WorldWideScience

Sample records for dust obscured galaxies

  1. Dust obscuration by an evolving galaxy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najita, Joan; Silk, Joseph; Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an evolving luminosity function (LF) on the ability of foreground galaxies to obscure background sources is discussed, using the Press-Schechter/CDM standard evolving LF model. Galaxies are modeled as simplified versions of local spirals and Poisson statistics are used to estimate the fraction of sky covered by intervening dusty galaxies and the mean optical depths due to these galaxies. The results are compared to those obtained in the case of nonevolving luminosity function in a low-density universe. It is found that evolution of the galaxy LF does not allow the quasar dust obscuration hypothesis to be sustained for dust disks with plausible sizes. Even in a low-density universe, where evolution at z = less than 10 is unimportant, large disk radii are needed to achieve the desired obscuring effect. The mean fraction of sky covered is presented as a function of the redshift z along with adequate diagram illustrations.

  2. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a 350 μm dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350 μm = 114-650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3-34 × 107 M ⊙ and 0.03%-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  3. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a 350 micron dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S_350 = 114-650 mJy and S/N > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust contents for a sample of 16 local DOGs that consists of 12 bump and 4 power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of warm dust component are 3-34$\\times10^{7} M_\\odot$ and 0.03-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller ...

  4. A physical model for z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Dey, Arjun; Hayward, Christopher C.; Cox, Thomas J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F.; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-09-01

    We present a physical model for the origin of z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) selected at 24μm which are particularly optically faint (F24μm/FR > 1000). By combining N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of high-redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 >~ 0.3mJy at z ~ 2) are well modelled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5 × 1012-1013Msolar) haloes, with elevated star formation rates (SFR; ~500-1000Msolaryr-1) and/or significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth , whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. At final coalescence, merger-driven DOGs transition from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a `bump' to a power-law (PL) shaped mid-IR (Infrared Array Camera, IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). After the DOG phase, the galaxy settles back to exhibiting a `bump' SED with bluer colours and lower SFRs. While canonically PL galaxies are associated with being AGN dominated, we find that the PL mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution and to a heavily dust obscured stellar bump at times that the galaxy is starburst dominated. Thus, PL galaxies can be either starburst or AGN dominated. Less luminous DOGs can be well-represented either by mergers or by massive (Mbaryon ~ 5 × 1011Msolar) secularly evolving gas-rich disc galaxies (with SFR >~ 50Msolaryr-1). By utilizing similar models as those employed in the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) formation study of Narayanan et al., we investigate the connection between DOGs and SMGs. We find that the most heavily star-forming merger-driven DOGs can be selected as submillimetre galaxies, while both merger-driven and secularly evolving DOGs typically satisfy the BzK selection criteria. The model SEDs from the simulated galaxies match observed data reasonably well, though Mrk 231 and Arp 220 templates provide

  5. Clustering of Dust-Obscured Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J I; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Desai, Vandana; Jannuzi, Buell T; Floc'h, Emeric Le

    2008-01-01

    We present the angular autocorrelation function of 2603 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. DOGs are red, obscured galaxies, defined as having R-[24] \\ge 14 (F_24/F_R \\ga 1000). Spectroscopy indicates that they are located at 1.5 \\la z \\la 2.5. We find strong clustering, with r_0 = 7.40^{+1.27}_{-0.84} Mpc/h for the full F_24 > 0.3 mJy sample. The clustering and space density of the DOGs are consistent with those of submillimeter galaxies, suggestive of a connection between these populations. We find evidence for luminosity-dependent clustering, with the correlation length increasing to r_0 = 12.97^{+4.26}_{-2.64} Mpc/h for brighter (F_24 > 0.6 mJy) DOGs. Bright DOGs also reside in richer environments than fainter ones, suggesting these subsamples may not be drawn from the same parent population. The clustering amplitudes imply average halo masses of log M = 12.2^{+0.3}_{-0.2} Msun for the full DOG sample, rising to log M = 13.0^{+0.4}_{-0.3} Msun for brighter...

  6. Far-IR Emission From Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calanog, J A; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A; Assef, R J; Bock, J; Casey, C M; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Kartaltepe, J; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Viero, M; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a UV-faint, IR-bright galaxy population that reside at z~2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and AGN activity. We present far-IR observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg^2 of COSMOS. The 3077 DOGs have =1.9+/-0.3 and are selected from 24 um and r+ observations using a color cut of r+ - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S24 >= 100 uJy. Based on the mid-IR SEDs, 47% are star-formation dominated and 10% are AGN-dominated. We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from HerMES to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 um (>=3sigma). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Detected and undetected DOGs have average IR luminosities of (2.8+/-0.4) x 10^12 L_Sun and (0.77+/-0.08) x 10^12L_Sun, and dust temperatures of 34+/-7 K and 31+/-3 K, respectively. Using far-IR observations, DOGs contribute 30% to the 24 um-select...

  7. Dust-Obscured Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ho Seong

    2013-01-01

    We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), AKARI, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) data to select local analogs of high-redshift (z~2) dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). We identify 47 local DOGs with S_{12\\mu m}/S_{0.22 \\mu m}>892 and S_{12\\mu m}>20 mJy at 0.05galaxies that have lower $S_{12\\mu m}/S_{0.22 \\mu m}$ but have similar redshift, IR luminosity, and stellar mass distributions. Both WISE 12 micron and GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) flux densities of DOGs differ from the control sample of galaxies, but the difference is much larger in the NUV. Among the 47 DOGs, 36\\pm7% have small axis ratios in the optical (i.e., b/a<0.6), larger than the fraction among the control sample (17\\pm3%). There is no obvi...

  8. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Brightman, M; Stern, D; Alexander, D; Bauer, F; Blain, A W; Diaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R M; Finkelstein, S L; Hickox, R C; Tsai, C -W; Wu, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the WISE mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures ($T>60~\\rm K$). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured AGN that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of 8 Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot D...

  9. Star formation and dust obscuration at z~2: galaxies at the dawn of downsizing

    CERN Document Server

    Pannella, M; Daddi, E; Cracken, H J Mc; Owen, F N; Renzini, A; Strazzullo, V; Civano, F; Koekemoer, A M; Schinnerer, E; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Aussel, H; Kneib, J P; Ilbert, O; Mellier, Y; Salvato, M; Thompson, D; Willott, C J

    2009-01-01

    We present first results of a study aimed to constrain the star formation rate and dust content of galaxies at z~2. We use a sample of BzK-selected star-forming galaxies, drawn from the COSMOS survey, to perform a stacking analysis of their 1.4 GHz radio continuum as a function of different stellar population properties, after removing AGN contaminants from the sample. Dust unbiased star formation rates are derived from radio fluxes assuming the local radio-IR correlation. The main results of this work are: i) specific star formation rates are constant over about 1 dex in stellar mass and up to the highest stellar mass probed; ii) the dust attenuation is a strong function of galaxy stellar mass with more massive galaxies being more obscured than lower mass objects; iii) a single value of the UV extinction applied to all galaxies would lead to grossly underestimate the SFR in massive galaxies; iv) correcting the observed UV luminosities for dust attenuation based on the Calzetti recipe provide results in very ...

  10. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  11. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assef, R. J.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  12. Heavy Dust Obscuration of z = 7 Galaxies in a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue

    2013-10-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ~ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 108-3 × 1010 M ⊙ with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f esc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (AV ~ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (~10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.

  13. Infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition of WISE-selected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submm/mm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submm-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are: 1) Hot DOGs in our submm-detected sample are hyperluminous, with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, averagely contributing ~24% of total IR luminosity. 2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submm at rest-frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at 10-50um suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. 3) Hot DOGs have both high dust temperatures ~73K and IR luminosity of cold dust. The T-L relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust tem...

  14. HST Morphologies of z ~ 2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies II: Bump Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Lotz, J; Armus, L; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Eisenhardt, P; Higdon, J; Higdon, S; Jannuzi, B T; Floc'h, E Le; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T; Weedman, D

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z~2 with extremely red R-[24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6um associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call "bump DOGs", have star-formation rates of 400-4000 Msun/yr and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission --- a sign of vigorous on-going star-formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power-law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), sub-millimeter selected galaxies (SMGs), and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer extragalactic First Look Survey (XFLS). Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 +/-...

  15. Interferometric Follow-Up of WISE Hyper-Luminous Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Bridge, Carrie R; Benford, Dominic J; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J; Gelino, Christopher R; Moustakas, Leonidas; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    WISE has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies which are faint in the two bluer passbands ($3.4\\, \\mu$m and $4.6\\, \\mu$m) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE ($12\\, \\mu$m and $22\\, \\mu$m). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the CARMA and SMA interferometer arrays at submm/mm wavelengths. We report continuum detections at $\\sim$ 1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1-2 arcsec and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and 3.9$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. W...

  16. Star formation and dust obscuration in the tidally distorted galaxy NGC 2442

    CERN Document Server

    Pancoast, Anna; Lacy, Mark; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rho, Jeonghee

    2010-01-01

    Abridged: We present a detailed investigation of the morphological distribution and level of star formation and dust obscuration in the nearby tidally distorted galaxy NGC2442. Spitzer images in the IR at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0um, and 24um and GALEX images at 1500\\AA{} and 2300\\AA{} allow us to resolve the galaxy on scales between 240-600pc. We supplement these with archival data in the B, J, H, and K bands. We use the 8um, 24um and FUV (1500\\AA) emission to study the star formation rate (SFR). We find that globally, these tracers of star formation give a range of results of ~6-11\\msun/yr, with the dust-corrected FUV giving the highest value of SFR. We can reconcile the UV and IR-based estimates by adopting a steeper UV extinction curve that lies in between the starburst (Calzetti) and SMC extinction curves. However, the regions of highest SFR intensity along the spiral arms are consistent with a starburst-like extinction. Overall, the level of star-formation we find is higher than previously published for this g...

  17. Search for Hyper Infrared-Luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies selected with WISE and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We aim to search for hyperliminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity $L_{{\\rm IR}}$ $>$ 10$^{13}$ $L_{\\odot}$ by applying the selection method of Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, hence they are a crucial population for understanding the star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5,311 IR-bright DOGs with $i$ -- [22] $>$ 7.0 and flux at 22 $\\mu$m $>$ 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg$^2$, where $i$ and [22] are $i$-band and 22 $\\mu$m AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the SED fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically-...

  18. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  19. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marchetti, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  20. Interferometric follow-up of WISE hyper-luminous hot, dust-obscured galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, R. Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Petric, Andreea [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av., Santiago, Ejército Libertador 441 (Chile); Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: jingwen@astro.ucla.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ∼1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  1. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  2. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, Roberto J; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Wylezalek, Dominika; Blain, Andrew W; Bridge, Carrie R; Donoso, Emilio; Gonzales, Alexandria; Griffith, Roger L; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    The WISE mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift ($z=1-4.6$), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm IR} > 10^{13}~L_{\\odot}$, and sometimes exceeding $10^{14}~L_{\\odot}$. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-IR SEDs are significantly hotter than expected for star-formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-IR SEDs for a large sample of these so-called "Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies" (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured AGN that dominates the rest-frame emission at $\\lambda > 1\\mu\\rm m$ and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as $10^{11}-10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$, the AGN emission, with luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either...

  3. The most-luminous heavily-obscured quasars have a high merger fraction: morphological study of WISE-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that WISE-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick AGNs. High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at $z\\sim3$ using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction ($62\\pm 14 \\%$). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of S\\'ersic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most of Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity ($\\sim10^{14}L_\\odot$) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR SEDs decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction (Hickox et al. 2014). Both the high merger fraction in IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in UV/optical-se...

  4. Heavy dust obscuration of z=7 galaxies in a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun

    2013-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with Wide Field Camera 3/IR reveal that galaxies at z~7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5x10^8-3x10^{10} Msun with three parameters, the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (\\fesc). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A_V~1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a sig...

  5. NuSTAR observations of WISE J1036+0449, a galaxy at z ∼ 1 obscured by hot dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in par...

  6. A Dust-Obscured Massive Maximum-Starburst Galaxy at a Redshift of 6.34

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Clements, D L; Dowell, C D; Perez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Bridge, C; Conley, A; Fu, Hai; Vieira, J D; Wardlow, J; Calanog, J; Cooray, A; Hurley, P; Neri, R; Kamenetzky, J; Aguirre, J E; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Benford, D J; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Chapman, S C; Cox, P; Dunlop, J S; Earle, L; Farrah, D; Ferrero, P; Franceschini, A; Gavazzi, R; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Gurwell, M A; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hyde, A; Ibar, E; Kovacs, A; Krips, M; Lupu, R E; Maloney, P R; Martinez-Navajas, P; Matsuhara, H; Murphy, E J; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Petitpas, G; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Scott, D; Smith, A J; Staguhn, J G; Streblyanska, A; Thomson, A P; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M; Zmuidzinas, J

    2013-01-01

    Massive present-day early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies probably gained the bulk of their stellar mass and heavy elements through intense, dust-enshrouded starbursts - that is, increased rates of star formation - in the most massive dark matter halos at early epochs. However, it remains unknown how soon after the Big Bang such massive starburst progenitors exist. The measured redshift distribution of dusty, massive starbursts has long been suspected to be biased low in redshift owing to selection effects, as confirmed by recent findings of systems out to redshift z~5. Here we report the identification of a massive starburst galaxy at redshift 6.34 through a submillimeter color-selection technique. We unambiguously determined the redshift from a suite of molecular and atomic fine structure cooling lines. These measurements reveal a hundred billion solar masses of highly excited, chemically evolved interstellar medium in this galaxy, which constitutes at least 40% of the baryonic mass. A "maximum st...

  7. THE STELLAR, MOLECULAR GAS, AND DUST CONTENT OF THE HOST GALAXIES OF TWO z {approx} 2.8 DUST-OBSCURED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinez-Sansigre, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ridgway, S. E. [NOAO, Colina El Pino s/n, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Sajina, A. [Tuffs University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    We present optical through radio observations of the host galaxies of two dust-obscured, luminous quasars selected in the mid-infrared, at z = 2.62 and z = 2.99, including a search for CO emission. Our limits on the CO luminosities are consistent with these objects having masses of molecular gas {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, several times less than those of luminous submillimeter-detected galaxies at comparable redshifts. Their near-infrared spectral energy distributions, however, imply that these galaxies have high stellar masses ({approx}10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). The relatively small reservoirs of molecular gas and low dust masses are consistent with them being relatively mature systems at high-z.

  8. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Piconcelli, E; Bianchi, S; Zappacosta, L; Fritz, J; Lanzuisi, G; Miniutti, G; Bongiorno, A; Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Maiolino, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a Hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (>= 10^47 erg/s), dust-enshrouded objects at z > 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Gamma ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kalpha emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ 2 x 10^44 erg/s is a fraction (~ 5 x 10^45 erg/s by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~ 75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~ 2100 Msun/yr). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive ga...

  9. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  10. Clustering of Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Revealed by the Hyper Suprime-Cam and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Oogi, Taira; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Coupon, Jean; Strauss, Michael A.; Wang, Wei-Hao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niida, Mana; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Onoue, Masafusa; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Noboriguchi, Akatoki; Usuda, Tomonori

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of the clustering properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining 125 deg2 of wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, we have discovered 4367 IR-bright DOGs with {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0 and flux density at 22 μ {{m}}> 1.0 mJy. We calculate the angular autocorrelation function (ACF) for a uniform subsample of 1411 DOGs with 3.0 mJy r 0 = 12.0 ± 2.0 and 10.3 ± 1.7 {h}-1 Mpc, respectively. IR-bright DOGs reside in massive dark matter halos with a mass of {log}[ /({h}-1 {M}ȯ )]={13.57}-0.55+0.50 and {13.65}-0.52+0.45 in the two cases, respectively.

  11. Hyper-luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies discovered by the Hyper Suprime-Cam on Subaru and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki; Strauss, Michael A; Aoki, Kentaro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Inami, Hanae; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Oi, Nagisa; Onoue, Masafusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Manobu M; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Turner, Edwin L; Uchida, Tomohisa; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the photometric properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR (MIR) images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered 48 DOGs with $i - K_\\mathrm{s} > 1.2$ and $i - [22] > 7.0$, where $i$, $K_\\mathrm{s}$, and [22] represent AB magnitude in the $i$-band, $K_\\mathrm{s}$-band, and 22 $\\mu$m, respectively, in the GAMA 14hr field ($\\sim$ 9 deg$^2$). Among these objects, 31 ($\\sim$ 65 %) show power-law spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the near-IR (NIR) and MIR regime, while the remainder show a NIR bump in their SEDs. Assuming that the redshift distribution for our DOGs sample is Gaussian, with mean and sigma $z$ = 1.99 $\\pm$ 0.45, we calculated their total IR luminosity using an empirical relation between 22 $\\mu$m luminosity and total IR luminosity. The average value of the total IR luminosity is (3.5 $\\pm$ 1.1) $\\ti...

  12. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at Z Approx. 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  13. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, A Galaxy at zeta approx 1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A.W.; Zhang, William W.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer's all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z > 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z approx. 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 (L(sub BOL) approx. = 8 x 10(exp 46) erg/s). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg II, which would imply a black hole mass of M(BH) approx. = 2 x 10(exp 8) Stellar Mass and an Eddington ratio of lambda(sub Edd) approx. = 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of N(sub H) approx. = (2-15) x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. The source has an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 44) erg/s, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z < or approx. 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  14. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z~1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chang, C. S.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S.; Lansbury, G. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stalevski, M.; Stanley, F.; Treister, E.; Tsai, C.-W.; Walton, D. J.; Wu, J. W.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z> 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z∼ 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ({L}{Bol}≃ 8× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg ii, which would imply a black hole mass of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}8 {M}ȯ and an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}≃ 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of {N}{{H}}≃ (2{--}15)× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. The source has an intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity of ∼ 6× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared/X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z≲ 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  15. Dust-Obscured Star-Formation in Intermediate Redshift Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Rose A; Rudnick, Gregory; Poggianti, Bianca; Bell, Eric F; Hinz, Joannah; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Moustakas, John; Rines, Kenneth; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS 24-micron observations of 16 0.45A, and ~75% exhibit optical signatures of dusty starbursts. On average, the fraction of cluster LIRGs increases with projected cluster-centric radius but remains systematically lower than the field fraction over the area probed (< 1.5xR200). The amount of obscured star formation declines significantly over the 2.4 Gyr interval spanned by the EDisCS sample, and the rate of decline is the same for the cluster and field populations. Our results are consistent with an expo nentially declining LIRG fraction, with the decline in the field delayed by ~1 Gyr relative to the clusters.

  16. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z~2-3 in the COSMOS field: I. A Far-Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Riguccini, L; Mullaney, J R; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Calanog, J; Capak, P; Cooray, A; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; McCracken, H; Oliver, S; Roseboom, I; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E

    2015-01-01

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 um flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and ma...

  17. Dust Obscured Quasars: A Missing Link in Quasar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Eilat; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Lacy, M.

    2007-12-01

    A host of observational evidence over several decades of research has suggested a formation and evolutionary link between the growth of supermassive black holes, quasar activity and the build-up of the stellar populations in their host galaxies. Such evolutionary scenarios have been invoked to explain the presence of buried AGN seen in ultraluminous infrared galaxies, a high fraction of which also show evidence of merging and interaction. However, the morphologies of luminous, blue quasars show no signs of interaction. Their hosts are mostly undistrubed elliptical galaxies. These seemingly conflicting observations suggest a missing link in the evolutionary path where the dust that completely buried the ULIRG is being cleared, eventually to reveal an unobscured, luminous quasar. This missing link may be a population of highly reddened, but not completely obscured quasars. We have constructed asample of dust obscured quasars using FIRST and 2MASS. We find that for K CRATES flat-spectrum radio catalog.

  18. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Riechers, D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853 (United States); Decarli, R.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H., E-mail: jhodge@nrao.edu [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Wien (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.

  19. NuSTAR observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z$\\sim1$ obscured by hot dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, C; Stern, D; Nikutta, R; Alexander, D M; Asmus, D; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Blain, A W; Boggs, S; Boorman, P G; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Chen, C -T J; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Díaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Jun, H D; Koss, M J; LaMassa, S; Lansbury, G B; Markwardt, C B; Stalevski, M; Stanley, F; Treister, E; Tsai, C -W; Walton, D J; Wu, J W; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs), selected from the WISE all sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known, and might represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known Hot DOGs are at $z> 1.5$, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 Hot DOG candidates at $z\\sim 1$, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift $z=1.009$, and an SED similar to higher redshift Hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ($L_{\\rm\\,Bol}\\simeq 8\\times 10^{46}\\rm\\,erg\\,s^{-1}$), using data from Keck/LRIS and NIRSPEC, SDSS, and CSO. We find evidence of a broadened component in MgII, which, if due to the gravitational potential of the supermassive black hole, would imply a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm\\,BH}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^8 M_{\\odot}$, and an Eddington ratio of $\\lambda_{\\rm\\,Edd...

  20. Exploring the early dust-obscured phase of galaxy formation with blind mid-/far-IR spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Lapi, A; Gruppioni, C; Spinoglio, L; Danese, L

    2013-01-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infra-Red Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground based facilities like the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. We present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that include the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take...

  1. Radio and millimeter properties of $z \\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in the COSMOS field: limits on radio AGN, submm galaxies, and dust obscuration

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Wang, R; Schinnerer, E; Taniguchi, Y; Smolcic, V; Bertoldi, F; Ajiki, M; Nagao, T; Sasaki, S S; Shioya, Y; Aguirre, J E; Blain, A W; Scoville, N Z; Sanders, D B

    2006-01-01

    We present observations at 1.4 and 250 GHz of the $z\\sim 5.7$ Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE) in the COSMOS field found by Murayama et al.. At 1.4 GHz there are 99 LAEs in the lower noise regions of the radio field. We do not detect any individual source down to 3$\\sigma$ limits of $\\sim 30\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 1.4 GHz, nor do we detect a source in a stacking analysis, to a 2$\\sigma$ limit of $2.5\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$. At 250 GHz we do not detect any of the 10 LAEs that are located within the central regions of the COSMOS field covered by MAMBO ($20' \\times 20'$) to a typical 2$\\sigma$ limit of $S_{250} 6\\times 10^{24}$ W Hz$^{-1}$ in the LAE sample. The radio and millimeter observations also rule out any highly obscured, extreme starbursts in the sample, ie. any galaxies with massive star formation rates $> 1500$ M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ in the full sample (based on the radio data), or 500 M$_\\odot$ year$^{-1}$ for the 10% of the LAE sample that fall in the central MAMBO field. The stacking analysis implies an upper li...

  2. Galaxy gas as obscurer - II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-03-01

    The 'torus' obscurer of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, sub-structure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors fcov. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host-galaxy obscuration. In Paper I, we discovered a relation of {NH} ∝ M_{star }^{1/3} for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here, we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host-galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining nuclear obscurer, which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component (fcov ∼ 35 per cent) and a Compton-thin component (fcov ∼ 40 per cent), which depends on both black hole mass and luminosity. This provides a useful summary of observational constraints for torus modellers who attempt to reproduce this behaviour. It can also be employed as a sub-grid recipe in cosmological simulations that do not resolve the torus. We also investigate host-galaxy X-ray obscuration inside cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations (Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment; Illustris). The obscuration from ray-traced galaxy gas can agree with observations, but is highly sensitive to the chosen feedback assumptions.

  3. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mancone, Conor L.; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z = 0.3 to 1.5 using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver 250 μm imaging and utilizing 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). These clusters were selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Boötes field. This sample allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFR = SFR/M⋆) of stellar mass-limited (M ≥ 1.3 × 1010 M⊙), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star-forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z ≳ 1.2 in the cluster cores (r 0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the SF in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.

  4. GRB 051008: A long, spectrally-hard dust-obscured GRB in a Lyman-Break Galaxy at z ~ 2.8

    CERN Document Server

    Volnova, A A; Gorosabel, J; Perley, D A; Frederiks, D D; Kann, D A; Rumyantsev, V V; Biryukov, V V; Burkhonov, O; Castro-Tirado, A J; Ferrero, P; Golenetskii, S V; Klose, S; Loznikov, V M; Minaev, P Yu; Stecklum, B; Svinkin, D S; Tsvetkova, A E; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Ulanov, M V

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the dark Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 051008 provided by Swift/BAT, Swift/XRT, Konus-WIND, INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS in the high-energy domain and the Shajn, Swift/UVOT, Tautenburg, NOT, Gemini and Keck I telescopes in the optical and near-infrared bands. The burst was detected only in gamma- and X-rays and neither a prompt optical nor a radio afterglow were detected down to deep limits. We identified the host galaxy of the burst, which is a typical Lyman-break Galaxy (LBG) with R-magnitude of 24.06 +/- 0.10. A redshift of the galaxy of z = 2.77 (-0.20,+0.15) is measured photometrically due to the presence of a clear, strong Lyman-break feature. The host galaxy is a small starburst galaxy with moderate intrinsic extinction (A_V = 0.3 mag) and has a SFR of ~ 60 M_Sun / yr typical for LBGs. It is one of the few cases where a GRB host has been found to be a classical Lyman-break galaxy. Using the redshift we estimate the isotropic-equivalent radiated energy of the burst to be E_iso = (1.15 +/- 0.20) x 1...

  5. Dust-obscured star-formation in the outskirts of XMMU J2235.3-2557, a massive galaxy cluster at z=1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J S; Popesso, P; Strazzullo, V; Valtchanov, I; Berta, S; Bohringer, H; Conversi, L; Demarco, R; Edge, A C; Lidman, C; Lutz, D; Metcalfe, L; Mullis, C R; Pintos-Castro, I; Sanchez-Portal, M; Rawle, T D; Rosati, P; Swinbank, A M; Tanaka, M

    2013-01-01

    Star-formation in the galaxy populations of local massive clusters is reduced with respect to field galaxies, and tends to be suppressed in the core region. Indications of a reversal of the star-formation--density relation have been observed in a few z >1.4 clusters. Using deep imaging from 100-500um from PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel, we investigate the infrared properties of spectroscopic and photo-z cluster members, and of Halpha emitters in XMMU J2235.3-2557, one of the most massive, distant, X-ray selected clusters known. Our analysis is based mostly on fitting of the galaxies spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame 8-1000um. We measure total IR luminosity, deriving star formation rates (SFRs) ranging from 89-463 Msun/yr for 13 galaxies individually detected by Herschel, all located beyond the core region (r >250 kpc). We perform a stacking analysis of nine star-forming members not detected by PACS, yielding a detection with SFR=48 Msun/yr. Using a color criterion based on a star-forming galaxy ...

  6. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Gettings, Daniel P; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mancone, Conor L; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2013-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies...

  7. Galaxy gas as obscurer: II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Buchner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The "torus" obscurer of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, substructure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors $f_{\\text{cov}}$. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host galaxy obscuration. In Paper I we discovered a relation of $N_H \\propto M_{\\star}^{1/3}$ for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining, nuclear obscurer which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component ($f_{\\text{cov}}\\sim35\\%$) and a Compton-thin component ($f_{\\text{cov}}\\sim40\\%$), which d...

  8. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    One of the aspects of the understanding of the Universe evolution is its star formation history. In order to gain a complete picture of the Universe evolution it is important to know when the stars we see today were formed. One of the method to study this problem is to use far-infrared and radio...... emission of galaxies. In this way it is possible to investigate the sites of star formation that are totally obscured by dust and therefore invisible at the optical wavelengths. It is because the energy absorbed by dust in the optical is re-emitted in the infrared, whereas radio emission is unaffected...

  9. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods: Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (~0.40 arcsec) resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 μm, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio gala

  10. Obscured Supermassive Black Hole Growth - Connections to Host Galaxies and Evolutionary Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, Adam D.

    2017-08-01

    A large fraction of the supermassive black hole growth in the Universe is hidden from view behind thick columns of dust. The most heavily obscured quasars can be challenging to detect even with current high energy X-ray observatories such as NuSTAR - however with infrared observations that can detect the hot nuclear dust in even the most enshrouded systems, we are now beginning to characterize large populations of these hidden monsters.With roughly half-a-million quasars selected with WISE, we have found via clustering and CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements that obscured quasars reside in dark matter halos 0.5 dex more massive than unobscured quasars. This implies that obscuration is directly linked to host galaxy properties, and not simply the dust geometry around the quasar. Using cross-correlations we accurately characterize the redshift distribution of the obscured quasar population, confirming that it peaks at z = 1, and using long-wavelength bands find that it has a similar bolometric luminosity distribution as unobscured quasars as well. Finally, using a simple model based on empirical relationships between halo, stellar, and black hole masses, we show that an evolutionary sequence from obscured to unobscured quasar, combined with a flux limit, can predict the observed halo mass differences.Studies of the most obscured quasars provide valuable insights on the rapid growth of the most massive black holes in the Universe, and motivates future work with the next generation high energy observatories such as eROSITA, Athena, and Lynx.

  11. Uncovering hidden black holes: Obscured AGN and their relationship to the host galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are accreting supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. According to the unified model, this accretion disk is surrounded by an obscuring torus of dust and gas. In Type 2, or obscured, AGN this torus is viewed edge on. When the column density of the torus exceeds 1/sigmat = 1.5x1021 cm--2, this obscuring medium becomes Compton-thick. Studies indicate that a significant fraction of Compton-thick Type 2 AGN exist but are under-represented in many current samples. We have studied two samples of local type 2 AGN (Seyfert 2 galaxies) to explore issues relevant to finding and characterizing the Compton-thick population. We have also investigated the relationship between type 2 AGN and the galaxies in which they live. To find this Compton-thick population, selecting samples of AGN based on their inherent flux is necessary. We undertook an empirical approach in identifying the most reliable intrinsic AGN flux proxies. Using infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer, optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the literature, and radio and hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) data from the literature, we demonstrated that the [OIV] 26mum, [OIII] 5007A and MIR continuum fluxes agree the best among Type 1 and Type 2 Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing 2-10 keV X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we probed the amount of obscuration that may he present in these systems. We find that a majority of sources exhibit signatures of heavy, and possibly Compton-thick, obscuration: depressed 2-10 key X-ray emission when normalized by intrinsic AGN flux and large Fe Ka equivalent widths. Using a sample of ˜250 star forming galaxies, ˜50 composite systems and an additional ˜20 Seyfert 2 galaxies, we examined the connection between AGN activity and star formation. We found that the SDSS derived star formation rates and [NeII] 12.8mum flux accurately probe starburst activity in both quiescent and active galaxies. Using these parameters and diagnostics

  12. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  13. Obscuration in active galactic nuclei: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, L.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Davies, R. I.; Janssen, A.; Lutz, D.; Rosario, D.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2015-06-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log lmir{} = 42.5 (log lx{} = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near- to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AV^hot = 5 ldots 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AV^hot = 15 ldots 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.

  14. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wolk, G; Peletier, R F; Pel, J W

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and determine the presence of dust tori among radio galaxies of various types. Actively accreting supermassive black holes in the centres of radio galaxies may be uncovered through their dust tori reradiating the optical and ultraviolet continuum in mid-infrared bands. Using VISIR on the VLT, we have obtained sub-arcsecond (~0.40") resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 micron, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio galaxies of four types in the redshift range z=0.006-0.156. The sample consists of 8 edge-darkened, low-power Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR-I) radio galaxies, 6 edge-brightened, class II (FR-II) radio galaxies displaying low-excitation optical emission, 7 FR-IIs displaying high-excitation optical emission, and 6 FR-II broad emission line radio galaxies. Out of the sample of 27 objects, 10 nuclei are detected and several have constraining non-detections at 10 sigma sensitivities of 7 mJy. On the basis of the core ...

  15. Obscuration of Quasars by Dust and the Reddening Mechanism in Parkes-Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Masci, F J

    1998-01-01

    A majority of quasar surveys have been based on criteria which assume strong blue continua or a UV-excess. Any amount of dust along the line-of-sight is expected to drastically extinguish the optical/UV flux leading to a selection bias. Radio surveys however should suffer no bias against extinction by dust. Recently, a large complete sample of radio-selected quasars has become available (the `Parkes sample'). A majority of these sources exhibit optical--to--near-infrared continua that are exceedingly `red', very unlike those of quasars selected optically. The purpose of this thesis, broadly speaking, is to explore the problem of incompleteness in optical quasar surveys due to obscuration by dust, and to interpret the relatively `red' continua observed in the Parkes quasar sample. The first part of this thesis explores the observational consequences of an intervening (foreground) cosmological dust component, such as that located in galaxies and clusters. The second part examines the continuum properties of Par...

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Dust in Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Bamford, Steven; Mosleh, Moein; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Keel, William C; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination-dependence of optical colours for 24,276 well-resolved SDSS galaxies visually classified in Galaxy Zoo. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 magnitudes for the ugri passbands. We split the sample into "bulgy" (early-type) and "disky" (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or f_DeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of "bulgy" spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of "disky" spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disk ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with "disky" spirals at M_r ~ -21.5 mags having the most reddening. This decrease of reddening for the most luminous spirals has not been observed before ...

  17. On the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Gracia-Carpio, J; Koss, M J; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Nandra, P; Netzer, H; de Xivry, G Orban; Ricci, C; Rosario, D J; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L J

    2016-01-01

    The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. But there are many borderline cases and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in conflict. In this article we re-visit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in AGNs. We make use of our "dust color" method (Burtscher et al. 2015) to derive the optical obscuration A_V and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3--150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column N_H and derive the Seyfert sub-classes of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log L_X / (erg/s) ~ 41.5 - 43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen a...

  18. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  19. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  20. AMUSE-VIRGO. III. MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND LIMITS ON OBSCURED NUCLEAR EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Antonucci, Robert [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak, E-mail: leipski@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-10

    We complete our census of low-level nuclear activity in Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies by searching for obscured emission using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared (MIR) imaging at 24 {mu}m. Of a total sample of 95 early-type galaxies, 53 objects are detected, including 16 showing kiloparsec-scale dust in optical images. One-dimensional and two-dimensional surface photometry of the 37 detections without extended dust features reveals that the MIR light is more centrally concentrated than the optical light as traced by Hubble Space Telescope F850LP-band images. No such modeling was performed for the sources with dust detected in the optical images. We explore several possible sources of the MIR excess emission, including obscured nuclear emission. We find that radial metallicity gradients in the stellar population appear to be a natural and most likely explanation for the observed behavior in a majority of the sources. Alternatively, if the concentrated MIR emission were due to nuclear activity, it would imply a MIR-to-X luminosity ratio {approx}5-10 for the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) detected in X-rays by our survey. This ratio is an order of magnitude larger than that of typical low-luminosity AGNs and would imply an unusual spectral energy distribution. We conclude that the black holes found by our survey in quiescent early-type galaxies in Virgo have low bolometric Eddington ratios arising from low accretion rates and/or highly radiatively inefficient accretion.

