5 an...

  10. VLA and ALMA Imaging of Intense, Galaxy-Wide Star Formation in z ~ 2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, W; Rieke, G H; Ivison, R J; Cibinel, A; Nyland, K; Jagannathan, P; Silverman, J D; Alexander, D M; Biggs, A D; Bhatnagar, S; Ballantyne, D R; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Geach, J E; Hayward, C C; Kirkpatrick, A; McLure, R J; Michalowski, M J; Miller, N A; Narayanan, D; Owen, F N; Pannella, M; Papovich, C; Pope, A; Rau, U; Robertson, B E; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; van der Werf, P; van Kampen, E; Windhorst, R A

    2016-01-01

    We present $\\simeq$0$.\\!\\!^{\\prime\\prime}4$-resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at $z = 1.3-3.0$. These galaxies are selected from sensitive, blank-field surveys of the $2' \\times 2'$ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at $\\lambda = 5$ cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). They have star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at $z \\sim 2$. Morphological classification performed on spatially-resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN), thereby representing a diversity of $z \\sim 2$ SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distrib...

  11. The evolution of CNO isotopes: a new window on cosmic star formation history and the stellar IMF in the age of ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, D.; Matteucci, F.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Ivison, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    We use state-of-the-art chemical models to track the cosmic evolution of the CNO isotopes in the interstellar medium of galaxies, yielding powerful constraints on their stellar initial mass function (IMF). We re-assess the relative roles of massive stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and novae in the production of rare isotopes such as 13C, 15N, 17O and 18O, along with 12C, 14N and 16O. The CNO isotope yields of super-AGB stars, novae and fast-rotating massive stars are included. Having reproduced the available isotope enrichment data in the solar neighbourhood, and across the Galaxy, and having assessed the sensitivity of our models to the remaining uncertainties, e.g. nova yields and star formation history, we show that we can meaningfully constrain the stellar IMF in galaxies using C, O and N isotope abundance ratios. In starburst galaxies, where data for multiple isotopologue lines are available, we find compelling new evidence for a top-heavy stellar IMF, with profound implications for their star formation rates and efficiencies, perhaps also their stellar masses. Neither chemical fractionation nor selective photodissociation can significantly perturb globally averaged isotopologue abundance ratios away from the corresponding isotope ones, as both these processes will typically affect only small mass fractions of molecular clouds in galaxies. Thus, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array now stands ready to probe the stellar IMF, and even the ages of specific starburst events in star-forming galaxies across cosmic time unaffected by the dust obscuration effects that plague optical/near-infrared studies.

  12. Uncovering hidden black holes: Obscured AGN and their relationship to the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are accreting supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. According to the unified model, this accretion disk is surrounded by an obscuring torus of dust and gas. In Type 2, or obscured, AGN this torus is viewed edge on. When the column density of the torus exceeds 1/sigmat = 1.5x1021 cm--2, this obscuring medium becomes Compton-thick. Studies indicate that a significant fraction of Compton-thick Type 2 AGN exist but are under-represented in many current samples. We have studied two samples of local type 2 AGN (Seyfert 2 galaxies) to explore issues relevant to finding and characterizing the Compton-thick population. We have also investigated the relationship between type 2 AGN and the galaxies in which they live. To find this Compton-thick population, selecting samples of AGN based on their inherent flux is necessary. We undertook an empirical approach in identifying the most reliable intrinsic AGN flux proxies. Using infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer, optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the literature, and radio and hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) data from the literature, we demonstrated that the [OIV] 26mum, [OIII] 5007A and MIR continuum fluxes agree the best among Type 1 and Type 2 Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing 2-10 keV X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we probed the amount of obscuration that may he present in these systems. We find that a majority of sources exhibit signatures of heavy, and possibly Compton-thick, obscuration: depressed 2-10 key X-ray emission when normalized by intrinsic AGN flux and large Fe Ka equivalent widths. Using a sample of ˜250 star forming galaxies, ˜50 composite systems and an additional ˜20 Seyfert 2 galaxies, we examined the connection between AGN activity and star formation. We found that the SDSS derived star formation rates and [NeII] 12.8mum flux accurately probe starburst activity in both quiescent and active galaxies. Using these parameters and diagnostics

  13. The reliability of [C II] as an indicator of the star formation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J.; Cortese, Luca; Fritz, Jacopo

    2011-10-01

    The [C II] 157.74 μm line is an important coolant for the neutral interstellar gas. Since [C II] is the brightest spectral line for most galaxies, it is a potentially powerful tracer of star formation activity. In this paper, we present a calibration of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of the [C II] luminosity for a sample of 24 star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. This sample includes objects classified as H II regions or low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions, but omits all Seyfert galaxies with a significant contribution from the active galactic nucleus to the mid-infrared photometry. In order to calibrate the SFR against the line luminosity, we rely on both Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet data, which is an ideal tracer of the unobscured star formation, and MIPS 24 μm, to probe the dust-enshrouded fraction of star formation. In the case of normal star-forming galaxies, the [C II] luminosity correlates well with the SFR. However, the extension of this relation to more quiescent (Hα EW ≤ 10 Å) or ultraluminous galaxies should be handled with caution, since these objects show a non-linearity in the ?-to-LFIR ratio as a function of LFIR (and thus, their star formation activity). We provide two possible explanations for the origin of the tight correlation between the [C II] emission and the star formation activity on a global galaxy-scale. A first interpretation could be that the [C II] emission from photodissociation regions (PDRs) arises from the immediate surroundings of star-forming regions. Since PDRs are neutral regions of warm dense gas at the boundaries between H II regions and molecular clouds and they provide the bulk of [C II] emission in most galaxies, we believe that a more or less constant contribution from these outer layers of photon-dominated molecular clumps to the [C II] emission provides a straightforward explanation for this close link between the [C II] luminosity and SFR. Alternatively, we consider the

  14. Spatial Clustering from GALEX-SDSS samples: Star Formation History and large-scale clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, Sebastien; Szalay, A S; Arnouts, Stephane; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Wyder, Ted K; Barlow, Tom A; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2009-01-01

    We measure the projected spatial correlation function w_p(r_p) from a large sample combining GALEX ultraviolet imaging with the SDSS spectroscopic sample. We study the dependence of the clustering strength for samples selected on (NUV - r)_abs color, specific star formation rate (SSFR), and stellar mass. We find that there is a smooth transition in the clustering of galaxies as a function of this color from weak clustering among blue galaxies to stronger clustering for red galaxies. The clustering of galaxies within the "green valley" has an intermediate strength, and is consistent with that expected from galaxy groups. The results are robust to the correction for dust extinction. The comparison with simple analytical modeling suggests that the halo occupation number increases with older star formation epochs. When splitting according to SSFR, we find that the SSFR is a more sensitive tracer of environment than stellar mass.

  15. Star formation along the Hubble sequence: Radial structure of the star formation of CALIFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, R M González; Pérez, E; García-Benito, R; Fernández, R López; Lacerda, E A D; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; de Amorim, A L; Asari, N Vale; Sánchez, S F; Walcher, C J; Wisotzki, L; Mast, D; Alves, J; Ascasibar, Y; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Kennicutt, R C; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Mollá, M; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Vílchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to characterize the radial structure of the star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies in the nearby Universe as represented by the CALIFA survey. The sample under study contains 416 galaxies observed with IFS, covering a wide range of Hubble types and stellar masses. Spectral synthesis techniques are applied to obtain radial profiles of the intensity of the star formation rate in the recent past, and the local sSFR. To emphasize the behavior of these properties for galaxies that are on and off the main sequence of star formation (MSSF) we stack the individual radial profiles in bins of galaxy morphology and stellar masses. Our main results are: a) The intensity of SFR shows declining profiles that exhibit very little differences between spirals. The dispersion between the profiles is significantly smaller in late type spirals. This confirms that the MSSF is a sequence of galaxies with nearly constant intensity of SFR b) sSFR values scale with Hubble type and increase radially outwards, wi...

  16. Upper Limit on Star Formation and Metal Enrichment in Minihalos

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of negative radiative feedback from resident stars in minihalos is performed. It is found that the most effective mechanism to suppress star formation is provided by infrared photons from resident stars via photo-detachment of ${\\rm H^-}$. It is shown that a stringent upper bound on (total stellar mass, metallicity) of ($\\sim 1000{\\rm M_\\odot}$, $-3.3\\pm 0.2$) in any newly minted atomic cooling halo can be placed, with the actual values possibly significantly lower. This has both important physical ramifications on formation of stars and supermassive black seeds in atomic cooling halos at high redshift, pertaining to processes of low temperature metal cooling, dust formation and fragmentation, and direct consequences on the faint end galaxy luminosity function at high redshift and cosmological reionization. The luminosity function of galaxies at the epoch of reionization may be substantially affected due to the combined effect of a diminished role of minihalos and an enhanced contribution from Pop...

  17. Star formation efficiency and flatten gradients in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Valdez, F; Peimbert, M

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss results from a chemical evolution model for M31 based on a pronounced inside-out scenario for the galactic formation. The model has been built to reproduce three observational constraints of the M31 disk: the radial distributions of the total baryonic mass, the gas mass, and the O/H abundance. The model shows excellent agreement, throughout the galactic disk, with the observed radial distributions of the SFR and with gradients for fifteen chemical elements. From observations, we find that the gas mass profile of M31 presents a peak between 9 and 11 kpc and that the SFR diminishes for r>12 kpc. To obtain a consistent set of O/H values from H II regions, we correct those gaseous abundances due to the effect of temperature variations and O trapped in dust grains. From reproducing the radial distributions of the gas mass, we find that the star formation efficiency is variable in space, for the whole disk, and is constant in time for most of the evolution (t12 kpc . This reduction is support...

  18. Star formation in the outskirts of disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, AMN

    2002-01-01

    The far outer regions of galactic disks allow an important probe of both star formation and galaxy formation. I discuss how observations of HII regions in these low gas density, low metallicity environments can shed light on the physical processes which drive galactic star formation. The history of

  19. The imprint of rapid star formation quenching on the spectral energy distributions of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Boselli, A.; Elbaz, D.; Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Charmandaris, V.; Schreiber, C.; Béthermin, M.; Baes, M.; Boquien, M.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Pappalardo, C.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2016-01-01

    In high density environments, the gas content of galaxies is stripped, leading to a rapid quenching of their star formation activity. This dramatic environmental effect, which is not related to typical passive evolution, is generally not taken into account in the star formation histories (SFHs) usually assumed to perform spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of these galaxies, yielding a poor fit of their stellar emission and, consequently, biased estimate of the star formation rate (SFR). In this work, we aim at reproducing this rapid quenching using a truncated delayed SFH that we implemented in the SED fitting code CIGALE. We show that the ratio between the instantaneous SFR and the SFR just before the quenching (rSFR) is well constrained as long as rest-frame UV data are available. This SED modeling is applied to the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS) containing isolated galaxies and sources falling in the dense environment of the Virgo cluster. The latter are Hi-deficient because of ram pressure stripping. We show that the truncated delayed SFH successfully reproduces their SED, while typical SFH assumptions fail. A good correlation is found between rSFR and Hi-def, the parameter that quantifies the gas deficiency of cluster galaxies, meaning that SED fitting results can be used to provide a tentative estimate of the gas deficiency of galaxies for which Hi observations are not available. The HRS galaxies are placed on the SFR-M∗ diagram showing that the Hi-deficient sources lie in the quiescent region, thus confirming previous studies. Using the rSFR parameter, we derive the SFR of these sources before quenching and show that they were previously on the main sequence relation. We show that the rSFR parameter is also recovered well for deeply obscured high redshift sources, as well as in the absence of IR data. SED fitting is thus a powerful tool for identifying galaxies that underwent a rapid star formation quenching.

  20. The relation between star formation rate and stellar mass of galaxies at z $\\sim$ 1-4

    CERN Document Server

    Katsianis, A; Wyithe, J S B

    2015-01-01

    The relation between the Star Formation Rate (SFR) and stellar mass (${\\rm M}_{\\star}$) of galaxies represents a fundamental constraint on galaxy formation. However, the observed amplitude of the star formation rate - stellar mass relation has not been successfully reproduced in simulations, indicating either that the halo accretion history and baryonic physics are poorly understood or that observations contain biases. In this paper, we examine the evolution of the SFR$-{\\rm M}_{\\star}$ relation of $z\\sim 1-4 $ galaxies and display the inconsistency between observed relations that are obtained using different techniques. We employ cosmological hydrodynamic simulations from various groups and compare these with a range of observations. The comparison suggests that using Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) to estimate star formation rates, dust corrections and stellar masses produces the most reliable SFR$-{\\rm M}_{\\star}$ relations. On the contrary, the combination of IR and UV luminosities (UV+IR) overpredic...

  1. Local and Global Radiative Feedback from Population III Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of recent work that focuses on understanding the radiative feedback processes that are potentially important during Population III star formation. Specifically, we examine the effect of the Lyman-Werner (photodissociating) background on the early stages of primordial star formation, which serves to delay the onset of star formation in a given halo but never suppresses it entirely. We also examine the effect that both photodissociating and ionizing radiation in I-fronts from nearby stellar systems have on the formation of primordial protostellar clouds. Depending on the strength of the incoming radiation field and the central density of the halos, Pop III star formation can be suppressed, unaffected, or even enhanced. Understanding these and other effects is crucial to modeling Population III star formation and to building the earliest generations of galaxies in the Universe.