  1. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); De Zotti, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Le Floc' h, E. [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, T. T. [Nagoya University, Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  2. Are Seyfert 2 Galaxies without Polarized Broad Emission Lines More Obscured?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wen Shu; Jun-Xian Wang; Peng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    New XMM-Newton data of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies with optical spectropolarimet- ric observations are presented. An analysis of the 0.5 - 10 keV spectra shows that four Seyfert 2 galaxies with polarized broad lines (PBLs) are absorbed by NH < 1024 cm-2, while two of three Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs show evidence of Compton-thick obscuration, support- ing the conclusion that Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs are more obscured than those with PBLs. Adding the measured obscuration indicators (NH, T ratio, and Fe Kα line EW) of six luminous AGNs to our previous sample improves the significance level of the difference in absorption from 92.3% to 96.3% for NH, 99.1% to 99.4% for T ratio, and 95.3% to 97.4% for Fe Kα line EW. The present results support and enhance the suggestions that the absence of PBLs in Seyfert 2 galaxies can be explained by larger viewing angles of the line of sight to the putative dusty torus, which leads to the obscuration of the broad-line scattering screen, as expected in the unification model.

  3. Discovery of Highly Obscured Galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, F R; Paladini, R; Clancy, D; Carey, S; Shenoy, S; Kraemer, K E; Kuchar, T; Mizuno, D R; Price, S

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of twenty-five previously unknown galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance. Our systematic search for extended extra-galactic sources in the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL mid-infrared surveys of the Galactic plane has revealed two overdensities of these sources, located around l ~ 47 and 55 degrees and |b| less than 1 degree in the Sagitta-Aquila region. These overdensities are consistent with the local large-scale structure found at similar Galactic longitude and extending from |b| ~ 4 to 40 degrees. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of these sources is indeed consistent with those of normal galaxies. Photometric estimates of their redshift indicate that the majority of these galaxies are found in the redshift range z = 0.01 - 0.05, with one source located at z = 0.07. Comparison with known sources in the local Universe reveals that these galaxies are located at similar overdensities in redshift space. These new galaxies are the first evidence of a bridge linking the large-scale s...

  4. Evidence for Quasar Activity Triggered by Galaxy Mergers in HST Observations of Dust-reddened Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Becker, Robert H.

    2008-02-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope ACS images of 13 dust-reddened type 1 quasars selected from the FIRST/2MASS Red Quasar Survey. These quasars have high intrinsic luminosities after correction for dust obscuration (-23.5 >= MB >= - 26.2 from K-magnitude). The images show strong evidence of recent or ongoing interaction in 11 of the 13 cases, even before the quasar nucleus is subtracted. None of the host galaxies are well fit by a simple elliptical profile. The fraction of quasars showing interaction is significantly higher than the 30% seen in samples of host galaxies of normal, unobscured quasars. There is a weak correlation between the amount of dust reddening and the magnitude of interaction in the host galaxy, measured using the Gini coefficient and the concentration index. Although few host galaxy studies of normal quasars are matched to ours in intrinsic quasar luminosity, no evidence has been found for a strong dependence of merger activity on host luminosity in samples of the host galaxies of normal quasars. We thus believe that the high merger fraction in our sample is related to their obscured nature, with a significant amount of reddening occurring in the host galaxy. The red quasar phenomenon seems to have an evolutionary explanation, with the young quasar spending the early part of its lifetime enshrouded in an interacting galaxy. This might be further indication of a link between AGNs and starburst galaxies.

  5. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  6. Galaxy Simulation with Dust Formation and Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by supernova (SN) shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the nonlinear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr: a...

  7. The Incidence of Highly-Obscured Star-Forming Regions in SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Bendo, George J; Buckalew, Brent A; Calzetti, Daniela; Engelbracht, Charles W; Gordon, Karl D; Hollenbach, David J; Lee, Janice C; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Helou, George; Jarrett, Thomas H; Murphy, Eric J; Smith, John David T; Akiyama, Sanae; Sosey, Megan L; George J. Bendo Astrophysics Group, Imperial College

    2007-01-01

    Using the new capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope and extensive multiwavelength data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), it is now possible to study the infrared properties of star formation in nearby galaxies down to scales equivalent to large HII regions. We are therefore able to determine what fraction of large, infrared-selected star-forming regions in normal galaxies are highly obscured and address how much of the star formation we miss by relying solely on the optical portion of the spectrum. Employing a new empirical method for deriving attenuations of infrared-selected star-forming regions we investigate the statistics of obscured star formation on 500pc scales in a sample of 38 nearby galaxies. We find that the median attenuation is 1.4 magnitudes in H-alpha and that there is no evidence for a substantial sub-population of uniformly highly-obscured star-forming regions. The regions in the highly-obscured tail of the attenuation distribution (A_H-alpha > 3) make up only ~...

  8. Radial transport of dust in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, E I; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by recent observations which detect dust at large galactocentric distances in the disks of spiral galaxies, we propose a mechanism of outward radial transport of dust by spiral stellar density waves. We consider spiral galaxies in which most of dust formation is localized inside the corotation radius. We show that in the disks of such spiral galaxies, the dust grains can travel over radial distances that exceed the corotation radius by roughly 25%. A fraction of the dust grains can be trapped on kidney-shaped stable orbits between the stellar spiral arms and thus can escape the destructive effect of supernova explosions. These grains form diffuse dusty spiral arms, which stretch 4-5 kpc from the sites of active star formation. About 10% of dust by mass injected inside corotation, can be transported over radial distances 3-4 kpc during approximately 1.0 Gyr. This is roughly an order of magnitude more efficient than can be provided by the turbulent motions.

  9. Host Galaxies of Young Dust-Reddened Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, T.; Lacy, M.; Becker, R.; Glikman, E.

    2009-10-01

    We present results on a multiwavelength campaign to identify the nature of dust-reddened Type 1 quasars. These quasars were selected by matching FIRST, 2MASS and very red optical counterparts with r'-K > 5. We find a very high fraction of Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line Quasars (LoBALs) among AGN selected with this method, perhaps a sign of quasar feedback. From X-ray observations and Balmer decrement measurements, the obscuring dust is most likely located in a cold absorber such as the host galaxy, rather than from a torus near the AGN. Hubble ACS imaging of a sub-sample of these sources showed a very high fraction of interacting and merging systems. The quasars appear to be very young in which dust from the merging galaxies is still settling in. Spitzer IRS and MIPS data show star formation signatures and deep Silicate absorption features in these objects, but overall the quasar is the dominant source in the Mid-infrared.

  10. Galaxy gas as obscurer - I. GRBs x-ray galaxies and find an NH3∝ M_{star} relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Johannes; Schulze, Steve; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-02-01

    An important constraint for galaxy evolution models is how much gas resides in galaxies, in particular, at the peak of star formation z = 1-3. We attempt a novel approach by letting long-duration gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) x-ray their host galaxies and deliver column densities to us. This requires a good understanding of the obscurer and biases introduced by incomplete follow-up observations. We analyse the X-ray afterglow of all 844 Swift LGRBs to date for their column density NH. To derive the population properties, we propagate all uncertainties in a consistent Bayesian methodology. The NH distribution covers the 1020-23 cm-2 range and shows no evolutionary effect. Higher obscurations, e.g. Compton-thick columns, could have been detected but are not observed. The NH distribution is consistent with sources randomly populating a ellipsoidal gas cloud of major axis {N^{major}H }=10^{23}cm^{-2} with 0.22 dex intrinsic scatter between objects. The unbiased SHOALS survey of afterglows and hosts allows us to constrain the relation between Spitzer-derived stellar masses and X-ray derived column densities NH. We find a well-constrained power-law relation of NH = 1021.7 cm-2 × (M⋆/109.5 M⊙)1/3, with 0.5 dex intrinsic scatter between objects. The Milky Way and the Magellanic clouds also follow this relation. From the geometry of the obscurer, its stellar mass dependence and comparison with local galaxies, we conclude that LGRBs are primarily obscured by galaxy-scale gas. Ray tracing of simulated Illustris galaxies reveals a relation of the same normalization, but a steeper stellar-mass dependence and mild redshift evolution. Our new approach provides valuable insight into the gas residing in high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Determination of Reddening and Extinction Due to Dust in APM Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nollenberg, J G; Maddox, S J; Nollenberg, Joshua G.; Williams, Liliya L.R.; Maddox, Steve J.

    2003-01-01

    Existing observations are consistent with rich clusters of galaxies having no dust on $\\simgt$ Mpc scales, while galaxy groups most probably do have dust distributed over $\\lesssim$ Mpc scales. Dust in groups accounts for the observed redshift asymmetries of their galaxy distributions, and about $E(B-V)\\sim 0.1-0.2$ mag of reddening. Motivated by these results, we develop a new technique for determining the degree of reddening and extinction due to widely-distributed dust in nearby moderately rich and poor galaxy clusters. The method compares the color-magnitude plane distributions of galaxies from cluster and control regions on the sky, where control regions are assumed to be unaffected by dust. The method is statistical in nature; it can distinguish between uniformly, non-uniformly, and clumpily distributed dust, and can determine the amount of reddening and obscuration without a priori assuming an $A_R/E(B_{J}-R)$ ratio. We apply the method to nearby, $z \\le 0.08$, medium rich and poor APM galaxy clusters....

  12. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, V; Merloni, A; Aller, M; Carollo, M; Iwasawa, K; Koekemoer, A M; Mignoli, M; Silverman, J D; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Lusso, E; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Lilly, S; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Pozzetti, L; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( 8 x 10^45 erg/s) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (Mstar>10^10 Msun) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between star-formation rate and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~1, ~62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for ...

  13. Dust formation in a galaxy with primitive abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Lagadec, E; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Szyszka, C; Bernard-Salas, J; van Loon, J Th

    2009-01-16

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies. It governs the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium. In the local universe, dust forms primarily in the ejecta from stars, but its composition and origin in galaxies at very early times remain controversial. We report observational evidence of dust forming around a carbon star in a nearby galaxy with a low abundance of heavy elements, 25 times lower than the solar abundance. The production of dust by a carbon star in a galaxy with such primitive abundances raises the possibility that carbon stars contributed carbonaceous dust in the early universe.

  14. The Effect of Dust Extinction on the Observed Properties of Galaxies in the Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Riad, Ihab F; Woudt, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies behind the Milky Way suffer size reduction and dimming due to their obscuration by dust in the disk of our Galaxy. The degree of obscuration is wavelength dependent. It decreases towards longer wavelengths. Compared to the optical, the Near InfraRed (NIR) $K_s$ band extinction is only $\\approx10%$ that of the $B$ band. This makes NIR surveys well suited for galaxy surveys close to the Galactic Plane where extinction is severe. While Galactic obscuration is less prominent in the NIR it is not negligible. In this paper we derive empirical relations to correct isophotal radii and magnitudes of galaxies observed in the NIR for foreground absorption. We simulate extinction in the $J$, $H$ and $K_s$ bands on 64 (unobscured) galaxies from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas \\citep{jarrett}. We propose two methods for the extinction correction, the first is optimized to provide the most accurate correction and the second provides a convenient statistical correction that works adequately in lower extinction regions....

  15. Dust to Dust: Monitoring the Evolution of a New Class of Self-Obscured Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Christopher; Adams, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this proposal is to understand a new class of explosive transients associated with the most massive AGB stars. Today these sources are true creatures of the mid-IR, being optically invisible and very faint in the near-IR. By coarsely monitoring them with Spitzer and HST we can examine the evolution of the luminosity, dust optical depth and dust radius/temperature at a key time when their observed fluxes are approaching those of the two known progenitors. At its very simplest, if they do not stop fading in the mid-IR or start to brighten in the near-IR, then they are almost certainly examples of the theoretically expected but observationally missing electron capture supernovae (ecSNe). The exciting result from Cycle 11 is that the sources continued to fade and two are clearly substantially fainter than their progenitors. If this continues in Cycle 13, the ecSNe interpretation becomes far stronger.

  16. Effects of dust grains on early galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H

    2002-01-01

    Stars form out of molecular gas and supply dust grains during their last evolutionary stages; in turn hydrogen molecules (H2) are produced more efficiently on dust grains. Therefore, dust can drastically accelerate H2 formation, leading to an enhancement of star formation activity. In order to examine the first formation of stars and dust in galaxies, we model the evolution of galaxies in the redshift range of 55) galaxies in sub-millimetre and near-infrared bands. We find that: i) ALMA can detect dust emission from several thousands of galaxies per square degree, and ii) NGST can detect the stellar emission from 10^6 galaxies per square degree. Further observational checks of our predictions include the integrated flux of metal (oxygen and carbon) lines. We finally discuss possible color selection strategies for high-redshift galaxy searches.

  17. Galaxy gas as obscurer: I. GRBs x-ray galaxies and find a N_H ~ M* relation

    CERN Document Server

    Buchner, Johannes; Bauer, Franz E

    2016-01-01

    An important constraint for galaxy evolution models is how much gas resides in galaxies, in particular at the peak of star formation z=1-3. We attempt a novel approach by letting long-duration Gamma Ray Bursts (LGRBs) x-ray their host galaxies and deliver column densities to us. This requires a good understanding of the obscurer and biases introduced by incomplete follow-up observations. We analyse the X-ray afterglow of all 844 Swift LGRBs to date for their column density $N_H$. To derive the population properties we propagate all uncertainties in a consistent Bayesian methodology. The $N_H$ distribution covers the $10^{20-23}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ range and shows no evolutionary effect. Higher obscurations, e.g. Compton-thick columns, could have been detected but are not observed. The $N_H$ distribution is consistent with sources randomly populating a ellipsoidal gas cloud of major axis $N_H^\\text{major}=10^{23}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ with 0.22 dex intrinsic scatter between objects. The unbiased SHOALS survey of after...

  18. Large-Scale Structures Behind the Southern Milky Way from Observations of Partially Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kraan-Korteweg, R C; Henning, P A

    1996-01-01

    We report here on extragalactic large-scale structures uncovered by a deep optical survey for galaxies behind the southern Milky Way. Systematic visual inspection of the ESO/SRC-survey revealed over 10000 previously unknown galaxies in the region 265 ~ 2500 km/s connecting to the Hydra and Antlia clusters, a shallow extended supercluster in Vela (~ 6000km/s), and a nearby (4882 km/s), very massive (M ~ 2-5 10^15 Msun), rich Coma-like cluster which seems to constitute the previously unidentified center of the Great Attractor. The innermost part of the Milky Way where the foreground obscuration in the blue is 5mag, respectively HI-column densities greater than 6 10^21 / cm^2 remains fully opaque. In this approximately 8 degrees wide strip, the forthcoming blind HI-survey with the multi-beam system at Parkes will provide the only tool to unveil this part of the extragalactic sky.

  19. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (∼1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5–2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation (∼2.6–4 M⊙ yr‑1). The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner ∼400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT ∼ 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT ∼ 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe Kα equivalent width in this source ({EW}={2.5}-1.0+2.6 {keV}), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density (NH > 1.25 × 1024 cm‑2) and an intrinsic hard (2–10 keV) X-ray luminosity of ∼3–8 × 1042 erg s‑1 (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe Kα EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe Kα EWs (i.e., >2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  20. A multi-wavelength survey of obscured and reddened quasars at the peak of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    While in the nearby universe the unification model seems firmly established, we are now seeing hints that at the peak of quasar activity and black hole growth (z~2.5) both obscured and reddened quasars may represent not just a specific quasar orientation but instead a unique stage of quasar evolution. Our group has developed several observational techniques to identify obscured and highly reddened quasars at z~2.5 using a combination of the SDSS spectroscopy and WISE photometry. Our sample contains objects with some of the most extreme ionized gas velocities observed (> 5000 km/s), indicating wind speeds too large to be contained by the galaxy potential though they are radio quiet. I will present both our sample selection and initial results from multi-wavelength follow-up of this sample using near-infrared spectroscopy, Keck spectropolarimentry and the VLA to test the AGN unification model and search for evidence of galaxy-wide quasar winds. High levels of polarized light (reaching ~20% of the total continuum emission in some cases) and changes in the polarization fraction and position angle across emission lines may argue for the presence of dusty outflows in our objects. This is supported by evidence from stacking analysis in the radio that presents a correlation between the observed outflow speeds in ionized gas (as measured by [OIII]) and the radio luminosity—arguing for a wind origin for the radio emission in these objects as well. The most extreme of these objects may thus represent the “blowout phase” of AGN evolution that proceeds or accompanies the cessation of star formation in the host galaxy due to the effects of radiatively-driven quasar driven winds.

  1. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH EXTRAPLANAR DUSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-20

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR{sub UV}), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFR{sub UV} and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.

  2. Dust Attenuation in Hydrodynamic Simulations of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, M; Primack, J R; Cox, T J; Rocha, Miguel; Jonsson, Patrik; Primack, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of dust in hydrodynamic simulations of spiral galaxies when different radial metallicity gradients are assumed. SUNRISE, a Monte-Carlo radiative-transfer code, is used to make detailed calculations of the internal extinction of disk galaxies caused by their dust content. SUNRISE is used on eight different Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of isolated spiral galaxies. These galaxies vary mainly in mass and hence luminosity, spanning a range in luminosities from -16 to -22 magnitudes in the B band. We focus on the attenuation in different wavelength bands as a function of the disk inclination and the luminosity of the models, and compare this to observations. Observations suggest different metallicity gradients for galaxies of different luminosities. These metallicity gradients were explored in our different models, finding that the resulting dust attenuation matches observations for edge-on galaxies, but do not show a linear behaviour in log axis ratio as some observations ha...

  3. How Dead are Dead Galaxies? Mid-Infrared Fluxes of Quiescent Galaxies at Redshift 0.3Star Formation Rates and Dust Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; vanDokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; DaCunha, Elisabete; FoersterSchreiber, Natascha M.; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Maseda, Michael; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 star formation rates for quiescent galaxies (sSFR approx. 10(exp -12)/yr. However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS-24 micron images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 micron detections, we find sSFR approx. 10(exp -11.9) × (1 + z)(sup 4)/yr. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well above that at lower redshifts.

  4. Discovery of "Warm Dust" Galaxies in Clusters at z~0.3: Evidence for Stripping of Cool Dust in the Dense Environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Chung, S M; Pérez-González, P G; Smail, I; Walth, G; Altieri, B; Appleton, P; Alba, A Berciano; Blain, A W; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Fadda, D; Gonzalez, A H; Pereira, M J; Valtchanov, I; van der Werf, P P; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    Using far-infrared imaging from the "Herschel Lensing Survey", we derive dust properties of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster member galaxies within two massive systems at z~0.3: the merging Bullet Cluster and the more relaxed MS2137.3-2353. Most star-forming cluster sources (~90%) have characteristic dust temperatures similar to local field galaxies of comparable infrared (IR) luminosity (T_dust ~ 30K). Several sub-LIRG (L_IR 37K) with far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes resembling LIRG-type local templates. X-ray and mid-infrared data suggest that obscured active galactic nuclei do not contribute significantly to the infrared flux of these "warm dust" galaxies. Sources of comparable IR-luminosity and dust temperature are not observed in the relaxed cluster MS2137, although the significance is too low to speculate on an origin involving recent cluster merging. "Warm dust" galaxies are, however, statistically rarer in field samples (> 3sigma), indicating that the responsible mechanism ma...

  5. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...

  6. Simulating the dust content of galaxies: successes and failures

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hayward, Christopher C; Marinacci, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We present full volume cosmological simulations using the moving-mesh code AREPO to study the coevolution of dust and galaxies. We extend the dust model in AREPO to include thermal sputtering of grains and investigate the evolution of the dust mass function, the cosmic distribution of dust beyond the interstellar medium, and the dependence of dust-to-stellar mass ratio on galactic properties. The simulated dust mass function is well-described by a Schechter fit and lies closest to observations at $z = 0$. The radial scaling of projected dust surface density out to distances of $10 \\, \\text{Mpc}$ around galaxies with magnitudes $17 < i < 21$ is similar to that seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. At $z = 0$, the predicted dust density of $\\Omega_\\text{dust} \\approx 1.9 \\times 10^{-6}$ lies in the range of $\\Omega_\\text{dust}$ values seen in low-redshift observations. We find that dust-to-stellar mass ratio anti-correlates with stellar mass for galaxies living along the star formation main sequence. Mor...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Dust and molecular gas in early-type galaxies with prominent dust lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Bureau, Martin; Shabala, Stanislav S; Crockett, R Mark; Silk, Joseph; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon; Keel, William C; Masters, Karen L; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P

    2011-01-01

    We study dust and associated molecular gas in 352 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) with prominent dust lanes. 65% of these 'dusty ETGs' (D-ETGs) are morphologically disturbed, suggesting a merger origin. This is consistent with the D-ETGs residing in lower-density environments compared to a control sample drawn from the general ETG population. 80% of D-ETGs inhabit the field (compared to 60% of the controls) and <2% inhabit clusters (compared to 10% of the controls). Compared to the control sample, D-ETGs exhibit bluer UV-optical colours (indicating enhanced star formation) and an AGN fraction that is more than an order of magnitude greater. The clumpy dust mass residing in large-scale features is estimated, using the SDSS r-band images, to be between 10^{4.5} and 10^{6.5} MSun. Comparison to the total (clumpy + diffuse) dust masses - calculated using far-infrared fluxes of the 15% of the D-ETGs that are detected by IRAS - indicates that only ~20% of the dust resides in these large-scale features. The dus...

  8. MAPPING DUST THROUGH EMISSION AND ABSORPTION IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Groves, Brent; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh S. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Aniano, Gonzalo [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Draine, Bruce T. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crocker, Alison F.; Smith, J. D. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, Robert C., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dust has long been identified as a barrier to measuring inherent galaxy properties. However, the link between dust and attenuation is not straightforward and depends on both the amount of dust and its distribution. Herschel imaging of nearby galaxies undertaken as part of the KINGFISH project allows us to map the dust as seen in emission with unprecedented sensitivity and {approx}1 kpc resolution. We present here new optical integral field unit spectroscopy for eight of these galaxies that provides complementary 100-200 pc scale maps of the dust attenuation through observation of the reddening in both the Balmer decrement and the stellar continuum. The stellar continuum reddening, which is systematically less than that observed in the Balmer decrement, shows no clear correlation with the dust, suggesting that the distribution of stellar reddening acts as a poor tracer of the overall dust content. The brightest H II regions are observed to be preferentially located in dusty regions, and we do find a correlation between the Balmer line reddening and the dust mass surface density for which we provide an empirical relation. Some of the high-inclination systems in our sample exhibit high extinction, but we also find evidence that unresolved variations in the dust distribution on scales smaller than 500 pc may contribute to the scatter in this relation. We caution against the use of integrated A{sub V} measures to infer global dust properties.

  9. Obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many obscured AGN show evidence of significant starburst emission dominating below 2 keV. Therefore wide-field X-ray surveys sensitive enough to luminosities below approximately 10^42 ergs per second will result in detections of galaxies with contributions of both obscured AGN and starburst emission. We will discuss Bayesian approaches to assessing the relative contribution of each component, minimizing survey biases and using the resultant posterior probabilities for the AGN and starburst components to determine their evolution.

  10. Obscuration in AGNs: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Davies, R I; Janssen, A; Lutz, D; Rosario, D; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lin, M -Y; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L

    2015-01-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. T...

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of a Massive Obscured Star Cluster in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with NIRSPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert; Graham; McLean; Becklin; Figer; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox

    2000-04-10

    We present infrared spectroscopy of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. We imaged the star clusters in the vicinity of the southern nucleus (NGC 4039) with 0&farcs;39 seeing in the K band using NIRSPEC's slit-viewing camera. The brightest star cluster revealed in the near-IR [MK&parl0;0&parr0; approximately -17.9] is insignificant optically but is coincident with the highest surface brightness peak in the mid-IR (12-18 µm) Infrared Space Observatory image presented by Mirabel et al. We obtained high signal-to-noise ratio 2.03-2.45 µm spectra of the nucleus and the obscured star cluster at R approximately 1900. The cluster is very young ( approximately 4 Myr), massive (M approximately 16x106 M middle dot in circle), and compact (with a density of approximately 115 M middle dot in circle pc-3 within a 32 pc half-light radius), assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (0.1-100 M middle dot in circle). Its hot stars have a radiation field characterized by Teff approximately 39,000 K, and they ionize a compact H ii region with ne approximately 104 cm-3. The stars are deeply embedded in gas and dust (AV approximately 9-10 mag), and their strong far-ultraviolet field powers a clumpy photodissociation region with densities nH greater, similar105 cm-3 on scales of approximately 200 pc, radiating LH21-0S&parl0;1&parr0;=9600 L middle dot in circle.

  12. Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GA...

  13. The rarity of dust in metal-poor galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David B; Bolatto, Alberto D; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Draine, Bruce T; Donaldson, Jessica; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin M; Leroy, Adam K; Cannon, John; Gordon, Karl

    2014-01-09

    Galaxies observed at redshift z > 6, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, thus far very rarely show evidence of the cold dust that accompanies star formation in the local Universe, where the dust-to-gas mass ratio is around one per cent. A prototypical example is the galaxy Himiko (z = 6.6), which--a mere 840 million years after the Big Bang--is forming stars at a rate of 30-100 solar masses per year, yielding a mass assembly time of about 150 × 10(6) years. Himiko is thought to have a low fraction (2-3 per cent of the Sun's) of elements heavier than helium (low metallicity), and although its gas mass cannot yet be determined its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constrained to be less than 0.05 per cent. The local dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, which has a metallicity about 4 per cent that of the Sun's and is forming stars less rapidly (assembly time about 1.6 × 10(9) years) than Himiko but still vigorously for its mass, is also very dust deficient and is perhaps one of the best analogues of primitive galaxies accessible to detailed study. Here we report observations of dust emission from I Zw 18, from which we determine its dust mass to be 450-1,800 solar masses, yielding a dust-to-stellar mass ratio of about 10(-6) to 10(-5) and a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 3.2-13 × 10(-6). If I Zw 18 is a reasonable analogue of Himiko, then Himiko's dust mass must be around 50,000 solar masses, a factor of 100 below the current upper limit. These numbers are quite uncertain, but if most high-z galaxies are more like Himiko than like the very-high-dust-mass galaxy SDSS J114816.64 + 525150.3 at z ≈ 6, which hosts a quasar, then our prospects for detecting the gas and dust inside such galaxies are much poorer than hitherto anticipated.

  14. The dust budget crisis in high-redshift submillimetre galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlands, K; Dunne, L; Aragón-Salamanca, A; Dye, S; Maddox, S; da Cunha, E; van der Werf, P

    2014-01-01

    We apply a chemical evolution model to investigate the sources and evolution of dust in a sample of 26 high-redshift ($z>1$) submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) from the literature, with complete photometry from ultraviolet to the submillimetre. We show that dust produced only by low-intermediate mass stars falls a factor 240 short of the observed dust masses of SMGs, the well-known `dust-budget crisis'. Adding an extra source of dust from supernovae can account for the dust mass in 19 per cent of the SMG sample. Even after accounting for dust produced by supernovae the remaining deficit in the dust mass budget provides support for higher supernova yields, substantial grain growth in the interstellar medium or a top-heavy IMF. Including efficient destruction of dust by supernova shocks increases the tension between our model and observed SMG dust masses. The models which best reproduce the physical properties of SMGs have a rapid build-up of dust from both stellar and interstellar sources and minimal dust destructi...

  15. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  16. Connecting The Interstellar Gas And Dust Properties Of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    The properties of interstellar gas and dust in distant galaxies are fundamental parameters in constraining galaxy evolution models. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous background quasars, provide invaluable tools to directly study gas and dust in distant normal galaxies. Recent studies of QASs have found interesting trends in both gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. Our Spitzer spectroscopic studies also indicate that silicate dust grains are present in QASs, and in fact, at a level higher than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Moreover, the silicate dust grains in these distant galaxies may be substantially more crystalline than those in the Milky Way interstellar medium. We now propose a comprehensive study of the gas and dust properties of all QASs with strong Ly-alpha and/or metal absorption lines that have adequate archival IR data to probe the study of dust. Our analysis will include data primarily from the NASA-supported Spitzer, Herschel, HST, and Keck Observatory archives, along with a small amount of VLT/SDSS archival data. Our specific goals are as follows: (1) We will measure a large range of metal absorption lines in high-resolution quasar spectra from Keck, HST, and VLT archives to uniformly determine the metallicity, dust depletions, ionization, and star formation rates in the foreground QASs. In particular, we will study the variations in these quantities with gas velocity, using Voigt profile fitting techniques to determine the velocity structure. This analysis will also allow us to quantify the kinematics of the absorbing gas. (2) We will use archival Spitzer IRS quasar spectra to search for and measure the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features for a much larger sample of QASs than previously studied. (3) We will fit the observed silicate absorption features in the Spitzer archival

  17. Evolution of dust extinction curves in galaxy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nagamine, Kentaro; Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh

    2017-07-01

    To understand the evolution of extinction curve, we calculate the dust evolution in a galaxy using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations incorporating stellar dust production, dust destruction in supernova shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. The dust species are separated into carbonaceous dust and silicate. The evolution of grain size distribution is considered by dividing grain population into large and small grains, which allows us to estimate extinction curves. We examine the dependence of extinction curves on the position, gas density and metallicity in the galaxy, and find that extinction curves are flat at t ≲ 0.3 Gyr because stellar dust production dominates the total dust abundance. The 2175 Å bump and far-ultraviolet (FUV) rise become prominent after dust growth by accretion. At t ≳ 3 Gyr, shattering works efficiently in the outer disc and low-density regions, so extinction curves show a very strong 2175 Å bump and steep FUV rise. The extinction curves at t ≳ 3 Gyr are consistent with the Milky Way extinction curve, which implies that we successfully included the necessary dust processes in the model. The outer disc component caused by stellar feedback has an extinction curve with a weaker 2175 Å bump and flatter FUV slope. The strong contribution of carbonaceous dust tends to underproduce the FUV rise in the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve, which supports selective loss of small carbonaceous dust in the galaxy. The snapshot at young ages also explains the extinction curves in high-redshift quasars.

  18. Dust accretion and destruction in galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L

    2010-01-01

    We examine the dust distribution around a sample of 70,000 low redshift galaxy groups and clusters derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By correlating spectroscopically identified background quasars with the galaxy groups we obtain the relative colour excess due to dust reddening. We present a significant detection of dust out to a clustercentric distance of 30 Mpc/h in all four independent SDSS colours, consistent with the expectations of weak lensing masses of similar mass halos and excess galaxy counts. The wavelength dependence of this colour excess is consistent with the expectations of a Milky Way dust law with R_V=3.1. Further, we find that the halo mass dependence of the dust content is much smaller than would be expected by a simple scaling, implying that the dust-to-gas ratio of the most massive clusters (~10E14 Msun/h) is ~3% of the local ISM value, while in small groups (~10E12.7 Msun/h) it is ~55% of the local ISM value. We also find that the dust must have a covering fraction on the order ...

  19. Infrared emission from dust in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, A. J.; Evans, A.; Pearce, G.

    1985-02-01

    The nonvariable infrared radiation from the nucleus of NGC 4151 is discussed in terms of radiation from circumnuclear dust heated by nuclear radiation. The dust is modeled by a spherical shell and by a torus, both consisting of silicate and graphite dust grains similar to those found in the Galaxy. The model predictions are compared with the observations in an attempt to determine some parameters of the circumnuclear dust. The comparison indicates a spherical shell rather than a torus with a silicate-to-graphite dust-mass ratio of 90:10, an inner radius of about 4 pc, and an outer radius of 20 pc or more. It is proposed that the outer radius could be determined observationally, and that the silicate-to-graphite mass ratio of dust in the spiral arms of NGC 4151 could be determined from far-infrared observations.

  20. Kiloparsec-scale Dust Disks in High-redshift Luminous Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J. A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Smail, I.; Walter, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Bertoldi, F.; Biggs, A. D.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, C. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Edge, A. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Menten, K. M.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiss, A.; van der Werf, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present high-resolution (0.″16) 870 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging of 16 luminous ({L}{IR}˜ 4× {10}12 {L}⊙ ) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from the ALESS survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This dust imaging traces the dust-obscured star formation in these z˜ 2.5 galaxies on ˜1.3 kpc scales. The emission has a median effective radius of R e = 0.″24 ± 0.″02, corresponding to a typical physical size of {R}e= 1.8 ± 0.2 kpc. We derive a median Sérsic index of n = 0.9 ± 0.2, implying that the dust emission is remarkably disk-like at the current resolution and sensitivity. We use different weighting schemes with the visibilities to search for clumps on 0.″12 (˜1.0 kpc) scales, but we find no significant evidence for clumping in the majority of cases. Indeed, we demonstrate using simulations that the observed morphologies are generally consistent with smooth exponential disks, suggesting that caution should be exercised when identifying candidate clumps in even moderate signal-to-noise ratio interferometric data. We compare our maps to comparable-resolution Hubble Space Telescope {H}160-band images, finding that the stellar morphologies appear significantly more extended and disturbed, and suggesting that major mergers may be responsible for driving the formation of the compact dust disks we observe. The stark contrast between the obscured and unobscured morphologies may also have implications for SED fitting routines that assume the dust is co-located with the optical/near-IR continuum emission. Finally, we discuss the potential of the current bursts of star formation to transform the observed galaxy sizes and light profiles, showing that the z˜ 0 descendants of these SMGs are expected to have stellar masses, effective radii, and gas surface densities consistent with the most compact massive ({M}* ˜ 1-2 × 1011 {M}⊙ ) early-type galaxies observed locally.

  1. The interstellar dust reservoir: SPICA's view on dust production and the interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Jones, O C; Srinivasan, S

    2016-01-01

    Typical galaxies emit about one third of their energy in the infrared. The origin of this emission reprocessed starlight absorbed by interstellar dust grains and reradiated as thermal emission in the infrared. In particularly dusty galaxies, such as starburst galaxies, the fraction of energy emitted in the infrared can be as high as 90%. Dust emission is found to be an excellent tracer of the beginning and end stages of a star's life, where dust is being produced by post-main-sequence stars, subsequently added to the interstellar dust reservoir, and eventually being consumed by star and planet formation. This work reviews the current understanding of the size and properties of this interstellar dust reservoir, by using the Large Magellanic Cloud as an example, and what can be learned about the dust properties and star formation in galaxies from this dust reservoir, using SPICA, building on previous work performed with the Herschel and Spitzer Space Telescopes, as well as the Infrared Space Observatory.

  2. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  3. The influence of binarity on dust obscuration events in the planetary nebula M 2-29 and its analogues

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Köppen, J; Rauch, T; Acker, A; Cohen, M; Frew, D J; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Jones, A F; Udalski, A

    2011-01-01

    The central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) M 2-29 shows an extraordinary R Coronae Borealis-like fading event in its optical lightcurve. The only other CSPN to show these events are CPD-568032 (Hen 3-1333) and V651 Mon (NGC 2346). Dust cloud formation in the line of sight appears responsible but the exact triggering mechanism is not well understood. Understanding how planetary nebulae (PNe) trigger dust obscuration events may help understand the same process in a wide range of objects including Population-I WC9 stars, symbiotic stars and perhaps Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars with long secondary periods (LSPs). A binary scenario involving an eccentric, wide companion that triggers dust formation via interaction at periastron is a potential explanation that has been suggested for LSP variables. Model fits to the lightcurves of CPD-568032 and M 2-29 show the dust forms in excess of 70 AU at the inner edge of a dust disk. In the case of CPD-568032 this radius is far too large to coincide with a binary ...

  4. Evolution of Dust-to-Metal Ratio in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A K

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of the dust-to-metal ratio in galaxies based on a simple evolution model for the amount of metal and dust with infall. We take into account grain formation in stellar mass-loss gas, grain growth by the accretion of metallic atoms in a cold dense cloud, and grain destruction by SNe shocks. Especially, we propose that the accretion efficiency is independent of the star-formation history. This predicts various evolutionary tracks in the metallicity ($Z$)--dust-to-gas ratio ($\\cal D$) plane depending on the star-formation history. In this framework, the observed linear $Z$--$\\cal D$ relation of nearby spiral galaxies can be interpreted as a sequence of a constant galactic age. We emphasize that an observational study of the $Z$--$\\cal D$ relation of galaxies at $z\\sim 1$ is very useful to constrain the efficiencies of dust growth and destruction. We also suggest that the Lyman break galaxies at $z\\sim 3$ have a very low dust-to-metal ratio, typically $\\ltsim 0.1$. Although th...

  5. A Systematic Investigation of Cold Gas and Dust in "Normal" Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts at Redshifts 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Capak, Peter L.; COSMOS, HerMES

    2016-01-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We present some of the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations of the cold gas and dust with the most powerful facilities, i.e., the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation encompasses a systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in massive dusty starbursts and (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  6. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Montaña, Alfredo; Battisti, Andrew; Limousin, Marceau; Marchesini, Danilo; Wilson, Grant W.; Alberts, Stacey; Aretxaga, Itziar; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Ramón Bermejo-Climent, José; Brammer, Gabriel; Bravo-Alfaro, Hector; Calzetti, Daniela; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David; Kado-Fong, Erin; Keller, Erica; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Labbe, Ivo; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Lowenthal, James; Murphy, Eric; Oesch, Pascal; Rosa Gonzalez, Daniel; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Shipley, Heath; Stefanon, Mauro; Vega, Olga; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Christina C.; Yun, Min; Zavala, Jorge A.; Zeballos, Milagros

    2017-04-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717_Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model (μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 1010 L ⊙ and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M ⊙ yr‑1, which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr‑1) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 109 M ⊙, MACS0717_Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX-β) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  7. Production, Processing, and Consumption of Dust in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontcharov, G.

    2017-06-01

    The recent results obtained by the modern telescopes and spacecrafts allow us for the first time to compare directly the mass, spatial density and size distribution of the dust grains in the regions of their production, processing and consumption in our Galaxy. The ALMA and VLT/SPHERE telescopes allow us to estimate the production of the dust by supergiants and collapsing core supernovae. The 2MASS, WISE, SDSS, Planck and other telescopes allow us to estimate the processing of the dust in the interstellar medium. After renewed Besançon Galaxy model the medium appears to contain about half the local mass of matter (both baryonic and dark) in the Galactic neighborhood of the Sun. The Helios, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons spacecrafts allow us to estimate the consumption of the dust by large solid bodies. The results are consistent assuming the local mean spatial density of the dust is about of 3.5×10-26 g/cm3, mean density of the grain is about 1 g/cm3, and the dust production rate is about of 0.015 Solar mass per year for whole the Galaxy.

  8. Kiloparsec-scale dust disks in high-redshift luminous submillimeter galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J A; Simpson, J M; Smail, I; Walter, F; Alexander, D M; Bertoldi, F; Biggs, A D; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S C; Chen, C C; Coppin, K E K; Cox, P; Edge, A C; Greve, T R; Ivison, R J; Karim, A; Knudsen, K K; Menten, K M; Rix, H -W; Schinnerer, E; Wardlow, J L; Weiss, A; van der Werf, P

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution (0.16$"$) 870um Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) imaging of 16 luminous (L_IR ~ 4 x 10^12 L_sun) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from the ALESS survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This dust imaging traces the dust-obscured star formation in these z~2.5 galaxies on ~1.3 kpc scales. The emission has a median effective radius of $R_e=0.24" \\pm 0.02"$, corresponding to a typical physical size of $R_{e}=1.8\\pm$0.2 kpc. We derive a median S\\'ersic index of $n=0.9\\pm0.2$, implying that the dust emission is remarkably disk-like at the current resolution and sensitivity. We use different weighting schemes with the visibilities to search for clumps on 0.12$"$ (~1.0 kpc) scales, but we find no significant evidence for clumping in the majority of cases. Indeed, we demonstrate using simulations that the observed morphologies are generally consistent with smooth exponential disks, suggesting that caution should be exercised when identifying candidate clumps in even m...

  9. X-ray bumps, iron K-alpha lines, and X-ray suppression by obscuring tori in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Madau, Piero; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of unobscured type 1 and obscured type 2 Seyferts as predicted by the unified Seyfert scheme. We consider the reprocessing of X-ray photons by photoelectric absorption, iron fluorescence, and Compton downscattering in the obscuring tori surrounding these active nuclei, and compute by Monte Carlo methods the reprocessed spectra as a function of the viewing angle. Depending on the optical depth and shape of the torus, and on the viewing angle, the X-ray flux can be suppressed by substantial factors when our line of sight is obscured. We show that an immediate consequence of the existence of an obscuring thick torus is the production in the spectra of type 1 Seyfert galaxies of a bump in the continuum above 10-20 keV and an Fe K-alpha line with significant equivalent width. In those type 2 Seyferts for which the hard X-ray spectrum has been substantially suppressed, the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line in the transmitted spectrum can be very large.

  10. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), I. Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Gehrz, Robert D; Gordon, Karl D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; Meixner, Margaret; Skillman, Evan; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, George; van Loon, Jacco Th; Zijlstra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (-2.7 75% complete at the tip of the Red Giant Branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally-pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in 8 of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  11. Dust in the Circumgalactic Medium of Low-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Peek, J E G; Corrales, Lia

    2014-01-01

    Using spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we present a detection of reddening due to dust in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies. We detect the mean change in the colors of "standard crayons" correlated with the presence of foreground galaxies at z ~0.05 as a function of angular separation. Following Peek & Graves (2010), we create standard crayons using passively evolving galaxies corrected for Milky Way reddening and color-redshift trends, leading to a sample with as little as 2% scatter in color. We devise methods to ameliorate possible systematic effects related to the estimation of colors, and we find an excess reddening induced by foreground galaxies at a level ranging from 10 to 0.5 millimagnitudes on scales ranging from 30 kpc to 1 Mpc. We attribute this effect to a large-scale distribution of dust around galaxies similar to the findings of Menard et al. 2010. We find that circumgalactic reddening is a weak function of stellar mass over the range $6 \\times 10^9 ...

  12. Optical colours and spectral indices of z = 0.1 eagle galaxies with the 3D dust radiative transfer code skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, James W.; Camps, Peter; Theuns, Tom; Baes, Maarten; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-09-01

    We present mock optical images, broad-band and H α fluxes, and D4000 spectral indices for 30 145 galaxies from the eagle hydrodynamical simulation at redshift z = 0.1, modelling dust with the skirt Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The modelling includes a subgrid prescription for dusty star-forming regions, with both the subgrid obscuration of these regions and the fraction of metals in diffuse interstellar dust calibrated against far-infrared fluxes of local galaxies. The predicted optical colours as a function of stellar mass agree well with observation, with the skirt model showing marked improvement over a simple dust-screen model. The orientation dependence of attenuation is weaker than observed because eagle galaxies are generally puffier than real galaxies, due to the pressure floor imposed on the interstellar medium (ISM). The mock H α luminosity function agrees reasonably well with the data, and we quantify the extent to which dust obscuration affects observed H α fluxes. The distribution of D4000 break values is bimodal, as observed. In the simulation, 20 per cent of galaxies deemed 'passive' for the skirt model, i.e. exhibiting D4000 >1.8, are classified 'active' when ISM dust attenuation is not included. The fraction of galaxies with stellar mass greater than 1010 M⊙ that are deemed passive is slightly smaller than observed, which is due to low levels of residual star formation in these simulated galaxies. Colour images, fluxes and spectra of eagle galaxies are to be made available through the public eagle data base.

  13. What can the occult do for you? Understanding dust geometry in other galaxies from overlapping galaxy pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne Willem

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar dust is still the dominant uncertainty in Astronomy, limiting precision in e.g., cosmological distance estimates and models of how light is re-processed within a galaxy. When a foreground galaxy serendipitously overlaps a more distant one, the latter backlights the dusty structures in the nearer foreground galaxy. Such an overlapping or occulting galaxy pair can be used to measure the distribution of dust in the closest galaxy with great accuracy. My STARSMOG program uses HST observation of occulting galaxy pairs to accurately map the distribution of dust in foreground galaxies in fine (interstellar dust grains and re-emitted at longer wavelengths. To model this accurately, one needs to know the distribution and detailed geometry of dust in galaxies. The travel of light through an inhomogeneous medium is radically different from the smooth one and depends strongly on the medium’s inner structure. Secondly, the model for our Universe today includes dark energy, inferred from the distances to supernova, which themselves may be dimmed by intervening dust. An accurate model for the dust extinction in supernova host galaxies is critical to evolve this technique to the next level of accuracy needed to map dark energy. And finally, the fine-scale maps of dust extinction in occuling galaxies can be used to trace the molecular cloud sizes and the role of turbulence in the ISM of these disks. Furthermore, Integral Field Unit observations of such pairs will map the effective extinction curve in these occulting galaxies, disentangling the role of fine-scale geometry and grain composition on these curves.The overlapping galaxy technique promises to deliver a clear understanding of the dust in galaxies: the dust geometry, a probability function of the amount of dimming as a function of galaxy type, its dependence on wavelength and evolution of all these properties with cosmic time (from more distant pairs).

  14. A Multi-Wavelength Census of Dust and Star Formation in Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Redshift of z ~ 2 is an important era in the history of the universe, as it contains the peak of star formation rate density and quasar activity. We study the galaxy properties during this era from two different, yet complementary, aspects: by studying formation of stars and mass assembly, and exploring the properties of galactic dust. We use a wealth of multi-wavelength data, from UV to far-IR, to obtain a complete census of obscured and unobscured star formation in galaxies. Our data consists of rest-frame optical spectra from the MOSDEF survey, rest-frame UV and optical photometric data from the 3D-HST survey, and mid- and far-IR data obtained by the Spitzer and Herschel telescopes. In the MOSDEF survey, we acquired rest-frame optical spectra of ~ 1500 galaxies with the MOSFIRE spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. MOSDEF is currently the largest survey of the rest-frame optical properties of galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 3.80. Using the multi-wavelength data sets, we show that Hα SFRs, corrected for dust attenuation using the Hβ line, accurately trace SFRs up to ~ 300 M⊙ yr-1, when compared with panchromatic (UV-to-far-IR) SED models. Using Hα SFRs for a large sample of ~ 200 galaxies at z ~ 2, we explore the SFR-M* relation and show that the slope of this relation is shallower than previously measured. We conclude that the scatter in the SFR-M* relation is dominated by uncertainties in dust correction and cannot be used to measure the star formation stochasticity. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron flux as an SFR indicator and its variation with ISM physical parameters. We find that 24 micron flux, which at z ~ 2 traces the emission from the PAH grains, significantly depends on metallicity, such that there is a PAH deficiency in metal-poor galaxies. We demonstrate that commonly-used conversions of 24 micron flux to IR luminosity underestimate the IR luminosity of low-mass galaxies by more than a factor of 2. Our results

  15. The obscured mid-infrared continuum of NGC 4418 : A dust- and ice-enshrouded AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoon, HWW; Keane, JV; Tielens, AGGM; Lutz, D; Moorwood, AFM

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of absorption features in the 6-8 mum region superimposed on a featureless mid-infrared continuum in NGC 4418. For several of these features this is the first detection in an external galaxy We compare the absorption spectrum of NGC4418 to that; of embedded massive protostars

  16. Characterizing Dust Attenuation in Local Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Andrew; Calzetti, Daniela; Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2017-01-01

    The dust attenuation for a sample of ~10000 local (z ≤ 0.1) star forming galaxies is constrained as a function of their physical properties. We utilize aperture-matched multi-wavelength data from the UV-to-NIR, available from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, to ensure that regions of comparable size in each galaxy are being analyzed. We characterize the dust attenuation through the slope of the UV flux density and the Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ). The observed relationship between these quantities is similar to the local starburst relation and is not seen to vary strongly with galactic properties. We derive the total attenuation curve over the range 1250 Å < λ < 28500 Å and find that a single attenuation curve is effective for characterizing the majority of galaxies in our sample. This attenuation curve is slightly lower in the far-UV than local starburst galaxies, by roughly 15%, but appears similar at longer wavelengths and has a normalization of RV = 3.7±0.4 (V-band). This indicates that a single attenuation curve is reasonable for wide application in the local Universe.

  17. Modelling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Jenkins, Edward B; Klessen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous ISM including dust growth and destruction processes. The physical conditions for grain evolution are taken from hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [Si/H]_{gas} measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [Si/H]_{gas} and the local gas density n(H) which we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The synthetic relation constructed from the spatial dust distribution reproduces the slope of -0.5 of the observed relation in cold clouds. This slope is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by the dust growth. We find that it occurs for a...

  18. Radial distribution of stars, gas and dust in SINGS galaxies. II. Derived dust properties

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Mateos, J C; Boissier, S; Zamorano, J; Dale, D A; Pérez-González, P G; Gallego, J; Madore, B F; Bendo, G; Thornley, M D; Draine, B T; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Kennicutt, R C; 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/1965

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radial distribution of dust properties in the SINGS sample, performed on a set of UV, IR and HI surface brightness profiles, combined with published molecular gas profiles and metallicity gradients. The internal extinction, derived from the TIR-to-FUV luminosity ratio, decreases with radius, and is larger in Sb-Sbc galaxies. The TIR-to-FUV ratio correlates with the UV spectral slope beta, following a sequence shifted to redder UV colors with respect to that of starbursts. The star formation history (SFH) is identified as the main driver of this departure. We have also derived radial profiles of the total dust mass surface density, the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, the fraction of the dust mass heated by very intense starlight and the intensity of the radiation field heating the grains. The dust profiles are exponential, their radial scale-length being constant from Sb to Sd galaxies (only ~10% larger than the stellar scale-length). Many S0/a-Sab galaxies ...

  19. Modeling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Dobbs, Clare; Jenkins, Edward B.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2016-11-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous interstellar medium (ISM) using hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] and the local gas density n({{H}}) that we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The relation predicted by the models reproduces the slope of -0.5 for the observed relation in cold clouds, which is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by dust growth. We find that growth occurs in the cold medium for all adopted values of the minimum grain size a min from 1 to 5 nm. For the classical cutoff of {a}\\min =5 {nm}, the Coulomb repulsion results in slower accretion and higher [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}] than the observed values. For {a}\\min ≲ 3 {nm}, the Coulomb interactions enhance the growth rate, steepen the slope of the [{{Si}}{gas}/{{H}}]-n({{H}}) relation, and provide a better match to observations. The rates of dust re-formation in the ISM by far exceed the rates of dust production by stellar sources. After the initial 140 Myr, the cycle of matter in and out of dust reaches a steady state, in which the dust growth balances the destruction on a similar timescale of 350 Myr.

  20. ISO-SWS spectroscopy of Arp 220 : A highly obscured starburst galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Genzel, R; Sternberg, A; Egami, E; Kunze, D; Rigopoulou, D; Bauer, OH; Feuchtgruber, H; Moorwood, AFM; deGraauw, T

    1996-01-01

    We report the first 2.4 - 45 mu m spectroscopic study of Arp 220 obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer onboard ISO. Observations of mid infrared lines penetrate deep into the highly obscured regions where the luminosity originates and give direct clues to their sources of excitation. From

  1. The role of major mergers in (obscured) black hole growth and galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, E.; Privon, G.; Ricci, C.; Bauer, F.; Schawinski, K.; MODA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    A clear picture is emerging in which rapid supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth episodes (luminous AGN) are directly linked to major galaxy mergers. Here, we present the first results from our MODA program aimed to obtain optical and near-IR Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy and mm/sub-mm ALMA maps for a sample of confirmed nearby dual AGN (separation 10 kpc), including the archetypical galaxy NGC6240. Specifically, we will focus here on Mrk 463, a very rich system of two galaxies separated by 3.8 kpc hosting two SMBH growing simultaneously. Clear evidence for complex morphologies and kinematics, outflows and feedback effects can be seen in this system, evidencing the deep connection between major galaxy mergers, SMBH growth and galaxy evolution.

  2. Dust and Nebular Emission in Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Panuzzo, P; Granato, G L; Silva, L; Danese, L; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Bressan, Alessandro; Granato, Gian Luigi; Silva, Laura; Danese, Luigi

    2001-01-01

    Star forming galaxies exhibit a variety of physical conditions, from quiescent normal spirals to the most powerful dusty starbursts. In order to study these complex systems, we need a suitable tool to analyze the information coming from observations at all wavelengths. We present a new spectro-photometric model which considers in a consistent way starlight as reprocessed by gas and dust. We discuss preliminary results to interpret some observed properties of VLIRGs.

  3. Dust Attenuation in High Redshift Galaxies -- 'Diamonds in the Sky'

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Capak, Peter; Kakazu, Yuko; Li, Gongjie; Steinhardt, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We use observed optical to near infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 266 galaxies in the COSMOS survey to derive the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation at high redshift. All of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts in the range z = 2 to 6.5. The presence of the CIV absorption feature, indicating that the rest-frame UV-optical SED is dominated by OB stars, is used to select objects for which the intrinsic, unattenuated spectrum has a well-established shape. Comparison of this intrinsic spectrum with the observed broadband photometric SED then permits derivation of the wavelength dependence of the dust attenuation. The derived dust attenuation curve is similar in overall shape to the Calzetti curve for local starburst galaxies. We also see the 2175 \\AA~bump feature which is present in the Milky Way and LMC extinction curves but not seen in the Calzetti curve. The bump feature is commonly attributed to graphite or PAHs. No significant dependence is seen with redshift between sub-sample...

  4. The dust content of galaxies from z = 0 to z = 9

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Gergö; Galametz, Maud

    2016-01-01

    We study the dust content of galaxies from z $=$ 0 to z $=$ 9 in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new recipes to track the production and destruction of dust. We include condensation of dust in stellar ejecta, the growth of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM), the destruction of dust by supernovae and in the hot halo, and dusty winds and inflows. The rate of dust growth in the ISM depends on the metallicity and density of molecular clouds. Our fiducial model reproduces the relation between dust mass and stellar mass from z $=$ 0 to z $=$ 7, the dust-to-gas ratio of local galaxies as a function of stellar mass, the double power law trend between dust-to- gas ratio and gas-phase metallicity, the number density of galaxies with dust masses less than $10^{8.3} M_\\odot$, and the cosmic density of dust at z $=$ 0. The dominant mode of dust formation is dust growth in the ISM, except for galaxies with $M_* < 10^7 M_\\odot$, where condensation of dust in supernova ejecta dominates. The dust-t...

  5. Mildly obscured active galaxies and the cosmic X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic X-ray background (CXB) is the sum of the emission of discrete sources, mostly massive black-holes accreting matter in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The CXB spectrum differs from the integration of the spectra of individual sources, calling for a large population, undetected so far, of strongly obscured Compton thick AGN. Such objects are predicted by unified models, which attribute most of the AGN diversity to their inclination on the line of sight, and play an important role for the understanding of the growth of black holes in the early Universe. The fraction of obscured AGN at low redshift can be derived from the observed CXB spectrum assuming AGN spectral templates and luminosity functions. We show that high signal-to-noise average hard X-ray spectra, derived from more than a billion seconds of effective exposure time with the Swift/BAT instrument, imply that mildly obscured Compton thin AGN feature a strong reflection and contribute massively to the CXB. A population of Compton thick A...

  6. Probing highly-obscured galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN - Extreme luminosity densities inside self-absorbed v=0 HCN and HCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Sakamoto, K; Fuller, G A; Garcia-Burillo, S; van der Werf, P; Neri, R; Spaans, M; Combes, F; Viti, S; Muehle, S; Armus, L; Evans, A; Sturm, E; Cernicharo, J; Henkel, C; Greve, T R

    2015-01-01

    We present high resolution (0."4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS17208-0014, Arp220, IC860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (v2=1) J=3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r5e13 Lsun/kpc2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, v2=1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 micron mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1e24 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, the ground vibrational state (v=0), J=3-2 and 4-3 ro...

  7. The problematic growth of dust in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2016-11-01

    Dust growth via accretion of gas species has been proposed as the dominant process to increase the amount of dust in galaxies. We show here that this hypothesis encounters severe difficulties that make it unfit to explain the observed UV and IR properties of such systems, particularly at high redshifts. Dust growth in the diffuse ISM phases is hampered by (a) too slow accretion rates, (b) too high dust temperatures, and (c) the Coulomb barrier that effectively blocks accretion. In molecular clouds these problems are largely alleviated. Grains are cold (but not colder than the CMB temperature, TCMB ≈ 20 K at redshift z = 6). However, in dense environments accreted materials form icy water mantles, perhaps with impurities. Mantles are immediately (≲1 yr) photo-desorbed as grains return to the diffuse ISM at the end of the cloud lifetime, thus erasing any memory of the growth. We conclude that dust attenuating stellar light at high-z must be ready-made stardust largely produced in supernova ejecta.

  8. Dust in High Redshift Gamma Ray Burst Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shunlin; Li, A.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of high-redshift GRBs opens a new window into the nature of dust in the early universe. We explore the dust properties of the host galaxies of a large sample (32 objects) of long-GRBs at 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7, with a mean redshift of z=3.34 (corresponding to a look-back time of 1.94 Gyr), by fitting their optical-near-IR afterglow spectra. The average dust extinction in the visual band is AV=0.3. The EB-V/NHI and AV/NHI ratios decrease linearly with the dust-to-gas ratio, suggesting that the dust properties remain unchanged at the epoch of 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7. The inferred extinction curves are closely reproduced in terms of a mixture of amorphous silicate and graphite. The quanities of amorphous silicate and graphite (relative to H) both appear to decrease with, while their cut-off grain sizes show no significant evolution in the interval 2.0≤ z ≤ 6.7.

  9. The evolution of the dust and gas content in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, P; Magnelli, B; Lutz, D; Lamastra, A; Causi, G Li; Eales, S; Andreani, P; Berta, S; Buat, V; Cooray, A; Cresci, G; Daddi, E; Farrah, D; Fontana, A; Franceschini, A; Genzel, R; Granato, G; Grazian, A; Floc'h, E Le; Magdis, G; Magliocchetti, M; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Rosario, D J; Salvato, M; Scott, D; Silva, L; Tacconi, L; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wuyts, S; Xu, K

    2013-01-01

    We use deep Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations in GOODSS, GOODSN and COSMOS to estimate the average dust mass (Mdust) of galaxies on a redshift-stellar mass (Mstar)-SFR grid. We study the scaling relations between Mdust, Mstar and SFR at z<=2.5. No clear evolution of Mdust is observed at fixed SFR and Mstar. We find a tight correlation between SFR and Mdust, likely a consequence of the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) law. The Mstar-Mdust correlation observed by previous works flattens or sometimes disappears when fixing the SFR. Most of it likely derives from the combination of the Mdust-SFR and Mstar-SFR correlations. We then investigate the gas content as inferred by converting Mdust by assuming that the dust/gas ratio scales linearly with the gas metallicity. All galaxies in the sample follow, within uncertainties, the same SFR-Mgas relation (integrated S-K law), which broadly agrees with CO-based results for the bulk of the population, despite the completely different approaches. The majority of galaxies at ...

  10. Dust origin in late-type dwarf galaxies: ISM growth vs. type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the roles of different dust sources in dust production as a function of metallicity in late-type dwarf galaxies, with the goal of understanding the relation between dust content and metallicity. The dust content ol late-type dwarf galaxies with episodic star formation is studied with a multicomponent model of dust evolution, which includes dust input from AGB stars, type II SNe and dust growth by accretion of atoms in the ISM. Dust growth in the ISM becomes an important dust source in dwarf galaxies, on the timescale of 0.1 - a few Gyrs. It increases the dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) during post-burst evolution, unlike type II SNe, which eject grains to the ISM only during starbursts. Before the dust growth in the ISM overtakes the dust production, AGB stars can be major sources of dust in metal-poor dwarf galaxies. Our models reproduce the relation between the DGR and oxygen abundance, derived from observations of a large sample of dwarf galaxies. The steep decrease in the DGR at low O values is exp...

  11. Multi-wavelength Probes of Obscuration Towards the Narrow Line Region in Seyfert Galaxies (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 (Kraemer et al. 2000), near IR emission detected in Gemini/Near-Infrared Integrated Field Spectrograph ( NIFS ...any case, it points to the presence of a significant amount of material outside the optical NLR, in agreement with results from NIFS spectra of a

  12. Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift: Obscured Star Formation, GRB Rates, Cosmic Reionization, and Missing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a holistic view of galaxy evolution at high redshifts z ≳ 4, which incorporates the constraints from various astrophysical/cosmological probes, including the estimate of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density from UV/IR surveys and long gamma-ray burst (GRBs) rates, the cosmic reionization history following the latest Planck measurements, and the missing satellites issue. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting the SFR functions derived by Mancuso et al. on the basis of an educated extrapolation of the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and already tested against a number of independent observables. Our SFR functions integrated down to a UV magnitude limit MUV ≲ ‑13 (or SFR limit around 10‑2 M⊙ yr‑1) produce a cosmic SFR density in excellent agreement with recent determinations from IR surveys and, taking into account a metallicity ceiling Z ≲ Z⊙/2, with the estimates from long GRB rates. They also yield a cosmic reionization history consistent with that implied by the recent measurements of the Planck mission of the electron scattering optical depth τes ≈ 0.058 remarkably, this result is obtained under a conceivable assumption regarding the average value fesc ≈ 0.1 of the escape fraction for ionizing photons. We demonstrate via the abundance-matching technique that the above constraints concurrently imply galaxy formation becoming inefficient within dark matter halos of mass below a few 108 M⊙ pleasingly, such a limit is also required so as not to run into the missing satellites issue. Finally, we predict a downturn of the Galaxy luminosity function faintward of MUV ≲ ‑12, and stress that its detailed shape, to be plausibly probed in the near future by the JWST, will be extremely informative on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos, or even on the microscopic nature of the dark matter.

  13. Dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at z > 6 detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at z > 6. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at z > 6 by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high-condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta (fin ≳ 0.5), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby galaxies. If we assume a condensation efficiency expected from theoretical calculations (fin ≲ 0.1), strong dust growth (even stronger than assumed for nearby galaxies if they are metal-poor galaxies) is required. These results indicate that the normal galaxies detected by ALMA at z > 6 are biased to objects (i) with high dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, (ii) with strong dust growth in very dense molecular clouds or (iii) with efficient dust growth because of fast metal enrichment up to solar metallicity. A measurement of metallicity is crucial to distinguish among these possibilities.

  14. The cycle of interstellar dust in galaxies of different morphological types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calura, F.; Pipino, A.; Matteucci, F.

    2008-03-01

    Aims:We used chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological type to perform a detailed study of the evolution of the cosmic dust properties in different environments: the solar neighbourhood, elliptical galaxies and dwarf irregular galaxies. Thanks to the uptodate observations available in the solar vicinity, we intend to study the effects of dust in the chemical evolution of different types of galaxies and, at the same time, to refine investigation of the parameter space to satisfactorily fine-tune the parameters in our study. Methods: We have considered dust production from low and intermediate mass stars, supernovae Ia, supernovae II, and both dust destruction and dust accretion processes in a detailed model of chemical evolution for the solar vicinity. Then, by means of the same dust prescriptions, but adopting different galactic models (different star formation histories and the presence of galactic winds), we extended our study to ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies. In all these systems, dust evolution was calculated by means of chemical evolution models that relax the instantaneous recycling approximation and already reproduce the main features of the various galaxies. Results: We have investigated how the assumption of different star formation histories affects the dust production rates, dust depletion, the dust accretion, and destruction rates. We predict dust-to-gas and dust-to-metal ratios in very good agreement with those observed in the solar vicinity. We show how the inclusion of the dust treatment is helpful in solving the so-called Fe discrepancy, as observed in the hot gaseous halos of local ellipticals, and in reproducing the chemical abundances observed in the Lyman Break Galaxies. Finally, our new models can be very useful in future detailed spectro-photometric studies of galaxies.

  15. Cool dust heating and temperature mixing in nearby star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Bianchi, S; Gordon, K D; Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Helou, G; Hinz, J L; Kennicutt, R C; Roussel, H; Wilson, C D; Bolatto, A; Boquien, M; Croxall, K V; Galametz, M; de Paz, A Gil; Koda, J; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Vigroux, L; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in galaxies are closely linked to the ambient radiation field and the heating of dust grains. In order to characterize dust properties in galaxies over a wide range of physical conditions, we present here the radial surface brightness profiles of the entire sample of 61 galaxies from Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). The main goal of our work is the characterization of the grain emissivities, dust temperatures, and interstellar radiation fields responsible for heating the dust. After fitting the dust and stellar radial profiles with exponential functions, we fit the far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in each annular region with single-temperature modified black bodies using both variable (MBBV) and fixed (MBBF) emissivity indices beta, as well as with physically motivated dust models. Results show that while most SED parameters decrease with radius, the emissivity index beta also decreases with radius in...

  16. Dust attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST H$\\alpha$ measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, A; Franceschini, A; Talia, M; Cimatti, A; Baronchelli, I; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Schawinski, K; Mancini, C; Silverman, J; Gruppioni, C; Lutz, D; Berta, S; Oliver, S J

    2015-01-01

    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with the PEP/Herschel data to characterize the H\\alpha dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 normal star-forming galaxies at $0.7\\leq z\\leq1.5$ in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR, at \\lambda=100 and/or 160 \\mu m, and only includes galaxies with a secure H\\alpha detection (S/N>3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured z and F(H\\alpha) for the whole sample, rescaling the observed flux by a constant factor of 1.2 to remove the contamination by [NII]. The stellar masses, infrared and UV luminosities were derived from the SEDs by fitting multi-band data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE500 \\mu m. We derived the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX ratio and the UV-slope, and found an excellent agreement among them. Galaxies in the sample have 2.6x10^9$\\leq$M*$\\leq$3.5x10^11 Msun, intense infrared luminosity (L_IR>1.2x10^10 Lsun), high level of dust obscuration (0.1$\\leq$Estar(B-V)$\\leq$1.1) and str...

  17. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Chary, R -R; Laskar, T; Chornock, R; Tanvir, N R; Stanway, E R; Levan, A J; Levesque, E M; Davies, J E

    2014-01-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  18. Global Star Formation Rates and Dust Emission Over the Galaxy Interaction Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Lanz, Lauranne; Brassington, Nicola; Smith, Howard A; Ashby, Matthew L N; da Cunha, Elisabete; Fazio, Giovanni G; Hayward, Christopher C; Hernquist, Lars; Jonsson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    We measured and modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFR), specific star formation rates (sSFR), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increase...

  19. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z around Zsun/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70um/f160um ratios at a given f160um/f250um ratio; single modified black-body (MBB) fittings to the SED at \\lambda >= 100 um still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (beta = 2) show that even at 100 um about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (~20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images further reveal that the far-IR colors including f70um/f160um, f160um/f250um and f250um/f350um are all related to ...

  20. CONTRIBUTION OF THE ACCRETION DISK, HOT CORONA, AND OBSCURING TORUS TO THE LUMINOSITY OF SEYFERT GALAXIES: INTEGRAL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonov, S.; Churazov, E.; Krivonos, R.; Revnivtsev, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A. [Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Willner, S. P.; Goulding, A. D.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Gorjian, V.; Werner, M. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Forman, W. R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We estimate the relative contributions of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion disk, corona, and obscuring torus to the bolometric luminosity of Seyfert galaxies, using Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) observations of a complete sample of 68 nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the INTEGRAL all-sky hard X-ray (HX) survey. This is the first HX-selected (above 15 keV) sample of AGNs with complementary high angular resolution, high signal-to-noise, MIR data. Correcting for the host galaxy contribution, we find a correlation between HX and MIR luminosities: L{sub 15{mu}m}{proportional_to}L{sup 0.74{+-}0.06}{sub HX}. Assuming that the observed MIR emission is radiation from an accretion disk reprocessed in a surrounding dusty torus that subtends a solid angle decreasing with increasing luminosity (as inferred from the declining fraction of obscured AGNs), the intrinsic disk luminosity, L{sub Disk}, is approximately proportional to the luminosity of the corona in the 2-300 keV energy band, L{sub Corona}, with the L{sub Disk}/L{sub Corona} ratio varying by a factor of 2.1 around a mean value of 1.6. This ratio is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than for typical quasars producing the cosmic X-ray background. Therefore, over three orders of magnitude in luminosity, HX radiation carries a large, and roughly comparable, fraction of the bolometric output of AGNs. We estimate the cumulative bolometric luminosity density of local AGNs at {approx}(1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3}. Finally, the Compton temperature ranges between kT{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 2 and Almost-Equal-To 6 keV for nearby AGNs, compared to kT{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 2 keV for typical quasars, confirming that radiative heating of interstellar gas can play an important role in regulating SMBH growth.

  1. Dust Masses, PAH Abundances, and Starlight Intensities in the SINGS Galaxy Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T; Bendo, G; Gordon, K D; Smith, J D T; Armus, L; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Kennicutt, R C; Li, A; Roussel, H; Walter, F; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Murphy, E J; Rieke, G H; Bot, C; Hollenbach, D J; Sheth, K; Teplitz, H I

    2007-01-01

    Physical dust models are presented for 65 galaxies in the SINGS survey that are strongly detected in the four IRAC bands and three MIPS bands. For each galaxy we estimate (1) the total dust mass, (2) the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, and (3) the intensity of the starlight heating the dust grains. We find that spiral galaxies have dust properties resembling the dust in the local region of the Milky Way, with similar dust-to-gas ratio, and similar PAH abundance. The observed SEDs, including galaxies with SCUBA photometry, can be reproduced by dust models that do not require "cold" (T8.1, grains contain a substantial fraction of interstellar Mg, Si and Fe. Galaxies with A_O8.1 have a median q_PAH=3.55%. The derived dust masses favor a value X_CO approx 4e20 cm^{-2}(K kms)^{-1} for the CO to H_2 conversion factor. Except for some starbursting systems (Mrk33, Tolo89, NGC3049), dust in the diffuse ISM dominates the IR power.