  2. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  3. Physical Galaxy Pairs and Their Effects on Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Selim, I M; Bendary, R

    2014-01-01

    We present 776 truly physical galaxy pairs, 569 of them are close pairs and 208 false pairs from Karachentsev (1972) and Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995) catalogues, which contains 1012 galaxy pairs. Also we carried out star formation activity through the far-infrared emission (FIR) in physical (truly) interacting galaxies in some galaxy pairs and compared them with projection (optical) interacting galaxy pairs. We focused on the triggering of star formation by interactions and analyzed the enhancement of star formation activity in terms of truly physical galaxy pairs. The large fraction of star formation activity is probably due to the activity in the exchange of matter between the truly companions. The star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies in truly galaxy pairs is found to be more enhanced than the apparent pairs.

  4. Star formation properties of galaxy cluster A1767

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Yuan, Qi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abell 1767 is a dynamically relaxed, cD cluster of galaxies with a redshift of 0.0703. Among 250 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies within a projected radius of 2.5r_{200}, 243 galaxies (~ 97%) are spectroscopically covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on this homogeneous spectral sample, the stellar evolutionary synthesis code, STARLIGHT, is applied to investigate the stellar populations and star formation histories (SFHs) of cluster galaxies. The star formation properties of galaxies, such as mean stellar ages, metallicities, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs), are presented as the functions of local galaxy density. Strong environmental effect is found in the manner that massive galaxies in the high-density core region of cluster tend to have higher metallicities, longer mean stellar ages, and lower specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and their recent star formation activities have been remarkably suppressed. In addition, the correlations of the metallicity and SSFR...

  5. The Relation between Interstellar Turbulence and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Klessen, R S

    2004-01-01

    (ABBREVIATED) Understanding the formation of stars in galaxies is central to much of modern astrophysics. In this review the relation between interstellar turbulence and star formation is discussed. Supersonic turbulence can provide support against gravitational collapse on global scales, while at the same time it produces localized density enhancements that allow for collapse on small scales. The efficiency and timescale of stellar birth in Galactic gas clouds strongly depend on the properties of the interstellar turbulent velocity field, with slow, inefficient, isolated star formation being a hallmark of turbulent support, and fast, efficient, clustered star formation occurring in its absence. Star formation on scales of galaxies as a whole is expected to be controlled by the balance between gravity andturbulence, just like star formation on scales of individual interstellar gas clouds, but may be modulated by additional effects like cooling and differential rotation. The dominant mechanism for driving inte...

  6. Ram pressure induced star formation in Abell 3266

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Brittany

    An X-ray observation of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 3266 was obtained via the ROSAT PSPC. This information, along with spectroscopic data from the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-clusters Survey (i.e. WINGS), were used to investigate whether ram pressure is a mechanism that influences star formation. Galaxies exhibiting ongoing star formation are identified by the presence of strong Balmer lines (Hbeta), known to correspond to early type stars. Older galaxies where a rapid increase in star formation has recently ceased, known as E+A galaxies, are identified by strong Hbeta absorption coupled with little to no [OII] emission. The correlation between recent star formation and "high" ram pressure, as defined by Kapferer et al. (2009) as ≥ 5 x 10-11 dyn cm-2, was tested and lead to a contradiction of the previously held belief that ram pressure influences star formation on the global cluster scale.

  7. A Cautionary Note about Composite Galactic Star Formation Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, G.

    2016-07-01

    We explore the pitfalls that affect the comparison of the star formation relation for nearby molecular clouds with that for distant compact molecular clumps. We show that both relations behave differently in the ({{{Σ }}}{{gas}}, {{{Σ }}}{{SFR}}) space, where {{{Σ }}}{{gas}} and {{{Σ }}}{{SFR}} are, respectively, the gas and star formation rate surface densities, even when the physics of star formation is the same. This is because the star formation relation of nearby clouds relates the gas and star surface densities measured locally, that is, within a given interval of gas surface density, or at a given protostar location. We refer to such measurements as local measurements, and the corresponding star formation relation as the local relation. In contrast, the stellar content of a distant molecular clump remains unresolved. Only the mean star formation rate can be obtained, e.g., from the clump infrared luminosity. One clump therefore provides one single point to the ({{{Σ }}}{{gas}}, {{{Σ }}}{{SFR}}) space, that is, its mean gas surface density and star formation rate surface density. We refer to this star formation relation as a global relation since it builds on the global properties of molecular clumps. Its definition therefore requires an ensemble of cluster-forming clumps. We show that although the local and global relations have different slopes, this cannot per se be taken as evidence for a change in the physics of star formation with gas surface density. It therefore appears that great caution should be taken when physically interpreting a composite star formation relation, that is, a relation combining local and global relations.

  8. The impact of galactic environment on star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Adamo, Angela; Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon; SFNG Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    While spiral arms are the most prominent sites for star formation in disk galaxies, interarm star formation contributes significantly to the overall star formation budget. However, it is still an open question if the star formation proceeds differently in the arm and inter-arm environment. We use deep VLT/MUSE optical IFU spectroscopy to resolve and fully characterize the physical properties of 428 interarm and arm HII regions in the nearby grand design spiral galaxy NGC 628. Unlike molecular clouds (the fuel for star formation) which exhibit a clear dependence on galactic environment, we find that most HII region properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. One clear exception is the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) contribution to the arm and interarm flux (traced via the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio inside and outside of the HII region boundaries). We find a systematically higher DIG background within HII regions, particularly on the spiral arms. Correcting for this DIG contamination can result in significant (70%) changes to the star formation rate measured. We also show preliminary results comparing well-corrected star formation rates from our MUSE HII regions to ALMA CO(2-1) molecular gas observations at matched 1"=50pc resolution, tracing the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law at the scales relevant to the physics of star formation. We estimate the timescales relevant for GMC evolution using distance from the spiral arm as a proxy for age, and test whether star formation feedback or galactic-scale dynamical processes dominate GMC disruption.

  9. Local Magnetic Field Role in Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Ho, Paul T P; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Chen, Huei-Ru V; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Hua-bai; Li, Zhi-Yun; Liu, Hau-Yu B; Padovani, Marco; Qiu, Keping; Rao, Ramprasad; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Ching, Tao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    We highlight distinct and systematic observational features of magnetic field morphologies in polarized submm dust continuum. We illustrate this with specific examples and show statistical trends from a sample of 50 star-forming regions.

  10. Massive star formation in Wolf-Rayet galaxies. V: Star formation rates, masses and the importance of galaxy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We have performed a comprehensive analysis of a sample of 20 starburst galaxies, most of them classified as Wolf-Rayet galaxies. In this paper, the last of the series, we analyze the global properties of our galaxy sample using multiwavelength data (X-ray, FUV, optical, NIR, FIR, and radio). The agreement between our Ha-based SFR and those provided by indicators at other wavelengths is remarkable, but we consider that the new Ha-based calibration provided by Calzetti et al. (2007) should be preferred over older calibrations. The FUV-based SFR provides a powerful tool to analyze the star-formation activity in both global and local scales independently to the Ha emission. We provide empirical relationships between the ionized gas mass, neutral gas mass, dust mass, stellar mass, and dynamical mass with the B-luminosity. Although all mass estimations increase with increasing luminosity, we find important deviations to the general trend in some objects, that seem to be consequence of their particular ev...

  11. Star formation: Submillimeter observations and data reduction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Michael

    2010-12-01

    deltathetaint of the magnetic field over a spatial range of eight octaves. We compare our estimate for deltathetaint with numerical simulations to place a constraint on the embedded magnetic field strength. Our findings show that an intermediate to weak field is likely present in this cloud. Keywords: instrumentation, polarimeters, data analysis, image processing, submillimeter, star formation, magnetic fields, dust, NGC 6334 I(N), NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, molecules

  12. The Milky Way as a Star Formation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, S.; Bally, J.; Glover, S.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Vázquez-Semadeni, E.; Zavagno, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Martin, P.

    The cycling of material from the interstellar medium (ISM) into stars and the return of stellar ejecta into the ISM is the engine that drives the galactic ecology in normal spirals. This ecology is a cornerstone in the formation and evolution of galaxies through cosmic time. There remain major observational and theoretical challenges in determining the processes responsible for converting the low-density, diffuse components of the ISM into dense molecular clouds, forming dense filaments and clumps, fragmenting them into stars, expanding OB associations and bound clusters, and characterizing the feedback that limits the rate and efficiency of star formation. This formidable task can be attacked effectively for the first time thanks to the synergistic combination of new global-scale surveys of the Milky Way from infrared (IR) to radio wavelengths, offering the possibility of bridging the gap between local and extragalactic star-formation studies. The Herschel Space Observatory Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) survey, with its five-band 70-500-μm full Galactic Plane mapping at 6"-36" resolution, is the keystone of a set of continuum surveys that include the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE)(360)+MIPSGAL@Spitzer, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL)@Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS)@Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), and CORNISH@Very Large Array (VLA). This suite enables us to measure the Galactic distribution and physical properties of dust on all scales and in all components of the ISM from diffuse clouds to filamentary complexes and hundreds of thousands of dense clumps. A complementary suite of spectroscopic surveys in various atomic and molecular tracers is providing the chemical fingerprinting of dense clumps and filaments, as well as essential kinematic information to derive distances

  13. Radiation driven implosion and triggered star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, Thomas G; Whitworth, Anthony P; Hubber, David A; Walch, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    We present simulations of initially stable isothermal clouds exposed to ionising radiation from a discrete external source, and identify the conditions that lead to radiatively driven implosion and star formation. We use the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code SEREN and an HEALPix-based photo-ionisation algorithm to simulate the propagation of the ionising radiation and the resulting dynamical evolution of the cloud. We find that the incident ionising flux, $\\Phi_{_{\\rm LyC}}$, is the critical parameter determining the cloud evolution. At moderate fluxes, a large fraction of the cloud mass is converted into stars. As the flux is increased, the fraction of the cloud mass that is converted into stars and the mean masses of the individual stars both decrease. Very high fluxes simply disperse the cloud. Newly-formed stars tend to be concentrated along the central axis of the cloud (i.e. the axis pointing in the direction of the incident flux). For given cloud parameters, the time, $t_{_\\star}$, at which star for...

  14. Hierarchical Star Formation in Nearby LEGUS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Andrews, Jennifer; Annibali, Francesca; Bright, Stacey N; Calzetti, Daniela; Cignoni, Michele; Evans, Aaron S; Gallagher, John S; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Grebel, Eva K; Hunter, Deidre A; Johnson, Kelsey; Kim, Hwi; Lee, Janice; Sabbi, Elena; Smith, Linda; Thilker, David; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarf...

  15. Molecular cloud regulated star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C M; Okamoto, T

    2007-01-01

    We describe a numerical implementation of star formation in disk galaxies, in which the conversion of cooling gas to stars in the multiphase interstellar medium is governed by the rate at which molecular clouds are formed and destroyed. In the model, clouds form from thermally unstable ambient gas and get destroyed by feedback from massive stars and thermal conduction. Feedback in the ambient phase cycles gas into a hot galactic fountain or wind. We model the ambient gas hydrodynamically using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). However, we cannot resolve the Jeans mass in the cold and dense molecular gas and, therefore, represent the cloud phase with ballistic particles that coagulate when colliding. We show that this naturally produces a multiphase medium with cold clouds, a warm disk, hot supernova bubbles and a hot, tenuous halo. Our implementation of this model is based on the Gadget N-Body code. We illustrate the model by evolving an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy and study the properties of a disk f...

  16. Star Formation Law in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The Schmidt law (SF law) in the Milky Way was investigated using 3D distribution maps of HII regions, HI and molecular (\\Htwo) gases with spatial resolutions of $\\sim 1$ kpc in the Galactic plane and a few tens of pc in the vertical direction. HII regions were shown to be distributed in a star-forming (SF) disk with nearly constant vertical full thickness 92 pc in spatial coincidence with the molecular gas disk. The vertically averaged volume star formation rate (SFR) $\\rho_{\\rm SFR}$ in the SF disk is related to the surface SFR $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$ by $\\rho_{\\rm SFR} /[{\\rm M_\\odot y^{-1} kpc^{-3}}] =9.26\\times \\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}/[{\\rm M_\\odot y^{-1} kpc^{-2}}]$. The SF law fitted by a single power law of gas density in the form of $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR} \\propto \\rho_{\\rm SFR} \\propto \\rho_{\\rm gas}^\\alpha$ and $\\propto \\Sigma_{\\rm gas}^\\beta$ showed indices of $\\alpha=0.78 \\pm 0.05$ for $\\rho_{\\rm H_2}$ and $2.15 \\pm 0.08$ for $\\rho_{\\rm total}$, and $\\beta=1.14\\pm 0.23$ for $\\Sigma_{\\rm total}$, where $\\rho$ and $\\...

  17. Star formation around supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M

    2008-08-22

    The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.

  18. TESTING HOMOGENEITY WITH GALAXY STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul [Institut de Ciences del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08024 Barcelona (Spain); Tojeiro, Rita; Maartens, Roy [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Heavens, Alan [Imperial Centre for Inference and Cosmology, Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2013-01-01

    Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past light cone, while observations take place on the light cone. The star formation history (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked luminous red galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal-area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2 < z < 0.5), which correspond to 120 blocks of volume {approx}0.04 Gpc{sup 3}. Using the SFH in a time period that samples the history of the universe between look-back times 11.5 and 13.4 Gyr as a proxy for homogeneity, we calculate the posterior distribution for the excess large-scale variance due to inhomogeneity, and find that the most likely solution is no extra variance at all. At 95% credibility, there is no evidence of deviations larger than 5.8%.