  2. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank J.; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D.; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D.; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2017-03-01

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous (M [4.5] = ‑17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] ‑ [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 (D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s‑1), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μm, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous (M 4.5 = ‑16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  3. Obscured Star-Formation in Merging Galaxies: High Resolution Radio Imaging of a Time-Ordered Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, S. G.; Campion, S. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new, deep, high resolution 6cm and 4cm radio continuum images of the central regions of a time-ordered sequence of seven large galaxy mergers. The radio observations are able to detect star-forming re- gions that are completely obscured at optical wavelengths. In all systems, we detect numerous compact radio sources embedded in more diffuse ra- dio emission, with limiting luminosities of approx. 1-5 x 10(exp l8) W Hz or approx. 1-5 times the luminosity of Cas A. Many of the compact radio sources are loosely associated with active starforming regions but not with specific optical or W emission sources. Several of the compact radio sources are coincident with Ultra-luminous X-ray objects (ULX's). In most systems, we are able to measure reliable spectral indices for the stronger sources. We find that the fraction of compact radio cources with nominally flat radio spectral indices (indicating they ae dominated by thermal radio emission from HII regions) decreases with merger age, while the fraction of sources with nonimally steep spectral indices (indicating they are dominated by nonthermal emission from supernova remnants) increases. For the flat-spectrum sources, we estimate the numbers of young massive stars, associated ionized gas masses, we estimate supernova rates and required star-formation rates, We compare these results with those from other well-studied merging galaxy systems and from other determinations of star-formation rates. We gratefully acknowledge use of the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the VLA Archive. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-05-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f70μm/f160 μm ratios at a given f160 μm/f250 μm ratio; single modified blackbody (MBB) fittings to the SED at λ ≥ 100 μm still reveal higher dust temperatures and lower emissivity indices compared to that of Spirals, while two MBB fittings to the full SED with a fixed emissivity index (β = 2) show that even at 100 μm, about half of the emission comes from warm (50 K) dust, in contrast to the cold (˜20 K) dust component. Our spatially resolved images furthermore reveal that the far-IR colours including f70 μm/f160 μm, f160 μm/f250 μm and f250 μm/f350 μm are all related to the surface densities of young stars as traced by far-UV, 24 μm and star formation rates (SFRs), but not to the stellar mass surface densities. This suggests that the dust emitting at wavelengths from 70 to 350 μm is primarily heated by radiation from young stars.

  5. Dust properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Márquez, J.; Burgarella, D.; Heinis, S.; Buat, V.; Lo Faro, B.; Béthermin, M.; López-Fortín, C. E.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rodighiero, G.; Salvato, M.; Scott, D.; Taniguchi, Y.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Since the mid-1990s, the sample of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) has been growing thanks to the increasing sensitivities in the optical and in near-infrared telescopes for objects at z> 2.5. However, the dust properties of the LBGs are poorly known because the samples are small and/or biased against far-infrared (far-IR) or submillimeter (submm) observations. Aims: This work explores from a statistical point of view the far-IR and submm properties of a large sample of LBGs at z ~ 3 that cannot be individually detected from current far-IR observations. Methods: We select a sample of 22, 000 LBGs at 2.5 luminosity (LFUV), UV continuum slope (βUV), and stellar mass (M∗) to better sample their variety. We stack in PACS (100 and 160 μm) images from PACS Evolution Probe survey (PEP), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 μm) images from the Herschel Multi-tied Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) programs, and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions. Results: We obtain the full infrared spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of LFUV, βUV, and M∗. The average IRX (or dust attenuation) is roughly constant over the LFUV range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with βUV, AFUV = (3.15 ± 0.12) + (1.47 ± 0.14) βUV, and stellar mass, log (IRX) = (0.84 ± 0.11)log (M∗/ 1010.35) + 1.17 ± 0.05. We investigate using a statistically controlled stacking analysis as a function of (M∗, βUV), the dispersion of the IRX-βUV and IRX-M∗ plane. On the one hand, the dust attenuation shows a departure of up to 2.8 mag above the mean IRX-βUV relation when log (M∗ [ M⊙ ]) increases from 9.75 to 11.5 in the same βUV bin. This strongly suggests that M∗ plays an important role in shaping the IRX-βUV plane. On the other hand

  6. Modeling Dust and Starlight in Galaxies Observed by Spitzer and Herschel: NGC 628 and NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Hunt, L K; Kennicutt, R C; Krause, O; Leroy, A K; Rix, H-W; Roussel, H; Sandstrom, K; Sauvage, M; Walter, F; Armus, L; Bolatto, A D; Crocker, A; Meyer, J Donovan; Galametz, M; Helou, G; Hinz, J; Johnson, B D; Koda, J; Montiel, E; Murphy, E J; Skibba, R; Smith, J -D T; Wolfire, M G

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the dust in NGC628 and NGC6946, two nearby spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample. With data from 3.6um to 500um, dust models are strongly constrained. Using the Draine & Li (2007) dust model, (amorphous silicate and carbonaceous grains), for each pixel in each galaxy we estimate (1) dust mass surface density, (2) dust mass fraction contributed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s, (3) distribution of starlight intensities heating the dust, (4) total infrared (IR) luminosity emitted by the dust, and (5) IR luminosity originating in regions with high starlight intensity. We obtain maps for the dust properties, which trace the spiral structure of the galaxies. The dust models successfully reproduce the observed global and resolved spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The overall dust/H mass ratio is estimated to be 0.0082+/-0.0017 for NGC628, and 0.0063+/-0.0009 for NGC6946, consistent with what is expected for galaxies of near-solar metallicity. Our derived dust masses are larger (by...

  7. Cold dust but warm gas in the unusual elliptical galaxy NGC 4125

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Foyle, K; Parkin, T J; Cooper, E Mentuch; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Baes, M; Bendo, G; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; De Looze, I; Galametz, M; Gear, W; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Pereira-Santaella, M; Remy-Ruyer, A

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and HI emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5x10^6 Msun. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (= 10^4 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  8. The bolometric output and host-galaxy properties of obscured AGN in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lusso, E; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Treister, E; Sanders, D; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Gilli, R; Mainieri, V; Nair, P; Aller, M C; Carollo, M; Koekemoer, A M; Merloni, A; Trump, J R

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the multi-wavelength properties, from the mid-infrared to the hard X-rays, of a sample of 255 spectroscopically identified X-ray selected Type-2 AGN from the XMM-COSMOS survey. Most of them are obscured the X-ray absorbing column density is determined by either X-ray spectral analyses (for the 45% of the sample), or from hardness ratios. Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) are computed for all sources in the sample. The average SEDs in the optical band is dominated by the host-galaxy light, especially at low X-ray luminosities and redshifts. There is also a trend between X-ray and mid-infrared luminosity: the AGN contribution in the infrared is higher at higher X-ray luminosities. We calculate bolometric luminosities, bolometric corrections, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) for these sources using a multi-component modeling to properly disentangle the emission associated to stellar light from that due to black hole accretion. For 90% of the sample we also have the morpholo...

  9. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  10. The Origin of Dust in the Early Universe: Probing the Star Formation History of Galaxies by Their Dust Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the approximately 4 x 10(exp 8) Solar Mass of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae, could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass AGB stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios. ^N;"(,, show that the AGB scenario is sensitive to the details of the galaxy's star formation history (SFH), which must consist of an early intense starburst followed by a period of low stellar activity. The presence or absence of massive amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies can therefore be used to infer their SFH. However, a problem with the AGB scenario is that it produces a stellar mass that is significantly larger than the inferred dynamical mass of J1148+5251, an yet unresolved discrepancy. If this problem persists, then additional sites for the growth or formation of dust, such as molecular clouds or dense clouds around active galactic nuclei, must be considered.

  11. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies. I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Boyer, M L; Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2016-01-01

    We used models of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, that also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows a nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition, and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1-1.25Msun objects of metallicity Z=0.001 and from 1.5-2.5Msun stars with Z=0.002. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (65%), mainly ...

  12. Constraint on dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at $z>6$ detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -C; Hou, K -C

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at $z>6$. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals, and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at $z>6$ by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta ($f_{\\mathrm{in}} \\ga 0.5$), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby g...

  13. The interstellar medium in Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies - I. Content and origin of the interstellar dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J.; Fritz, Jacopo; Boquien, Médéric; Cormier, Diane; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Young, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are among the most numerous galaxy population in the Universe, but their main formation and evolution channels are still not well understood. The three dwarf spheroidal satellites (NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205) of the Andromeda galaxy are characterized by very different interstellar medium properties, which might suggest them being at different galaxy evolutionary stages. While the dust content of NGC 205 has been studied in detail in an earlier work, we present new Herschel dust continuum observations of NGC 147 and NGC 185. The non-detection of NGC 147 in Herschel SPIRE maps puts a strong constraint on its dust mass (≤128^{+124}_{-68} M⊙). For NGC 185, we derive a total dust mass Md = 5.1±1.0 × 103 M⊙, which is a factor of ˜2-3 higher than that derived from ISO and Spitzer observations and confirms the need for longer wavelength observations to trace more massive cold dust reservoirs. We, furthermore, estimate the dust production by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae (SNe). For NGC 147, the upper limit on the dust mass is consistent with expectations of the material injected by the evolved stellar population. In NGC 185 and NGC 205, the observed dust content is one order of magnitude higher compared to the estimated dust production by AGBs and SNe. Efficient grain growth, and potentially longer dust survival times (3-6 Gyr) are required to account for their current dust content. Our study confirms the importance of grain growth in the gas phase to account for the current dust reservoir in galaxies.

  14. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, University of Colorado UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  15. Dust Heating by Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z<1

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Kobayashi, M A R; Ichikawa, T; Fukui, Y

    2015-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2 10^{10} Msun have a relatively high dust temperature of Tdust > 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly with increasing the temperature around Tdust ~ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role for the continuation of their passive evolution, because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  16. Probing the interstellar dust in galaxies over >10 Gyr of cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Aller, Monique C.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2016-11-01

    Dust has a profound effect on the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas in galaxies and on the appearance of galaxies. Understanding the cosmic evolution of dust with time is therefore crucial for understanding the evolution of galaxies. Despite the importance of interstellar dust, very little is known about its nature and composition in distant galaxies. We summarize the results of our ongoing programs using observations of distant quasars to obtain better constraints on dust grains in foreground galaxies that happen to lie along the quasar sightlines. These observations consist of a combination of mid-infrared data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and optical/UV data obtained with ground-based telescopes and/or the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid-IR data target the 10 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, while the optical/UV data allow determinations of element depletions, extinction curves, 2175 Å bumps, etc. Measurements of such properties in absorption-selected galaxies with redshifts ranging from z 0 to z > 2 provide constraints on the evolution of interstellar dust over the past > 10 Gyr . The optical depth of the 10 μm silicate absorption feature (τ10) in these galaxies is correlated with the amount of reddening along the sightline. But there are indications (e.g., based on the τ10 / E(B - V) ratio and possible grain crystallinity) that the dust in these distant galaxies differs in structure and composition from the dust in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of galaxies and their star formation history.

  17. Dust Heating By Low-mass Stars in Massive Galaxies at z< 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisawa, M.; Morishita, T.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Ichikawa, T.; Fukui, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data and multi-wavelength photometric catalog, we investigated the dust temperature of passively evolving and star-forming galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0 in the CANDELS fields. We estimated the stellar radiation field by low-mass stars from the stellar mass and surface brightness profile of these galaxies and then calculated their steady-state dust temperature. At first, we tested our method using nearby early-type galaxies with the deep far-IR data by the Herschel Virgo cluster survey and confirmed that the estimated dust temperatures are consistent with the observed temperatures within the uncertainty. We then applied the method to galaxies at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.0, and found that most passively evolving galaxies with {{M}star}\\gt {{10}10} {{M}⊙ } have relatively high dust temperatures of {{T}dust}\\gt 20 K, for which the formation efficiency of molecular hydrogen on the surface of dust grains in the diffuse ISM is expected to be very low from the laboratory experiments. The fraction of passively evolving galaxies strongly depends on the expected dust temperature at all redshifts and increases rapidly increasing temperature around {{T}dust}˜ 20 K. These results suggest that the dust heating by low-mass stars in massive galaxies plays an important role in the continuation of their passive evolution because the lack of the shielding effect of the molecular hydrogen on the UV radiation can prevent the gas cooling and formation of new stars.

  18. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by AGB stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to Damped Lyman-α systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are: i) we can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. iii) Concerning Damped Lyman-α systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nano-particles.

  19. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova (SN) explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to damped Lyman α (DLA) systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are the following. (i) We can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. (ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. (iii) Concerning DLA systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. (iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nanoparticles.

  20. Are High-redshift Galaxies Hot? Temperature of z > 5 Galaxies and Implications for Their Dust Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisst, Andreas L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Barišić, Ivana; Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Masters, Daniel C.

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have found a significant evolution and scatter in the relationship between the UV spectral slope (β UV) and the infrared excess (IRX; L IR/L UV) at z > 4, suggesting different dust properties of these galaxies. The total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity is key for this analysis, but it is poorly constrained in normal (main-sequence) star-forming z > 5 galaxies, where often only one single FIR point is available. To better inform estimates of the FIR luminosity, we construct a sample of local galaxies and three low-redshift analogues of z > 5 systems. The trends in this sample suggest that normal high-redshift galaxies have a warmer infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) compared to average z relation at z > 5. Despite this, some galaxies still fall below the minimum IRX‑β relation derived with standard dust cloud models. We propose that radiation pressure in these highly star-forming galaxies causes a spatial offset between dust clouds and young star-forming regions within the lifetime of O/B stars. These offsets change the radiation balance and create viewing-angle effects that can change UV colors at fixed IRX. We provide a modified model that can explain the location of these galaxies on the IRX‑β diagram.

  1. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XIII. Dust in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Serego Alighieri, S.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Zibetti, S.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Corbelli, E.; Davies, J. I.; Davis, T.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Magrini, L.; Pierini, D.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: We study the dust content of a large optical input sample of 910 early-type galaxies (ETG) in the Virgo cluster, also extending to the dwarf ETG, and examine the results in relation to those on the other cold ISM components. Methods: We have searched for far-infrared emission in all galaxies in the input sample using the 250 μm image of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). This image covers a large fraction of the cluster with an area of ~55 square degrees. For the detected ETG we measured fluxes in five bands from 100 to 500 μm, and estimated the dust mass and temperature with modified black-body fits. Results: Dust is detected above the completeness limit of 25.4 mJy at 250 μm in 46 ETG, 43 of which are in the optically complete part of the input sample. In addition, dust is present at fainter levels in another six ETG. We detect dust in the four ETG with synchrotron emission, including M 87. Dust appears to be much more concentrated than stars and more luminous ETG have higher dust temperatures. Considering only the optically complete input sample and correcting for the contamination by background galaxies, dust detection rates down to the 25.4 mJy limit are 17% for ellipticals, about 40% for lenticulars (S0 + S0a), and around 3% for dwarf ETG. Dust mass does not correlate clearly with stellar mass and is often much greater than expected for a passive galaxy in a closed-box model. The dust-to-stars mass ratio anticorrelates with galaxy luminosity, and for some dwarf ETG reaches values as high as for dusty late-type galaxies. In the Virgo cluster slow rotators appear more likely to contain dust than fast ones. Comparing the dust results with those on Hi there are only eight ETG detected both in dust and in Hi in the HeViCS area; 39 have dust but only an upper limit on Hi, and eight have Hi but only an upper limit on dust. The locations of these galaxies in the cluster are different, with the dusty ETG concentrated in the densest regions, while the

  2. Dusty galaxies and the degeneracy between their dust distributions and the attenuation formula

    CERN Document Server

    Penner, Kyle; Weiner, Benjamin; Inami, Hanae; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Pforr, Janine; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Kassin, Susan; Papovich, Casey; Pope, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Do spatial distributions of dust grains in galaxies have typical forms, as do spatial distributions of stars? We investigate whether or not the distributions resemble uniform foreground screens, as commonly assumed by the high-redshift galaxy community. We use rest-frame infrared, ultraviolet, and H$\\alpha$ line luminosities of dust-poor and dusty galaxies at z ~ 0 and z ~ 1 to compare measured H$\\alpha$ escape fractions with those predicted by the Calzetti attenuation formula. The predictions, based on UV escape fractions, overestimate the measured H$\\alpha$ escape fractions for all samples. The interpretation of this result for dust-poor z ~ 0 galaxies is that regions with ionizing stars have more dust than regions with nonionizing UV-emitting stars. Dust distributions for these galaxies are nonuniform. The interpretation of the overestimates for dusty galaxies at both redshifts is less clear. If the attenuation formula is inapplicable to these galaxies, perhaps the disagreements are unphysical; perhaps dus...

  3. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  4. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Armus, Lee; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Kinney, Anne L.; Koornneef, Jan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2000-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 micron(s) of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRAS archival photometry, to model the dust emission at lambda approximately greater than 40 microns. The FIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are best fitted by a combination of two modified Planck functions, with T approx. 40 - 55 K (warm dust) and T approx. 20-23 K (cool dust) and with a dust emissivity index epsilon = 2. The cool dust can be a major contributor to the FIR emission of starburst galaxies, representing up to 60% of the total flux. This component is heated not only by the general interstellar radiation field, but also by the starburst itself. The cool dust mass is up to approx. 150 times larger than the warm dust mass, bringing the gas-to-dust ratios of the starbursts in our sample close to Milky Way values, once resealed for the appropriate metallicity. The ratio between the total dust FIR emission in the range 1-1000 microns and the IRAS FIR emission in the range 40 - 120 microns is approx. 1.75, with small variations from galaxy to galaxy. This ratio is about 40% larger than previously inferred from data at millimeter wavelengths. Although the galaxies in our sample are generally classified as "UV bright," for four of them the UV energy emerging shortward of 0.2 microns is less than 15% of the FIR energy. On average, about 30% of the bolometric flux is coming out in the UV-to-near-IR wavelength range; the rest is emitted in the FIR. Energy balance calculations show that the FIR emission predicted by the dust reddening of the UV-to-near-IR stellar emission is within a factor of approx. 2 of the observed value in individual galaxies and within 20% when averaged over a large sample. If our sample of local starbursts is representative of high-redshift (z approx. greater than 1

  5. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    ), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  6. Fitting the full SED of galaxies to put constraints on dust attenuation and star formation determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, Veronique; Giovannoli, Elodie; Boquien, Mederic; Heinis, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The combination of far-IR and UV-optical rest-frame data has proved to be very efficient to extract physical parameters from the SEDs of galaxies. Using Herschel and ancillary data from the Herschel Reference Survey and GOODS-Herschel Key Projects, we show how dust attenuation properties can be estimated inside local galaxies as well as in the distant Universe.

  7. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  8. Dust extinction and X-ray emission from the star burst galaxy NGC 1482

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2012-01-01

    We present the results based on multiwavelength imaging observations of the prominent dust lane starburst galaxy NGC 1482 aimed to investigate the extinction properties of dust existing in the extreme environment. (B-V) colour-index map derived for the starburst galaxy NGC 1482 confirms two prominent dust lanes running along its optical major axis and are found to extend up to \\sim 11 kpc. In addition to the main lanes, several filamentary structures of dust originating from the central starburst are also evident. Though, the dust is surrounded by exotic environment, the average extinction curve derived for this target galaxy is compatible with the Galactic curve, with RV =3.05, and imply that the dust grains responsible for the optical extinction in the target galaxy are not really different than the canonical grains in the Milky Way. Our estimate of total dust content of NGC 1482 assuming screening effect of dust is \\sim 2.7 \\times 10^5 Msun, and provide lower limit due to the fact that our method is not se...

  9. Distribution and content of dust in overlapping galaxy systems

    CERN Document Server

    White, R E; Conselice, C J; White, Raymond E; Keel, William C; Conselice, Christopher J

    1996-01-01

    Partially overlapping galaxies are used to directly determine the effective absorption in spiral galaxy disks. The non-overlapping parts of the galaxies and symmetry considerations are used to reconstruct, via differential photometry, how much background galaxy light is lost in passing through the foreground disks.

  10. Dust grain growth in the interstellar medium of galaxies at redshifts 4

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Gall, Christa; Dunlop, James S

    2011-01-01

    To discriminate between different dust formation processes is a key issue in order to understand its properties. We analysed six submillimeter galaxies at redshifts 4dust masses from their (sub)millimeter emission and their stellar masses from the spectral energy distribution modelling or from the dynamical and gas masses obtained from the CO line detections. We calculated the dust yields per AGB star and per SN required to explain these dust masses and concluded that AGB stars are not efficient enough to form dust in the majority of these galaxies. SN could be responsible for dust production, but only if dust destruction in the SN shocks is not taken into account. Otherwise even SNe are not efficient enough, which advocates for some other dust production mechanism. We present the hypothesis that grain growth in the interstellar medium is responsible for bulk of the dust mass accumulation in these galaxies.

  11. High-resolution 3D dust radiative transfer in galaxies with DART-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Giovanni; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard. J.; Debattista, Victor P.; Grootes, Meiert W.

    2015-02-01

    DART-Ray is a 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer (RT) code that can be used to derive stellar and dust emission maps of galaxy models and simulations with arbitrary geometries. In addition to the previously published RT algorithm, we have now included in DART-Ray the possibility of calculating the stocastically heated dust emission from each volume element within a galaxy. To show the capabilities of the code, we performed a high-resolution (26 pc) RT calculation for a galaxy N-body+SPH simulation. The simulated galaxy we considered is characterized by a nuclear disc and a flocculent spiral structure. We analysed the derived galaxy maps for the global and local effects of dust on the galaxy attenuation as well as the contribution of scattered radiation to the predicted observed emission. In addition, by performing an additional RT calculation including only the stellar volume emissivity due to young stellar populations (SPs), we derived the contribution to the total dust emission powered by young and old SPs. Full details of this work will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  12. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Appleton, P N; Diaz-Santos, T; Floc'h, E Le; da Cunha, E; Alatalo, K; Cluver, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a Herschel far-IR and sub-mm study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson Compact Groups. Fitting their UV to sub-mm spectral energy distributions with the model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we accurately estimate the dust masses, luminosities and temperatures of the individual galaxies. We find that nearly half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, those with more than 25% of early-type members and redder UV-optical colours, have also significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and the field. Examining their dust-to-gas mass ratios we conclude that dust was stripped out of these systems as a result of the gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions, experienced due to previous encounters with other group members. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), in dynamically "old" groups, display dust properties similar to those of the UV-optical red late-type galaxies. Given th...

  13. Linking dust emission to fundamental properties in galaxies: The low-metallicity picture

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy-Ruyer, A; Galliano, F; Lebouteiller, V; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cormier, D; Cooray, A; Cortese, L; De Looze, I; Doublier-Pritchard, V; Galametz, M; Jones, A P; Karczewski, O Ł; Lu, N; Spinoglio, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we aim at providing a consistent analysis of the dust properties from metal-poor to metal-rich environments by linking them to fundamental galactic parameters. We consider two samples of galaxies: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS) and KINGFISH, totalling 109 galaxies, spanning almost 2 dex in metallicity. We collect infrared (IR) to submillimetre (submm) data for both samples and present the complete data set for the DGS sample. We model the observed spectral energy distributions (SED) with a physically-motivated dust model to access the dust properties. Using a different SED model (modified blackbody), dust composition (amorphous carbon), or wavelength coverage at submm wavelengths results in differences in the dust mass estimate of a factor two to three, showing that this parameter is subject to non-negligible systematic modelling uncertainties. For eight galaxies in our sample, we find a rather small excess at 500 microns (< 1.5 sigma). We find that the dust SED of low-metallicity galaxies is ...

  14. Modeling the effects of dust evolution on the SEDs of galaxies of different morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Schurer, A; Silva, L; Pipino, A; Granato, G L; Matteucci, F; Maiolino, R

    2009-01-01

    We present photometric evolution models of galaxies, in which, in addition to the stellar component, the effects of an evolving dusty interstellar medium have been included with particular care. Starting from the work of Calura, Pipino & Matteucci (2008), in which chemical evolution models have been used to study the evolution of both the gas and dust components of the interstellar medium in the solar neighbourhood, elliptical and irregular galaxies, it has been possible to combine these models with a spectrophotometric stellar code that includes dust reprocessing (GRASIL) (Silva et al. 1998) to analyse the evolution of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these galaxies. We test our models against observed SEDs both in the local universe and at high redshift and use them to predict how the percentage of reprocessed starlight evolves for each type of galaxy. The importance of following the dust evolution is investigated by comparing our results with those obtained by adopting simple assumptions to t...

  15. How Does Metallicity Affect the Gas and Dust Properties of Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Madden, Suzanne C; Remy-Ruyer, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal-poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies

  16. Evaluating and Improving Semi-analytic modelling of Dust in Galaxies based on Radiative Transfer Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanot, Fabio; Silva, Laura; Monaco, Pierluigi; Skibba, Ramin; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14126.x

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of dust attenuation is crucial in order to compare the predictions of galaxy formation models with multiwavelength observations. Most past studies have either used simple analytic prescriptions or else full radiative transfer (RT) calculations. Here, we couple star formation histories and morphologies predicted by the semi-analytic galaxy formation model MORGANA with RT calculations from the spectrophotometric and dust code GRASIL to create a library of galaxy SEDs from the UV/optical through the far Infrared, and compare the predictions of the RT calculations with analytic prescriptions. We consider a low and high redshift sample, as well as an additional library constructed with empirical, non-cosmological star formation histories and simple (pure bulge or disc) morphologies. Based on these libraries, we derive fitting formulae for the effective dust optical depth as a function of galaxy physical properties such as metallicity, gas mass, and radius. We show that such fitting formulae can predi...

  17. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gioannini, Lorenzo; Vladilo, Giovanni; Calura, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by AGB stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to Damped Lyman-Alpha systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are: i) we can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of du...

  18. Determining properties of halo dust for the Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzato, Jacklyn M.; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES) is studying the distribution of dust in the halos of nearby spiral galaxies. More specifically, its goals are to determine the physical characteristics of this dust, what relationship there might be between halo dust content and star formation activity, how halo dust might expose information about the far-infrared (FIR)-Radio correlation, and how the physical distribution of this dust might relate to that of other gas tracers. The work presented here aims to investigate the physical characteristics of this halo dust and how they change with height above and below the plane of the six galaxies in the HEDGES sample: NGC 0891, NGC 3628, NGC 4244, NGC 4517, NGC 4565 and NGC 4631. To achieve this goal, code has been written that, for each galaxy, can extract vertical profiles and photometric data from nine different bands (taken using the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope) in the FIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photometric data are then used to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) that is fit to dust models.

  19. Obscured quasars at high redshift in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Ismael; Almaini, Omar; Hartley, Will; Mortlock, Alice; Lira, Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Obscured quasars hidden in deep X-ray surveys can be recovered by looking at mid-infrared wavelengths, where dust re-radiates the absorbed radiation. Here we present a sample of obscured quasars in the redshift range 1 < z < 4 based on data from the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS), the deepest near-IR survey over ~ 1 sq. deg. to date. Candidates that are primarily selected by their 24 μm emission are probed by decomposing their spectral energy distribution (SED) to disentangle the emission from the AGN and its host galaxy. We show preliminary results on their host galaxy properties as well as their clustering, showing that obscured quasars are found in galaxies located in the green valley, residing in dark matter haloes not different from normal galaxies at those redshifts.

  20. Dust Formation in Milky Way-like Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dust model for cosmological simulations implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO and present a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations to study dust formation within galactic haloes. Our model accounts for the stellar production of dust, accretion of gas-phase metals onto existing grains, destruction of dust through local supernova activity, and dust driven by winds from star-forming regions. We find that accurate stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback is needed to reproduce the observed dust-metallicity relation and that dust growth largely dominates dust destruction. Our simulations predict a dust content of the interstellar medium which is consistent with observed scaling relations at $z = 0$, including scalings between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity, dust mass and gas mass, dust-to-gas ratio and stellar mass, and dust-to-stellar mass ratio and gas fraction. We find that roughly two-thirds of dust at $z = 0$ originated from Type II supernovae, with the contribution ...

  1. Insights into the content and spatial distribution of dust from the integrated spectral properties of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Wandelt, Benjamin; Wild, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a new approach to investigate the content and spatial distribution of dust in structurally unresolved star-forming galaxies from the observed dependence of integrated spectral properties on galaxy inclination. We develop an innovative combination of generic models of radiative transfer (RT) in dusty media with a prescription for the spectral evolution of galaxies, via the association of different geometric components of galaxies with stars in different age ranges. We show that a wide range of RT models all predict a quasi-universal relation between slope of the attenuation curve at any wavelength and V-band attenuation optical depth in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), at all galaxy inclinations. This relation predicts steeper (shallower) dust attenuation curves than both the Calzetti and MW curves at small (large) attenuation optical depths, which implies that geometry and orientation effects have a stronger influence on the shape of the attenuation curve than changes in the optica...

  2. Dust in 3CR radio galaxies: On the FR 1 - FR 2 difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S. A. H.; Haas, M.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Klaas, U.; Meisenheimer, K.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.

    2004-11-01

    We compare three 3CR samples of 11 FR 1 galaxies, 17 FR 2 galaxies and 18 lobe-dominated quasars contained in the ISO Data Archive. In contrast to the powerful FR 2 galaxies with edge-brightened lobes, the low radio power FR 1 galaxies in our sample do not exhibit any high MIR or FIR dust luminosity, which is typical for a buried, intrinsically more luminous AGN. This consolidates the fact already inferred from optical studies that their AGNs have only a relatively low luminosity. Also the FR 1 galaxies show a high FIR/MIR luminosity ratio, compared to quasars, suggesting that their FIR luminosity is substantially powered by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) of the giant elliptical hosts. Finally, we discuss the FR 1 - FR 2 morphological dichotomy. FR 1 galaxies do not have more interstellar matter (ISM) than FR 2s as traced - on the large scale - by the cool FIR emitting dust and - in the nuclear region - by the warm MIR emitting dust. Due to the lack of central gas we suggest that the black holes of our FR 1 galaxies are fed at a lower accretion rate than those of the FR 2 galaxies. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  3. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; VanDokkum, Pieter G.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  4. Large and small-scale structures and the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saftly, W; De Geyter, G; Camps, P; Renaud, F; Guedes, J; De Looze, I

    2015-01-01

    The interstellar dust content in galaxies can be traced in extinction at optical wavelengths, or in emission in the far-infrared. Several studies have found that radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction in edge-on spiral galaxies generally underestimate the observed FIR/submm fluxes by a factor of about three. In order to investigate this so-called dust energy balance problem, we use two Milky Way-like galaxies produced by high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We create mock optical edge-on views of these simulated galaxies (using the radiative transfer code SKIRT), and we then fit the parameters of a basic spiral galaxy model to these images (using the fitting code FitSKIRT). The basic model includes smooth axisymmetric distributions along a S\\'ersic bulge and exponential disc for the stars, and a second exponential disc for the dust. We find that the dust mass recovered by the fitted models is about three times smaller than the known dust mass of the hydrodynamical in...

  5. Probing the Interstellar Dust in Galaxies over > 10 Gyr of Cosmic History

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Varsha P; York, Donald G; Welty, Daniel E; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on an invited talk given by V. P. Kulkarni at the 8th Cosmic Dust meeting. Dust has a profound effect on the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas in galaxies and on the appearance of galaxies. Understanding the cosmic evolution of dust with time is therefore crucial for understanding the evolution of galaxies. Despite the importance of interstellar dust, very little is known about its nature and composition in distant galaxies. We summarize the results of our ongoing programs using observations of distant quasars to obtain better constraints on dust grains in foreground galaxies that happen to lie along the quasar sightlines. These observations consist of a combination of mid-infrared data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope and optical/UV data obtained with ground-based telescopes and/or the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid-IR data target the 10 $\\mu$m and 18 $\\mu$m silicate absorption features, while the optical/UV data allow determinations of element depletions, extincti...

  6. Gas, dust, and star formation in distant radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuland, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss recent observations of distant (z > 2) radio galaxies. There is strong evidence that radio galaxies are the progenitors of the brightest cluster ellipticals and are among the most luminous and massive galaxies at any epoch, allowing relatively detailed studies of their forma

  7. Submillimeter Observations of CLASH 2882 and the Evolution of Dust in this Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G; Kovacs, Attila; Decarli, Roberto; Egami, Eiichi; Michalowski, Michal J.; Rawle, Timothy D.; Toft, Sune; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Two millimeter observations of the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster have detected a source that was consistent with the location of the lensed MACS 1149-JD galaxy at z = 9.6. A positive identification would have rendered this galaxy as the youngest dust forming galaxy in the universe. Follow up observation with the AzTEC 1.1 mm camera and the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) at 1.3 mm have not confirmed this association. In this paper we show that the NOEMA observations associate the 2 mm source with [PCB2012] 2882,12 source number 2882 in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) catalog of MACS J1149.6 +2223. This source, hereafter referred to as CLASH 2882, is a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy at z = 0.99. We combine the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO) 2 mm and NOEMA 1.3 mm fluxes with other (rest frame) UV to far-IR observations to construct the full spectral energy distribution of this galaxy, and derive its star formation history, and stellar and interstellar dust content. The current star formation rate of the galaxy is 54/mu/Solar Mass/yr, and its dust mass is about 5 × 10(exp 7)/mu Solar Mass, where mu is the lensing magnification factor for this source, which has a mean value of 2.7. The inferred dust mass is higher than the maximum dust mass that can be produced by core collapse supernovae and evolved AGB stars. As with many other star forming galaxies, most of the dust mass in CLASH 2882 must have been accreted in the dense phases of the interstellar medium.

  8. Some effects of dust on photometry of high-z galaxies: Confounding the effects of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Witt, A. N.; Capuano, J.

    1993-01-01

    Photometric observations of very distant galaxies--e.g., color vs. z or magnitude vs. z, have been used over the past decade or so in investigations into the evolution of the stellar component. Numerous studies have predicted significant color variations as a result of evolution, in addition to the shifting of different rest wavelengths into the band of observation. Although there is significant scatter, the data can be fit with relatively straightforward, plausible models for galaxian evolution. In very few cases are the effects of dust extinction included in the models. This is due in a large part to the uncertainty about the distribution and optical properties of the grains, and even whether or not they are present in significant numbers in some types of galaxies such as ellipticals. It is likely that the effects of dust on broadband observations are the greatest uncertainty in studies of very distant galaxies. We use a detailed Monte Carlo radiative transfer model within a spherical geometry for different star/dust distributions to examine the effects of dust on the broadband colors of galaxies as a function of redshift. The model fully accounts for absorption and angular redistribution in scattering. In this summary, we consider only the effects on color vs. redshift for three simple geometries each with the same total dust optical depth. Elsewhere at this conference, Capuano, Thronson, & Witt consider other effects of altering the relative dust/star distribution.

  9. Modelling galaxy spectra in presence of interstellar dust-III. From nearby galaxies to the distant Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cassarà, Letizia P; Chiosi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Improving upon the standard evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) technique, we present spectrophotometric models of galaxies whose morphology goes from spherical structures to discs, properly accounting for the effect of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). These models enclose three main physical components: the diffuse ISM composed by gas and dust, the complexes of molecular clouds (MCs) where active star formation occurs and the stars of any age and chemical composition. These models are based on robust evolutionary chemical models that provide the total amount of gas and stars present at any age and that are adjusted in order to match the gross properties of galaxies of different morphological type. We have employed the results for the properties of the ISM presented in Piovan, Tantalo & Chiosi (2006a) and the single stellar populations calculated by Cassar\\`a et al. (2013) to derive the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies going from pure bulge to discs passing through a number of co...

  10. Circumstellar dust, PAHs and stellar populations in early-type galaxies: insights from GALEX and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Gregory V.; Martini, Paul

    2017-02-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, it likely originates from the large number of asymptotic giant branch stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of ˜310 early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 μm) mass-to-light ratios are consistent with the initial mass function variation found by previous work. While the stellar population differences in early-type galaxies correspond to a range of radiation field shapes incident upon the diffuse dust, the ratio of the ionization-sensitive 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH feature does not correlate with the shape of the radiation field, nor to variations with the size-sensitive 11.3 μm/17 μm ratio. The 7.7 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratio does tend to be smaller in galaxies with proportionally greater H2 emission, which is evidence that processing of primarily smaller grains by shocks is responsible for the unusual ratios, rather than substantial differences in the overall PAH size or ionization distribution.

  11. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  12. The dust SED of dwarf galaxies I. The case of NGC 4214

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelo, Israel; Relaño, Monica; Tuffs, Richard J; Popescu, Cristina C; Groves, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to establish the physical origin of dust heating and emission based on radiation transfer models, which self-consistently connect the emission components from diffuse dust and the dust in massive star forming regions. NGC 4214 is a nearby dwarf galaxy with a large set of ancillary data, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to radio, including maps from SPITZER, HERSCHEL and detections from PLANCK. We mapped this galaxy with MAMBO at 1.2 mm at the IRAM 30 m telescope. We extract separate dust emission components for the HII regions (plus their associated PDRs on pc scales) and for the diffuse dust (on kpc scales). We analyse the full UV to FIR/submm SED of the galaxy using a radiation transfer model which self-consistently treats the dust emission from diffuse and SF complexes components, considering the illumination of diffuse dust both by the distributed stellar populations, and by escaping light from the HII regions. While maintaining consistency with the framework of this mode...

  13. Spatially resolved stellar, dust and gas properties of the post-interacting Whirlpool Galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Foyle, Kelly; Bendo, George; Koda, Jin; Baes, Marten; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure; Cooray, Asantha; Eales, Steve; Galametz, Maud; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Parkin, Tara; Roussel, Hélène; Sauvage, Marc; Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Matthew W L

    2012-01-01

    Using infrared imaging from the Herschel Space Observatory, observed as part of the VNGS, we investigate the spatially resolved dust properties of the interacting Whirlpool galaxy system (NGC 5194 and NGC 5195), on physical scales of 1 kpc. Spectral energy distribution modelling of the new infrared images in combination with archival optical, near- through mid-infrared images confirms that both galaxies underwent a burst of star formation ~370-480 Myr ago and provides spatially resolved maps of the stellar and dust mass surface densities. The resulting average dust-to-stellar mass ratios are comparable to other spiral and spheroidal galaxies studied with Herschel, with NGC 5194 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -2.5+/-0.2 and NGC 5195 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -3.5+/-0.3. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constant across NGC 5194 suggesting the stellar and dust components are coupled. In contrast, the mass ratio increases with radius in NGC 5195 with decreasing stellar mass density. Archival mass surface density maps of ...

  14. Circumstellar Dust, PAHs, and Stellar Populations in Early-Type Galaxies: Insights from GALEX and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Simonian, Gregory V

    2016-01-01

    A majority of early-type galaxies contain interstellar dust, yet the origin of this dust, and why the dust sometimes exhibits unusual PAH ratios, remains a mystery. If the dust is internally produced, the most likely origin is the large number of AGB stars associated with the old stellar population. We present GALEX and WISE elliptical aperture photometry of $\\sim350$ early-type galaxies with Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and/or ancillary data from ATLAS3D, to characterize their circumstellar dust and the shape of the radiation field that illuminates the interstellar PAHs. We find that circumstellar dust is ubiquitous in early-type galaxies, which indicates some tension between stellar population age estimates and models for circumstellar dust production in very old stellar populations. We also use dynamical masses from ATLAS3D to show that WISE W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) mass-to-light ratios are inconsistent with model predictions for a single IMF, as found by previous work. While the stellar population differences...

  15. LABOCA and MAMBO-2 imaging of the dust ring of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594)

    CERN Document Server

    Vlahakis, C; Bendo, G; Lundgren, A

    2008-01-01

    The Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594) is an Sa galaxy with a symmetric dust ring. We have used the Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) at 870 micron and the MAx-Planck Millimeter BOlometer (MAMBO-2) at 1.2 mm to detect the dust ring for the first time at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We have constructed a model of the galaxy to separate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and dust ring components. The ring radius at both 870 micron and 1.2 mm agrees well with the radius determined from optical absorption and atomic gas studies. The spectral energy distribution of the ring is well fitted by a single grey-body with dust emissivity index beta=2 and a dust temperature T_d=18.4 K. The dust mass of the ring is found to be 1.6\\pm0.2x10^7Msun which, for a Galactic gas-to-dust ratio, implies a gas mass that is consistent with measurements from the literature.

  16. A Tale of Two Narrow-Line Regions: Ionization, Kinematics, and Spectral Energy Distributions for a Local Pair of Merging Obscured Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M; Jones, Mackenzie L; Zervos, Alexandros S; Goulding, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical--IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, $z \\approx 0.04$). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies ($\\sim 23$ kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN and confirm the existence of a 10-kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1--2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral an...

  17. GRASIL-3D: an Implemention of Dust Effects in the SEDs of Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Granato, G L; Schurer, A; Alpresa, P; Silva, L; Brook, C B; Serna, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new model for the spectral energy distribution of galaxies, GRASIL-3D, which includes a careful modelling of the dust component of the interstellar medium. GRASIL-3D is an entirely new model based on the formalism of an existing and widely applied spectrophotometric model, GRASIL, but specifically designed to be interfaced with galaxies with any arbitrarily given geometry, such as galaxies calculated by theoretical hydrodynamical galaxy formation codes. GRASIL-3D is designed to separately treat radiative transfer in molecular clouds and in the diffuse cirrus component. The code has a general applicability to the outputs of simulated galaxies, either from Lagrangian or Eulerian hydrodynamic codes. As an application, the new model has been interfaced to the P-DEVA and GASOLINE smoothed-particle hydrodynamic codes, and has been used to calculate the spectral energy distribution for a variety of simulated galaxies from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths, whose comparison with observational data gives...

  18. The dust morphology of the elliptical Galaxy M86 with SPIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, H L; Cortese, L; Smith, M W L; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Bendo, G J; Pohlen, M; Alighieri, S di Serego; Auld, R; Barlow, M J; Bock, J J; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Davies, J I; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schirm, M R P; Schulz, B; Spinoglio, L; Srinivasan, S; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C D; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present Herschel-SPIRE observations at 250-500um of the giant elliptical galaxy M86 and examine the distribution of the resolved cold dust emission and its relation with other galactic tracers. The SPIRE images reveal three dust components: emission from the central region; a dust lane extending north-south; and a bright emission feature 10kpc to the south-east. We estimate that approximately 10^6 solar masses of dust is spatially coincident with atomic and ionized hydrogen, originating from stripped material from the nearby spiral NGC4438 due to recent tidal interactions with M86. The gas-to-dust ratio of the cold gas component ranges from ~20-80. We discuss the different heating mechanisms for the dust features.

  19. Radial Distribution of Stars, Gas, and Dust in SINGS Galaxies. I. Surface Photometry and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Boissier, S.; Dale, D. A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Madore, B. F.; Bendo, G.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Calzetti, D.; Moustakas, J.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.

    2009-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C 42), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (\\overline{M}_{20}). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C 42-A-G-\\overline{M}_{20} parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 μm and very hot dust at 24 μm). In an accompanying paper by Muñoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial

  20. Herschel -ATLAS: revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples - I. Scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vis, P.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Bauer, A. E.; Viaene, S.; Schofield, S. P.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Wright, A. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (H I) in an H I-selected sample of local galaxies (z sample reveals a population of very high gas fraction (>80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust- and stellar-mass-selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fractions (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to near-ultraviolet - r (specific star formation rate) and gas fraction; these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows that the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ˜75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion time-scale. We link this trend to the changing efficiency of conversion of H I to H2 as galaxies increase in stellar mass surface density during their evolution. Finally, we show that galaxies start out barely obscured and increase in obscuration as they evolve, yet there is no clear and simple link between obscuration and global galaxy properties.

  1. The large scale dust distribution in the inner galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, M. G.; Dwek, E.; Gezari, D.; Silverberg, R.; Kelsall, T.; Stier, M.; Cheung, L.

    1983-01-01

    Initial results are presented from a new large-scale survey of the first quadrant of the galactic plane at wavelengths of 160, 260, and 300 microns. The submillimeter wavelength emission, interpreted as thermal radiation by dust grains, reveals an optically thin disk of angular width about 0.09 deg (FWHM) with a mean dust temperature of 23 K and significant variation of the dust mass column density. Comparison of the dust column density with the gas column density inferred from CO survey data shows a striking spatial correlation. The mean luminosity per hydrogen atom is found to be 2.5 x 10 to the -30th W/H, implying a radiant energy density in the vicinity of the dust an order of magnitude larger than in the solar neighborhood. The data favor dust in molecular clouds as the dominant submillimeter radiation source.

  2. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XIII. Dust in Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Pappalardo, Cirino; Zibetti, Stefano; Auld, Robbie; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George; Corbelli, Edvige; Davies, Jonathan; Davis, Timothy; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Giovanardi, Carlo; Grossi, Marco; Hunt, Leslie; Magrini, Laura; Pierini, Daniele; Xilouris, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We study the dust content of a large optical input sample of 910 early-type galaxies (ETG) in the Virgo cluster, extending also to the dwarf ETG, and examine the results in relation with those on the other cold ISM components. Methods. We have searched for far-infrared emission in all galaxies of the input sample using the 250 micron image of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, covering a large fraction of the cluster. For the detected ETG we have measured fluxes in 5 bands from 100 to 500 micron, and have estimated the dust mass and temperature with modified black-body fits. Results. Dust is detected above the completeness limit of 25.4 mJy at 250 micron in 46 ETG, 43 of which are in the optically complete part of the input sample. In addition dust is present at fainter levels in another 6 ETG. We detect dust in the 4 ETG with synchrotron emission, including M 87. Dust appears to be much more concentrated than stars and more luminous ETG have higher dust temperatures. Dust detection rates down to the 25...

  3. GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2. IV. The variety of dust populations

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, S; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Kurk, J D; Bolzonella, M; Cassata, P; Halliday, C; Mignoli, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Berta, S; Dickinson, M; Franceschini, A; Rodighiero, G; Rosati, P; Zamorani, G

    2009-01-01

    The properties of dust attenuation at rest-frame UV wavelengths are inferred from very high-quality FORS2 spectra of 78 galaxies from the GMASS survey at 1galaxies at similar redshifts, selected from the FDF spectroscopic survey, the K20 survey, and the GDDS. The shape of the UV extinction curve is constrained by a parametric description of the rest-frame UV continuum. The UV bump is further characterised by fitting Lorentzian-like profiles. Spectra exhibit a significant 2175A feature in at least 30% of the cases. If attenuation is dominated by dust ejected from the galaxy main body via superwinds, UV extinction curves in-between those of the SMC and LMC characterise the sample galaxies. The fraction of galaxies with extinction curves differing from the SMC one increases, if more dust resides in the galactic plane or dust attenuation depends on stellar age. On average, the width of the manifested UV bumps is about 60% o...

  4. Monsters In The Dark: Exploring The Star-Forming Hosts Of Massive, Dust-Obscured Quasars At Z 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethers, Clare; Banerji, Manda; Hewett, Paul; DES Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    We perform the first population study of luminous, but heavily-reddened quasars in the rest-frame UV at z = 1.5 - 2.7 - a peak epoch of both star formation and black hole accretion. We find resolved, blue emission in the DES imaging, consistent with a star forming host galaxy. Via SED fitting, we derive instantaneous SFRs for the sample and find a trend between quasar luminosity and SFR.

  5. An atlas of mid-infrared dust emission in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Bosma, A; Sauvage, M; Bonoli, C; Gallais, P; Hawarden, T G; Lequeux, J; Madden, S; Mazzei, P

    2001-01-01

    We present maps of dust emission at 7 microns and 15 microns/7 microns intensity ratios of selected regions in 43 spiral galaxies observed with ISOCAM. This atlas is a complement to studies based on these observations, dealing with star formation in centers of barred galaxies and in spiral disks. It is accompanied by a detailed description of data reduction and an inventory of generic morphological properties in groups defined according to bar strength and HI gas content.

  6. Modeling Mid-infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan, Lin

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a ~109 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 μm absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 μm, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  7. MODELING MID-INFRARED DIAGNOSTICS OF OBSCURED QUASARS AND STARBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Jonsson, Patrik; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Cox, Thomas J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, C-208 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yan Lin, E-mail: gsnyder@cfa.harvard.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z {approx} 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z {approx} 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a {approx}10{sup 9} yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 {mu}m absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 {mu}m, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  8. COSMIC REIONIZATION ON COMPUTERS. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM SLOPES AND DUST OPACITIES IN HIGH REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu [Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: zimu@uchicago.edu, E-mail: gnedin@fnal.gov [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting ultraviolet (UV) and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are not fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.

  9. Identifying the chemistry of the dust around AGB stars in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are significant contributors to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. It is therefore essential to constrain the AGB contribution to the dust budget in galaxies. Recent estimates of the total dust injection rate to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC; Riebel et al. 2012, Boyer et al. 2012, Srinivasan et al. in prep) have used data from the Spitzer Space Telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution; Meixner et al. 2006) and SAGE-SMC (Gordon et al. 2011) surveys. When sorted by dust chemistry, the data allow for a comparison of O-rich and carbonaceous dust-production rates. In the LMC, for instance, the rate of dust production from carbon stars is about two and a half times that from oxygen-rich AGBs. A reliable determination of the fractional contributions of the two types of dust would serve as input to models of chemical evolution. However, the Spitzer IRAC photometric bands do not sufficiently probe the characteri...

  10. Dust May Be More Rare Than Expected in Metal Poor Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David B; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Draine, Bruce T; Donaldson, Jessica; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin M; Leroy, Adam K; Cannon, John; Gordon, Karl

    2013-01-01

    'Normal' galaxies observed at z>6, when the Universe was <1 billion years old, thus far show no evidence of the cold dust that accompanies star formation in the local Universe, where the dust-to-gas mass ratio is 1%. A prototypical example is 'Himiko' (z=6.6), which a mere 840 Myr after the Big Bang is forming stars at a rate of 30-100 Msun/yr, yielding a mass assembly time M^{star}/SFR 150x10^6 yr. Himiko is estimated to have a low fraction (2-3% of the Solar value) of elements heavier than helium (metallicity), and although its gas mass cannot be asserted at this time its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constrained to be <0.05%. The local galaxy I Zw 18, with a metallicity 4% solar and forming stars less rapidly than Himiko but still vigorously for its mass (M^{star}/SFR 1.6x10^9 yr), is also very dust deficient and perhaps one of the best analogues of primitive galaxies accessible to detailed study. Here we report observations of dust emission from I Zw 18 from which we determine its dust mass to be 45...

  11. Dust Attenuation in Clumpy, Star-Forming Galaxies at 0.07 < z < 0.14

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, Robert; Fisher, David B; Wisnioski, Emily; Damjanov, Ivana; Abraham, Roberto; Obreschkow, Danail; Green, Andrew W; da Cunha, Elisabete; McGregor, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Dust attenuation in galaxies has been extensively studied nearby, however, there are still many unknowns regarding attenuation in distant galaxies. We contribute to this effort using observations of star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.15 from the DYNAMO survey. Highly star-forming DYNAMO galaxies share many similar attributes to clumpy, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Considering integrated Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations, trends between attenuation and other galaxy properties for DYNAMO galaxies are well matched to star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Integrated gas attenuations of DYNAMO galaxies are 0.2-2.0 mags in the V-band, and the ratio of stellar E(B-V) and gas E(B-V) is 0.78-0.08 (compared to 0.44 at low redshift). Four highly star-forming DYNAMO galaxies were observed at H-alpha using the Hubble Space Telescope and at Pa-alpha using integral field spectroscopy at Keck. The latter achieve similar resolution (~0.8-1 kpc) to our HST imaging using adaptive optics, pro...

  12. Incidence of WISE-Selected Obscured AGNs in Major Mergers and Interactions from the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Madalyn E; Brodwin, Mark; Mann, Justin; Cooper, Andrew; McConnell, Adam; Nielsen, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to confirm a connection between dust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy merging. Using a new, volume-limited (z <= 0.08) catalog of visually-selected major mergers and galaxy-galaxy interactions from the SDSS, with stellar masses above 2x10^10 Msun, we find that major mergers (interactions) are 5-17 (3-5) times more likely to have red [3.4]-[4.6] colors associated with dust-obscured or `dusty' AGNs, compared to non-merging galaxies with similar masses. Using published fiber spectral diagnostics, we map the [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] colors of different emission-line galaxies and find one-quarter of Seyferts have colors indicative of a dusty AGN. We find that AGNs are five times more likely to be obscured when hosted by a merging galaxy, half of AGNs hosted by a merger are dusty, and we find no enhanced frequency of optical AGNs in merging over non-merging galaxies. We conclude that undetected AGN...

  13. Astronomer's new guide to the galaxy: largest map of cold dust revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    -wave camera on the ESO-operated APEX telescope. APEX is located at an altitude of 5100 m on the arid plateau of Chajnantor in the Chilean Andes -- a site that allows optimal viewing in the submillimetre range. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimetre wavelengths, as extremely dry atmospheric conditions and advanced detector technology are required for such observations. The interstellar medium -- the material between the stars -- is composed of gas and grains of cosmic dust, rather like fine sand or soot. However, the gas is mostly hydrogen and relatively difficult to detect, so astronomers often search for these dense regions by looking for the faint heat glow of the cosmic dust grains. Submillimetre light allows astronomers to see these dust clouds shining, even though they obscure our view of the Universe at visible light wavelengths. Accordingly, the ATLASGAL map includes the denser central regions of our galaxy, in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius -- home to a supermassive black hole (ESO 46/08) -- that are otherwise hidden behind a dark shroud of dust clouds. The newly released map also reveals thousands of dense dust clumps, many never seen before, which mark the future birthplaces of massive stars. The clumps are typically a couple of light-years in size, and have masses of between ten and a few thousand times the mass of our Sun. In addition, ATLASGAL has captured images of beautiful filamentary structures and bubbles in the interstellar medium, blown by supernovae and the winds of bright stars. Some striking highlights of the map include the centre of the Milky Way, the nearby massive and dense cloud of molecular gas called Sagittarius B2, and a bubble of expanding gas called RCW120, where the interstellar medium around the bubble is collapsing and forming new stars (see ESO 40/08). "It's exciting to get our first look at ATLASGAL, and we will be increasing the size of the map over the next year to cover all of the galactic plane

  14. A Connection between Obscuration and Star Formation in Luminous Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chien-Ting J; Alberts, Stacey; Harrison, Chris M; Alexander, David M; Assef, Roberto; Brown, Michael J I; Del Moro, Agnese; Forman, William R; Gorjian, Varoujan; Goulding, Andrew D; Hainline, Kevin N; Jones, Christine; Kochanek, Christopher S; Murray, Stephen S; Pope, Alexandra; Rovilos, Emmanouel; Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a measurement of the star formation properties of a uniform sample of mid-IR selected, unobscured and obscured quasars (QSO1s and QSO2s) in the Bo\\"otes survey region. We use an spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis for photometric data spanning optical to far-IR wavelengths to decompose AGN and host galaxy components. We find that when compared to a matched sample of QSO1s, the QSO2s have higher far-IR detection fractions, far-IR fluxes and infrared star formation luminosities ($L_{\\rm IR}^{\\rm SF}$) by a factor of $\\sim2$. Correspondingly, we show that the AGN obscured fraction rises from 0.3 to 0.7 between $4-40\\times10^{11}L_\\odot$. We also find evidence associating the absorption in the X-ray emission with the presence of far-IR emitting dust. Overall, these results are consistent with galaxy evolution models in which quasar obscurations can be associated with a dust-enshrouded starburst galaxies.

  15. New Observational Constraints and Modeling of the Infrared Background: Dust Obscured Star-Formation at z>1 and Dust in the Outer Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Chary, Ranga-Ram

    2010-01-01

    We provide measurements of the integrated galaxy light at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron using deep far-infrared and submillimeter data from space (Spitzer) and balloon platform (BLAST) extragalactic surveys. We use the technique of stacking at the positions of 24 micron sources, to supplement the fraction of the integrated galaxy light that is directly resolved through direct detections. We demonstrate that the integrated galaxy light even through stacking, falls short by factors of 2-3 in resolving the extragalactic far-infrared background. We also show that previous estimates of the integrated galaxy light (IGL) through stacking, have been biased towards high values. This is primarily due to multiple counting of the far-infrared/submillimeter flux from 24 micron sources which are clustered within the large point spread function of a brighter far-infrared source. Using models for the evolution of the luminosity function at z1, which are remarkably, below the values derived from the extinction corrected ul...

  16. The Metallicity and Dust Content of a Redshift 5 Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparre, M.; Hartoog, O.E.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Watson, D.J.; Wiersema, K.; D'Elia, V.; Zafar, T.; Afonso, P.M.J.; Covino, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Klose, S.; Levan, A.J.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nardini, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sollerman, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N.R.; Vergani, S.D.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GR

  17. Spatially-resolved dust maps from Balmer decrements in galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina G; Brammer, Gabriel B; Wuyts, Stijn; Franx, Marijn; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Whitaker, Katherine E; Skelton, Rosalind E

    2015-01-01

    We derive average radial gradients in the dust attenuation towards HII regions in 609 galaxies at z~1.4, using measurements of the Balmer decrement out to r~3kpc. The Balmer decrements are derived from spatially resolved maps of Halpha and Hbeta emission from the 3D-HST survey. We find that with increasing stellar mass (M) both the normalization and strength of the gradient in dust attenuation increases. Galaxies with a mean mass of = 9.2Msun have little dust attenuation at all radii, whereas galaxies with = 10.2Msun have dust attenuation toward Halpha A(Halpha)~2mag in their central regions. We parameterize this as A(Halpha) = b + c log(r), with b = 0.9 + 1.0 log(M10), c = -1.9 - 2.2 log(M10), r in kpc, and M10 the stellar mass in units of 10^10Msun. This expression can be used to correct spatially resolved measurements of Halpha to radial distributions of star formation. When applied to our data, we find that the star formation rates in the central r<1kpc of galaxies in the highest mass bin are ~ 6 Msun...

  18. Gas-to-dust ratio in massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We present results of 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45~m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um, and 350 um and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived with N2 method by using the Ha and [NII]6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) x 10^{10} Msun by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived with the modified blackbody model (assuming the dust temperature of 35 K and the emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) x 10^{8} Msun. The resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for HI mass) at z~1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  19. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.;

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  20. Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Distant Galaxies Probed by Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2015-01-01

    Dust grains are a fundamental component of the interstellar medium, and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, including star formation, and the heating, cooling and ionization of interstellar material. Using the absorption features produced by dust in the spectra of luminous background quasars, it is possible to study the properties of extragalactic interstellar dust grains. We will present results from an ongoing program utilizing existing Spitzer Space Telescope infrared quasar spectra to probe silicate dust grain properties in z<1.4 quasar absorption systems. In combination with complementary ground-based data on associated gas-phase metal absorption lines, we explore connections between the interstellar dust and gas in the quasar absorption systems. Our project yields clear detections of the 10 micron silicate dust absorption feature in the studied systems, as well as detections of the 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature in sources with adequate spectral coverage. Based on measured variations in the breath, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 micron absorption features, there appear to be differences in the silicate dust grain properties from system-to-system. We also show indications of trends between the gas-phase metal properties, such as metallicity and gas velocity spread, with the silicate dust grain absorption properties. Support for this work is provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech and through NASA grant NNX14AG74G, and from National Science Foundation grants AST-0908890 and AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  1. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and Their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.; Rich, R. Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z ~= 2-6.

  2. Environmental impacts on dust temperature of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuki, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Takita, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared views of the environmental effects on the dust properties in star-forming (SF) galaxies at z ~ 0, using the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) all-sky map and the large spectroscopic galaxy sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We restrict the sample to those within the redshift range of 0.05 4 A) and emission line flux ratios. We perform far-infrared (FIR) stacking analyses by splitting the SDSS SF galaxy sample according to their stellar mass, specific SFR (SSFR_SDSS), and environment. We derive total infrared luminosity (LIR) for each subsample using the average flux densities at WIDE-S (90 micron) and WIDE-L (140 micron) bands, and then compute IR-based SFR (SFR_IR) from L_IR. We find a mild decrease of IR- based SSFR (SSFR_IR) amongst SF galaxies with increasing local density (~0.1-dex level at maximum), which suggests that environmental effects do not instantly shut down the SF activity in galaxies. We also derive average dust temperature (T_dust) using th...

  3. Dust evolution processes constrained by extinction curves in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Michałowski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction curves, especially those in the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), have provided us with a clue to the dust properties in the nearby Universe. We examine whether or not these extinction curves can be explained by well known dust evolution processes. We treat the dust production in stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion and coagulation, and dust disruption by shattering. To make a survey of the large parameter space possible, we simplify the treatment of the grain size distribution evolution by adopting the `two-size approximation', in which we divide the grain population into small ($\\lesssim 0.03~\\mu$m) and large ($\\gtrsim 0.03~\\mu$m) grains. It is confirmed that the MW extinction curve can be reproduced in reasonable ranges for the time-scale of the above processes with a silicate-graphite mixture. This indicates that the MW extinction curve is a natural consequence of the dust evolution through the above proc...

  4. Planck intermediate results. XLIII. The spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degeneracy between dust temperature and mass. By complementing the IRAS spectral coverage with Planck satellite data from 100 to 857 GHz, we provide new constraints on the IR spectrum of thermal dust emission in clusters of galaxies. We achieve this by using a stacking approach for a sample of several hundred objects from the Planck cluster sample; this procedure averages out fluctuations from the IR sky, allowing us to reach a significant detection of the faint cluster contribution. We also use the large frequency range probed by Planck, together with component-separation techniques, to remove the contamination from both cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (tSZ) signal, which d...

  5. The Swift BAT Survey Detects Two Optical Broad Line, X-ray Heavily Obscured Active Galaxies: NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, J Drew; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Trippe, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is discovering interesting new objects while monitoring the sky in the 14-195 keV band. Here we present the X-ray properties and spectral energy distributions for two unusual AGN sources. Both NVSS 193013+341047 and IRAS 05218-1212 are absorbed, Compton-thin, but heavily obscured (NH \\sim 10^23 cm-2), X-ray sources at redshifts < 0.1. The spectral energy distributions reveal these galaxies to be very red, with high extinction in the optical and UV. A similar SED is seen for the extremely red objects (EROs) detected in the higher redshift universe. This suggests that these unusual BAT-detected sources are a low- redshift (z << 1) analog to EROs, which recent evidence suggests are a class of the elusive type II quasars. Studying the multi-wavelength properties of these sources may reveal the properties of their high redshift counterparts.

  6. A Search for Stellar Dust Production in Leo P, a Nearby Analog of High Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha; McDonald, Iain; McQuinn, Kristen; Skillman, Evan; Sonneborn, George; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The origin of dust in the early Universe is a matter of debate. One of the main potential dust contributors are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and several studies have been devoted to investigating whether and how AGB dust production changes in metal-poor environments. Of particular interest are the most massive AGB stars (8-10 Msun), which can in principle enter the dust-producing phase systems reachable in the infrared and to the short lifetimes of these stars. The recently discovered galaxy Leo P provides an irresistible opportunity to search for these massive AGB stars: Leo P is a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy, it is nearby enough for resolved star photometry with Spitzer, and its interstellar medium is 0.4 dex more metal-poor than any other accessible star-forming galaxy. Models predict ~3 massive AGB stars may be present in Leo P, and optical HST observations reveal 7 candidates. We propose to use Spitzer to determine whether these stars are dusty, providing valuable constraints to the dust contribution from AGB stars up to at least redshift 3.2, or 11.7 Gyr ago, when massive spheroidals and Galactic globular clusters were still forming. This is a gain of 2.8 Gyr compared to other accessible galaxies. We also request 1 orbit of joint HST time to confirm whether the AGB candidates in Leo P are indeed massive AGB stars belonging to the galaxy. These observations will provide information crucial for potential JWST followup spectroscopy.

  7. Direct measurement of dust attenuation in z~1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Sedona H; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Whitaker, Katherine E; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 $\\le$ z $\\le$ 1.5 with H$\\alpha$ SNR $\\ge$ 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions ($A_{V,HII}$ is 1.81 times the integrated $A_{V,star}$), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galax...

  8. The Emission by Dust and Stars of Nearby Galaxies in the Herschel KINGFISH Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Skibba, Ramin A; Dale, Daniel; Hinz, Joannah; Zibetti, Stefano; Crocker, Alison; Groves, Brent; Hunt, Leslie; Johnson, Benjamin D; Meidt, Sharon; Murphy, Eric J; Appleton, Philip; Armus, Lee; Bolatto, Alberto; Brandl, Bernhard; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Galametz, Maud; Gordon, Karl D; Kennicutt, Robert C; Koda, Jin; Krause, Oliver; Montiel, Edward; Rix, Hans-Walter; Roussel, Helene; Sandstrom, Karin; Sauvage, Marc; Schinnerer, Eva; Smith, J D; Walter, Fabian; Wilson, Christine D; Wolfire, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Using new far-infrared imaging from the Herschel Space Observatory with ancillary data from ultraviolet to submillimeter wavelengths, we estimate the total emission from dust and stars of 62 nearby galaxies in the KINGFISH survey in a way that is as empirical and model-independent as possible. We collect and exploit these data in order to measure from the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) precisely how much stellar radiation is intercepted and re-radiated by dust, and how this quantity varies with galaxy properties. By including SPIRE data, we are more sensitive to emission from cold dust grains than previous analyses at shorter wavelengths, allowing for more accurate estimates of dust temperatures and masses. The dust/stellar flux ratio, which we measure by integrating the SEDs, has a range of nearly three decades. The inclusion of SPIRE data shows that estimates based on data not reaching these far-IR wavelengths are biased low. We find that the dust/stellar flux ratio varies with morphology and total IR...

  9. Formation and Evolution of the Dust in Galaxies. II. The Solar Neighbourhood

    CERN Document Server

    Piovan, L; Merlin, E; Grassi, T; Tantalo, R; Buonomo, U; Cassarà, L P

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade a new generation of chemical models have included the dust in the treatment of the ISM. This major accomplishment has been spurred by the growing amounts of data on the highly obscured high-z Universe and the intriguing local properties of the Solar Neighbourhood (SoNE). We present here a new model able to simulate the formation and evolution of dust in the ISM. The model follows the evolution of 16 elemental species, with particular attention to those that are simultaneously present in form of gas and dust, e.g. C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca and Fe. In this study we focus on the SoNe and the MW Disk as a whole which are considered as laboratories to test the physical ingredients governing the dust evolution. Infall of primordial gas, birth and death of stars, radial flows of matter between contiguous shells, presence of a central bar, star-dust emission by SNae and AGB stars, dust destruction and accretion are taken into account. The model reproduces the local depletion of the elements in the g...

  10. Environmental impacts on dust temperature of star-forming galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Yusei; Nakagawa, Takao; Takita, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We present infrared views of the environmental effects on the dust properties in star-forming (SF) galaxies at z ˜ 0, using the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor all-sky map and the large spectroscopic galaxy sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7). We restrict the sample to those within the redshift range of 0.05 4 Å) and emission line flux ratios. We perform far-infrared (FIR) stacking analyses by splitting the SDSS SF galaxy sample according to their stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SSFRSDSS), and environment. We derive total infrared luminosity (LIR) for each subsample using the average flux densities at WIDE-S (90 μm) and WIDE-L (140 μm) bands, and then compute infrared (IR)-based SFR (SFRIR) from LIR. We find a mild decrease of IR-based SSFR (SSFRIR) amongst SF galaxies with increasing local density (˜0.1-dex level at maximum), which suggests that environmental effects do not instantly shut down the SF activity in galaxies. We also derive average dust temperature (Tdust) using the flux densities at 90 and 140 μm bands. We confirm a strong positive correlation between Tdust and SSFRIR, consistent with recent studies. The most important finding of this study is that we find a marginal trend that Tdust increases with increasing environmental galaxy density. Although the environmental trend is much milder than the SSFR-Tdust correlation, our results suggest that the environmental density may affect the dust temperature in SF galaxies, and that the physical mechanism which is responsible for this phenomenon is not necessarily specific to cluster environments because the environmental dependence of Tdust holds down to relatively low-density environments.

  11. DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AS A TRACER OF GAS MASS IN GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Galametz, Maud [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hunt, Leslie [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert Jr., E-mail: brent@mpia.de [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H{sub 2} + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H{sub 2}) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r {sub 25} (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

  12. Dust heating in the cores of 3CRR radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Birkinshaw, M; Bliss, A

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken a Spitzer campaign to measure the IR structures and spectra of low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies. The results show that the 3.6 - 160 micron infrared properties vary systematically with integrated source power, and so demonstrate that contemporary core activity is characteristic of the behaviour of sources over their lifetimes. IR synchrotron emission is seen from jets and hotspots in some cases. Thermal emission is found from a jet/gas interaction in NGC 7385. Most of the near-IR integrated colours of the low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies are similar to those of passive galaxies, so that IR colours are poor indicators of radio activity.

  13. Gas, dust and stars in the SCUBA galaxy, SMM J02399-0136: the EVLA reveals a colossal galactic nursery

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, Rob; Papadopoulos, Padeli P; Wold, Isak; Richard, Johan; Swinbank, A M; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Owen, Frazer N

    2009-01-01

    We present new multi-wavelength observations of the first submm-selected galaxy, SMM J02399-0136 at z=2.8. These observations include mapping of the CO J=1-0 emission using elements of the Expanded VLA, as well as high-resolution 1.4-GHz imaging and optical/IR data from the VLA, HST, Spitzer and Keck. Together these new data provide fundamental insights into the mass and distribution of stars, gas and dust within this archetypal SMG. The CO J=1-0 emission, with its minimal excitation and density requirements, traces the bulk of the metal-rich molecular gas, and reveals a mass of ~10^11 M(sun), extending over ~5" (~25 kpc in the source plane), although there is tentative evidence that it may be significantly larger. Our data suggest that three or more distinct structures are encompassed by this molecular gas reservoir, including the BAL quasar from which the redshift of the SMG was initially determined. In particular, the new rest-frame near-IR observations identify a massive, obscured, starburst coincident wi...

  14. Empirical determination of the shape of dust attenuation curves in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Vivienne; Brinchmann, Jarle; Heckman, Timothy; Vince, Oliver; Pacifici, Camilla; Chevallard, Jacopo

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the shape of the dust attenuation curve in star-forming galaxies from the far ultraviolet to the near infrared (0.15-2microns), as a function of specific star formation rate (sSFR) and axis ratio (b/a), for galaxies with and without a significant bulge. Our sample comprises 23,000 (15,000) galaxies with a median redshift of 0.07, with photometric entries in the SDSS, UKIDSS-LAS (and GALEX-AIS) survey catalogues and emission line measurements from the SDSS spectroscopic survey. We develop a new pair-matching technique to isolate the dust attenuation curves from the stellar continuum emission. The main results are: (i) the slope of the attenuation curve in the optical varies weakly with sSFR, strongly with b/a, and is significantly steeper than the Milky Way extinction law in bulge-dominated galaxies; (ii) the NIR slope is constant, and matches the slope of the Milky Way extinction law; (iii) the UV has a slope change consistent with a dust bump at 2175AA which is evident in all...