  19. The MOSDEF Survey: The Strong Agreement between Hα and UV-to-FIR Star Formation Rates for z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaei, Irene; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Barro, Guillermo; Conroy, Charlie; Coil, Alison L.; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Pasha, Imad; Inami, Hanae

    2016-04-01

    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic spectral energy distribution (SED)-based star formation rates (SFRs) for z˜ 2 galaxies. For this comparison, we used 17 star-forming galaxies selected from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, with 3σ detections for Hα and at least two IR bands (Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm, and in some cases Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 μm). The galaxies have total IR (8-1000 μm) luminosities of ˜ 1011.4-1012.4 L⊙ and SFRs of ˜ 30-250 M⊙ yr-1. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models—which include both stellar and dust emission—and compare the inferred SFRs with the SFR(Hα, Hβ) values corrected for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements. The two SFRs agree with a scatter of 0.17 dex. Our results imply that the Balmer decrement accurately predicts the obscuration of the nebular lines and can be used to robustly calculate SFRs for star-forming galaxies at z˜ 2 with SFRs up to ˜ 200 M⊙ yr-1. We also use our data to assess SFR indicators based on modeling the UV-to-mid-IR SEDs or by adding SFR(UV) and SFR(IR), for which the latter is based on the mid-IR only or on the full IR SED. All these SFRs show a poorer agreement with SFR(Hα, Hβ) and in some cases large systematic biases are observed. Finally, we show that the SFR and dust attenuation derived from the UV-to-near-IR SED alone are unbiased when assuming a delayed exponentially declining star formation history. Based on observations made with the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Star formation near an obscured AGN : Variations in the initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocuk, S.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    The conditions that affect the formation of stars in radiatively and mechanically active environments are quite different from the conditions that apply to our local interstellar neighborhood. In these galactic environments, a variety of feedback processes can play a significant role in shaping the

  1. Star Formation and Cloud Dynamics in the Galactic Bar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Volker

    The Inner Galaxy (IG) that is the Galactic Bar Region (GBR) and the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) including the Galactic Center (GC) are, despite being the sites of dramatic processes and unique sources, still only incompletely understood. Detailed new datasets from the Herschel Space Observatory can be systematically combined with older archival material to enable a new and more complete analysis of the region, its large-scale dynamics, its unusual giant molecular clouds, and the likely influences of its bar and its supermassive black hole. Such a study is both timely and important: the region has affected the structure and evolution of the galaxy; its individual sources are opportunities to examine star formation (for example) under extreme conditions; the processes feeding the CMZ and, subsequently, its black hole are important; and not least, it is a nearby template for the inner regions of other galaxies. The Herschel Space Observatory has provided us with exciting new datasets including full FIR photometric maps and highand low-resolution far-infrared/submillimeter spectra of key sources and lines of the locations of dynamical importance. All these datasets are publicly available from the Herschel Science Archive. Our experienced team has already developed preliminary models, and we propose a thorough investigation to combine the Herschel datasets with Spitzer and WISE datasets. We will supplement them with ground-based observations in cases when it will improve the results. We will then analyze the data and use the results to refine the models and improve our understanding of this key region. Our specific goal is to characterize and model the 3 giant high-velocity molecular cloud clumps in the Galaxy Bar Region (GBR) in detail and to combine the conclusions to produce an improved model of the IG. We have seven tasks: (1) identify all smaller scale gas and dust cores using archival Herschel FIR photometric observations and obtain their physical characteristics

  2. On the global triggering mechanism of star formation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Andres

    2009-01-01

    We study the large-scale triggering of star formation in galaxies. We find that the largest mass-scale not stabilized by rotation, a well defined quantity in a rotating system and with clear dynamical meaning, strongly correlates with the star formation rate in a wide range of galaxies. We find that this relation can be explained in terms of the threshold for stability and the amount of turbulence allowed to sustain the system in equilibrium. Using this relation we also derived the observed correlation between the star formation rate and the luminosity of the brightest young stellar cluster.

  3. Star Formation and the ISM in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, L M; Dohm-Palmer, R C; Lo, K Y

    2000-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the atomic interstellar medium in nearby dwarf galaxies reveal evidence for warm and cold neutral gas, just like the phases in our own Galaxy. The cold or quiescent phase (about 20% of the HI in the galaxies studied, except for LGS 3) seems to be associated with star formation activity--- it may mark the regions where the conditions are right for star formation. These results help to explain the patterns of star formation activity which are seen in color-magnitude data for the dwarf irregulars.

  4. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Galaxy Clusters from $z=1-2$: a Multi-wavelength Analysis Featuring $Herschel$/PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Chung, Sun Mi; Cybulski, Ryan; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony; Jannuzi, Buell; Stanford, S Adam; Snyder, Gregory; Stern, Daniel; Zeimann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed, multi-wavelength study of star formation (SF) and AGN activity in 11 near-infrared (IR) selected, spectroscopically confirmed, massive ($\\gtrsim10^{14}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) galaxy clusters at $1dust-obscured SF rates (SFRs), and specific-SFRs for cluster galaxies as a function of cluster-centric radius and redshift. In good agreement with previous studies, we find that SF in cluster galaxies at $z\\gtrsim1.4$ is largely consistent with field galaxies at similar epochs, indicating an era before significant quenching in the cluster cores ($r<0.5\\,$Mpc). This is followed by a ...

  5. The Spitzer c2d Legacy Results: Star Formation Rates and Efficiencies; Evolution and Lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Neal J; Jørgensen, Jes K; Enoch, Melissa L; Merín, Bruno; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Alcalá, Juan M; Myers, Philip C; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Huard, Tracy L; Allen, Lori E; Harvey, Paul M; van Kempen, Tim; Blake, Geoffrey A; Koerner, David W; Mundy, Lee G; Padgett, Deborah L; Sargent, Anneila I

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) The c2d Spitzer Legacy project obtained images and photometry with both IRAC and MIPS instruments for five large, nearby molecular clouds. This paper combines information drawn from studies of individual clouds into a combined and updated statistical analysis of star formation rates and efficiencies, numbers and lifetimes for SED classes, and clustering properties. Current star formation efficiencies range from 3% to 6%. Taken together, the five clouds are producing about 260 solar masses of stars per Myr. The star formation surface density is more than an order of magnitude larger than would be predicted from the Kennicutt relation used in extragalactic studies. Measured against the dense gas probed by the maps of dust continuum emission, the efficiencies are much higher, and the current stock of dense cores would be exhausted in 1.8 Myr on average. The derived lifetime for the Class I phase is 0.44 to 0.54 Myr, considerably longer than some estimates. Similarly, the lifetime for the Class 0 SED c...

  6. The end of star formation in Chamaeleon I ? A LABOCA census of starless and protostellar cores

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Parise, B; André, Ph; Hatchell, J; Jørgensen, J K; Bontemps, S; Weiß, A; Menten, K M; Muders, D; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015733

    2011-01-01

    Chamaeleon I is the most active region in terms of star formation in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud complex. Its population of prestellar and protostellar cores is not known and a controversy exists concerning its history of star formation. Our goal is to characterize the earliest stages of star formation in this cloud. We used the bolometer array LABOCA at APEX to map the cloud in dust continuum emission at 870 micron. The detected sources are analysed by carefully taking into account the spatial filtering inherent in the data reduction process. A search for associations with YSOs is performed using Spitzer data and the SIMBAD database. Most of the detected 870 micron emission is distributed in 5 filaments. We identify 59 starless cores, one candidate first hydrostatic core, and 21 sources associated with more evolved YSOs. The starless cores are only found above a visual extinction threshold of 5 mag. They are less dense than those detected in other nearby molecular clouds by a factor of a few on average. T...

  7. Multiwavelength study of the star formation in the bar of NGC 2903

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, G; Zurita, A

    2010-01-01

    NGC 2903 is a nearby barred spiral with an active starburst in the center and Hii regions distributed along its bar. We aim to analyse the star formation properties in the bar region of NGC 2903 and study the links with the typical bar morphological features. A combination of space and ground-based data from the far-ultraviolet to the sub-millimeter spectral ranges is used to create a panchromatic view of the NGC 2903 bar. We produce two catalogues: one for the current star formation regions, as traced by the halpha compact emission, and a second one for the ultraviolet (UV) emitting knots, containing positions and luminosities. From them we have obtained ultraviolet colours, star formation rates, dust attenuation and halpha EWs, and their spatial distribution have been analysed. Stellar cluster ages have been estimated using stellar population synthesis models (Starburst99). NGC 2903 is a complex galaxy, with a very different morphology on each spectral band. The CO(J=1-0) and the 3.6 micron emission trace e...

  8. The rate and latency of star formation in dense, massive clumps in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Heyer, M; Urquhart, J S; Csengeri, T; Wienen, M; Leurini, S; Menten, K; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    Newborn stars form within the localized, high density regions of molecular clouds. The sequence and rate at which stars form in dense clumps and the dependence on local and global environments are key factors in developing descriptions of stellar production in galaxies. We seek to observationally constrain the rate and latency of star formation in dense massive clumps that are distributed throughout the Galaxy and to compare these results to proposed prescriptions for stellar production. A sample of 24 micron-based Class~I protostars are linked to dust clumps that are embedded within molecular clouds selected from the APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy. We determine the fraction of star-forming clumps, f*, that imposes a constraint on the latency of star formation in units of a clump's lifetime. Protostellar masses are estimated from models of circumstellar environments of young stellar objects from which star formation rates are derived. Physical properties of the clumps are calculated from 870 m...

  9. The link between solenoidal turbulence and slow star formation in G0.253+0.016

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, C; Longmore, S N; Kruijssen, J M D; Bally, J; Contreras, Y; Crocker, R M; Garay, G; Jackson, J M; Testi, L; Walsh, A J

    2016-01-01

    Star formation in the Galactic disc is primarily controlled by gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. It is not clear that this also applies to star formation near the Galactic Centre. Here we determine the turbulence and star formation in the CMZ cloud G0.253+0.016. Using maps of 3mm dust emission and HNCO intensity-weighted velocity obtained with ALMA, we measure the volume-density variance $\\sigma_{\\rho/\\rho_0} = 1.3 \\pm 0.5$ and turbulent Mach number $\\mathcal{M} = 11 \\pm 3$. Combining these with turbulence simulations to constrain the plasma $\\beta = 0.34 \\pm 0.35$, we reconstruct the turbulence driving parameter $b = 0.22 \\pm 0.12$ in G0.253+0.016. This low value of $b$ indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving of the turbulence in G0.253+0.016. By contrast, typical clouds in the Milky Way disc and spiral arms have a significant compressive (curl-free) driving component ($b > 0.4$). We speculate that shear causes the solenoidal driving in G0.253+0.016 and show that this may reduce the star forma...

  10. Effects of Spiral Arms on Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred-spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Woo-Young

    2014-01-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) occurring in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no-arm or corotating arms is active only during about the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion makes the ring star formation both enhanced and prolonged significantly in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ~ 3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ~ 45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no noticeable age gradient is found in the...

  11. Early stage massive star formation near the Galactic Center: Sgr C

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, Sarah; Johnston, Katharine; Beuther, Henrik; Bally, John; Cyagnowski, Claudia J; Battersby, Cara

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved HII region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object measuring ~10" in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C HII region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H2 and Brackett gamma emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ~10^3 Msun, with column densities of 1-2 x 10^24 cm-2. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ~10^5 Msun of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favourable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star f...

  12. The stellar masses and specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Cirasuolo, Michele; Hjorth, Jens; Hayward, Christopher C; Watson, Darach

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the stellar masses (M*), and hence specific star-formation rates (sSFRs) of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) is crucial for determining their role in the cosmic history of galaxy/star formation. However, there is no consensus over the typical M* of SMGs with the widely differing results reported from studies of z~2-3 SMGs. Specifically, even for the same set of SMG, the reported average M* have ranged over an order of magnitude, from 5x10^10 Mo to 5x10^11 Mo. Here we study how different methods of analysis can lead to such widely varying results. We find that, contrary to recent claims in the literature, potential contamination of 3-8um photometry from hot dust associated with an active nucleus is not the origin of the discrepancies in derived M*. Instead, we expose in detail how inferred M* depends on assumptions of intial mass function, different evolutionary synthesis models, and different star-formation histories. We review current observational evidence for and against these alternatives as wel...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS) (Ashby+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, M. L.; Mahajan, S.; Smith, H. A.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Raychaudhury, S.; Zezas, A.; Barmby, P.; Bonfini, P.; Cao, C.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, C.; Ishihara, D.; Kaneda, H.; Lyttle, V.; Madden, S.; Papovich, C.; Sturm, E.; Surace, J.; Wu, H.; Zhu, Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    Star formation is arguably the most important physical process in the cosmos. It is a fundamental driver of galaxy evolution and the ultimate source of most of the energy emitted by galaxies. A correct interpretation of star formation rate (SFR) measures is therefore essential to our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Unfortunately, however, no single SFR estimator is universally available or even applicable in all circumstances: the numerous galaxies found in deep surveys are often too faint (or too distant) to yield significant detections with most standard SFR measures, and until now there have been no global, multi-band observations of nearby galaxies that span all the conditions under which star-formation is taking place. To address this need in a systematic way, we have undertaken a multi-band survey of all types of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe. This project, the Star Formation Reference Survey (SFRS), is based on a statistically valid sample of 369 nearby galaxies that span all existing combinations of dust temperature, SFR, and specific SFR. Furthermore, because the SFRS is blind with respect to AGN fraction and environment it serves as a means to assess the influence of these factors on SFR. Our panchromatic global flux measurements (including GALEX FUV+NUV, SDSS ugriz, 2MASS JHKs, Spitzer 3-8um, and others) furnish uniform SFR measures and the context in which their reliability can be assessed. This paper describes the SFRS survey strategy, defines the sample, and presents the multi-band photometry collected to date. (7 data files).

  14. Turbulence Sets the Initial Conditions for Star Formation in High-pressure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Longmore, S. N.; Jackson, J. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Bastian, N.; Contreras, Y.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k 107 K cm-3) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  15. TURBULENCE SETS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION IN HIGH-PRESSURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW, 1710 (Australia); Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Jackson, J. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kruijssen, J. M. D. [Max-Planck Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Alves, J. F. [University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Bally, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 8030 (United States); Foster, J. B. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101 New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Garay, G. [Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Walsh, A. J., E-mail: Jill.Rathborne@csiro.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2014-11-10

    Despite the simplicity of theoretical models of supersonically turbulent, isothermal media, their predictions successfully match the observed gas structure and star formation activity within low-pressure (P/k < 10{sup 5} K cm{sup –3}) molecular clouds in the solar neighborhood. However, it is unknown whether or not these theories extend to clouds in high-pressure (P/k > 10{sup 7} K cm{sup –3}) environments, like those in the Galaxy's inner 200 pc central molecular zone (CMZ) and in the early universe. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 3 mm dust continuum emission within a cloud, G0.253+0.016, which is immersed in the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. While the log-normal shape and dispersion of its column density probability distribution function (PDF) are strikingly similar to those of solar neighborhood clouds, there is one important quantitative difference: its mean column density is one to two orders of magnitude higher. Both the similarity and difference in the PDF compared to those derived from solar neighborhood clouds match predictions of turbulent cloud models given the high-pressure environment of the CMZ. The PDF shows a small deviation from log-normal at high column densities confirming the youth of G0.253+0.016. Its lack of star formation is consistent with the theoretically predicted, environmentally dependent volume density threshold for star formation which is orders of magnitude higher than that derived for solar neighborhood clouds. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that the current theoretical understanding of molecular cloud structure derived from the solar neighborhood also holds in high-pressure environments. We therefore suggest that these theories may be applicable to understand star formation in the early universe.

  16. THE STAR FORMATION LAWS OF EDDINGTON-LIMITED STAR-FORMING DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Armour, J. N.; Indergaard, J., E-mail: david.ballantyne@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Two important avenues into understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies are the Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S) and Elmegreen-Silk (E-S) laws. These relations connect the surface densities of gas and star formation ({Sigma}{sub gas} and {Sigma}-dot{sub *}, respectively) in a galaxy. To elucidate the K-S and E-S laws for disks where {Sigma}{sub gas} {approx}> 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we compute 132 Eddington-limited star-forming disk models with radii spanning tens to hundreds of parsecs. The theoretically expected slopes ( Almost-Equal-To 1 for the K-S law and Almost-Equal-To 0.5 for the E-S relation) are relatively robust to spatial averaging over the disks. However, the star formation laws exhibit a strong dependence on opacity that separates the models by the dust-to-gas ratio that may lead to the appearance of a erroneously large slope. The total infrared luminosity (L{sub TIR}) and multiple carbon monoxide (CO) line intensities were computed for each model. While L{sub TIR} can yield an estimate of the average {Sigma}-dot{sub *} that is correct to within a factor of two, the velocity-integrated CO line intensity is a poor proxy for the average {Sigma}{sub gas} for these warm and dense disks, making the CO conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) all but useless. Thus, observationally derived K-S and E-S laws at these values of {Sigma}{sub gas} that uses any transition of CO will provide a poor measurement of the underlying star formation relation. Studies of the star formation laws of Eddington-limited disks will require a high-J transition of a high density molecular tracer, as well as a sample of galaxies with known metallicity estimates.

  17. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Schuster, Karl-Friedrich [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/ Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  18. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-09-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  19. Negative feedback effects on star formation history and cosmic reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei; Xiang, Shouping; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2008-01-01

    After considering the effects of negative feedback on the process of star formation, we explore the relationship between star formation process and the associated feedback, by investigating how the mechanical feedback from supernovae(SNe) and radiative feedback from luminous objects regulate the star formation rate and therefore affect the cosmic reionization.Based on our present knowledge of the negative feedback theory and some numerical simulations, we construct an analytic model in the framework of the Lambda cold dark matter model. In certain parameter regions, our model can explain some observational results properly. In large halos(T_vir>10000 K), both mechanical and radiative feedback have a similar behavior: the relative strength of negative feedback reduces as the redshift decreases. In contrast, in small halos (T_vir<10000 K$) that are thought to breed the first stars at early time, the radiative feedback gets stronger when the redshift decreases. And the star formation rate in these small halos...

  20. Star Formation Triggered by Low-Mass Clump Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsionas, Spyridon; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    We investigate by means of high-resolution numerical simulations the phenomenology of star formation triggered by low-velocity collisions between low-mass molecular clumps. The simulations are performed using an SPH code which satisfies the Jeans condition by invoking On-the-Fly Particle Splitting (Kitsionas & Whitworth 2002). The efficiency of star formation appears to increase with increasing clump mass and/or decreasing impact parameter b and/or increasing clump velocity. For bcompressed layers which fragment into filaments that break up into cores. Protostellar objects then condense out of the cores and accrete from them. The resulting accretion rates are comparable to those of Class 0 objects. The densities in the filaments are sufficient that they could be mapped in ammonia or CS line radiation in nearby star formation regions. The phenomenology of star formation observed in our simulations compares rather well with the observed filamentary distribution of young stars in Taurus (Hartmann 2002).

  1. STAR FORMATION IN THE OUTER DISK OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Cote, Stephanie [Canadian Gemini Office, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria (Canada); Schade, David, E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: Stephanie.Cote@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: David.Schade@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria (Canada)

    2012-09-20

    We combine new deep and wide field of view H{alpha} imaging of a sample of eight nearby (d Almost-Equal-To 17 Mpc) spiral galaxies with new and archival H I and CO imaging to study the star formation and the star formation regulation in the outer disk. We find that, in agreement with previous studies, star formation in the outer disk has low covering fractions, and star formation is typically organized into spiral arms. The star formation in the outer disk is at extremely low levels, with typical star formation rate surface densities of {approx}10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We find that the ratio of the radial extent of detected H II regions to the radius of the H I disk is typically {approx}>85%. This implies that in order to further our understanding of the implications of extended star formation, we must further our understanding of the formation of extended H I disks. We measure the gravitational stability of the gas disk, and find that the outer gaseous disk is typically a factor of {approx}2 times more stable than the inner star-forming disk. We measure the surface density of outer disk H I arms, and find that the disk is closer to gravitational instability along these arms. Therefore, it seems that spiral arms are a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for star formation in the outer disk. We use an estimation of the flaring of the outer gas disk to illustrate the effect of flaring on the Schmidt power-law index; we find that including flaring increases the agreement between the power-law indices of the inner and outer disks.

  2. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, J S

    2001-01-01

    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting low-mass disk galaxies.

  3. Fuel Efficient Galaxies: Sustaining Star Formation with Stellar Mass Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Samuel N

    2010-01-01

    We examine the importance of secular stellar mass loss for fueling ongoing star formation in disk galaxies during the late stages of their evolution. For a galaxy of a given stellar mass, we calculate the total mass loss rate of its entire stellar population using star formation histories derived from the observed evolution of the M*-star formation rate relation, along with the predictions of standard stellar evolution models for stellar mass loss for a variety of initial stellar mass functions. Using cosmological simulations of galaxy formation, we test a prescription for modeling the rate at which gas that was returned by stars to interstellar medium will be consumed by star formation. Our model shows that recycled gas from stellar mass loss can provide most or all of the fuel required to sustain the current level of star formation in late type galaxies. Stellar mass loss can therefore remove the tension between the low gas infall rates that are derived from observations and the relatively rapid star format...

  4. Bubble-Induced Star Formation in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Barnes, David J; Grand, Robert J J; Rahimi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to WLM. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae (SNe) feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor inter-stellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from lar...

  5. Star Formation Isochrone Surfaces: Clues on Star Formation Quenching in Dense Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Calvo, M A; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The star formation history of galaxies is a complex process usually considered to be stochastic in nature, for which we can only give average descriptions such as the color-density relation. In this work we follow star-forming gas particles in a hydrodynamical N-body simulation back in time in order to study their initial spatial configuration. By keeping record of the time when a gas particle started forming stars we can produce gas-star isochrone surfaces delineating the surfaces of accreting gas that begin producing stars at different times. These accretion surfaces are closely packed inside dense regions, intersecting each other, and as a result galaxies inside proto-clusters stop accreting gas early, naturally explaining the color dependence on density. The process described here has a purely gravitational / geometrical origin, arguably operating at a more fundamental level than complex processes such as AGN and supernovae, and providing a conceptual origin for the color-density relation.

  6. The Bursty Star Formation Histories of Low-mass Galaxies at $0.4Star Formation Rates Measured from FUV and H$\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Yicheng; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Krumholz, Mark R; Trump, Jonathan R; Willner, S P; Amorín, Ricardo; Barro, Guillermo; Bell, Eric F; Gardner, Jonathan P; Gawiser, Eric; Hathi, Nimish P; Koekemoer, Anton M; Pacifici, Camilla; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen; Teplitz, Harry I; Yesuf, Hassen

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the burstiness of star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies at $0.4star formation rates (SFRs) measured from FUV (1500 \\AA) and H$\\beta$ (FUV--to--H$\\beta$ ratio). Our sample contains 164 galaxies down to stellar mass (M*) of $10^{8.5} M_\\odot$ in the CANDELS GOODS-N region, where TKRS Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and HST/WFC3 F275W images from CANDELS and HDUV are available. When the ratio of FUV- and H$\\beta$-derived SFRs is measured, dust extinction correction is negligible (except for very dusty galaxies) with the Calzetti attenuation curve. The FUV--to--H$\\beta$ ratio of our sample increases with the decrease of M* and SFR. The median ratio is $\\sim$1 at M* $\\sim 10^{10} M_\\odot$ (or SFR = 20 $M_\\odot$/yr) and increases to $\\sim$1.6 at M* $\\sim 10^{8.5} M_\\odot$ (or SFR $\\sim 0.5 M_\\odot$/yr). At M* $< 10^{9.5} M_\\odot$, our median FUV--to--H$\\beta$ ratio is higher than that of local galaxies at the same M*, implying a redshift evolution. Bursty SFH on a ...

  7. CLOSE-UP OF STAR FORMATION IN ANTENNAE GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across. [Left images] The collision triggers the birth of new stars in brilliant blue star clusters, the brightest of which contains roughly a million stars. The star clusters are blue because they are very young, the youngest being only a few million years old, a mere blink of the eye on the astronomical time scale. [Right images] These close-up views of the cores of each galaxy show entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center. The nucleus of NGC 4038 (lower right) is obscured by dust which dims and reddens starlight by scattering the shorter, bluer wavelengths. This is also the reason the young star clusters in the dusty regions appear red instead of blue. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

  8. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. I. Active nuclei, star formation, and galactic winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Trevisan, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, 12227-010, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mamon, G. A., E-mail: eosullivan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095 CNRS and UMPC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ∼400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ∼0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  9. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. I. Active Nuclei, Star Formation, and Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Giacintucci, S.; Trevisan, M.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ~400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ~0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  10. A GALAXY BLAZES WITH STAR FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Most galaxies form new stars at a fairly slow rate, but members of a rare class known as 'starburst' galaxies blaze with extremely active star formation. Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope are perfecting a technique to determine the history of starburst activity in galaxies by using the colors of star clusters. Measuring the clusters' colors yields information about stellar temperatures. Since young stars are blue, and older stars redder, the colors can be related to the ages, somewhat similar to counting the rings in a fallen tree trunk in order to determine the tree's age. The galaxy NGC 3310 is forming clusters of new stars at a prodigious rate. Astronomer Gerhardt Meurer of The Johns Hopkins University leads a team of collaborators who are studying several starburst galaxies, including NGC 3310, which is showcased in this month's Hubble Heritage image. There are several hundred star clusters in NGC 3310, visible in the Heritage image as the bright blue diffuse objects that trace the galaxy's spiral arms. Each of these star clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars, a process that takes less than 100,000 years. In addition, hundreds of individual young, luminous stars can be seen throughout the galaxy. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. Measurements in this image of the wide range of cluster colors show that they have ages ranging from about one million up to more than one hundred million years. This suggests that the starburst 'turned on' over 100 million years ago. It may have been triggered when a companion galaxy collided with NGC 3310. These observations may change astronomers' view of starbursts. Starbursts were once thought to be brief episodes, resulting from catastrophic events like a galactic collision. However, the wide range of cluster ages in NGC 3310 suggests that the starbursting can continue for an extended interval, once

  11. Extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions: a new paradigm for high star formation density events in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Thi, Wing-Fai; Viti, Serena

    2010-01-01

    We examine in detail the recent proposal that extreme Cosmic-Ray-Dominated-Regions (CRDRs) characterize the ISM of galaxies during events of high-density star formation, fundamentally altering its initial conditions (Papadopoulos 2010). Solving the coupled chemical and thermal state equations for dense UV-shielded gas reveals that the large cosmic ray energy densities in such systems (U_{CR}~(few)x(10^3-10^4) U_{CR,Gal}) will indeed raise the minimum temperature of this phase (where the initial conditions of star formation are set) from ~10K (as in the Milky Way) to ~(50-100)K. Moreover in such extreme CRDRs the gas temperature remains fully decoupled from that of the dust, with T_{kin} >> T_{dust}, even at high densities (n(H_2)~10^5--10^6 cm^{-3}), quite unlike CRDRs in the Milky Way where T_k~T_{dust} when n(H_2) >= 10^5 cm^{-3}. These dramatically different star formation initial conditions will: a) boost the Jeans mass of UV-shielded gas regions by factors of ~10--100 with respect to those in quiescent o...