  15. Ultraviolet through Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions from 1000 SDSS Galaxies: Dust Attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Benjamin D; Seibert, Mark; Treyer, Marie; Martin, D Christopher; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, A S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2007-01-01

    The meaningful comparison of models of galaxy evolution to observations is critically dependent on the accurate treatment of dust attenuation. To investigate dust absorption and emission in galaxies we have assembled a sample of ~1000 galaxies with ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) photometry from GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer and optical spectroscopy from SDSS. The ratio of IR to UV emission (IRX) is used to constrain the dust attenuation in galaxies. We use the 4000A break as a robust and useful, although coarse, indicator of star formation history (SFH). We examine the relationship between IRX and the UV spectral slope (a common attenuation indicator at high-redshift) and find little dependence of the scatter on 4000A break strength. We construct average UV through far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for different ranges of IRX, 4000A break strength, and stellar mass (M_*) to show the variation of the entire SED with these parameters. When binned simultaneously by IRX, 4000A break strength, and M_*...

  16. Major Merger Galaxy Pairs at z=0: Dust Properties and Companion Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, Donovan L; Xu, C Kevin; Jarrett, Thomas H; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily; Jacques, Allison

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by K_s magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) is used to fit dust models to the 2MASS, WISE and Herschel flux density measurements and derive the parameters describing the PAH contribution, interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/mo...

  17. Star formation histories, extinction, and dust properties of strongly lensed z ~ 1.5-3 star-forming galaxies from the Herschel Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklias, P.; Zamojski, M.; Schaerer, D.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Rawle, T.; Richard, J.; Boone, F.; Simpson, J. M.; Smail, I.; van der Werf, P.; Altieri, B.; Kneib, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    × 1011L⊙, stellar masses between 2 × 109M⊙ and 2 × 1011M⊙, and IR/UV luminosity ratios spanning a wide range. The dust masses of our galaxies are in the range [2-17] × 107M⊙, extending previous studies at the same redshift down to lower masses. We do not find any particular trend of the dust temperature Tdust with LIR, suggesting an overall warmer dust regime at our redshift regardless of IR luminosity. Conclusions: Gravitational lensing enables us to study the detailed physical properties of individual IR-detected z ~ 1.5-3 galaxies up to a factor of ~10 fainter than achieved with deep blank field observations. We have in particular demonstrated that multi-wavelength observations combining stellar and dust emission can constrain star formation histories and extinction laws of star-forming galaxies, as proposed in an earlier paper. Fixing the extinction based on the IR/UV observations successfully breaks the age-extinction degeneracy often encountered in obscured galaxies. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. THE ORIGIN OF DUST IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCRETION ONTO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dicken, Daniel [Institut de Astrophysique Spatiale, Paris (France); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-04-01

    We have conducted an archival Spitzer study of 38 early-type galaxies in order to determine the origin of the dust in approximately half of this population. Our sample galaxies generally have good wavelength coverage from 3.6 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m, as well as visible-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. We use the Spitzer data to estimate dust masses, or establish upper limits, and find that all of the early-type galaxies with dust lanes in the HST data are detected in all of the Spitzer bands and have dust masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6.5} M{sub Sun }, while galaxies without dust lanes are not detected at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m and typically have <10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} of dust. The apparently dust-free galaxies do have 24 {mu}m emission that scales with the shorter-wavelength flux, yet substantially exceeds the expectations of photospheric emission by approximately a factor of three. We conclude this emission is dominated by hot, circumstellar dust around evolved stars that does not survive to form a substantial interstellar component. The order-of-magnitude variations in dust masses between galaxies with similar stellar populations rule out a substantial contribution from continual, internal production in spite of the clear evidence for circumstellar dust. We demonstrate that the interstellar dust is not due to purely external accretion, unless the product of the merger rate of dusty satellites and the dust lifetime is at least an order of magnitude higher than expected. We propose that dust in early-type galaxies is seeded by external accretion, yet the accreted dust is maintained by continued growth in externally accreted cold gas beyond the nominal lifetime of individual grains. The several Gyr depletion time of the cold gas is long enough to reconcile the fraction of dusty early-type galaxies with the merger rate of gas-rich satellites. As the majority of dusty early-type galaxies are also low-luminosity active galactic nuclei and likely fueled

  19. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies. V. The dust and PAH emission SEDs of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu, Cristina C; Dopita, Michael A; Fischera, Joerg; Kylafis, Nikolaos D; Madore, Barry F

    2010-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of spiral galaxies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR)/far-infrared (FIR)/submillimeter (submm) based on a full radiative transfer calculation of the propagation of starlight in galaxy disks. This model predicts not only the total integrated energy absorbed in the UV/optical and re-emitted in the infrared/submm, but also the colours of the dust emission based on an explicit calculation of the strength and colour of the UV/optical radiation fields heating the dust, and incorporating a full calculation of the stochastic heating of small dust grains and PAH molecules. The geometry of the translucent components of the model is empirically constrained using the results from the radiation transfer analysis of Xilouris et al. on spirals in the middle range of the Hubble sequence, while the geometry of the optically thick components is constrained from physical considerations with a posteriori checks of the model prediction...

  20. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Palazzi, E; Savaglio, S; Gentile, G; Rasmussen, J; Baes, M; Basa, S; Bianchi, S; Berta, S; Burlon, D; Ceron, J M Castro; Covino, S; Cuby, J -G; D'Elia, V; Ferrero, P; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Koprowski, M P; Borgne, D Le; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sollerman, J; Tanvir, N R; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a tool to study star formation in the Universe, so it is crucial to investigate whether their host galaxies and immediate environments are in any way special compared with other star-forming galaxies. Here we present spatially resolved maps of dust emission of the host galaxy of the closest known GRB 980425 at z=0.0085 using our new high-resolution observations from Herschel, APEX, ALMA and ATCA. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of the host and of the star-forming region displaying the Wolf-Rayet signatures in the spectrum (WR region), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence between the GRB rate and star-formation. The WR region contributes substantially to the host emission at the far-infrared,...

  1. Enhanced dust heating in the bulges of early-type spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbracht, C W; Skibba, R A; Hinz, J L; Calzetti, D; Gordon, K D; Roussel, H; Crocker, A F; Misselt, K A; Bolatto, A D; Kennicutt, R C; Appleton, P N; Armus, L; Beirão, P; Brandl, B R; Croxall, K V; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Dumas, G; de Paz, A Gil; Groves, B; Hao, C -N; Johnson, B D; Koda, J; Krause, O; Leroy, A K; Meidt, S E; Murphy, E J; Rahman, N; Rix, H -W; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Schinnerer, E; Smith, J -D T; Srinivasan, S; Vigroux, L; Walter, F; Warren, B E; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M G; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    Stellar density and bar strength should affect the temperatures of the cool (T ~ 20-30 K) dust component in the inner regions of galaxies, which implies that the ratio of temperatures in the circumnuclear regions to the disk should depend on Hubble type. We investigate the differences between cool dust temperatures in the central 3 kpc and disk of 13 nearby galaxies by fitting models to measurements between 70 and 500 microns. We attempt to quantify temperature trends in nearby disk galaxies, with archival data from Spitzer/MIPS and new observations with Herschel/SPIRE, which were acquired during the first phases of the Herschel observations for the KINGFISH (key insights in nearby galaxies: a far-infrared survey with Herschel) sample. We fit single-temperature modified blackbodies to far-infrared and submillimeter measurements of the central and disk regions of galaxies to determine the temperature of the component(s) emitting at those wavelengths. We present the ratio of central-region-to-disk-temperatures ...

  2. Herschel-ATLAS: The Surprising Diversity of Dust-Selected Galaxies in the Local Submillimetre Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Christopher J R; Gomez, Haley L; Maddox, Steven; De Vis, Pieter; Smith, Matthew W L; Eales, Steven A; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, George J; Bourne, Nathan; Driver, Simon P; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Christina; Ivison, Rob J; Schofield, Simon P; Robotham, Aaron S G; Rowlands, Kate; Vlahakis, Catherine; van der Werf, Paul; Wright, Angus; de Zotti, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    We present the properties of the first 250um blind sample of nearby galaxies (15 < D < 46 Mpc), from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Herschel's sensitivity allows us to probe the faint end of the dust luminosity function for the first time, spanning a range of stellar mass (7.4 < log$_{10}$ M$_{\\star}$ < 11.3 M$_{\\odot}$), star formation activity (-11.8 < log$_{10}$ SSFR < -8.9 yr$^{-1}$), and gas fraction (3-96 per cent). Our representative sample of the local dusty Universe reveals great diversity, with 0.6 < FUV-Ks < 7.0 and representation across the Hubble Sequence. The median cold dust temperature is 14.6 K, colder than that in the HRS (18.5 K) and Planck ERCSC (17.7 K). The mean dust-to-stellar mass ratio (Md/M$_{\\star}$) in our sample is higher than in these surveys by a factor of 3.7 and 1.8 respectively. Counter-intuitively, we find that the more dust rich a galaxy (defined by Md/M$_{\\star}$), the lower its UV attenuation. Dust selection also ...

  3. Radio continuum and X-ray emission from the most extreme far-IR-excess galaxy NGC 1377. An extremely obscured AGN revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, F.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Lohfink, A.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Alberdi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Galaxies which strongly deviate from the radio-far infrared (FIR) correlation are of great importance for studies of galaxy evolution as they may be tracing early, short-lived stages of starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The most extreme FIR-excess galaxy NGC 1377 has long been interpreted as a young dusty starburst, but millimeter observations of CO lines revealed a powerful collimated molecular outflow which cannot be explained by star formation alone. Aims: This paper aims to determine the nature of the energy source in the nucleus of NGC 1377 and to study the driving mechanism of the collimated CO outflow. Methods: We present new radio observations of NGC 1377 at 1.5 and 10 GHz obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and Chandra X-ray observations. The observations are compared to synthetic starburst models to constrain the properties of the central energy source. Results: We obtained the first detection of the cm radio continuum and X-ray emission in NGC 1377. We found that the radio emission is distributed in two components, one on the nucleus and another offset by 4.5 arcsec to the south-west. We confirm the extreme FIR-excess of the galaxy, with a qFIR ≃ 4.2, which deviates by more than 7σ from the radio-FIR correlation. Soft X-ray emission is detected on the off-nucleus component. From the radio emission we estimated for a young (<10 Myr) starburst a star formation rate (SFR) of <0.1 M⊙ yr-1. Such a SFR is not sufficient to power the observed IR luminosity and to drive the CO outflow. Conclusions: We found that a young starburst cannot reproduce all the observed properties of the nucleus of NGC 1377. We suggest that the galaxy may be harboring a radio-quiet, obscured AGN of 106M⊙, accreting at near-Eddington rates. We speculate that the off-nucleus component may be tracing an hot-spot in the AGN jet.

  4. Formation and Evolution of the Dust in Galaxies. III. The Disk of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Piovan, L; Merlin, E; Grassi, T; Tantalo, R; Buonomo, U; Cassarà, L P

    2011-01-01

    Models of chemical evolution of galaxies including the dust are nowadays required to decipher the high-z universe. In a series of three papers we have tackled the problem and set a modern chemical evolution model. In the first paper (Piovan et al., 2011a) we revised the condensation coefficients for the elements that typically are present in the dust. In the second paper (Piovan et al., 2011b) we have implemented the dust into the Padova chemical model and tested it against the observational data for the Solar Neighbourhood. In this paper we extend it to the whole Disk of the Milky Way (MW). The Disk is used as a laboratory to analyze the spatial and temporal behaviour of (i) several dust grain families with the aid of which we can describe the ISM, (ii) the abundances in the gas, dust, and total ISM of the elements present in the dust and (iii) the depletion of the same elements. The temporal evolution of the dust and gas across the Disk is calculated under the effect of radial flows and a central Bar. The g...

  5. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rich, J. A. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); U, V., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  6. Characterizing Ultraviolet and Infrared Observational Properties for Galaxies. I. Influences of Dust Attenuation and Stellar Population Age

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Ye-Wei; Hao, Cai-Na; Kong, Xu; Zhou, Xu

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color, i.e. the IRX-UV relation, was regarded as a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion, in this paper, we select five spiral nearby galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each individual of the galaxies, with combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to ...

  7. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) VII: A SKIRT radiative transfer model and insights on dust heating

    CERN Document Server

    Viaene, S; Tamm, A; Tempel, E; Bendo, G; Blommaert, J A D L; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Camps, P; Cooray, A; De Looze, I; De Vis, P; Fernandez-Ontiveros, J A; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Gentile, G; Madden, S; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Verstocken, S

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of stars heats dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium and in star-forming regions in galaxies. Modelling this interaction provides information on dust in galaxies, a vital ingredient for their evolution. It is not straightforward to identify the stellar populations heating the dust, and to link attenuation to emission on a sub-galactic scale. Radiative transfer models are able to simulate this dust-starlight interaction in a realistic, three-dimensional setting. We investigate the dust heating mechanisms on a local and global galactic scale, using the Andromeda galaxy (M31) as our laboratory. We perform a series of panchromatic radiative transfer simulations of Andromeda with our code SKIRT. The high inclination angle of M31 complicates the 3D modelling and causes projection effects. However, the observed morphology and flux density are reproduced fairly well from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Our model reveals a realistic attenuation curve, compatible with previous, observational es...

  8. VARIATIONS OF MID- AND FAR-INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AMONG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: RELATION TO STELLAR METALLICITY AND COLD DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Board of Studies in Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Temi, Pasquale; Amblard, Alexandre, E-mail: mathews@ucolick.org, E-mail: fabrizio.brighenti@unibo.it, E-mail: pasquale.temi@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central active galactic nucleus (AGN) emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 {mu}m luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 {mu}m variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies, cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 {mu}m may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 {mu}m luminosity in elliptical galaxies is due to dust transported from galactic cores by feedback events in (currently IR-quiet) AGNs. Cooler dusty gas naturally accumulates in the cores of elliptical galaxies due to dust-cooled local stellar mass loss and may accrete onto the central black hole, releasing energy. AGN-heated gas can transport dust in cores 5-10 kpc out into the hot gas atmospheres where it radiates extended 70 {mu}m emission but is eventually destroyed by sputtering. This, and some modest star formation, defines a cycle of dust creation and destruction. Elliptical galaxies evidently undergo large transient excursions in the banana plot in times comparable to the sputtering time or AGN duty cycle, 10 Myr. Normally regarded as passive, elliptical galaxies are the most active galaxies in the IR color-color correlation.

  9. NEBULAR AND STELLAR DUST EXTINCTION ACROSS THE DISK OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES ON KILOPARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Darvish, Behnam [University of California, Riverside, CA 92512 (United States); Nayyeri, Hooshang; Miller, Sarah [University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Sobral, David, E-mail: shemm001@ucr.edu [Universidade de Lisboa, PT1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-11-20

    We investigate the resolved kiloparsec-scale stellar and nebular dust distribution in eight star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. This is to get a better understanding of the effect of dust attenuation on measurements of physical properties and its variation with redshift. Constructing the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) per pixel, based on seven bands of photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3, we performed pixel-by-pixel SED fits to population synthesis models and estimated the small-scale distribution of stellar dust extinction. We use Hα/Hβ nebular emission line ratios from Keck/DEIMOS high-resolution spectra at each spatial resolution element to measure the amount of attenuation faced by ionized gas at different radii from the centers of galaxies. We find a good agreement between the integrated and median of resolved color excess measurements in our galaxies. The ratio of integrated nebular to stellar dust extinction is always greater than unity, but does not show any trend with stellar mass or star formation rate (SFR). We find that inclination plays an important role in the variation of the nebular to stellar excess ratio. The stellar color excess profiles are found to have higher values at the center compared to outer parts of the disk. However, for lower mass galaxies, a similar trend is not found for the nebular color excess. We find that the nebular color excess increases with stellar mass surface density. This explains the absence of radial trend in the nebular color excess in lower mass galaxies which lack a large radial variation of stellar mass surface density. Using standard conversions of SFR surface density to gas mass surface density, and the relation between dust mass surface density and color excess, we find no significant variation in the dust-to-gas ratio in regions with high gas mass surface densities over the scales probed in this

  10. Direct measurements of dust attenuation in z ∼ 1.5 star-forming galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for dust geometry and star formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: sedona@berkeley.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.

  11. Spatially resolved dust emission of extremely metal-poor galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luwenjia; Shi, Yong; Diaz-Santos, Taino; Armus, Lee; Helou, George; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of individual star-forming regions in four extremely metal-poor (EMP) galaxies with metallicity Z ≲ Z_⊙/10 as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. With the good wavelength coverage of the SED, it is found that these EMP star-forming regions show distinct SED shapes as compared to those of grand design Spirals and higher metallicity dwarfs: they have on average much higher f_(70μm)/f_(160 μm) ratios at a given f_(160 μm)/f_(2...

  12. The distribution of interstellar dust in CALIFA edge-on galaxies via oligochromatic radiative transfer fitting

    CERN Document Server

    De Geyter, Gert; Camps, Peter; Fritz, Jacopo; De Looze, Ilse; Hughes, Thomas M; Viaene, Sebastien; Gentile, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the amount and spatial distribution of interstellar dust in edge-on spiral galaxies, using detailed radiative transfer modeling of a homogeneous sample of 12 galaxies selected from the CALIFA survey. Our automated fitting routine, FitSKIRT, was first validated against artificial data. This is done by simultaneously reproducing the SDSS $g$-, $r$-, $i$- and $z$-band observations of a toy model in order to combine the information present in the different bands. We show that this combined, oligochromatic fitting, has clear advantages over standard monochromatic fitting especially regarding constraints on the dust properties. We model all galaxies in our sample using a three-component model, consisting of a double exponential disc to describe the stellar and dust discs and using a S\\'ersic profile to describe the central bulge. The full model contains 19 free parameters, and we are able to constrain all these parameters to a satisfactory level of accuracy without human intervention or strong bounda...

  13. Gas-to-Dust mass ratios in local galaxies over a 2 dex metallicity range

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy-Ruyer, A; Galliano, F; Galametz, M; Takeuchi, T T; Asano, R S; Zhukovska, S; Lebouteiller, V; Cormier, D; Jones, A; Bocchio, M; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; DeLooze, I; Doublier-Pritchard, V; Hughes, T; Karczewski, O Ł; Spinoglio, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the behaviour of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (G/D) of local Universe galaxies over a large metallicity range. We combine three samples: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey, the KINGFISH survey and a subsample from Galametz et al. (2011) totalling 126 galaxies, covering a 2 dex metallicity range, with 30% of the sample with 12+log(O/H) < 8.0. The dust masses are homogeneously determined with a semi-empirical dust model, including submm constraints. The atomic and molecular gas masses are compiled from the literature. Two XCO are used to estimate molecular gas masses: the Galactic XCO, and a XCO depending on the metallicity (as Z^{-2}). Correlations with morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates and specific star formation rates are discussed. The trend between G/D and metallicity is empirically modelled using power-laws (slope of -1 and free) and a broken power-law. We compare the evolution of the G/D with predictions from chemical evolution models. We find that out of the five tested...

  14. DUST-TO-GAS RATIO IN THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY I Zw 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuehl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donaldson, Jessica; Melendez, Marcio [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal-poor systems known in the local universe (12+log(O/H) = 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from Spitzer, Herschel Space Telescope, and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both the far-infrared and the CO J = 1 {yields} 0 transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M{sub dust} {<=} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} (3{sigma} limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 {mu}m, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending on the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M{sub Dust}/M{sub gas} {<=} 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measured as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. We also show that the infrared spectral energy distribution is similar to that of starbursting systems.

  15. Dust-to-Gas Ratio in the Extremely Metal Poor Galaxy I ZW 18

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Gordon, Karl D; Roman-Duval, Julia; Donaldson, Jessica; Meléndez, Marcio; Cannon, John M

    2012-01-01

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 is one of the most metal poor systems known in the local Universe (12 + log(O/H) $=$ 7.17). In this work we study I Zw 18 using data from {\\it Spitzer}, {\\it Herschel Space Telescope} and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our data set includes the most sensitive maps of I Zw 18, to date, in both, the far infrared and the CO $J=1\\rightarrow0$ transition. We use dust emission models to derive a dust mass upper limit of only M$_{dust}\\leq1.1\\times10^4$ M$_{\\odot}$ ($3\\sigma$ limit). This upper limit is driven by the non-detection at 160 $\\mu$m, and it is a factor of 4-10 times smaller than previous estimates (depending upon the model used). We also estimate an upper limit to the total dust-to-gas mass ratio of M$_{Dust}$/M$_{gas}\\leq5.0\\times10^{-5}$. If a linear correlation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity (measure as O/H) were to hold, we would expect a ratio of 3.9$\\times10^{-4}$. We also show that the infrared SED is similar to that of starbursting s...

  16. Incidence of WISE -selected obscured AGNs in major mergers and interactions from the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Madalyn E.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Brodwin, Mark; Mann, Justin; Cooper, Andrew; McConnell, Adam; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2017-02-01

    We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to confirm a connection between dust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy merging. Using a new, volume-limited (z ≤ 0.08) catalogue of visually selected major mergers and galaxy-galaxy interactions from the SDSS, with stellar masses above 2 × 1010 M⊙, we find that major mergers (interactions) are 5-17 (3-5) times more likely to have red [3.4] - [4.6] colours associated with dust-obscured or `dusty' AGNs, compared to non-merging galaxies with similar masses. Using published fibre spectral diagnostics, we map the [3.4] - [4.6] versus [4.6] - [12] colours of different emission-line galaxies and find that one-quarter of Seyferts have colours indicative of a dusty AGN. We find that AGNs are five times more likely to be obscured when hosted by a merging galaxy, half of AGNs hosted by a merger are dusty, and we find no enhanced frequency of optical AGNs in merging over non-merging galaxies. We conclude that undetected AGNs missed at shorter wavelengths are at the heart of the ongoing AGN-merger connection debate. The vast majority of mergers hosting dusty AGNs are star forming and located at the centres of Mhalo < 1013 M⊙ groups. Assuming plausibly short-duration dusty-AGN phases, we speculate that a large fraction of gas-rich mergers experience a brief obscured AGN phase, in agreement with the strong connection between central star formation and black hole growth seen in merger simulations.

  17. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Dust constraints in a z~9.6 galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J A; Aretxaga, I; Wilson, G W; Hughes, D H; Montaña, A; Dunlop, J S; Pope, A; Sánchez-Argüelles, D; Yun, M S; Zeballos, M

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations with the GISMO 2 mm camera revealed a detection 8" away from the lensed galaxy MACS1149-JD1 at z=9.6. Within the 17.5" FWHM GISMO beam, this detection is consistent with the position of the high-redshift galaxy and therefore, if confirmed, this object could be claimed to be the youngest galaxy producing significant quantities of dust. We present higher resolution (8.5") observations of this system taken with the AzTEC 1.1 mm camera mounted on the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano. Dust continuum emission at the position of MACS1149-JD1 is not detected with an r.m.s. of 0.17 mJy/beam. However, we find a detection ~ 11" away from MACS1149-JD1, still within the GISMO beam which is consistent with an association to the GISMO source. Combining the AzTEC and GISMO photometry, together with Herschel ancillary data, we derive a z_phot= 0.7-1.6 for the dusty galaxy. We conclude therefore that the GISMO and AzTEC detections are not associated with MACS1149-JD1. From the non-detection of MAC...

  18. Untangling the Nature of Spatial Variations of Cold Dust Properties in Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Kennicutt, Robert; Galametz, Maud; Gordon, Karl; Groves, Brent; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Hinz, Joannah; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the far-infrared (IR) dust emission for 20 local star forming galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-IR Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. We model the far-IR/submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) using images from Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We calculate the cold dust temperature (T(cold)) and emissivity (beta) on a pixel by pixel basis (where each pixel ranges from 0.1-3 kpc^2) using a two temperature modified blackbody fitting routine. Our fitting method allows us to investigate the resolved nature of temperature and emissivity variations by modeling from the galaxy centers to the outskirts (physical scales of ~15-50 kpc, depending on the size of the galaxy). We fit each SED in two ways: (1) fit T(cold) and beta simultaneously, (2) hold beta constant and fit T(cold). We compare T(cold) and beta with star formation rates (calculated from L(Halpha) and L(24)), the luminosity of the old stellar population (traced through L(3.6), and ...

  19. Radial distribution of gas and dust in the two spiral galaxies M99 and M100

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlen, M; Smith, M W L; Eales, S A; Boselli, A; Bendo, G J; Gomez, H L; Papageorgiou, A; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bock, J J; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Eales, S A; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M R P; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J A; Srinivasan, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C D; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeiliner, W W

    2010-01-01

    By combining Herschel-SPIRE data with archival Spitzer, HI, and CO maps, we investigate the spatial distribution of gas and dust in the two famous grand-design spirals M99 and M100 in the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the unique resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel-SPIRE photometer, we are for the first time able to measure the distribution and extent of cool, submillimetre (submm)-emitting dust inside and beyond the optical radius. We compare this with the radial variation in both the gas mass and the metallicity. Although we adopt a model-independent, phenomenological approach, our analysis provides important insights. We find the dust extending to at least the optical radius of the galaxy and showing breaks in its radial profiles at similar positions as the stellar distribution. The colour indices f350/f500 and f250/f350 decrease radially consistent with the temperature decreasing with radius. We also find evidence of an increasing gas to dust ratio with radius in the outer regions of both galaxies.

  20. Carbon-rich dust production in metal-poor galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Kraemer, K E; McDonald, I; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Bernard-Salas, J; Zijlstra, A A

    2012-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 19 carbon stars in the Sculptor, Carina, Fornax, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show significant quantities of dust around the carbon stars in Sculptor, Fornax, and Leo I, but little in Carina. Previous comparisons of carbon stars with similar pulsation properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds revealed no evidence that metallicity affected the production of dust by carbon stars. However, the more metal-poor stars in the current sample appear to be generating less dust. These data extend two known trends to lower metallicities. In more metal-poor samples, the SiC dust emission weakens, while the acetylene absorption strengthens. The bolometric magnitudes and infrared spectral properties of the carbon stars in Fornax are consistent with metallicities more similar to carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds than in the other dwarf spheroidals in our sample. A study of the carbon budget in these sta...

  1. Analysis of the spatial distribution of stars, gas and dust in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    I summarize the main result of my thesis, which was awarded the Spanish Astronomical Society Award for the best thesis in Astronomy defended in 2010. This thesis was supervised by Armando Gil de Paz and Jaime Zamorano at Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In this work we quantified how the physical properties of stars, gas and dust vary with radius in nearby galactic disks, and used that information to infer the past assembly and evolution of galaxies. To do so we made use of spatially-resolved multi-wavelength images of nearby galaxies, all the way from the far-UV to the far-IR and radio. By comparing extinction- corrected profiles in the UV, optical and IR with models of disk evolution, we concluded that the current stellar population gradients are consistent with an inside-out growth of disks of ˜ 25% since z ˜ 1. We also found that the dust-to-gas ratio decreases with radius, and is tightly correlated with the local gas metallicity, which is again consistent with an inside-out assembly of disks. We measured the fraction of the dust mass which is in the form of PAHs at different radii. The resulting trend agrees with certain models of dust evolution, in which the abundance of PAHs is primarily determined by a delayed injection of carbon into the ISM by AGB stars.

  2. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-Forming Galaxy IC 2163

    CERN Document Server

    Jencson, Jacob E; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E; Monson, Andrew J; Masci, Frank J; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A; Simcoe, Robert A; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SPIRITS---SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey---is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ($M_{[4.5]} = -17.1\\pm0.4$ mag, Vega) and red ($[3.6] - [4.5] = 3.0 \\pm 0.2$ mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ($D\\approx35.5$ Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad ($\\approx 8400$ km s$^{-1}$), double-peaked emission line of He I at $1.083 \\mu$m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of $\\approx 200$ days. Assuming $A_V = 2.2$ mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The IR light curves and the extreme $[3.6]-[4.5]$ color cannot be explained using only a standard extinction l...

  3. Revealing the High Energy Emission from the Obscured Seyfert Galaxy MCG -5-23-16 with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, J N; Dewangan, G C; Fabian, A C; Fukazawa, Y; Gallo, L; Griffiths, R; Inoue, H; Kunieda, H; Markowitz, A; Miniutti, G; Mizuno, T; Mushotzky, R; Okajima, T; Ptak, A; Takahashi, T; Terashima, Y; Ushio, M; Watanabe, S; Yamasaki, T; Yamauchi, M; Yaqoob, T; Reeves, James N.; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Fabian, Andy C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Gallo, Luigi; Griffiths, Richard; Inoue, Hajime; Kunieda, Hideyo; Markowitz, Alex; MiniuttI, Giovanni; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terashima, Yuichi; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yaqoob, Tahir

    2006-01-01

    We report on a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the bright, nearby (z=0.008486) Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG -5-23-16. The broad-band (0.4-100 keV) X-ray spectrum allows us to determine the nature of the high energy emission with little ambiguity. The X-ray continuum consists of a cutoff power-law of photon index $\\Gamma=1.9$, absorbed through Compton-thin matter of column density $N_{\\rm H}=1.6\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. A soft excess is observed below 1 keV and is likely a combination of emission from scattered continuum photons and distant photoionized gas. The iron K line profile is complex, showing narrow neutral iron K$\\alpha$ and K$\\beta$ emission, as well as a broad line which can be modeled by a moderately inclined accretion disk. The line profile shows either the disk is truncated at a few tens of gravitational radii, or the disk emissivity profile is relatively flat. A strong Compton reflection component is detected above 10 keV, which is best modeled by a combination of reflection off distant matter and the a...

  4. NGC4370: a case study for testing our ability to infer dust distribution and mass in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Viaene, S; Baes, M; Fritz, J; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Bianchi, S; Cortese, L; Côté, P; Cuillandre, J -C; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Ferrarese, L; Gwyn, S D J; Hughes, T M; Pappalardo, C

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data ...

  5. Untangling the nature of spatial variations of cold dust properties in star forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-München (Germany); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groves, Brent; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hunt, Leslie [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hinz, Joannah, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [MMT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We investigate the far-infrared (IR) dust emission for 20 local star forming galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-IR Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. We model the far-IR/submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) using images from Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We calculate the cold dust temperature (T{sub c} ) and emissivity (β) on a pixel by pixel basis (where each pixel ranges from 0.1 to 3 kpc{sup 2}) using a two-temperature modified blackbody fitting routine. Our fitting method allows us to investigate the resolved nature of temperature and emissivity variations by modeling from the galaxy centers to the outskirts (physical scales of ∼15-50 kpc, depending on the size of the galaxy). We fit each SED in two ways: (1) fit T{sub c} and β simultaneously, (2) hold β constant and fit T{sub c} . We compare T{sub c} and β with star formation rates (calculated from L{sub Hα} and L{sub 24μm}), the luminosity of the old stellar population (traced through L{sub 3.6μm}), and the dust mass surface density (traced by 500 μm luminosity, L{sub 500}). We find a significant trend between SFR/L{sub 500} and T{sub c} , implying that the flux of hard UV photons relative to the amount of dust is significantly contributing to the heating of the cold, or diffuse, dust component. We also see a trend between L{sub 3.6}/L{sub 500} and β, indicating that the old stellar population contributes to the heating at far-IR/submillimeter wavelengths. Finally, we find that when β is held constant, T{sub c} exhibits a strongly decreasing radial trend, illustrating that the shape of the far-IR SED is changing radially through a galaxy, thus confirming on a sample almost double in size the trends observed in Galametz et al.

  6. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  7. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < –2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of ≈30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, 1 star in IC 1613, and 1 star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirm that 70 of the x-AGB variables are confirmed or likely carbon stars. We see an increase in the pulsation amplitude with increased dust production, supporting previous studies suggesting that dust production and pulsation are linked. We find no strong evidence linking dust production with metallicity, indicating that dust can form in very metal-poor environments.

  8. Revealing the cold dust in low-metallicity environments. I. Photometry analysis of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Sauvage, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Roussel, H.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Wu, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; De Looze, I.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Panuzzo, P.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Wilson, C. D.

    2013-09-01

    Context. We present new photometric data from our Herschel guaranteed time key programme, the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS), dedicated to the observation of the gas and dust in low-metallicity environments. A total of 48 dwarf galaxies were observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard the Herschel Space Observatory at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. Aims: The goal of this paper is to provide reliable far-infrared (FIR) photometry for the DGS sample and to analyse the FIR/submillimetre (submm) behaviour of the DGS galaxies. We focus on a systematic comparison of the derived FIR properties (FIR luminosity, LFIR, dust mass, Mdust, dust temperature, T, emissivity index, β) with more metal-rich galaxies and investigate the detection of a potential submm excess. Methods: The data reduction method is adapted for each galaxy in order to derive the most reliable photometry from the final maps. The derived PACS flux densities are compared with the Spitzer MIPS 70 and 160 μm bands. We use colour-colour diagrams to analyse the FIR/submm behaviour of the DGS galaxies and modified blackbody fitting procedures to determine their dust properties. To study the variation in these dust properties with metallicity, we also include galaxies from the Herschel KINGFISH sample, which contains more metal-rich environments, totalling 109 galaxies. Results: The location of the DGS galaxies on Herschel colour-colour diagrams highlights the differences in dust grain properties and/or global environments of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies. The dust in DGS galaxies is generally warmer than in KINGFISH galaxies (TDGS ~ 32 K and TKINGFISH ~ 23 K). The emissivity index, β, is ~1.7 in the DGS, however metallicity does not make a strong effect on β. The proportion of dust mass relative to stellar mass is lower in low-metallicity galaxies: Mdust/Mstar ~ 0.02% for the DGS versus 0.1% for KINGFISH. However, per unit dust mass, dwarf galaxies emit about six times more in the FIR/submm than

  9. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Genzel, R; Foerster-Schreiber, N M; Tacconi, L J

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broad band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, DL07) and a modified black body (MBB). As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 micron in the rest frame, M(dust) can be recovered with a >3 sigma significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field) it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a S/N>=3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M(stars)~1e10 [M(sun)] up to z~1. At higher redshift (z1, the delta(GDR) dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation. We combine far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study ...

  10. The warm molecular gas and dust of Seyfert galaxies: two different phases of accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Mezcua, M; Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Tristram, K; Neumayer, N

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of warm molecular gas (1000--3000 K), traced by the near-IR H$_2$ 2.12 $\\mu$m line, has been imaged with a resolution $<0.5$ arcsec in the central 1 kpc of seven nearby Seyfert galaxies. We find that this gas is highly concentrated towards the central 100 pc and that its morphology is often symmetrical. Lanes of warm H$_2$ gas are observed only in three cases (NGC\\,1068, NGC\\,1386 and Circinus) for which the morphology is much wider and extended than the dust filaments. We conclude that there is no one-to-one correlation between dust and warm gas. This indicates that, if the dust filaments and lanes of warm gas are radial streaming motions of fueling material, they must represent \\textit{two different phases of accretion}: the dust filaments represent a colder phase than the gas close to the nucleus (within $\\sim$100 pc). We predict that the morphology of the nuclear dust at these scales should resemble that of the cold molecular gas (e.g. CO at 10-40 K), as we show for CenA and NGC\\,1566 ...