  12. Star Formation in the DR21 Region (A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated mosaic Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion). New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud. The colorful image (top panel) is a large-scale composite mosaic assembled from data collected at a variety of different wavelengths. Views at visible wavelengths appear blue, near-infrared light is depicted as green, and mid-infrared data from the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope is portrayed as red. The result is a contrast between structures seen in visible light (blue) and those observed in the infrared (yellow and red). A quick glance shows that most of the action in this image is revealed to the unique eyes of Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. Each of the constituent images is shown below the large mosaic. The Digital Sky Survey (DSS) image (lower left) provides a familiar view of deep space, with stars scattered around a dark field. The reddish hue is from gas heated by foreground stars in this region. This fluorescence fades away in the near-infrared Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) image (lower center), but other features start to appear through the obscuring clouds of dust, now increasingly transparent. Many more stars are discerned in

  13. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Joanna S; Trump, Jonathan R; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ~ sim 40% more low-mass and obscured AGN than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O III]/H$\\beta$ gradient to AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ~2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. Using this gradient method will also be able to inform other galaxy ev...

  14. Can AGN feedback-driven star formation explain the size evolution of massive galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, W; Canning, R E A

    2013-01-01

    Observations indicate that massive galaxies at z~2 are more compact than galaxies of comparable mass at z~0, with effective radii evolving by a factor of ~3-5. This implies that galaxies grow significantly in size but relatively little in mass over the past ~10 Gyr. Two main physical models have been proposed in order to explain the observed evolution of massive galaxies: "mergers" and "puffing-up" scenarios. Here we introduce another possibility, and discuss the potential role of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback on the evolution of its host galaxy. We consider triggering of star formation, due to AGN feedback, with radiation pressure on dusty gas as the driving feedback mechanism. In this picture, stars are formed in the feedback-driven outflow at increasingly larger radii and build up the outer regions of the host galaxy. The resulting increase in size and stellar mass can be compared with the observed growth of massive galaxies. Star formation in the host galaxy is likely obscured due to ...

  15. Residual Cooling and Persistent Star Formation amid AGN Feedback in Abell 2597

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, G R; Baum, S A; Clarke, T E; Sarazin, C L; Bregman, J N; Combes, F; Donahue, M; Edge, A C; Fabian, A C; Ferland, G J; McNamara, B R; Mittal, R; Oonk, J B R; Quillen, A C; Russell, H R; Sanders, J S; Salomé, P; Voit, G M; Wilman, R J; Wise, M W

    2012-01-01

    New Chandra X-ray and Herschel FIR observations enable a multiwavelength study of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating and intracluster medium (ICM) cooling in the brightest cluster galaxy of Abell 2597. The new Chandra observations reveal the central < 30 kiloparsec X-ray cavity network to be more extensive than previously thought, and associated with enough enthalpy to theoretically inhibit the inferred classical cooling flow. Nevertheless, we present new evidence, consistent with previous results, that a moderately strong residual cooling flow is persisting at 4%-8% of the classically predicted rates in a spatially structured manner amid the feedback-driven excavation of the X-ray cavity network. New Herschel observations are used to estimate warm and cold dust masses, a lower-limit gas-to-dust ratio, and a star formation rate consistent with previous measurements. The cooling time profile of the ambient X-ray atmosphere is used to map the locations of the observational star formation entropy threshold...

  16. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  17. Multiwavelength study of the high-latitude cloud L1642: chain of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Malinen, J; Zahorecz, S; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Montillaud, J; Arimatsu, K; Bernard, J -Ph; Doi, Y; Haikala, L; Kawabe, R; Marton, G; McGehee, P; Pelkonen, V -M; Ristorcelli, I; Shimajiri, Y; Takita, S; Toth, L V; Tsukagoshi, T; Ysard, N

    2014-01-01

    L1642 is one of the two high galactic latitude (|b| > 30deg) clouds confirmed to have active star formation. We examine the properties of this cloud, especially the large-scale structure, dust properties, and compact sources in different stages of star formation. We present high-resolution far-infrared and submm observations with the Herschel and AKARI satellites and mm observations with the AzTEC/ASTE telescope, which we combined with archive data from near- and mid-infrared (2MASS, WISE) to mm observations (Planck). The Herschel observations, combined with other data, show a sequence of objects from a cold clump to young stellar objects at different evolutionary stages. Source B-3 (2MASS J04351455-1414468) appears to be a YSO forming inside the L1642 cloud, instead of a foreground brown dwarf, as previously classified. Herschel data reveal striation in the diffuse dust emission around L1642. The western region shows striation towards NE and has a steeper column density gradient on its southern side. The den...

  18. The self regulating star formation of gas rich dwarf galaxies in quiescent phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, M A R; Kobayashi, Masakazu A.R.; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    The expected episodic or intermittent star formation histories (SFHs) of gas rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) are the longstanding puzzles to understand their whole evolutional history. Solving this puzzle, we should grasp what physical mechanism causes the quiescent phase of star formation under the very gas rich condition after the first starburst phase. We consider that this quiescent phase is kept by lack of H2, which can be important coolant to generate the next generation of stars in the low-metal environment like dIrrs. Furthermore, in dIrrs, H2 formation through gas-phase reactions may dominate the one on dust-grain surfaces because their interstellar medium (ISM) are very plentiful and the typical dust-to-gas ratio of dIrrs (D_dIrrs = 1.31 x 10^-2 D_MW, where D_MW is its value for the local ISM) is on the same order with a critical value D_cr ~ 10^-2 D_MW. We show that the lack of H2 is mainly led by H- destruction when gas-phase H2 formation dominates since H- is important intermediary of gas-p...

  19. The ATLAS3D Project - XXVIII. Dynamically-driven star formation suppression in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy A; Crocker, Alison F; Bureau, Martin; Blitz, Leo; Alatalo, Katherine; Emsellem, Eric; Naab, Thorsten; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22um and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and HI data in order to investigate the star formation efficiency (SFE) in a larger sample of ETGs than previously available. We first recalibrate (based on WISE data) the relation between old stellar populations (traced at Ks-band) and 22um luminosity, allowing us to remove the contribution of 22um emission from circumstellar dust. We then go on to investigate the position of ETGs on the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Molecular gas-rich ETGs have comparable star formation surface densities to normal spiral galaxy centres, but they lie systematically offset from the KS relation, having lower star formation efficiencies by a factor of ~2.5 (in agreement with other authors). This effect is driven by galaxies where a substantia...

  20. The Suppression of Star Formation and the Effect of Galaxy Environment in Low-Redshift Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between galaxies and their surroundings is central to building a coherent picture of galaxy evolution. Here we use GALEX imaging of a statistically representative sample of 23 galaxy groups at z=0.06 to explore how local and global group environment affect the UV properties and dust-corrected star formation rates of their member galaxies. The data provide star formation rates out to beyond 2R_200 in all groups, down to a completeness limit and limiting galaxy stellar mass of 0.06 M_sun/yr and 10^8 M_sun, respectively. At fixed galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of star-forming group members is suppressed relative to the field out to an average radius of R ~ 1.5 Mpc ~ 2R_200, mirroring results for massive clusters. For the first time we also report a similar suppression of the specific star formation rate within such galaxies, on average by 40% relative to the field, thus directly revealing the impact of the group environment in quenching star formation within infallin...

  1. The Astrophysics of Star Formation Across Cosmic Time at $\\gtrsim$10 GHz with the Square Kilometer Array

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Eric J; Beswick, Rob J; Dickinson, Clive; Heywood, Ian; Hunt, Leslie K; Hyunh, Minh T; Jarvis, Matt; Karim, Alexander; Krause, Marita; Prandoni, Isabella; Seymour, Nicholas; Schinnerer, Eva; Tabatabei, Fatemeh S; Wagg, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we highlight a number of science investigations that are enabled by the inclusion of Band~5 ($4.6-13.8$ GHz) for SKA1-MID science operations, while focusing on the astrophysics of star formation over cosmic time. For studying the detailed astrophysics of star formation at high-redshift, surveys at frequencies $\\gtrsim$10 GHz have the distinct advantage over traditional $\\sim$1.4 GHz surveys as they are able to yield higher angular resolution imaging while probing higher rest frame frequencies of galaxies with increasing redshift, where emission of star-forming galaxies becomes dominated by thermal (free-free) radiation. In doing so, surveys carried out at $\\gtrsim$10 GHz provide a robust, dust-unbiased measurement of the massive star formation rate by being highly sensitive to the number of ionizing photons that are produced. To access this powerful star formation rate diagnostic requires that Band~5 be available for SKA1-MID. We additionally present a detailed science case for frequency cove...

  2. Star Formation On Sub-kpc Scale Triggered By Non-linear Processes In Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, Rieko; Kennicutt, Robert C; Egusa, Fumi; Calzetti, Daniela; Liu, Guilin; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Okumura, Sachiko K; Scoville, Nick Z; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Kuno, Nario

    2013-01-01

    We report a super-linear correlation for the star formation law based on new CO($J$=1-0) data from the CARMA and NOBEYAMA Nearby-galaxies (CANON) CO survey. The sample includes 10 nearby spiral galaxies, in which structures at sub-kpc scales are spatially resolved. Combined with the star formation rate surface density traced by H$\\alpha$ and 24 $\\mu$m images, CO($J$=1-0) data provide a super-linear slope of $N$ = 1.3. The slope becomes even steeper ($N$ = 1.8) when the diffuse stellar and dust background emission is subtracted from the H$\\alpha$ and 24 $\\mu$m images. In contrast to the recent results with CO($J$=2-1) that found a constant star formation efficiency (SFE) in many spiral galaxies, these results suggest that the SFE is not independent of environment, but increases with molecular gas surface density. We suggest that the excitation of CO($J$=2-1) is likely enhanced in the regions with higher star formation and does not linearly trace the molecular gas mass. In addition, the diffuse emission contami...

  3. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 star formation and chemical enrichment histories, stellar population synthesis, nebular emission and attenuation by dust. We constrain the SFH of each galaxy in our sample by comparing the observed fluxes in the B, R,l and K(sub s) bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFH on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  4. The SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey: I. Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    De Buizer, James M; Tan, Jonathan C; Zhang, Yichen; Beltran, Maria T; Shuping, Ralph; Staff, Jan E; Tanaka, Kei E I; Whitney, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview and first results of the SOFIA Massive (SOMA) Star Formation Survey, which is using the FORCAST instrument to image massive protostars from $\\sim10$-$40\\:\\rm{\\mu}\\rm{m}$. These wavelengths trace thermal emission from warm dust that in Core Accretion models mainly emerges from the inner regions of protostellar outflow cavities. Dust in dense core envelopes also imprints characteristic extinction patterns at these wavelengths causing intensity peaks to shift along the outflow axis and profiles to become more symmetric at longer wavelengths. We present observational results for the first eight protostars in the survey, i.e., multiwavelength images, including some ancillary ground-based MIR observations and archival Spitzer and Herschel data. These images generally show extended MIR/FIR emission along directions consistent with those of known outflows and with shorter wavelength peak flux positions displaced from the protostar along the blue-shifted, near-facing sides, thus confirming quali...

  5. Cold gas and star formation in a merging galaxy sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakis, Antonis; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    2000-10-01

    We explore the evolution of the cold gas (molecular and neutral hydrogen) and star formation activity during galaxy interactions, using a merging galaxy sequence comprising both pre- and post-merger candidates. Data for this study come from the literature, but are supplemented by some new radio observations presented here. First, we confirm that the ratio of far-infrared luminosity to molecular hydrogen mass (LFIRM(H2); star formation efficiency) increases close to nuclear coalescence. After the merging of the two nuclei there is evidence that the star formation efficiency declines again to values typical of ellipticals. This trend can be attributed to M(H2) depletion arising from interaction induced star formation. However, there is significant scatter, likely to arise from differences in the interaction details (e.g., disc-to-bulge ratio, geometry) of individual systems. Secondly, we find that the central molecular hydrogen surface density, ΣH2, increases close to the final stages of the merging of the two nuclei. Such a trend, indicating gas inflows caused by gravitational instabilities during the interaction, is also predicted by numerical simulations. Furthermore, there is evidence for a decreasing fraction of cold gas mass from early interacting systems to merger remnants, attributed to neutral hydrogen conversion into other forms (e.g., stars, hot gas) and molecular hydrogen depletion resulting from ongoing star formation. The evolution of the total-radio to blue-band luminosity ratio, reflecting the total (disc and nucleus) star formation activity, is also investigated. Although this ratio is on average higher than that for isolated spirals, we find a marginal increase along the merging sequence, attributed to the relative insensitivity of disc star formation to interactions. However, a similar result is also obtained for the nuclear radio emission, although galaxy interactions are believed to significantly affect the activity (star formation, AGN) in the

  6. The Bursty Star Formation Histories of Low-mass Galaxies at 0.4 < z < 1 Revealed by Star Formation Rates Measured From Hβ and FUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yicheng; Rafelski, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Willner, S. P.; Amorín, Ricardo; Barro, Guillermo; Bell, Eric F.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gawiser, Eric; Hathi, Nimish P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Pacifici, Camilla; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen; Teplitz, Harry I.; Yesuf, Hassen

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the burstiness of star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies at 0.4 models, e.g., non-universal initial mass function or stochastic star formation on star cluster scales, are unable to plausibly explain our results.