  11. Embedded Star Formation in S4G Galaxy Dust Lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comeron, Sebastien; Efremov, Yuri N; Gadotti, Dimitri A; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark; Sheth, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 microns and Halpha but not in the u,g,r,i,z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky survey (SDSS), are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ~3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ~5x10^4 Msun. These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ~10^7 Msun. The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous a...

  12. Variation of Mid and Far-IR Luminosities among Early-Type Galaxies: Relation to Stellar Metallicity and Cold Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, William G; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Amblard, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble morphological sequence from early to late galaxies corresponds to an increasing rate of specific star formation. The Hubble sequence also follows a banana-shaped correlation between 24 and 70 micron luminosities, both normalized with the K-band luminosity. We show that this correlation is significantly tightened if galaxies with central AGN emission are removed, but the cosmic scatter of elliptical galaxies in both 24 and 70 micron luminosities remains significant along the correlation. We find that the 24 micron variation among ellipticals correlates with stellar metallicity, reflecting emission from hot dust in winds from asymptotic giant branch stars of varying metallicity. Infrared surface brightness variations in elliptical galaxies indicate that the K - 24 color profile is U-shaped for reasons that are unclear. In some elliptical galaxies cold interstellar dust emitting at 70 and 160 microns may arise from recent gas-rich mergers. However, we argue that most of the large range of 70 micron lu...

  13. Obscured AGN at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the obscured sources of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the universe at high redshift. The cosmic X-ray background, unified models of AGN and clues to galaxy formation/evolution is the motivation for this study.

  14. THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND ITS IMPACT ON SUNYAEV ZEL'DOVICH STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Montaña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo medimos el espectro angular de potencias de la población de galaxias milimétricas (SMGs a partir de observaciones a 1.1 mm realizadas con la cámara AzTEC en el Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE y el James Clerk Maxwell Telecope (JCMT. La muestra de campos observados nos permite comparar el espectro angular de potencias de las SMGs medido en la dirección de regiones del Universo sin sesgo y otras sobre densas. Nuestras mediciones permiten acotar el impacto que tiene la población de SMGs en mediciones del espectro de potencias de las fluctuaciones primarias y secundarias del fondo cósmico de radiación de microndas (CMB, que actualmente están siendo medidas por una nueva generación de experimentos con resoluciones espaciales del orden de minutos de arco y que operan a longitudes de onda milimétricas.

  15. The high redshift galaxy population in hierarchical galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Kitzbichler, M G; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    We compare observations of the high redshift galaxy population to the predictions of the galaxy formation model of Croton et al. (2006). This model, implemented on the Millennium Simulation of the concordance LCDM cosmogony, introduces "radio mode" feedback from the central galaxies of groups and clusters in order to obtain quantitative agreement with the luminosity, colour, morphology and clustering properties of the low redshift galaxy population. Here we compare the predictions of this same model to the observed counts and redshift distributions of faint galaxies, as well as to their inferred luminosity and mass functions out to redshift 5. With the exception of the mass functions, all these properties are sensitive to modelling of dust obscuration. A simple but plausible treatment gives moderately good agreement with most of the data, although the predicted abundance of relatively massive (~M*) galaxies appears systematically high at high redshift, suggesting that such galaxies assemble earlier in this mo...

  16. Dust Attenuation in Late-Type Galaxies. I. Effects on Bulge and Disk Components

    CERN Document Server

    Pierini, D; Witt, A N; Madsen, G J

    2004-01-01

    We present results of new Monte Carlo calculations made with the DIRTY code of radiative transfer of stellar and scattered radiation for a dusty giant late-type galaxy like the Milky Way, which illustrate the effect of the attenuation of stellar light by internal dust on the integrated photometry of the individual bulge and disk components. Here we focus on the behavior of the attenuation function, the color excess, and the fraction of light scattered or directly transmitted towards the outside observer as a function of the total amount of dust and the inclination of the galaxy, and the structure of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of the disk. We confirm that dust attenuation produces qualitatively and quantitatively different effects on the integrated photometry of bulge and disk, whatever the wavelength. In addition, we find that the structure of the dusty ISM affects more sensitively the observed magnitudes than the observed colors of both bulge and disk. Finally, we show that the contribution of the s...

  17. Large-scale variations of the dust optical properties in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Cambresy, L; Beichman, C A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the dust optical properties at large scale, for the whole galactic anticenter hemisphere. We used the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog to obtain the total reddening on each galaxy line of sight and we compared this value to the IRAS 100 microns surface brightness converted to extinction by Schlegel et al (1998). We performed a careful examination and correction of the possible systematic effects resulting from foreground star contamination, redshift contribution and galaxy selection bias. We also evaluated the contribution of dust temperature variations and interstellar clumpiness to our method. The correlation of the near-infrared extinction to the far-infrared optical depth shows a discrepancy for visual extinction greater than 1 mag with a ratio A_V(FIR) / A_V(gal) = 1.31 +- 0.06. We attribute this result to the presence of fluffy/composite grains characterized by an enhanced far--infrared emissivity. Our analysis, applied to half of the sky, provides new insights on the dust grains ...

  18. Spectropolarimetry of the Superwind Filaments of the Starburst Galaxy M 82: Kinematics of Dust Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, , Koji S.; Ohyama, Youichi

    2011-03-01

    Spectropolarimetry results for the starburst galaxy M 82 are presented. The optical emission lines of the filaments in the energetic outflow (``superwind'') from the nuclear starburst region of M 82 are substantially polarized. The Hα polarization degrees and angles measured by our study are consistent with previous narrowband imaging polarimetry data. The polarized emission lines are redshifted with respect to the emission lines in the total light and systemic motion of the galaxy. The emission line intensity ratios [N II]/Hα and [S II]/ Hα in the polarized light are similar to those of the nuclear star-forming region. In addition, the electron density Ne derived from the [S II]λ6731/λ6717 line ratio of the polarized light is ˜600-1000 cm-3 at a distance of more than 1 kpc from the nucleus, whereas the Ne derived from the total light are less than 300 cm-3. These facts strongly suggest that the emission from the nuclear starburst of M 82 is scattered by dust grains entrained and transported outward by the superwind. A simple hollow biconical outflow model shows that the velocity of the outflowing dust grains, vd, ranges from 100 to 200 km s-1 near the nucleus, decreases monotonically with the distance from the nucleus, and reaches ˜10 km s-1 at around 1 kpc. The motion of the dust is substantially slower than that of both ionized gas (vHα ˜ 600 km s-1) and molecular gas (vCO ˜ 200 km s-1) at the same distance from the nucleus of M 82. This indicates that dust grains in the superwind are kinematically decoupled from both gas components at large radii. Since the dust velocity vd is much less than the escape velocity of M 82 (vesc ≍ 170 km s-1 at 1.5 kpc from the nucleus), most of the dust entrained by the superwind cannot escape to intergalactic space, and may fall back into the galaxy disk if there is no additional acceleration mechanism (such as radiation pressure).

  19. Dust emission in star-forming dwarf galaxies: General properties and the nature of the sub-mm excess

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Krugel, E; Henkel, C

    2014-01-01

    We studied the global characteristics of dust emission in a large sample of emission-line star-forming galaxies. The sample consists of two subsamples. One subsample (SDSS sample) includes ~4000 compact star-forming galaxies from the SDSS, which were also detected in all four bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 mum of the WISE all-sky survey. The second subsample (Herschel sample) is a sample of 28 compact star-forming galaxies observed with Herschel in the FIR range. Data of the Herschel sample were supplemented by the photometric data from the Spitzer observations, GALEX, SDSS, WISE, 2MASS, NVSS, and FIRST surveys, as well as optical and Spitzer spectra and data in sub-mm and radio ranges. It is found that warm dust luminosities of galaxies from the SDSS sample and cold and warm dust luminosities of galaxies from the Herschel sample are strongly correlated with Hbeta luminosities, which implies that one of the main sources of dust heating in star-forming galaxies is ionising UV radiation of young stars. Using the...

  20. The cosmic background: evolution of infrared galaxies and dust properties. A lecture dedicated to the memory of Mayo Greenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Puget, J L; Dole, H; Puget, Jean-Loup; Lagache, Guilaine; Dole, Herve

    2004-01-01

    In recent years it became clear that a population of galaxies radiating most of their power in the far-infrared contribute an important part of the whole star formation activity in the universe. These galaxies emit up to 99% of their energy output in the infrared by dust. The optical properties of dust in galaxies are thus very important to understand this population. Mayo Greenberg who has brought many of the ideas underlying our understanding of the physics of interstellar dust has been a pioneer in predicting the important role of organic solid material formed on dust grains in molecular clouds and of potential importance of transient heating of very small particles. It appeared with the ISO data on galaxies and even more today with the first Spitzer data that these mechanisms are important globally for the observations of infrared galaxies at significant redshifts. The understanding of their evolution is one of the keys to the understanding of galaxy built up and evolution.

  1. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

  2. Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-RAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Giovanni; Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard. J.; Debattista, Victor P.; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W.

    2015-05-01

    We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-RAY, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive spectral energy distribution library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-RAY to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, both bolometrically and as a function of infrared wavelength.

  3. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), II. Discovery of Metal-poor Dusty AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, P; Bonanos, A Z; Gehrz, R D; Gordon, K D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D; Marengo, M; McDonald, I; Meixner, M; Skillman, E; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, G; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called "extreme" or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5]>0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of approximately 30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, one star in IC 1613, and one star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirms tha...

  4. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] line and dust emission in $6galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Carilli, Christopher; Bauer, Franz E; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Bacon, Roland; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for [CII] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at $z>6$ using ASPECS, our ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range $212-272$ GHz, encompass approximately the range $6$4.5 $\\sigma$, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60\\% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [CII] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3-mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [CII] candidates results in a tentative detection with $S_{1.2mm}=14\\pm5\\mu$Jy. This implies a dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) of $(3\\pm1)$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We find that the two highest--SFR objects have candidate [CII] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift $L_{\\rm [C...

  5. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, M.; Hartoog, O. E.; Krühler, T.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio and extinction of the GRB host...... galaxy at z=5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyman-alpha absorber (DLA) with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(HI)/cm^(-2) = 22.30 +/- 0.06, and a metallicity of [S/H]= -1.70 +/- 0.10. It is the highest redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence...

  6. X-Ray Emission from a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2015-01-01

    We report the multiband imagery with an emphasis on the X-ray emission properties of a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866. X-ray emission from this galaxy is due to a diffuse component and a substantial contribution from the population of discrete X-ray binary sources. A total of 22 discrete sources have been detected within the optical D25 extent of the galaxy, few of which exhibit spatial association with the globular clusters hosted by this system. Composite spectrum of the diffuse emission from this galaxy was well constrained by a thermal plasma model plus a power law component to represent the emission from unresolved sources, while that of the discrete sources was well fitted by an absorbed power law component of photon index 1.82$\\pm$0.14. X-ray color-color plot for the resolved source was used to classify the detected sources. The cumulative X-ray luminosity function of the XRBs is well represented by a power law function of index of {\\Gamma} ~ 0.82$\\pm$0.12. Optical imagery of NGC 5866 r...

  7. The Revealing Dust: Mid-Infrared Activity in Hickson Compact Group Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Hornschemeier, A E; Charlton, J C; Hibbard, J E

    2007-01-01

    We present a sample of 46 galaxy nuclei from 12 nearby (z<4500 km/s) Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) with a complete suite of 1-24 micron 2MASS+Spitzer nuclear photometry. For all objects in the sample, blue emission from stellar photospheres dominates in the near-IR through the 3.6 micron IRAC band. Twenty-five of 46 (54%) galaxy nuclei show red, mid-IR continua characteristic of hot dust powered by ongoing star formation and/or accretion onto a central black hole. We introduce alpha_{IRAC}, the spectral index of a power-law fit to the 4.5-8.0 micron IRAC data, and demonstrate that it cleanly separates the mid-IR active and non-active HCG nuclei. This parameter is more powerful for identifying low to moderate-luminosity mid-IR activity than other measures which include data at rest-frame lambda<3.6 micron that may be dominated by stellar photospheric emission. While the HCG galaxies clearly have a bimodal distribution in this parameter space, a comparison sample from the Spitzer Nearby Galaxy Survey (SIN...

  8. The metallicity and dust content of a redshift 5 gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, M.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hartoog, O. E.; Kaper, L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); D' Elia, V. [INAF/Rome Astronomical Observatory, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Zafar, T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Afonso, P. M. J. [Physics and Astronomy Department, American River College, 4700 College Oak Drive, Sacramento, CA 95841 (United States); Covino, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Universite Paris Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Goldoni, P. [APC, Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, Rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Klose, S. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Levan, A. J., E-mail: sparre@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-04-20

    Observations of the afterglows of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow the study of star-forming galaxies across most of cosmic history. Here we present observations of GRB 111008A, from which we can measure metallicity, chemical abundance patterns, dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and extinction of the GRB host galaxy at z = 5.0. The host absorption system is a damped Lyα absorber with a very large neutral hydrogen column density of log N(H I)/cm{sup −2}=22.30±0.06 and a metallicity of [S/H] = –1.70 ± 0.10. It is the highest-redshift GRB with such a precise metallicity measurement. The presence of fine-structure lines confirms the z = 5.0 system as the GRB host galaxy and makes this the highest redshift where Fe II fine-structure lines have been detected. The afterglow is mildly reddened with A{sub V} = 0.11 ± 0.04 mag, and the host galaxy has a DTM that is consistent with being equal to or lower than typical values in the Local Group.

  9. Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in 17 Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koshida, S; Yoshii, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sakata, Y; Sugawara, S; Enya, K; Suganuma, M; Tomita, H; Aoki, T; Peterson, B A

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a dust reverberation survey for 17 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies, which provides the largest homogeneous data collection for the radius of the innermost dust torus. A delayed response of the K-band light curve after the V-band light curve was found for all targets, and 49 measurements of lag times between the flux variation of the dust emission in the K band and that of the optical continuum emission in the V band were obtained. The lag times strongly correlated with the optical luminosity in the luminosity range of M_V=-16 to -22 mag, and the regression analysis was performed to obtain the correlation log $\\Delta t$ (days) = -2.11 -0.2 M_V assuming $\\Delta t \\propto L^{0.5}$, which was theoretically expected. We discuss the possible origins of the intrinsic scatter of the dust lag-luminosity correlation, which was estimated to be about 0.13 dex, and we find that the difference of internal extinction and delayed response of changes in lag times to the flux variations could have partly co...

  10. Herschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE): the Large Magellanic Cloud dust

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, M; Hony, S; Roman-Duval, J; Robitaille, T; Panuzzo, P; Sauvage, M; Gordon, K; Engelbracht, C; Misselt, K; Okumura, K; Beck, T; Bernard, J -P; Bolatto, A; Bot, C; Boyer, M; Bracker, S; Carlson, L R; Clayton, G C; Chen, C -H R; Churchwell, E; Fukui, Y; Galametz, M; Hora, J L; Hughes, A; Indebetouw, R; Israel, F P; Kawamura, A; Kemper, F; Kim, S; Kwon, E; Lawton, B; Li, A; Long, K S; Marengo, M; Madden, S C; Matsuura, M; Oliveira, J M; Onishi, T; Otsuka, M; Paradis, D; Poglitsch, A; Riebel, D; Reach, W T; Rubio, M; Sargent, B; Sewiło, M; Simon, J D; Skibba, R; Smith, L J; Srinivasan, S; Tielens, A G G M; van Loon, J Th; Whitney, B; Woods, P M

    2010-01-01

    The HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) of the Magellanic Clouds will use dust emission to investigate the life cycle of matter in both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). Using the Herschel Space Observatory's PACS and SPIRE photometry cameras, we imaged a 2x8 square degree strip through the LMC, at a position angle of ~22.5 degrees as part of the science demonstration phase of the Herschel mission. We present the data in all 5 Herschel bands: PACS 100 and 160 {\\mu}m and SPIRE 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m. We present two dust models that both adequately fit the spectral energy distribution for the entire strip and both reveal that the SPIRE 500 {\\mu}m emission is in excess of the models by 6 to 17%. The SPIRE emission follows the distribution of the dust mass, which is derived from the model. The PAH-to-dust mass (f_PAH) image of the strip reveals a possible enhancement in the LMC bar in agreement with previous work. We compare the gas mass distribution derived from th...

  11. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z equals 5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  12. Star Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared OR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multi wavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  13. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3: A Starburst Galaxy at z=5.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. In this lecture we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z=5.3. We construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  14. What are the galaxies that host MIR-selected AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, David

    2016-08-01

    Infra-red selection techniques, sensitive to dust strongly heated by an AGN, offer a way to identify some of the most obscured accretion events in the Universe. I will describe the results of a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of AGN to z>2 selected using Spitzer/IRAC based methods in the COSMOS field. Armed with AGN-optimised redshifts and stellar masses, we explore the dust emission from the active nucleus and the host galaxy. We demonstrate that IR-selected AGN tend to be found in low mass host galaxies, when compared to other AGN identification methods. The star-formation rates of obscured and unobscured IR-selected AGN are very similar, implying that large-scale obscuration with co-eval star-bursts are not found in a major proportion of heavily obscured AGN.

  15. Validation of the equilibrium model for galaxy evolution to z~3 through molecular gas and dust observations of lensed star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, Amelie; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Nordon, Raanan; Tacconi, Linda J; Baker, Andrew J; Bandara, Kaushala; Berta, Stefano; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sturm, Eckhard; Wuyts, Eva; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    We combine IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements to study the dust and gas contents of high-redshift star forming galaxies. We present new observations for a sample of 17 lensed galaxies at z=1.4-3.1, which allow us to directly probe the cold ISM of normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of ~10^10Msun, a regime otherwise not (yet) accessible by individual detections in Herschel and molecular gas studies. The lensed galaxies are combined with reference samples of sub-millimeter and normal z~1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar far-infrared photometry to study the gas and dust properties of galaxies in the SFR-M*-redshift parameter space. The mean gas depletion timescale of main sequence galaxies at z>2 is measured to be only ~450Myr, a factor of ~1.5 (~5) shorter than at z=1 (z=0), in agreement with a (1+z)^-1 scaling. The mean gas mass fraction at z=2.8 is 40+/-15% (44% after incompleteness correction), suggesting a flattening or even a reversal of the trend ...

  16. The 60-micron extragalactic background radiation intensity, dust-enshrouded AGNs and the assembly of groups and clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, A W; Blain, Andrew W.; Phillips, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Submillimetre observations reveal a cosmologically significant population of high-redshift dust-enshrouded galaxies. The form of evolution inferred for this population can be reconciled easily with COBE FIRAS and DIRBE measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at wavelengths >100 microns. At shorter wavelengths, however, the 60-micron CBR intensity reported by Finkbeiner et al. is less easily accounted for. Lagache et al. have proposed that this excess CBR emission is a warm Galactic component, and the detection of the highest-energy gamma-rays from blazars limits the CBR intensity at these wavelengths, but here we investigate sources of this excess CBR emission, assuming that it has a genuine extragalactic origin. We propose and test three explanations, each involving additional populations not readily detected in existing submm-wave surveys. First, dust-enshrouded galaxies with hot dust temperatures, perhaps dust-enshrouded, Compton-thick AGN as suggested by recent deep Chandra surveys. Secondly...

  17. Constraint on the Gas-to-Dust Ratio in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Iono, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We carried out 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward three star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45m radio telescope. These galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um and 350 um, and their gas metallicity, derived from optical emission line ratios based on near infrared spectroscopic observations, is close to the solar metallicity. Although weak signal-like features of CO were seen, we could not detect significant CO emission. The dust mass and the upper limits on the molecular gas mass are (3.4-6.7) x 10^{8} Msun and (9.7-14) x 10^{10} Msun, respectively. The upper limits on the gas-to-dust ratios at z~1.4 are 150-410 which are comparable to the gas-to-dust ratios in local galaxies with similar gas metallicity. A line stacking analysis enables us to detect a significant CO emission and to derive an average molecular gas mass of 1.3 x 10^{11} Msun and gas-to-dust ratio of 250. This gas-to-dust ratio is also near that in local galaxies with solar metall...

  18. Mapping the cold dust temperatures and masses of nearby Kingfish galaxies with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Albrecht, M; Aniano, G; Armus, L; Bertoldi, F; Calzetti, D; Crocker, A F; Croxall, K V; Dale, D A; Meyer, J Donovan; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Hinz, J L; Roussel, H; Skibba, R A; Tabatabaei, F S; Walter, F; Weiss, A; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M G

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the sensitivity and angular resolution of the Herschel Space Observatory at far-infrared and submm wavelengths, we aim to characterize the physical properties of cold dust within nearby galaxies and study the robustness of the parameters we derive using different modified blackbody models. For a pilot subsample of the KINGFISH program, we perform 2 temperature fits of the Spitzer and Herschel photometric data (24 to 500um), with a warm and a cold component, globally and in each resolution element.At global scales, we observe ranges of values for beta_c(0.8 to 2.5) and Tc(19.1 to 25.1K).We compute maps of our parameters with beta fixed or free to test the robustness of the temperature and dust surface density maps we deduce. When the emissivity is fixed, we observe temperature gradients as a function of radius.When the emissivity is fitted as a free parameter, barred galaxies tend to have uniform fitted emissivities.Gathering resolved elements in a Tc-beta_c diagram underlines an anti-corre...

  19. Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in Nearby Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, M; Kobayashi, Y; Minezaki, T; Enya, K; Tomita, H; Aoki, T; Koshida, S; Peterson, B A

    2006-01-01

    The most intense monitoring observations yet made in the optical (UBV) and near-infrared (JHK) wave bands were carried out for nearby Seyfert1 galaxies of NGC 5548, NGC 4051, NGC 3227, and NGC 7469. Over three years of observations with MAGNUM telescope since early 2001, clear time-delayed response of the K-band flux variations to the V-band flux variations was detected for all of these galaxies. Their H-K color temperature was estimated to be 1500-1800 K from the observed flux variation gradients, which supports a view that the bulk of the K flux should originate in the thermal radiation of hot dust that surrounds the central engine. Cross-correlation analysis was performed to quantify the lag time corresponding to the light-travel distance of the hot dust region from the central engine. The measured lag time is 47-53 days for NGC 5548, 11-18 days for NGC 4051, about 20 days for NGC 3227, and 65-87 days for NGC 7469. We found that the lag time is tightly correlated with the optical luminosity as expected fro...

  20. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA). VII. A SKIRT radiative transfer model and insights on dust heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Bendo, G.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Camps, P.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; De Vis, P.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Gentile, G.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Verstocken, S.

    2017-03-01

    The radiation from stars heats dust grains in the diffuse interstellar medium and in star-forming regions in galaxies. Modelling this interaction provides information on dust in galaxies, a vital ingredient for their evolution. It is not straightforward to identify the stellar populations heating the dust, and to link attenuation to emission on a sub-galactic scale. Radiative transfer models are able to simulate this dust-starlight interaction in a realistic, three-dimensional setting. We investigate the dust heating mechanisms on a local and global galactic scale, using the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) as our laboratory. We have performed a series of panchromatic radiative transfer simulations of Andromeda with our code SKIRT. The high inclination angle of M 31 complicates the 3D modelling and causes projection effects. However, the observed morphology and flux density are reproduced fairly well from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Our model reveals a realistic attenuation curve, compatible with previous, observational estimates. We find that the dust in M 31 is mainly (91% of the absorbed luminosity) heated by the evolved stellar populations. The bright bulge produces a strong radiation field and induces non-local heating up to the main star-forming ring at 10 kpc. The relative contribution of unevolved stellar populations to the dust heating varies strongly with wavelength and with galactocentric distance. The dust heating fraction of unevolved stellar populations correlates strongly with NUV-r colour and specific star formation rate. These two related parameters are promising probes for the dust heating sources at a local scale. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  2. Gas-to-dust ratios in massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    We present results of 12CO(J = 2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 1.4 with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 μm and Herschel/SPIRE in 250 μm and 350 μm, and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived by the N2 method using the Hα and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular-gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) × 1010 M⊙ by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and a CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived from the modified blackbody model (assuming a dust temperature of 35 K and an emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) × 108 M⊙. Resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for H I mass) at z ˜ 1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  3. Dust energy balance study of two edge-on spiral galaxies in the Herschel-ATLAS survey

    CERN Document Server

    De Geyter, Gert; De Looze, Ilse; Bendo, George J; Bourne, Nathan; Camps, Peter; Cooray, Asantha; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A; Fritz, Jacopo; Furlanetto, Cristina; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M; Ivison, Rob J; Maddox, Steve J; Michałowski, Michał J; Smith, Matthew W L; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viaene, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar dust in galaxies can be traced either through its extinction effects on the star light, or through its thermal emission at infrared wavelengths. Recent radiative transfer studies of several nearby edge-on galaxies have found an apparent inconsistency in the dust energy balance: the radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction underestimate the observed fluxes by an average factor of three. We investigate the dust energy balance for IC4225 and NGC5166, two edge-on spiral galaxies observed by the Herschel Space Observatory in the frame of the H-ATLAS survey. We start from models which were constrained from optical data and extend them to construct the entire spectral energy distribution of our galaxies. These predicted values are subsequently compared to the observed far-infrared fluxes. We find that including a young stellar population in the modelling is necessary as it plays a non-negligible part in the heating of the dust grains. While the modelling approach for bo...

  4. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA): IV. Dust scaling relations at sub-kpc resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Viaene, S; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Blommaert, J A D L; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cortese, L; De Looze, I; Gear, W K; Gentile, G; Hughes, T M; Jarrett, T; Karczewski, O Ł; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Tamm, A; Tempel, E; Thilker, D; Verstappen, J

    2014-01-01

    The imprints of dust-starlight interactions are visible in scaling relations between stellar characteristics, star formation parameters and dust properties. We aim to examine dust scaling relations on a sub-kpc resolution in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) by comparing the properties on a local and global scale to other galaxies of the local universe. New Herschel observations are combined with available data from GALEX, SDSS, WISE and Spitzer to construct a dataset covering UV to submm wavelengths. We work at the resolution of the SPIRE $500\\; \\mu$m beam, with pixels corresponding to physical regions of 137 x 608 pc in the galaxy's disk. A panchromatic spectral energy distribution was modelled for each pixel and several dust scaling relations are investigated. We find, on a sub-kpc scale, strong correlations between $M_d/M_\\star$ and NUV-r, and between $M_d/M_\\star$ and $\\mu_\\star$ (the stellar mass surface density). Striking similarities with corresponding relations based on integrated galaxies are found. We dec...

  5. Environment of 1 ≤ z ≤ 2 MIR selected obscured and unobscured AGNs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornancini, Carlos Guillermo; Taormina, Mónica Silvia; Lambas, Diego García

    2017-08-01

    Context. In unified models, different types of active galaxy nuclei (AGN) correspond to a single class of objects, where their observed differences are solely due to the different orientations of the obscuring material around the central inner regions. Recent studies also show that this obscuring material can even extend at galactic scales due to debris from galaxy interactions and/or mergers. In standard unified models the different AGN types are expected to show similar galaxy environments. Aims: We aim to investigate properties and environment of obscured and unobscured AGNs selected from mid-infrared (MIR) bands from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), in order to test the unified model and evolutionary scenarios. Methods: The sample of AGNs was selected from images obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) mounted on the Spitzer Space Telescope, based on their MIR colors centered at wavelengths [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] microns. We selected two samples of AGNs with redshifts in the range 1 ≤ z ≤ 2 and rest-frame absolute magnitudes Mv ≤ -21: obscured and unobscured AGNs by means of a simple optical-MIR color cut criterion (R- [4.5] = 3.05.) Results: We find that obscured AGNs are intrinsically optically faint in the R band, suggesting that luminous IR-selected AGNs have a significant dust extinction. From a cross-correlation with several X-ray surveys, we find that the majority of the AGNs in our sample have X-ray luminosities similar to those found in Seyfert-like galaxies. We study the properties of galaxies surrounding these two samples. Neighbouring galaxies located close to ( 200 kpc) obscured AGNs tend to have redder colors, compared to the local environment of unobscured AGNs. Results obtained from a KS test show that the two color distributions are different at 95% confidence level. We find that obscured AGNs are located in denser local galaxy environments compared to the unobscured AGN sample. Conclusions: Our results

  6. The Heating of Mid-Infrared Dust in the Nearby Galaxy M33: A Testbed for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Calapa, M; Draine, B T; Boquien, M; Kramer, C; Xilouris, M; Verley, S; Braine, J; Relaño-Pastor, M; van der Werf, P; Israel, F; Hermelo, I; Albrecht, M

    2014-01-01

    Because the 8 {\\mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission has been found to correlate with other well-known star formation tracers, it has widely been used as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. There are, however, studies that challenge the accuracy and reliability of the 8 {\\mu}m emission as a SFR tracer. Our study, part of the Herschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES) open time key program, aims at addressing this issue by analyzing the infrared emission from the nearby spiral galaxy M33 at the high spatial scale of 75 pc. Combining data from the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope we find that the 8 {\\mu}m emission is better correlated with the 250 {\\mu}m emission, which traces cold interstellar gas, than with the 24 {\\mu}m emission. The L(8)/L(24) ratio is highly depressed in 24 {\\mu}m luminous regions, which correlate with known HII regions. We also compare our results with the dust emission models by Draine & Li (2007). We confirm that the depression of 8 {\\mu}m PAH e...

  7. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cortese, L; Boselli, A; Catinella, B; Ciesla, L; Hughes, T M; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; de Looze, I; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Viaene, S

    2016-01-01

    We combine dust, atomic (HI) and molecular (H$_{2}$) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass ($M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average $M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio varies by no more than a factor of $\\sim$2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that \\hi-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio but higher $M_{\\rm H_{2}}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio than \\hi-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behavior observed in the $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ a...

  8. The large scale gas and dust distribution in the galaxy: Implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodroski, T. J.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kerr, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomy Observations are presented for the diffuse infrared (IR) emissions from the galactic plane at wavelengths of 60 and 100 microns and the total far infrared intensity and its longitudinal variations in the disk were derived. Using available CO, 5 GHz radio-continuum, and HI data, the IR luminosity per hydrogen mass and the ingrared excess (IRE) ratio in the Galaxy were derived. The longitudinal profiles of the 60 and 100 micron emission were linearly decomposed into three components that are associated with molecular (H2), neutral (HI), and ionized (HII) phases in the interstellar medium (ISM), and the relevant dust properties were derived in each phase. Implications of the findings for various models of the diffuse IR emisison and for star formation in the galactic disk are discussed.

  9. Inferring the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy with a non-parametric method: Preparing for Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Kh., S Rezaei; Hanson, R J; Fouesneau, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a non-parametric model for inferring the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of dust density in the Milky Way. Our approach uses the extinction measured towards stars at different locations in the Galaxy at approximately known distances. Each extinction measurement is proportional to the integrated dust density along its line-of-sight. Making simple assumptions about the spatial correlation of the dust density, we can infer the most probable 3D distribution of dust across the entire observed region, including along sight lines which were not observed. This is possible because our model employs a Gaussian Process to connect all lines-of-sight. We demonstrate the capability of our model to capture detailed dust density variations using mock data as well as simulated data from the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot. We then apply our method to a sample of giant stars observed by APOGEE and Kepler to construct a 3D dust map over a small region of the Galaxy. Due to our smoothness constraint and its isotropy,...

  10. ISM Masses and Star Formation at z = 1 to 6 ALMA Observations of Dust Continuum in 180 Galaxies in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N; Aussel, H; Bout, P Vanden; Capak, P; Bongiorno, A; Casey, C M; Murchikova, L; Koda, J; Pope, A; Toft, S; Ivison, R; Sanders, D; Manohar, S; Lee, N

    2015-01-01

    ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 180 star-forming (SF) galaxies are used to investigate the evolution of ISM masses at z = 1 to 6.4. The ISM masses exhibit strong increases from z = 0 to $\\rm $ = 1.15 and further to $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8, particularly amongst galaxies above the SF galaxy main sequence (MS). The galaxies with highest SFRs at $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8 have gas masses 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80\\%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4$\\times$ their stellar masses. For the full sample of galaxies, we find a single, very simple SF law: $\\rm SFR \\propto M_{\\rm ISM}^{0.9}$, i.e. a `linear' dependence on the ISM mass -- on and above the MS. Thus, the galaxies above the MS are converting their larger ISM masses into stars on a timescale similar to those on the MS. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\\sim$5 - 10$\\times$ shorter gas depletion times ($\\sim0.2$ Gyr) than galaxies at low redshift. These {\\bf shorter deplet...

  11. Dust in clusters: separating the contribution of galaxies and intracluster media

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, C M

    2016-01-01

    We have analized a sample of 327 clusters of galaxies spanning the range 0.06-0.70 in redshift. Strong constraints on their mean intracluster emission by dust have been obtained using maps and catalogs from the HERSCHEL HerMES project; within a radius of 5 arcmin centered in each cluster, the 95% C.L. limits obtained are 86.6, 48.2 and 30.9 mJy at the observed frequencies of 250, 350 and 500 $\\mu$m. From these restrictions, and assuming physical parameters typical of interstellar media in the Milky Way, we have obtained tight upper limits on the visual extinction of background galaxies due to the intracluster media: $A_V$(95% C.L.) 10^{14}M_\\odot$) respectively, a strong evolution of luminosity in redshift ($L\\sim z^{1.5}$) for both ranges of masses is found. The results indicate a strong declining in star formation rate with time in the last $\\sim 6$ Gyr.

  12. Triple Scoop from Galaxy Hunter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 Silver Dollar Galaxy: NGC 253 (figure 1) Located 10 million light-years away in the southern constellation Sculptor, the Silver Dollar galaxy, or NGC 253, is one of the brightest spiral galaxies in the night sky. In this edge-on view from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the wisps of blue represent relatively dustless areas of the galaxy that are actively forming stars. Areas of the galaxy with a soft golden glow indicate regions where the far-ultraviolet is heavily obscured by dust particles. Gravitational Dance: NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 (figure 2) In this image, the wide ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer show spiral galaxy NGC 1512 sitting slightly northwest of elliptical galaxy NGC 1510. The two galaxies are currently separated by a mere 68,000 light-years, leading many astronomers to suspect that a close encounter is currently in progress. The overlapping of two tightly wound spiral arm segments makes up the light blue inner ring of NGC 1512. Meanwhile, the galaxy's outer spiral arm is being distorted by strong gravitational interactions with NGC 1510. Galaxy Trio: NGC 5566, NGC 5560, and NGC 5569 (figure 3) NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a triplet of galaxies in the Virgo cluster: NGC 5560 (top galaxy), NGC 5566 (middle galaxy), and NGC 5569 (bottom galaxy). The inner ring in NGC 5566 is formed by two nearly overlapping bright arms, which themselves spring from the ends of a central bar. The bar is not visible in ultraviolet because it consists of older stars or low mass stars that do not emit energy at ultraviolet wavelengths. The outer disk of NGC 5566 appears warped, and the disk of NGC 5560 is clearly disturbed. Unlike its galactic neighbors, the disk of NGC 5569 does not appear to have been distorted by any passing galaxies.