  7. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  8. AEGIS: Extinction and Star Formation Tracers from Line Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, B J; Bundy, K; Conselice, C J; Cooper, M C; Ellis, Richard S; Ivison, R J; Noeske, K G; Phillips, A C; Yan, R; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Papovich, Casey; Yan, Renbin

    2006-01-01

    Strong nebular emission lines are a sensitive probe of star formation and extinction in galaxies, and the [O II] line detects star forming populations out to z>1. However, star formation rates from emission lines depend on calibration of extinction and the [O II]/H-alpha line ratio, and separating star formation from AGN emission. We use calibrated line luminosities from the DEEP2 survey and Palomar K magnitudes to show that the behavior of emission line ratios depends on galaxy magnitude and color. For galaxies on the blue side of the color bimodality, the vast majority show emission signatures of star formation, and there are strong correlations of extinction and [O II]/H-alpha with restframe H magnitude. The conversion of [O II] to extinction-corrected H-alpha and thus to star formation rate has a significant slope with M_H, 0.23 dex/mag. Red galaxies with emission lines have a much higher scatter in their line ratios, and more than half show AGN signatures. We use 24 micron fluxes from Spitzer/MIPS to dem...

  9. THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32605 (United States); Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Unidad Academica de Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Balog, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Wang Junfeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Feigelson, Eric D., E-mail: jybarra@astro.ufl.edu [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Using Spitzer Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory data, we identify young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC). By being able to select cluster members and classify them into YSO types, we are able to track the progression of star formation locally within the cluster environments and globally within the cloud. We employ the nearest neighbor method analysis to explore the density structure of the clusters and YSO ratio mapping to study age progressions in the cloud. We find a relationship between the YSO ratios and extinction that suggests star formation occurs preferentially in the densest parts of the cloud and that the column density of gas rapidly decreases as the region evolves. This suggests rapid removal of gas may account for the low star formation efficiencies observed in molecular clouds. We find that the overall age spread across the RMC is small. Our analysis suggests that star formation started throughout the complex around the same time. Age gradients in the cloud appear to be localized and any effect the H II region has on the star formation history is secondary to that of the primordial collapse of the cloud.

  10. A continuous low star formation rate in IZw 18?

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F; Roy, J R; Mas-Hesse, J M; Walsh, J R

    2000-01-01

    Deep long-slit spectroscopic observations of the blue compact galaxy IZw 18 obtained with the CFH 3.6 m Telescope are presented. The very low value of oxygen abundance previously reported is confirmed and a very homogeneous abundance distribution is found (no variation larger than 0.05 dex) over the whole ionized region. We concur with Tenorio-Tagle (1996) and Devost et al. (1997) that the observed abundance level cannot result from the material ejected by the stars formed in the current burst, and propose that the observed metals were formed in a previous star formation episode. Metals ejected in the current burst of star formation remain most probably hidden in a hot phase and are undetectable using optical spectroscopy. We discuss different scenarios of star formation in IZw 18. Combining various observational facts, for instance the faint star formation rate observed in low surface brightness galaxies van Zee et al. (1997), it is proposed that a low and continuous rate of star formation occurring during q...

  11. Star formation and gas phase history of the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Ali; Coughlin, Jared; Phillips, Lara Arielle; Mathews, Grant; Suh, In-Saeng

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of tracking and characterizing the environment in which galaxies and their associated circumgalactic medium evolve. We have developed a structure finding algorithm that uses the rate of change of the density gradient to self-consistently parse and follow the evolution of groups/clusters, filaments and voids in large-scale structure simulations. We use this to trace the complete evolution of the baryons in the gas phase and the star formation history within each structure in our simulated volume. We vary the structure measure threshold to probe the complex inner structure of star-forming regions in poor clusters, filaments and voids. We find that the majority of star formation occurs in cold, condensed gas in filaments at intermediate redshifts (z ˜ 3). We also show that much of the star formation above a redshift z = 3 occurs in low-contrast regions of filaments, but as the density contrast increases at lower redshift, star formation switches to the high-contrast regions, or inner parts, of filaments. Since filaments bridge the void and cluster regions, it suggests that the majority of star formation occurs in galaxies in intermediate density regions prior to the accretion on to groups/clusters. We find that both filaments and poor clusters are multiphase environments distinguishing themselves by different distributions of gas phases.

  12. On the Functional Form of the Universal Star Formation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Andres

    2014-01-01

    We study the functional form of the star formation law, using the Vaschy-Buckingham Pi theorem. We find that that it should have a form $\\rm \\dot{\\Sigma}_{\\star} \\propto \\sqrt{\\frac{G}{L}}\\Sigma_{gas}^{3/2}$, where L is a characteristic length that is related with an integration scale. With a reasonable estimation for L, we find that galaxies from different types and redshifts, including Low Surface Brightness galaxies, and individual star-forming regions in our galaxy, obey this single star formation law. We also find that depending on the assumption for L, this star formation law adopt different formulations of $\\rm \\dot{\\Sigma}_{\\star}$ scaling, that are widely studied in the literature: $\\rm \\Sigma_{gas}^{3/2}, \\Sigma_{gas}/t_{orb}, \\Sigma_{gas}/t_{ff} \\, and \\, \\Sigma_{gas}^{2}/v_{turb}$. We also study secondary controlling parameters of the star formation law, based on the current evidence from numerical simulations and find that for galaxies, the star formation efficiency should be controlled, at least...

  13. Non-universal star formation efficiency in turbulent ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Vadim A; Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of a star formation prescription in which star formation efficiency depends on local gas density and turbulent velocity dispersion, as suggested by direct simulations of SF in turbulent giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We test the model using a simulation of an isolated Milky Way sized galaxy with self-consistent treatment of turbulence on unresolved scales. We show that this prescription predicts a wide variation of local star formation efficiency per free-fall time, $\\epsilon_{\\rm ff} \\sim 0.1 - 10\\%$, and gas depletion time, $t_{\\rm dep} \\sim 0.1 - 10 \\mathrm{\\ Gyr}$. In addition, it predicts an effective density threshold for star formation due to suppression of $\\epsilon_{\\rm ff}$ in warm diffuse gas stabilized by thermal pressure. We show that the model predicts star formation rates in agreement with observations from the scales of individual star forming regions to the kiloparsec scales. This agreement is non-trivial, as the model was not tuned in any way and the predicted star formati...

  14. Unveiling the Role of Galactic Rotation on Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utreras, José; Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    We study the star formation process at galactic scales and the role of rotation through numerical simulations of spiral and starburst galaxies using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo. We focus on the study of three integrated star formation laws found in the literature: the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) and Silk-Elmegreen (SE) laws, and the dimensionally homogeneous equation proposed by Escala {{{Σ }}}{SFR}\\propto \\sqrt{G/L}{{{Σ }}}{gas}1.5. We show that using the last we take into account the effects of the integration along the line of sight and find a unique regime of star formation for both types of galaxies, suppressing the observed bi-modality of the KS law. We find that the efficiencies displayed by our simulations are anti-correlated with the angular velocity of the disk Ω for the three laws studied in this work. Finally, we show that the dimensionless efficiency of star formation is well represented by an exponentially decreasing function of -1.9{{Ω }}{t}{ff}{ini}, where {t}{ff}{ini} is the initial free-fall time. This leads to a unique galactic star formation relation which reduces the scatter of the bi-modal KS, SE, and Escala relations by 43%, 43%, and 35%, respectively.

  15. On the Star Formation Properties of Void Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moorman, Crystal M; White, Amanda; Vogeley, Michael S; Hoyle, Fiona; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2016-01-01

    We measure the star formation properties of two large samples of galaxies from the SDSS in large-scale cosmic voids on time scales of 10 Myr and 100 Myr, using H$\\alpha$ emission line strengths and GALEX FUV fluxes, respectively. The first sample consists of 109,818 optically selected galaxies. We find that void galaxies in this sample have higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs; star formation rates per unit stellar mass) than similar stellar mass galaxies in denser regions. The second sample is a subset of the optically selected sample containing 8070 galaxies with reliable HI detections from ALFALFA. For the full HI detected sample, SSFRs do not vary systematically with large-scale environment. However, investigating only the HI detected dwarf galaxies reveals a trend towards higher SSFRs in voids. Furthermore, we estimate the star formation rate per unit HI mass (known as the star formation efficiency; SFE) of a galaxy, as a function of environment. For the overall HI detected population, we notice n...

  16. High-redshift major mergers weakly enhance star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensch, J.; Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.; Agertz, O.; Amram, P.; Combes, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Elmegreen, B.; Emsellem, E.; Jog, C. J.; Perret, V.; Struck, C.; Teyssier, R.

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy mergers are believed to trigger strong starbursts. This is well assessed by observations in the local Universe. However, the efficiency of this mechanism has poorly been tested so far for high-redshift, actively star-forming, galaxies. We present a suite of pc-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations to compare the star formation process along a merging sequence of high- and low-redshift galaxies, by varying the gas mass fraction between the two models. We show that, for the same orbit, high-redshift gas-rich mergers are less efficient than low-redshift ones at producing starbursts; the star formation rate excess induced by the merger and its duration are both around 10 times lower than in the low gas fraction case. The mechanisms that account for the star formation triggering at low redshift - the increased compressive turbulence, gas fragmentation, and central gas inflows - are only mildly, if not at all, enhanced for high gas fraction galaxy encounters. Furthermore, we show that the strong stellar feedback from the initially high star formation rate in high-redshift galaxies does not prevent an increase of the star formation during the merger. Our results are consistent with the observed increase of the number of major mergers with increasing redshift being faster than the respective increase in the number of starburst galaxies.

  17. The Star Formation Law at Low Surface Density

    CERN Document Server

    Wyder, Ted K; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Neill, James D; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barrry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, A S; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the star formation law at low gas surface densities using a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies with existing HI maps in the literature, UV imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, and optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All of the LSB galaxies have (NUV-r) colors similar to those for higher surface brightness star-forming galaxies of similar luminosity indicating that their average star formation histories are not very different. Based upon four LSB galaxies with both UV and FIR data, we find FIR/UV ratios significantly less than one, implying low amounts of internal UV extinction in LSB galaxies. We use the UV images and HI maps to measure the star formation rate and hydrogen gas surface densities within the same region for all of the galaxies. The LSB galaxy star formation rate surface densities lie below the extrapolation of the power law fit to the star formation rate surface density as a function of the total gas density for higher s...

  18. Testing diagnostics of triggered star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J; Acreman, David M

    2012-01-01

    We produce synthetic images and SEDs from radiation hydrodynamical simulations of radiatively driven implosion. The synthetically imaged bright rimmed clouds (BRCs) are morphologically similar to those observed in star forming regions. Using nebular diagnostic line-ratios, simulated Very Large Array (VLA) radio images, H{\\alpha} imaging and SED fitting we compute the neutral cloud and ionized boundary layer gas densities and temperatures and perform a virial stability analysis for each model cloud. We determine that the neutral cloud temperatures derived by SED fitting are hotter than the dominant neutral cloud temperature by 1 - 2 K due to emission from warm dust. This translates into a change in the calculated cloud mass by 8-35 %. Using a constant mass conversion factor (C{\

  19. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  20. Outer Disk Star Formation in HI selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Meurer, Gerhardt

    2016-01-01

    The HI in galaxies often extends past their conventionally defined optical extent. I report results from our team which has been probing low intensity star formation in outer disks using imaging in H-alpha and ultraviolet. Using a sample of hundreds of HI selected galaxies, we confirm that outer disk HII regions and extended UV disks are common. Hence outer disks are not dormant but are dimly forming stars. Although the ultraviolet light in galaxies is more centrally concentrated than the HI, the UV/HI ratio (the Star Formation Efficiency) is nearly constant, with a slight dependency on surface brightness. This result is well accounted for in a model where disks maintain a constant stability parameter Q. This model also accounts for how the ISM and star formation are distributed in the bright parts of galaxies, and how HI appears to trace the distribution of dark matter in galaxy outskirts.

  1. Calibrating UV Star Formation Rates for Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Mitchell, Noah P

    2015-01-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing star formation activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The datasets are from the panchromatic STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, HST optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs - using four different models - agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far UV predicted fluxes do not. Further, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated far U...

  2. The star formation history of the LSB Galaxy UGC 5889

    CERN Document Server

    Vallenari, A; Bomans, D J

    2005-01-01

    We present HST photometry of the LSB galaxy UGC 5889 and derive its recent star formation history. In the last 200 Myr the star formation proceeded in modest bursts at a rate of the order of e-2 to e-3 solar masses masses per year, with periods of extremely low SFR or even quiescence. The rate derived from the present study for the last 20 Myr is in agreement with the Halpha emission from the galaxy. The presence of a consistent population older than 200 Myr is suggested by the data. However, observational errors and completeness correction prevent any firm conclusion on the oldest age. The total mass of stars is of the order of 5.5e7 solas masses. Even if the recent episodes of star formation have heated the gas and carved a hole in the disk, blow-away of the gas is unlikely to occur.

  3. Triggered star formation in giant HI supershells: ionized gas

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, O V; Moiseev, A V

    2015-01-01

    We considered the regions of triggered star formation inside kpc-sized HI supershells in three dwarf galaxies: IC 1613, IC 2574 and Holmberg II. The ionized and neutral gas morphology and kinematics were studied based on our observations with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the SAO RAS 6-m telescope and 21 cm archival data of THINGS and LITTLE THINGS surveys. The qualitative analysis of the observational data performed in order to highlight the two questions: why the star formation occurred very locally in the supershells, and how the ongoing star formation in HI supershells rims influence its evolution? During the investigation we discovered the phenomenon never observed before in galaxies IC 2574 and Holmberg II: we found faint giant (kpc-sized) ionized shells in H-alpha and [SII]6717,6731 lines inside the supergiant HI shells.

  4. Triggered Star Formation in Six H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dirienzo, William J; Brogan, Crystal; Cyganowski, Claudia J; Churchwell, Edward B; Friesen, Rachel K

    2012-01-01

    We investigated six H II regions with infrared, bright rimmed bubble or cometary morphology, in search of quantitative evidence for triggered star formation, both collect and collapse and radiatively driven implosion. We identified and classified 458 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in and around the H II regions. YSOs were determined by fitting a collection of radiative transfer model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to infrared photometry for a large sample of point sources. We determined areas where there exist enhanced populations of relatively unevolved YSOs on the bright rims of these regions, suggesting that star formation has been triggered there. We further investigated the physical properties of the regions by using radio continuum emission as a proxy for ionizing flux powering the H II regions, and 13CO (1-0) observations to measure masses and gravitational stability of molecular clumps. We used an analytical model of collect and collapse triggered star formation, as well as a simulation of radiati...

  5. Spatially Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Díaz, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Zibetti, S.; Ascaribar, Y.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Ziegler, B.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Mendoza-Pérez, M. A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Husemann, B.; Kehring, C.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; López-Cobá, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The relation known as Star Formation Main Sequence (SFMS) of galaxies is defined in terms of stellar mass and star formation rate. This approximately linear relation has been proven to be tight and holds for several star formation indicators at local and at high redshifts. In this talk I will show recent results about our first attempts to study the Spatially Resolved SFMS, using integral field spectroscopic data, coming primarily from the CALIFA survey. I will present as a main result that a local SFMS is found with a slope and zero point of 0.72 +/ 0.04, and -7.95 +/ 0.29 respectively. I will also discuss the influence of characteristics such as environment and morphology in the relation. Finally I will present some extensions of these results for data com in from the MaNGA survey.

  6. Star formation triggered by galaxy interactions in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, Florent; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Together with interstellar turbulence, gravitation is one key player in star formation. It acts both at galactic scales in the assembly of gas into dense clouds, and inside those structures for their collapse and the formation of pre-stellar cores. To understand to what extent the large scale dynamics govern the star formation activity of galaxies, we present hydrodynamical simulations in which we generalise the behaviour of gravity to make it differ from Newtonian dynamics in the low acceleration regime. We focus on the extreme cases of interacting galaxies, and compare the evolution of galaxy pairs in the dark matter paradigm to that in the Milgromian Dynamics (MOND) framework. Following up on the seminal work by Tiret & Combes, this paper documents the first simulations of galaxy encounters in MOND with a detailed Eulerian hydrodynamical treatment of baryonic physics, including star formation and stellar feedback. We show that similar morphologies of the interacting systems can be produced by both the ...

  7. Galaxy Mass, Metallicity, Radius and Star Formation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Brisbin, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Working with 108,786 Sloan Digital Sky Survey low redshift galaxies, we have examined the relation between galaxy mass, metallicity, radius, and star formation rates. We subdivided the redshift range covered in our sample 0.072.8E10 Msun and exhibit high metallicities at high star formation rates, suggesting that for these galaxies star formation independent of mass infall plays a significant role. A toy model for the physics of infall accounts for the SFR Mi^(3/2) relation and permits us to estimate the mean densities and velocities of clumps of baryonic matter traversing the dark matter halos in which the SDSS galaxies may be embedded. The model also reproduces the gross features of the galaxy main sequence.

  8. Molecules as Drives and Witnesses of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B. M.

    2017-07-01

    The progress in understanding the role of molecules in star formation is discussed. After very brief introduction which we note in that no star formation would be possible without molecules at the dawn of the Universe and that molecules are important drivers and witnesses of star formation in the current epoch, we consider observational technologies and emphasize the prospective role of UV observations. Special attention is paid to possibilities of UV spectroscopy with coming space observatory Spektr-UF (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet; WSO-UV). Only one example (observations of CO-dark clouds) from vast scientific program of the WSO-UV is mentioned. Also very briefly disclosed is a model approach to study complex evolution of very young (prestellar) object focusing on chemical (molecular) evolution.

  9. Numerical Star-Formation Studies -- A Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Klessen, Ralf S; Heitsch, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    The formation of stars is a key process in astrophysics. Detailed knowledge of the physical mechanisms that govern stellar birth is a prerequisite for understanding the formation and evolution of our galactic home, the Milky Way. A theory of star formation is an essential part of any model for the origin of our solar system and of planets around other stars. Despite this pivotal importance, and despite many decades of research, our understanding of the processes that initiate and regulate star formation is still limited. Stars are born in cold interstellar clouds of molecular hydrogen gas. Star formation in these clouds is governed by the complex interplay between the gravitational attraction in the gas and agents such as turbulence, magnetic fields, radiation and thermal pressure that resist compression. The competition between these processes determines both the locations at which young stars form and how much mass they ultimately accrete. It plays out over many orders of magnitude in space and time, rangin...

  10. Matching the Local and Cosmic Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovsky, Igor; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Given the many recent advances in our understanding of the star formation history (SFH) of the Local Group and other nearby galaxies, and in the evolution of star formation with redshift, we present a new comparison of the comoving space density of the star formation rate as a function of look-back time for the Local and Distant Universe. We update the Local SFH derived from the analysis of resolved stellar populations (``fossil records'') in individual nearby galaxies, based on our own estimations as well as available in the literature. While the preliminary comparison of SFHs is found to be broadly consistent, some discrepancies still remain, including an excess of the Local SFR density in the most recent epoch.

  11. Central star formation and metallicity in CALIFA interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; García-Lorenzo, B; Falcón-Barroso, J; Mast, D; García-Benito, R; Husemann, B; van de Ven, G; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Pérez-Torres, M A; Márquez, I; Kehrig, C; Vilchez, J M; Galbany, L; López-Sánchez, Á R; Walcher, C J

    2015-01-01

    We use optical integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) data from 103 nearby galaxies at different stages of the merging event, from close pairs to merger remnants provided by the CALIFA survey, to study the impact of the interaction in the specific star formation and oxygen abundance on different galactic scales. To disentangle the effect of the interaction and merger from internal processes, we compared our results with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We confirm the moderate enhancement (2-3 times) of specific star formation for interacting galaxies in central regions as reported by previous studies; however, the specific star formation is comparable when observed in extended regions. We find that control and interacting star-forming galaxies have similar oxygen abundances in their central regions, when normalized to their stellar masses. Oxygen abundances of these interacting galaxies seem to decrease compared to the control objects at the large aperture sizes measured in effective radius. Altho...

  12. Does feedback help or hinder star formation? The effect of photoionization on star formation in giant molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Kazuhiro; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the effect of photoionizing feedback inside turbulent star-forming clouds, comparing the resultant star formation in both idealized profiles and more realistic cloud structures drawn from a global galaxy simulation. We performed a series of numerical simulations that compared the effect of star formation alone, photoionization and photoionization plus supernovae feedback. In the idealized cloud, photoionization suppresses gas fragmentation at early times, resulting in the formation of more massive stars and an increase in the star formation efficiency. At later times, the dispersal of the dense gas causes the radiative feedback effect to switch from positive to negative as the star formation efficiency drops. In the cloud extracted from the global simulation, the initial cloud is heavily fragmented prior to the stellar-feedback beginning and is largely structurally unaffected by the late injection of radiation energy. The result is a suppression of the star formation. We conclude that the efficiency of feedback is heavily dependent on the gas structure, with negative feedback dominating when the density is high.

  13. Comparing models of star formation simulating observed interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, L. F.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.; Rodrigues, I.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we make a comparison between different models of star formation to reproduce observed interacting galaxies. We use observational data to model the evolution of a pair of galaxies undergoing a minor merger. Minor mergers represent situations weakly deviated from the equilibrium configuration but significant changes in star fomation (SF) efficiency can take place, then, minor mergers provide an unique scene to study SF in galaxies in a realistic but yet simple way. Reproducing observed systems also give us the opportunity to compare the results of the simulations with observations, which at the end can be used as probes to characterize the models of SF implemented in the comparison. In this work we compare two different star formation recipes implemented in Gadget3 and GIZMO codes. Both codes share the same numerical background, and differences arise mainly in the star formation recipe they use. We use observations from Pico dos Días and GEMINI telescopes and show how we use observational data of the interacting pair in AM2229-735 to characterize the interacting pair. Later we use this information to simulate the evolution of the system to finally reproduce the observations: Mass distribution, morphology and main features of the merger-induced star formation burst. We show that both methods manage to reproduce roughly the star formation activity. We show, through a careful study, that resolution plays a major role in the reproducibility of the system. In that sense, star formation recipe implemented in GIZMO code has shown a more robust performance. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by Colciencias, Doctorado Nacional - 617 program.

  14. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  15. Star formation rates and efficiencies in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, A. T.; Longmore, S. N.; Battersby, C.; Bally, J.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Henshaw, J. D.; Walker, D. L.

    2017-08-01

    The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way harbours gas densities, pressures, velocity dispersions, an interstellar radiation field and a cosmic ray ionization rate orders of magnitude higher than the disc; akin to the environment found in star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Previous studies have shown that this region is forming stars at a rate per unit mass of dense gas which is at least an order of magnitude lower than in the disc, potentially violating theoretical predictions. We show that all observational star formation rate diagnostics - both direct counting of young stellar objects and integrated light measurements - are in agreement within a factor two, hence the low star formation rate (SFR) is not the result of the systematic uncertainties that affect any one method. As these methods trace the star formation over different time-scales, from 0.1 to 5 Myr, we conclude that the SFR has been constant to within a factor of a few within this time period. We investigate the progression of star formation within gravitationally bound clouds on ∼parsec scales and find 1-4 per cent of the cloud masses are converted into stars per free-fall time, consistent with a subset of the considered 'volumetric' star formation models. However, discriminating between these models is obstructed by the current uncertainties on the input observables and, most importantly and urgently, by their dependence on ill-constrained free parameters. The lack of empirical constraints on these parameters therefore represents a key challenge in the further verification or falsification of current star formation theories.

  16. Magnetic Fields and Massive Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Hauyu,; Liu,; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M; Li, Zhi-Yun; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T P; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain; Csengeri, Timea; Juarez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars ($M > 8$ \\msun) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 $\\mu$m obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of $\\lsim$ 0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within $40^\\circ$ of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the ...

  17. BURST OF STAR FORMATION DRIVES BUBBLE IN GALAXY'S CORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshots reveal dramatic activities within the core of the galaxy NGC 3079, where a lumpy bubble of hot gas is rising from a cauldron of glowing matter. The picture at left shows the bubble in the center of the galaxy's disk. The structure is more than 3,000 light-years wide and rises 3,500 light-years above the galaxy's disk. The smaller photo at right is a close-up view of the bubble. Astronomers suspect that the bubble is being blown by 'winds' (high-speed streams of particles) released during a burst of star formation. Gaseous filaments at the top of the bubble are whirling around in a vortex and are being expelled into space. Eventually, this gas will rain down upon the galaxy's disk where it may collide with gas clouds, compress them, and form a new generation of stars. The two white dots just above the bubble are probably stars in the galaxy. The close-up reveals that the bubble's surface is lumpy, consisting of four columns of gaseous filaments that tower above the galaxy's disk. The filaments disperse at a height of 2,000 light-years. Each filament is about 75 light-years wide. Velocity measurements taken by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii show that the gaseous filaments are ascending at more than 4 million miles an hour (6 million kilometers an hour). According to theoretical models, the bubble formed when ongoing winds from hot stars mixed with small bubbles of very hot gas from supernova explosions. Observations of the core's structure by radio telescopes indicate that those processes are still active. The models suggest that this outflow began about a million years ago. They occur about every 10 million years. Eventually, the hot stars will die, and the bubble's energy source will fade away. Astronomers have seen evidence of previous outbursts from radio and X-ray observations. Those studies show rings of dust and gas and long plumes of material, all of which are larger than the bubble. NGC 3079 is 50

  18. Star Formation in the Milky Way. The Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Noriega-Crespo, A

    2013-01-01

    I present a brief review of some of the most recent and active topics of star formation process in the Milky Way using mid and far infrared observations, and motivated by the research being carried out by our science group using data gathered by the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes. These topics include bringing together the scaling relationships found in extragalactic systems with that of the local nearby molecular clouds, the synthetic modeling of the Milky Way and estimates of its star formation rate.

  19. Star Formation: Chemistry as a Probe of Embedded Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    The embedded phase of star formation is the crucial phase where most of the stellar mass is assembled. Velocity-resolved spectra reveal an infalling envelope, bipolar outflows, and perhaps an infant circumstellar disk -- all locked together in a cosmic dance of gravitational collapse and magnetic winds. Densities and temperatures change by orders of magnitude as the protostar evolves, driving a chemistry as exotic as it is fascinating. I will review two examples of how to exploit chemistry and molecular spectroscopy to study the physics of low-mass star formation: energetic feedback and episodic accretion.

  20. Low-Metallicity Star Formation: From the First Stars to Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2008-12-01

    'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 16. Damped Lyα systems as probes of chemical evolution over cosmological timescales Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky; 17. Connecting high-redshift galaxy populations through observations of local damped Lyman alpha dwarf galaxies Regina E. Schulte-Ladbeck; 18. Chemical enrichment and feedback in low metallicity environments: constraints on galaxy formation Francesca Matteucci; 19. Effects of reionization on dwarf galaxy formation Massimo Ricotti; 20. The importance of following the evolution of the dust in galaxies on their SEDs A. Schurer, F. Calura, L. Silva, A. Pipino, G. L. Granato, F. Matteucci and R. Maiolino; 21. About the chemical evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar globular cluster ωCen) Andrea Marcolini and Annibale D'Ercole; 22. Young star clusters in the small Magellanic cloud: impact of local and global conditions on star formation Elena Sabbi, Linda J. Smith, Lynn R. Carlson, Antonella Nota, Monca Tosi, Michele Cignoni, Jay S. Gallagher III, Marco Sirianni and Margaret Meixner; 23. Modeling the ISM properties of metal-poor galaxies and gamma-ray burst hosts Emily M. Levesque, Lisa J. Kewley, Kirsten Larson and Leonie Snijders; 24. Dwarf galaxies and the magnetisation of the IGM Uli Klein; Session III. Explosive Events in Low-Metallicity Environments: 25. Supernovae and their evolution in a low metallicity ISM Roger A. Chevalier; 26. First stars - type Ib supernovae connection Ken'ichi Nomoto, Masaomi Tanaka, Yasuomi Kamiya, Nozomu Tominaga and Keiichi Maeda; 27. Supernova nucleosynthesis in the early universe Nozomu Tominaga, Hideyuki Umeda, Keiichi Maeda, Ken'ichi Nomoto and Nobuyuki Iwamoto; 28. Powerful explosions at Z = 0? Sylvia Ekström, Georges Meynet, Raphael Hirschi and André Maeder; 29. Wind anisotropy and stellar evolution Cyril Georgy, Georges Meynet and André Maeder; 30. Low-mass and metal-poor gamma-ray burst

  1. Giant scattering cones in obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Obied, Georges; Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin

    2015-01-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope observations of scattering regions in 20 luminous obscured quasars at $0.24star formation rates. Modeling these regions as illuminated dusty cones, we estimate the radial density distributions of the interstellar medium as well as the geometric properties of circumnuclear quasar obscuration -- inclinations and covering factors. Small derived opening angles (median half-angle and standard deviation 27\\dg$\\pm$9\\dg) are inconsistent with a 1:1 type 1 / type 2 ratio. We suggest that quasar obscuration is patchy and that the observer has a $\\sim 40\\%$ chan...

  2. Observations of Lyα and O vi: Signatures of Cooling and Star Formation in a Massive Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope COS and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy of a star-forming region (∼ 100 {M}ȯ yr‑1) in the center of the X-ray cluster RX J1532.9+3021 (z = 0.362), to follow-up the CLASH team discovery of luminous UV filaments and knots in the central massive galaxy. We detect broad (∼500 km s‑1) Lyα emission lines with extraordinarily high equivalent widths (EQW ∼ 200 Å) and somewhat less broadened Hα (∼220 km s‑1). Ultraviolet emission lines of N v and O vi are not detected, which constrains the rate at which gas cools through temperatures of 106 K to be ≲10 M⊙ yr‑1. The COS spectra also show a flat rest-frame UV continuum with weak stellar photospheric features, consistent with the presence of recently formed hot stars forming at a rate of ∼10 M⊙ yr‑1, uncorrected for dust extinction. The slope and absorption lines in these UV spectra are similar to those of Lyman Break Galaxies at z≈ 3, albeit those with the highest Lyα equivalent widths and star formation rates. This high-EQW Lyα source is a high-metallicity galaxy rapidly forming stars in structures that look nothing like disks. This mode of star formation could significantly contribute to the spheroidal population of galaxies. The constraint on the luminosity of any O vi line emission is stringent enough to rule out steady and simultaneous gas cooling and star formation, unlike similar systems in the Phoenix Cluster and Abell 1795. The fact that the current star formation rate differs from the local mass cooling rate is consistent with recent simulations of episodic active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation in a cluster atmosphere.

  3. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies as a test of early enrichment and metallicity-dependent star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Kravtsov, Andrey V

    2011-01-01

    The tight relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because the abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to the abundance of dust, which catalyzes the formation of H_2 and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H_2-based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption time scale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value sta...

  4. The State of the Gas and the Relation Between Gas and Star Formation at Low Metallicity: the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Jameson, Katherine; Ostriker, Eve; Gordon, Karl; Lawton, Brandon; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Israel, Frank P; Madden, Suzanne C; Hony, Sacha; Sandstrom, Karin M; Bot, Caroline; Rubio, Monica; Winkler, P Frank; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th; Oliveira, Joana M; Indebetouw, Remy

    2011-01-01

    We compare atomic gas, molecular gas, and the recent star formation rate (SFR) inferred from H-alpha in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). By using infrared dust emission and local dust-to-gas ratios, we construct a map of molecular gas that is independent of CO emission. This allows us to disentangle conversion factor effects from the impact of metallicity on the formation and star formation efficiency of molecular gas. On scales of 200 pc to 1 kpc we find a characteristic molecular gas depletion time of ~1.6 Gyr, similar to that observed in the molecule-rich parts of large spiral galaxies on similar spatial scales. This depletion time shortens on much larger scales to ~0.6 Gyr because of the presence of a diffuse H-alpha component, and lengthens on much smaller scales to ~7.5 Gyr because the H-alpha and H2 distributions differ in detail. We estimate the systematic uncertainties in our measurement to be a factor of 2-3. We suggest that the impact of metallicity on the physics of star formation in molecular ga...

  5. The Relationship Between Molecular Gas, HI, and Star Formation in the Low-Mass, Low-Metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, Katherine E; Leroy, Adam K; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl; Hughes, Annie; Israel, Frank P; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Bot, Caroline; Hony, Sacha; Cormier, Diane; Pellegrini, Eric W; Galametz, Maud; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds provide the only laboratory to study the effect of metallicity and galaxy mass on molecular gas and star formation at high (~20 pc) resolution. We use the dust emission from HERITAGE Herschel data to map the molecular gas in the Magellanic Clouds, avoiding the known biases of CO emission as a tracer of H2. Using our dust-based molecular gas estimates, we find molecular gas depletion times of ~0.4 Gyr in the LMC and ~0.6 SMC at 1 kpc scales. These depletion times fall within the range found for normal disk galaxies, but are shorter than the average value, which could be due to recent bursts in star formation. We find no evidence for a strong intrinsic dependence of the molecular gas depletion time on metallicity. We study the relationship between gas and star formation rate across a range in size scales from 20 pc to ~1 kpc, including how the scatter in molecular gas depletion time changes with size scale, and discuss the physical mechanisms driving the relationships. We compare the metal...

  6. Cold Dust Emission from X-ray AGN in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Dependence on Luminosity, Obscuration & AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Willott, C J; Geach, J E; Harrison, C M; Alaghband-Zadeh, S; Alexander, D M; Bourne, N; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Jarvis, M; Michalowski, M J; Page, M; Smith, D J B; Swinbank, A M; Symeonidis, M; Van der Werf, P P

    2015-01-01

    We study the 850um emission in X-ray selected AGN in the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field using new data from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We find 19 850um bright X-ray AGN in a high-sensitivity region covering 0.89 sq-deg with flux densities of S850=4-10 mJy. The 19 AGN span the full range in redshift and hard X-ray luminosity covered by the sample - 0.71 X-ray AGN - S850=0.71+/-0.08mJy. We explore trends in the stacked 850um flux densities with redshift, finding no evolution in the average cold dust emission over the redshift range probed. For Type 1 AGN, there is no significant correlation between the stacked 850um flux and hard X-ray luminosity. However, in Type 2 AGN the stacked submm flux is a factor of 2 higher at high luminosities. When averaging over all X-ray luminosities, no significant differences are found in the stacked submm fluxes of Type 1 and Type 2 AGN as well as AGN separated on the basis of X-ray hardness ratios and optical-to-infrared colours. However, at log10(LX) >44.4, dependences in ave...

  7. Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert; Jaacks, Jason; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H2). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H2 mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H2 rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H2-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated gala...

  8. STAR-FORMATION THRESHOLDS IN LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHULST, JM; SKILLMAN, ED; SMITH, TR; BOTHUN, GD; MCGAUGH, SS; DEBLOK, WJG

    1993-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies appear to have low star formation rates despite their often quite normal H I contents as judged from global H I properties such as M(H I)/L and M(H I)/M(T) ratios. H I imaging with the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (the NRAO is ope

  9. On the Star Formation Law for Spiral and Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical time scale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical time scale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and su...

  10. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Graves, G; Deustua, S; Young, L M; Davis, T A; Bureau, M; Bayet, E; Blitz, L; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Cappellari, M; Davies, R L; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, E; Khochfar, S; Krajnovic, D; Kuntschner, H; McDermid, R M; Morganti, R; Naab, T; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; Weijmans, A

    2012-01-01

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a role in instigating outflows in other systems, deep imaging of NGC 1266 as well as stellar kinematic observations from SAURON, have failed to provide evidence that NGC 1266 has recently been involved in a major interaction. The molecular gas and the instantaneous SF tracers indicate that the current sites of star formation are located in a hypercompact disk within 200 pc of the nucleus (Fig. 1; SF rate ~ 2 Msuns/yr). On the other hand, tracers of recent star formation, such as the H{\\beta} absorption map from SAURON and stellar population analysis show that the young stars are distributed throughout a larger area of the galaxy than current star formation. As the AGN at the center of NGC 1266 continues to drive cold...

  11. The role of turbulence in star formation laws and thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic; Combes, Francoise; Elmegreen, Bruce; Emsellem, Eric; Teyssier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The Schmidt-Kennicutt relation links the surface densities of gas to the star formation rate in galaxies. The physical origin of this relation, and in particular its break, i.e. the transition between an inefficient regime at low gas surface densities and a main regime at higher densities, remains debated. Here, we study the physical origin of the star formation relations and breaks in several low-redshift galaxies, from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals. We use numerical simulations representative of the Milky Way, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds with parsec up to subparsec resolution, and which reproduce the observed star formation relations and the relative variations of the star formation thresholds. We analyze the role of interstellar turbulence, gas cooling, and geometry in drawing these relations, at 100 pc scale. We suggest in particular that the existence of a break in the Schmidt- Kennicutt relation could be linked to the transition from subsonic to supersonic turbulence and is independe...

  12. Star Formation in Luminous Quasars at 2

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Kathryn; Schulz, Bernhard; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Viero, Marco; Anderson, Nick; Bethermin, Matthieu; Chapman, Scott; Clements, David L; Cooray, Asantha; Efstathiou, Andreas; Feltre, Anne; Hurley, Peter; Ibar, Eduardo; Lacy, Mark; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mathew J; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petty, Sara M; Pitchford, Lura K; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vieira, Joaquin; Wang, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation rates ($\\dot{M}_{s}$) and AGN properties in optically selected type 1 quasars at $2star formation. The relations between $\\dot{\\rm{M}}_s$ and both AGN luminosity and CIV FWHM are consistent with star formation rates in quasars scaling with black hole mass, though we cannot rule out a separate relation with black hole accretion rate. Star formation rates...

  13. Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, J A; Caldwell, N; Chaboyer, B; Rose, James A.; Gaba, Alejandro E.; Caldwell, Nelson; Chaboyer, Brian

    2001-01-01

    We present long-slit spectroscopy, B and R bandpass imaging, and 21 cm observations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had star formation which recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtained with the Blanco 4-m telescope, we find that emission lines in the star-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrally concentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imaging reveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent star formation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for which star formation has already ended show no central color gradient. The Pegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation (NGC7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogen observations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radiotelescope reveal the presence of ~4 x 10^8 solar masses of HI. Arecib...

  14. Central Star Formation in Pseudobulges and Classical Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D B

    2006-01-01

    I use Spitzer 3.6-8.0 \\mu m color profiles to compare the radial structure of star formation in pseudobulges and classical bulges. Pseudobulges are ``bulges'' which form through secular evolution, rather than mergers. In this study, pseudobulges are identified using the presence of disk-like structure in the center of the galaxy (nuclear spiral, nuclear bar, and/or high ellipticity in bulge); classical bulges are those galaxy bulges with smooth isophotes which are round compared to the outer disk, and show no disky structure in their bulge. I show that galaxies structurally identified as having pseudobulges have higher central star formation rates than those of classical bulges. Further, I also show that galaxies identified as having classical bulges have remarkably regular star formation profiles. The color profiles of galaxies with classical bulges show a star forming outer disk with a sharp change, consistent with a decline in star formation rates, toward the center of the galaxy. Classical bulges have a n...

  15. Small-scale star formation at low metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Marshall L.; Hill, Robert; English, Jayanne

    1990-01-01

    Massive star formation in a low metallicity environment is investigated by studying the morphology of small HII regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud. A classification scheme based upon the symmetry of form in the light of H-alpha is proposed to make possible an examination of the properties of blister candidates with respect to nebulas embedded in a more uniform medium. A new diagnostic of size is developed to derive quantitative information about the ionized gas and ionizing stars. The asymmetrical surface-brightness distribution of many HII regions demonstrates that massive stars often form at the edge of dense neutral clouds. However, the existence of many symmetrical nebulas with similar sizes, luminosities, and surface brightnesses shows that massive star formation often occurs within these clouds. Nevertheless, the statistics of the two different forms indicate that the rate of massive star formation declines less steeply with radius across host clouds than in the Milky Way, suggesting that external triggering may play a larger role in initiating star formation.

  16. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  17. Star formation in mergers with comologically motivated initial conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, Wouter; Macciò, Andrea V.; Kannan, Rahul; Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    We use semi-an