  13. The Dust & Gas Properties of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, K; Mentuch, E; Bendo, G; Dariush, A; Parkin, T; Pohlen, M; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Madden, S; Page, M J; Spinoglio,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the dust and gas properties of the nearby, barred galaxy M83, which is part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey. Using images from the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, we examine the dust temperature and dust mass surface density distribution. We find that the nuclear, bar and spiral arm regions exhibit higher dust temperatures and masses compared to interarm regions. However, the distribution of dust temperature and mass are not spatially coincident. Assuming a trailing spiral structure, the dust temperature peaks in the spiral arms lie ahead of the dust surface density peaks. The dust mass surface density correlates well with the distribution of molecular gas as traced by CO (J=3-2) images (JCMT) and the star formation rate as traced by H?2 with a correction for obscured star formation using 24 micron emission. Using HI images from THINGS to trace the atomic gas component, we make total gas mass surface density maps and calculate the gas-to-dust ratio. We find a mean gas-to-dust ratio of 84 \\...

  14. Dust Attenuation of the Nebular Regions of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies: Insight from UV, IR, and Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I.

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ˜ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M⊙ yr-1 > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ˜ 2 from previous studies.

  15. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. IX. Dust-to-gas mass ratio and metallicity gradients in four Virgo spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, Laura; Corbelli, Edvige; Cortese, Luca; Hunt, Leslie; Smith, Matthew; Vlahakis, Catherine; Davies, Jonathan; Bendo, George J; Baes, Maarten; Boselli, Alessandro; Clemens, Marcel; Casasola, Viviana; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Giovanardi, Carlo; Grossi, Marco; Hughes, Thomas; Madden, Suzanne; Pappalardo, Ciro; Pohlen, Michael; Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Verstappen, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Using Herschel data from the Open Time Key Project the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), we investigated the relationship between the metallicity gradients expressed by metal abundances in the gas phase as traced by the chemical composition of HII regions, and in the solid phase, as traced by the dust-to-gas mass ratio. We derived the radial gradient of the dust-to-gas mass ratio for all galaxies observed by HeViCS whose metallicity gradients are available in the literature. They are all late type Sbc galaxies, namely NGC4254, NGC4303, NGC4321, and NGC4501. We examined different dependencies on metallicity of the CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor (\\xco), used to transform the $^{12}$CO observations into the amount of molecular hydrogen. We found that in these galaxies the dust-to-gas mass ratio radial profile is extremely sensitive to choice of the \\xco\\ value, since the molecular gas is the dominant component in the inner parts. We found that for three galaxies of our sample, namely NGC4254, NGC4321, and N...

  16. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at zlinear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  17. Stars, Dust, and the Growth of UV-Selected Sub-L* Galaxies at Redshift z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] This work concerns very faint (R_lim=28 AB mag; M_(stars, lim) ~ 10^8 Msun), UV-selected sub-L* BX galaxies at z~2.3. Stellar masses, dust content, and dust-corrected SFRs are constrained using broadband SED fitting, giving insights into the nature of these low-mass systems. First, a correlation found between rest-frame UV luminosity and galaxy stellar mass suggests that many sub-L* galaxies at z~2.3 may have approximately constant star formation histories. A nearly-linear relation between stellar mass and star formation rate is also found, hinting that the rate at which a sub-L* BX galaxy forms its stars is directly related to the mass of stars that it has already formed. A possible explanation is that new gas that falls onto the galaxy's host halo along with accreting dark matter is the source of fuel for ongoing star formation. The instantaneous efficiency of star formation is low in this scenario, of order 1%. The low-mass end of the stellar mass function is steeper than expected from extrapola...

  18. FMOS near-IR spectroscopy of Herschel selected galaxies: star formation rates, metallicity and dust attenuation at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Roseboom, I G; Sumiyoshi, M; Wang, L; Dalton, G; Akiyama, M; Bock, J; Bonfield, D; Buat, V; Casey, C; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Curtis-Lake, E; Cooray, A; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Ham, S J; Ibar, E; Iwamuro, F; Kimura, M; Lewis, I; Macaulay, E; Magdis, G; Maihara, T; Marsden, G; Mauch, T; Moritani, Y; Ohta, K; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Takato, N; Tamura, N; Totani, T; Yabe, K; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties (e.g. star formation rate, dust attentuation, stellar mass and metallicity) of a sample of infrared luminous galaxies at z \\sim 1 via near-IR spectroscopy with Subaru-FMOS. Our sample consists of Herschel SPIRE and Spitzer MIPS selected sources in the COSMOS field with photometric redshifts in the range 0.7 = 0.51\\pm0.27 for = 10^12 Lsol sources at = 1.36. By comparing star formation rates estimated from the IR and from the dust uncorrected H{\\alpha} line we find a strong relationship between dust attenuation and star formation rate. This relation is broadly consistent with that previously seen in star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.1. Finally, we investigate the metallicity via the N2 ratio, finding that z ~ 1 IR-selected sources are indistinguishable from the local mass-metallicity relation. We also find a strong correlation between dust attentuation and metallicity, with the most metal-rich IR-sources experiencing the largest levels of dust attenuation.

  19. Infrared Survey of Pulsating Giant Stars in the Spiral Galaxy M33: Dust Production, Star Formation History, and Galactic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a near-IR monitoring campaign of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33, carried out with the UK IR Telescope (UKIRT). The pulsating giant stars are identified and their distributions are used to derive the star formation rate as a function of age. We here present the star formation history for the central square kiloparsec. These stars are also important dust factories; we measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry.

  20. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Blended Spectra Catalog: Strong Galaxy-Galaxy Lens and Occulting Galaxy Pair Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; Alpaslan, M; Bauer, A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Cluver, M E; Conselice, C; Driver, S P; Hopkins, A M; Jones, D H; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Loveday, J; Meyer, M J; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the catalogue of blended galaxy spectra from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. These are cases where light from two galaxies are significantly detected in a single GAMA fibre. Galaxy pairs identified from their blended spectrum fall into two principal classes: they are either strong lenses, a passive galaxy lensing an emission-line galaxy; or occulting galaxies, serendipitous overlaps of two galaxies, of any type. Blended spectra can thus be used to reliably identify strong lenses for follow-up observations (high resolution imaging) and occulting pairs, especially those that are a late-type partly obscuring an early-type galaxy which are of interest for the study of dust content of spiral and irregular galaxies. The GAMA survey setup and its autoz automated redshift determination were used to identify candidate blended galaxy spectra from the cross-correlation peaks. We identify 280 blended spectra with a minimum velocity separation of 600 km/s, of which 104 are lens pair candidates, 71 e...

  1. Molecular gas, stars, and dust in sub-L* star-forming galaxies at z~2: evidence for universal star formation and nonuniversal dust-to-gas ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, A. Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    Only recently have CO measurements become possible in main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z=1-3, but are still biased toward high star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses (Ms), because of instrumental sensitivity limitations. It is essential to extend these studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by IR luminosities LIRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-L*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to the gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. Combined with our compilation of CO-detected galaxies from the literature, we revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), molecular gas fractions (fgas), dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift. These correlations betray the interplay between gas, dust, and star formation in galaxies.All the LIR, L'CO(1-0) data are best-fitted with a single relation, which spans 5 orders of magnitude in LIR, covers redshifts from z=0 to z=5.3, and samples spirals, main sequence SFGs, and starbursts. This favors a universal star formation. We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between molecular gas and SFR at galactic scales. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an L* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals, and local ULIRGs

  2. Dust extinction bias in the column density distribution of gamma-ray bursts; high column density, low redshift GRBs are more heavily obscured

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Darach

    2012-01-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N_HX) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low to moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low to moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars, that the increase in column de...

  3. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio as a valuable tool to probe the evolution of local and distant star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calura, F; Cresci, G; Santini, P; Gruppioni, C; Pozzetti, L; Gilli, R; Matteucci, F; Maiolino, R

    2016-01-01

    The survival of dust grains in galaxies depends on various processes. Dust can be produced in stars, it can grow in the interstellar medium and be destroyed by astration and interstellar shocks. In this paper, we assemble a few data samples of local and distant star-forming galaxies to analyse various dust-related quantities in low and high redshift galaxies, to study how the relations linking the dust mass to the stellar mass and star formation rate evolve with redshift. We interpret the available data by means of chemical evolution models for discs and proto-spheroid (PSPH) starburst galaxies. In particular, we focus on the dust-to-stellar mass (DTS) ratio, as this quantity represents a true measure of how much dust per unit stellar mass survives the various destruction processes in galaxies and is observable. The theoretical models outline the strong dependence of this quantity on the underlying star formation history. Spiral galaxies are characterised by a nearly constant DTS as a function of the stellar ...

  4. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavryčuk, V.

    2016-06-01

    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused by finite age of the Universe because the finite-age factor limits the number of photons that have been pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL. The first factor is a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe. The second factor is light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The inclination-averaged values of the effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is about 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies become apparently faint and do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by intergalactic dust. Even a minute intergalactic opacity of 1 × 10^{-2} mag per Gpc is high enough to produce significant effects on the EBL. As a consequence, the EBL is comparable with or lower than the mean surface brightness of galaxies. Comparing both extinction effects, the impact of the intergalactic opacity on the EBL is more significant than the obscuration of distant galaxies by partially opaque foreground galaxies by factor of 10 or more. The absorbed starlight heats up the galactic and intergalactic dust and is further re-radiated at IR, FIR and micro-wave spectrum. Assuming static infinite universe with no galactic or intergalactic dust, the stellar EBL should be as high as the surface brightness of stars. However, if dust is considered, the predicted stellar EBL is about 290 nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}, which is only 5 times higher than the observed

  5. Galaxy Zoo: star formation versus spiral arm number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ross E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.

    2017-06-01

    Spiral arms are common features in low-redshift disc galaxies, and are prominent sites of star formation and dust obscuration. However, spiral structure can take many forms: from galaxies displaying two strong 'grand design' arms to those with many 'flocculent' arms. We investigate how these different arm types are related to a galaxy's star formation and gas properties by making use of visual spiral arm number measurements from Galaxy Zoo 2. We combine ultraviolet and mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from GALEX and WISE to measure the rates and relative fractions of obscured and unobscured star formation in a sample of low-redshift SDSS spirals. Total star formation rate has little dependence on spiral arm multiplicity, but two-armed spirals convert their gas to stars more efficiently. We find significant differences in the fraction of obscured star formation: an additional ˜10 per cent of star formation in two-armed galaxies is identified via MIR dust emission, compared to that in many-armed galaxies. The latter are also significantly offset below the IRX-β relation for low-redshift star-forming galaxies. We present several explanations for these differences versus arm number: variations in the spatial distribution, sizes or clearing time-scales of star-forming regions (i.e. molecular clouds), or contrasting recent star formation histories.

  6. Nebular and Stellar Dust Extinction Across the Disk of Emission-Line Galaxies on Small (KPC) Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Sobral, David; Miller, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We investigate resolved kpc-scale stellar and nebular dust distribution in eight star-forming galaxies at z~0.4 in the GOODS fields. Constructing the observed Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) per pixel, based on seven bands photometric data from HST/ACS and WFC3, we performed pixel-by-pixel SED fits to population synthesis models and estimated small-scale distribution of stellar dust extinction. We use Halpha / Hbeta nebular emission line ratios from Keck/DEIMOS high resolution spectra at each spatial resolution element to measure the amount of attenuation faced by ionized gas at different radii from the center of galaxies. We find a good agreement between the integrated and median of resolved color excess measurements in our galaxies. The ratio of integrated nebular to stellar dust extinction is always greater than unity, but does not show any trend with stellar mass or star formation rate. We find that inclination plays an important role in the variation of the nebular to stellar excess ratio. The stell...

  7. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Kaisey S; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J; Kirshner, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the distribution of dusty extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as a convolution of the intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and the host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M_B vs. B-V) slope beta_int differs from the host galaxy dust law R_B, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from beta_int in the blue tail to R_B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve at this transition near the average apparent color, resultin...

  8. Dust attenuation of the nebular regions and optical emission lines of $z\\sim2$ star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, S; Shivaei, I

    2015-01-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (H$\\alpha$/[NII]$\\lambda6583$ or [OIII]$\\lambda5007$) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24$\\mu$m observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV $\\beta$ slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest SF...

  9. Dust and Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius dwarf Galaxy Planetary Nebula Hen2-436

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Riebel, David; Hyung, Siek; Tajitsu, Akito; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have estimated elemental abundances of the planetary nebula (PN) Hen2-436 in the Sagittarius (Sgr) spheroidal dwarf galaxy using ESO/VLT FORS2, Magellan/MMIRS, and Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have detected candidates of [F II] 4790A, [Kr III] 6826A, and [P II] 7875A lines and successfully estimated the abundances of these elements ([F/H]=+1.23, [Kr/H]=+0.26, [P/H]=+0.26) for the first time. We present a relation between C, F, P, and Kr abundances among PNe and C-rich stars. The detections of F and Kr support the idea that F and Kr together with C are synthesized in the same layer and brought to the surface by the third dredge-up. We have estimated the N^2+ and O^2+ abundances using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). The discrepancy between the abundance derived from the O ORL and that derived from the O CEL is >1 dex. To investigate the status of the central star of the PN, nebula condition, and dust properties, we construct a theoretical SED model with CLOUDY. By compar...

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope Measurements of Dust Reverberation Lags in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 6418

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, Billy; Richmond, Michael; Robinson, Andrew; Axon, David J; Horne, Keith; Almeyda, Triana; Fausnaugh, Michael; Peterson, Bradley M; Bottorff, Mark; Gallimore, Jack; Eltizur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Marconi, Alessandro; Capetti, Alessandro; Batcheldor, Dan; Buchanan, Catherine; Stirpe, Giovanna; Kishimoto, Makoto; Packham, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Tadhunter, Clive; Upton, John; Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\\mu$m and 3.6 $\\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-inf...

  11. Embedded star formation in S{sup 4}G galaxy dust lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija [Department of Physical Sciences/Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 (Finland); Efremov, Yuri N. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); De Paz, Armando Gil [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMTO Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín [Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio 43, CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mizusawa, Trisha [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 μm and Hα but not in the u, g, r, i, z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ∼3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ∼5 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}. These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral-shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous appearance of equally spaced complexes suggests that the dust lanes, and perhaps the arms too, are relatively young.

  12. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Scolnic, Daniel; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Inferring peak optical absolute magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) from distance-independent measures such as their light curve shapes and colors underpins the evidence for cosmic acceleration. SN Ia with broader, slower declining optical light curves are more luminous (“broader-brighter”) and those with redder colors are dimmer. But the “redder-dimmer” color-luminosity relation widely used in cosmological SN Ia analyses confounds its two separate physical origins. An intrinsic correlation arises from the physics of exploding white dwarfs, while interstellar dust in the host galaxy also makes SN Ia appear dimmer and redder. Conventional SN Ia cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (MB vs. B-V) slope βint differs from the host galaxy dust law RB, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from βint in the blue tail to RB in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope βapp between βint and RB. We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a dataset of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 277 nearby SN Ia at z < 0.10. The conventional linear fit obtains βapp ≈ 3. Our model finds a βint = 2.2 ± 0.3 and a distinct dust law of RB = 3.7 ± 0

  13. DUSTiNGS. III. Distribution of Intermediate-age and Old Stellar Populations in Disks and Outer Extremities of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Boyer, Martha; DUSTiNGS Team

    2017-06-01

    As part of the DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) survey, we have traced the spatial distributions of intermediate-age and old stars in nine dwarf galaxies in the distant parts of the Local Group. We find intermediate age stars are well mixed with the older populations and extend to large radii, indicating that chemical enrichment from these dust-producing stars may occur in the outer regions of galaxies with some frequency. Theories of structure formation in dwarf galaxies must account for the lack of radial gradients in intermediate-age populations and the presence of these stars in the outer extremities of dwarfs. We also identify the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm photometry. Unlike the constant TRGB in the I band, at 3.6 μm, the TRGB magnitude varies by ˜0.7 mag and is not a metallicity independent distance indicator.

  14. Optical observations of Dwingeloo 1, a nearby barred spiral galaxy behind the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loan, AJ; Maddox, SJ; Lahav, O; Balcells, M; KraanKorteweg, RC; Assendorp, R; Almoznino, E; Brosch, N; Goldberg, E; Ofek, EO

    1996-01-01

    We present new optical observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy Dwingeloo 1 (Dw1) obtained with the Isaac Newton, William Herschel and Wise telescopes. Dw1 lies at Galactic coordinates (l=138.degrees 52, b=-0.degrees 11) and it is heavily obscured by dust and gas in the Milky Way. We infer th

  15. Dust Properties of C ii Detected z ˜ 5.5 Galaxies: New HST/WFC3 Near-IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, I.; Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Pavesi, R.; Riechers, D. A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Cooke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Casey, C. M.; Smolcic, V.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 10 [C ii]λ158 μm-detected galaxies at z ˜ 5.5 in COSMOS using new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging. Together with pre-existing 158 μm continuum and [C ii] line measurements by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we study their dust attenuation properties on the IRX-β diagram, which connects the total dust emission (\\propto {IRX}={log}({L}{FIR}/{L}1600)) to the line-of-sight dust column (∝ β). We find systematically bluer UV continuum spectral slopes (β) compared to previous low-resolution ground-based measurements, which relieves some of the tension between models of dust attenuation and observations at high redshifts. While most of the galaxies are consistent with local starburst or Small Magellanic Cloud-like dust properties, we find galaxies with low IRX values and a large range in β that cannot be explained by models of a uniform dust distribution well mixed with stars. A stacking analysis of Keck/DEIMOS optical spectra indicates that these galaxies are metal-poor with young stellar populations that could significantly alter their spatial dust distribution.

  16. Radio continuum and X-ray emission from the most extreme FIR-excess galaxy NGC 1377: An extremely obscured AGN revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Costagliola, F; Lohfink, A; Pérez-Torres, M; Aalto, S; Muller, S; Alberdi, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies which strongly deviate from the radio-far IR correlation are of great importance for studies of galaxy evolution as they may be tracing early, short-lived stages of starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The most extreme FIR-excess galaxy NGC1377 has long been interpreted as a young dusty starburst, but millimeter observations of CO lines revealed a powerful collimated molecular outflow which cannot be explained by star formation alone. We present new radio observations at 1.5 and 10 GHz obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and Chandra X-ray observations towards NGC1377. The observations are compared to synthetic starburst models to constrain the properties of the central energy source. We obtained the first detection of the cm radio continuum and X-ray emission in NGC1377. We find that the radio emission is distributed in two components, one on the nucleus and another offset by 4$"$.5 to the South-West. We confirm the extreme FIR-excess of the galaxy, with a $q_\\mathrm{FIR}\\simeq$...

  17. Time-resolved infrared emission from radiation-driven central obscuring structures in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Schartmann, M; Prieto, M A; Burkert, A; Tristram, K R W

    2014-01-01

    The central engines of Seyfert galaxies are thought to be enshrouded by geometrically thick gas and dust structures. In this article, we derive observable properties for a self-consistent model of such toroidal gas and dust distributions, where the geometrical thickness is achieved and maintained with the help of X-ray heating and radiation pressure due to the central engine. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and images are obtained with the help of dust continuum radiative transfer calculations with RADMC-3D. For the first time, we are able to present time-resolved SEDs and images for a physical model of the central obscurer. Temporal changes are mostly visible at shorter wavelengths, close to the combined peak of the dust opacity as well as the central source spectrum and are caused by variations in the column densities of the generated outflow. Due to the three-component morphology of the hydrodynamical models -- a thin disc with high density filaments, a surrounding fluffy component (the obscurer) and ...

  18. The Dust Content and Radiation Fields of Sample of Galaxies in the ELAIS-N1 Field

    CERN Document Server

    Shalima, P; Pathak, Amit; Misra, Ranjeev; Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, D B

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-IR colors ($F_{8}/F_{24}$) of galaxies together with their IR-UV luminosity correlations can be used to get some insight into the relative abundance of the different dust grain populations present in them. The ELAIS-N1 field contains thousands of galaxies which do not have optical spectra but have been observed in the Mid-IR by {\\it Spitzer} and UV by {\\it GALEX} making it ideal for these studies. As part of this work we have selected a sample of galaxies from the ELAIS-N1 field which have photometric observations in the MIR and UV as well as photometric redshifts from the SDSS database. We put the constraint that the redshifts are $\\le$ 0.1, thereby giving us a total of 309 galaxies. We find that the majority of the galaxies in the sample are PAH dominated due to their high MIR flux ratio. We also find a reasonable correlation between the Mid-IR and the UV luminosities out of which the Mid-IR emission from PAHs at 8 $\\mu$m is marginally better correlated than the 24 $\\mu$m VSG emission with the UV lu...

  19. Dust Streamers in the Virgo Galaxy M86 from Ram Pressure Stripping of its Companion VCC 882

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, D M; Chromey, F R; Fine, M S

    2000-01-01

    The giant elliptical galaxy M86 in Virgo has a ~28 kpc long dust trail inside its optical halo that points toward the nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy, VCC 882. The trail seems to be stripped material from the dwarf. Extinction measurements suggest that the ratio of the total gas mass in the trail to the blue luminosity of the dwarf is about unity, which is comparable to such ratios in dwarf irregular galaxies. The ram pressure experienced by the dwarf galaxy in the hot gaseous halo of M86 was comparable to the internal gravitational binding energy density of the presumed former gas disk in VCC 882. Published numerical models of this case are consistent with the overall trail-like morphology observed here. Three concentrations in the trail may be evidence for the predicted periodicity of the mass loss. The evaporation time of the trail is comparable to the trail age obtained from the relative speed of the galaxies and the trail length. Thus the trail could be continuously formed from stripped replenished gas...

  20. Quantifying the Heating Sources for Mid-infrared Dust Emissions in Galaxies: The Case of M 81

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Nanyao; Boselli, A; Baes, M; Wu., H; Madden, S C; De Looze, I; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Boquien, M; Wilson, C D; Galametz, M; Lam, M I; Cooray, A; Spinoglio, L; Zhao, Y

    2014-01-01

    With the newly available SPIRE images at 250 and 500 micron from Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kpc scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (a) $I_{8}$ or $I_{24}$, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer IRAC 8 or MIPS 24 micron band, with $I_8$ and $I_{24}$ being dominated by the emissions from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (b) $I_{500}$, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel SPIRE 500 micron band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars, and (c) $I_{{\\rm H}\\alpha}$, a nominal surface brightness of the H$\\alpha$ line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heati...

  1. K'-band observations of the evil eye galaxy: Are the optical and near-infrared dust albedos identical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Adolf N.; Lindell, Rebecca S.; Block, David L.; Evans, Rhodri

    1994-05-01

    New measurements of the reduction of the V-band surface brightness across the prominent dust feature in the galaxy NGC 4826 are compared with corresponding increases in the V-K' color within the context of radiative transfer models invoking both absorption and scattering. The K'-band surface brightness is found to be higher than expected from standard dust models. We interpret the difference as resulting from a high effective dust albedo at K', with a likely value in excess of 0.8, provided the near-IR extinction curve in NGC 4826 is identical to the Galactic one. The high effective albedo may result from scattering by dust with a maximum grain size at least twice as large as assumed by standard models, a conclusion already indirectly hinted at by recent studies of dust star-forming regions and reflection nebulae. At least part of the high effective albedo at K' may result from near-IR nonequilibrium continuum emission attributable to very small grains.

  2. Peering through the dust: NuSTAR observations of two first-2MASS red quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Ricarte, Angelo; Glikman, Eilat;

    2016-01-01

    Some reddened quasars appear to be transitional objects in the paradigm of merger-induced black hole growth/galaxy evolution, where a heavily obscured nucleus starts to be unveiled by powerful quasar winds evacuating the surrounding cocoon of dust and gas. Hard X-ray observations are able to peer...

  3. Peering through the dust: NuSTAR observations of two first-2MASS red quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Ricarte, Angelo; Glikman, Eilat

    2016-01-01

    Some reddened quasars appear to be transitional objects in the paradigm of merger-induced black hole growth/galaxy evolution, where a heavily obscured nucleus starts to be unveiled by powerful quasar winds evacuating the surrounding cocoon of dust and gas. Hard X-ray observations are able to peer...

  4. Heart of Darkness: dust obscuration of the central stellar component in globular clusters younger than ~100Myr in multiple stellar population models

    CERN Document Server

    Longmore, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    To explain the observed anomalies in stellar populations within globular clusters, many globular cluster formation theories require two independent episodes of star formation. A fundamental prediction of these models is that the clusters must accumulate large gas reservoirs as the raw material to form the second stellar generation. We show that young clusters containing the required gas reservoir should exhibit the following observational signatures: (i) a dip in the measured luminosity profile or an increase in measured reddening towards the cluster centre, with Av >10mag within a radius of a few pc; (ii) bright (sub)mm emission from dust grains; (iii) bright molecular line emission once the gas is dense enough to begin forming stars. Unless the IMF is anomalously skewed towards low-mass stars, the clusters should also show obvious signs of star formation via optical emission lines (e.g. H_alpha) after the stars have formed. These observational signatures should be readily observable towards any compact clus...

  5. Cold Dust Emission from X-ray AGN in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Dependence on Luminosity, Obscuration & AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Willott, C J; Geach, J E; Harrison, C M; Alaghband-Zadeh, S; Alexander, D M; Bourne, N; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Jarvis, M; Michalowski, M J; Page, M; Smith, D J B; Swinbank, A M; Symeonidis, M; Van der Werf, P P

    2015-01-01

    We study the 850um emission in X-ray selected AGN in the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field using new data from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We find 19 850um bright X-ray AGN in a high-sensitivity region covering 0.89 sq-deg with flux densities of S850=4-10 mJy. The 19 AGN span the full range in redshift and hard X-ray luminosity covered by the sample - 0.71 X-ray AGN - S850=0.71+/-0.08mJy. We explore trends in the stacked 850um flux densities with redshift, finding no evolution in the average cold dust emission over the redshift range probed. For Type 1 AGN, there is no significant correlation between the stacked 850um flux and hard X-ray luminosity. However, in Type 2 AGN the stacked submm flux is a factor of 2 higher at high luminosities. When averaging over all X-ray luminosities, no significant differences are found in the stacked submm fluxes of Type 1 and Type 2 AGN as well as AGN separated on the basis of X-ray hardness ratios and optical-to-infrared colours. However, at log10(LX) >44.4, dependences in ave...

  6. Properties of free-free, dust, and CO emissions in the starbursts of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The central star-forming regions in three blue compact dwarf galaxies (He 2-10, NGC 5253, and II Zw 40) were observed in the 340 GHz (880 micron) band at 5 arcsec resolution with the Submillimetre Array (SMA). Continuum emission associated with the central star-forming complex was detected in all these galaxies. The SMA 880 micron flux is decomposed into free-free emission and dust emission by using centimetre-wavelength data in the literature. We find that free-free emission contributes half or more of the SMA 880 micron flux in the central starbursts in those three galaxies. In spite of the dominance of free-free emission at 880 micron, the radio-to-far infrared (FIR) ratios in the central star-forming regions are not significantly higher than those of the entire systems, showing the robustness of radio-FIR relation. Based on the robustness of the radio-FIR relation, we argue that the free--free fraction in the 880 micron emission is regulated by the dust temperature. We also analyze the CO (J = 3--2) emiss...

  7. Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Mergers: The Effects of Dust and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Stickley, Nathaniel R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of stellar evolution and dust on measurements of stellar velocity dispersion in mergers of disk galaxies. $N$-body simulations and radiative transfer analysis software are used to obtain mass-weighted and flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion. We find that the distribution of dust with respect to the distribution of young stars in such systems is more important than the total degree of attenuation. The presence of dust typically causes flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion to be elevated with respect to mass-weighted measurements because dust preferentially obscures young stars, which tend to be dynamically cooler than older stellar populations in such systems. In exceptional situations, in which young stars are not preferentially obscured by dust, flux-weighted velocity dispersion measurements tend to be negatively offset with respect to mass-weighted measurements because the dynamically cool young stellar populations are more luminous, per u...

  8. The nature of the red disk-like galaxies at high redshift: dust attenuation and intrinsically red stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Pierini, D; Gordon, K D; Witt, A N

    2005-01-01

    We investigate which conditions of dust attenuation and stellar populations allow models of dusty, continuously star-forming, bulge-less disk galaxies at 0.85.3, Ic-K>4, J-K>2.3). As a main novelty, we use stellar population models that include the thermally pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase of stellar evolution. The star formation rate of the models declines exponentially as a function of time, the e-folding time being longer than 3 Gyr. In addition, we use calculations of radiative transfer of the stellar and scattered radiation through different dusty interstellar media in order to explore the wide parameter space of dust attenuation. We find that synthetic disks can exhibit red optical/near-infrared colours because of reddening by dust, but only if they have been forming stars for at least about 1 Gyr. Extremely few models barely exhibit Rc-K>5.3, if the inclination i=90 deg and if the opacity 2*tauV>6. Hence, Rc-K-selected galaxies at 10.5. This explains the large fraction of observed, edg...

  9. The sizes of massive quiescent and star forming galaxies at z~4 with ZFOURGE and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Straatman, Caroline M S; Spitler, Lee R; Glazebrook, Karl; Tomczak, Adam; Allen, Rebecca; Brammer, Gabriel B; Cowley, Michael; van Dokkum, Pieter; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Papovich, Casey; Persson, S Eric; Quadri, Ryan F; Rees, Glen; Tilvi, Vithal; Tran, Kim-Vy; Whitaker, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    We study the rest-frame ultra-violet sizes of massive (~0.8 x 10^11 M_Sun) galaxies at 3.45 x, between 2galaxies at z~4 and their large rest-frame ultra-violet median sizes suggest that the formation phase of compact cores is very short and/or highly dust obscured.

  10. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buat, V. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Charmandaris, V.; Magdis, G. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Borgne, D. Le [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France); Lin, L. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States); and others

    2015-07-10

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.

  11. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured Quasars at Redshifts ~0.3-3, I: ALMA Obseravtions

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Kimball, Amy E; Blain, Andrew; Whittle, Mark; Wilkes, Belinda; Stern, Dan; Condon, Jim; Kim, Minjin; Assef, Roberto J; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Efstathiou, Andreas; Jones, Suzy; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jinwen; Lonsdale, Colin J; Jones, Kristen; Jarrett, Tom; Smith, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA 870 micron (345 GHz) data for 49 high redshift (0.47dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies which possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from WISE with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared (MIR) colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 microns, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7 < log P3.0 GHz (W/Hz) < 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log M(BH) (Msun) < 10.2. The rest frame 1-5 um SEDs are very similar to the "Hot DOGs" (Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estim...

  12. The impact of bars on the mid-infrared dust emission of spiral galaxies global and circumnuclear properties

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Vigroux, L; Bosma, A; Bonoli, C; Gallais, P; Hawarden, T G; Madden, S; Mazzei, P

    2001-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared properties of a sample of 69 nearby spiral galaxies, selected to avoid Seyfert activity contributing a significant fraction of the central energetics, or strong tidal interaction, and to have normal infrared luminosities. These observations were obtained with ISOCAM, which provides an angular resolution of the order of 10 arcsec (half-power diameter of the point spread function) and low-resolution spectro-imaging information. Between 5 and 18 microns, we mainly observe two dust phases, aromatic infrared bands and very small grains, both out of thermal equilibrium. On this sample, we show that the global F15/F7 colors of galaxies are very uniform, the only increase being found in early-type strongly barred galaxies, consistent with previous IRAS studies. The F15/F7 excesses are unambiguously due to galactic central regions where bar-induced starbursts occur. However, the existence of strongly barred early-type galaxies with normal circumnuclear colors indicates that the relationship b...

  13. Finding $\\eta$ Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer: II. Identification of An Emerging Class of Extragalactic Self-Obscured Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K Z; Gerke, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as $\\eta$ Carinae is challenging because no true analogs of $\\eta$ Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. In Khan et. al. (2013), we utilized Spitzer IRAC images of $7$ nearby ($\\lesssim4$ Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs, and found $34$ candidates with flat or red mid-IR spectral energy distributions. Here, in Paper II, we present our characterization of these candidates using multi-wavelength data from the optical through the far-IR. Our search detected no true analogs of $\\eta$ Car, which implies an eruption rate that is a fraction $0.01\\lesssim F \\lesssim 0.19$ of the ccSN rate. This is roughly consistent with each $M_{ZAMS} \\gtrsim 70M_\\odot$ star undergoing $1$ or $2$ outbursts in its lifetime. However, we do identify a significant population of $18$ lower luminosity $\\left(\\log(L/L_\\odot)\\simeq5.5-6.0\\right)$ dusty stars. Stars enter this phase at a rate that is fraction $0.09 \\lesssim F \\lesssim...

  14. On the (in)variance of the dust-to-metals ratio in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mattsson, Lars; Andersen, Anja C; Zafar, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have demonstrated a surprisingly small variation of the dust-to-metals ratio in different environments and a correlation between dust extinction and the density of stars. Naively, one would interpret these findings as strong evidence of cosmic dust being produced mainly by stars. But other observational evidence suggest there is a significant variation of the dust-to-metals ratio with metallicity. As we demonstrate in this paper, a simple star-dust scenario is problematic also in the sense that it requires that destruction of dust in the interstellar medium (e.g., due to passage of supernova shocks) must be highly inefficient. We suggest a model where stellar dust production is indeed efficient, but where interstellar dust growth is equally important and acts as a replenishment mechanism which can counteract the effects of dust destruction. This model appears to resolve the seemingly contradictive observations, given that the ratio of the effective (stellar) dust and metal yields is not universal...

  15. The silicate absorption profile in the ISM towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, P F; Gonzalez-Martin, O

    2015-01-01

    The 9.7-micron silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse interstellar medium is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile towards the very heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418, the galaxy with the deepest known silicate absorption feature, and compare it to the profiles seen in the Milky Way. Comparison between the 8-13 micron spectrum obtained with TReCS on Gemini and the larger aperture spectrum obtained from the Spitzer archive indicates that the former isolates the nuclear emission, while Spitzer detects low surface brightness circumnuclear diffuse emission in addition. The silicate absorption profile towards the nucleus is very similar to...

  16. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio as a valuable tool to probe the evolution of local and distant star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Cresci, G.; Santini, P.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Gilli, R.; Matteucci, F.; Maiolino, R.

    2017-02-01

    The survival of dust grains in galaxies depends on various processes. Dust can be produced in stars, it can grow in the interstellar medium and be destroyed by astration and interstellar shocks. In this paper, we assemble a few data samples of local and distant star-forming galaxies to analyse various dust-related quantities in low- and high-redshift galaxies, and to study how the relations linking the dust mass to the stellar mass and star formation rate evolve with redshift. We interpret the available data by means of chemical evolution models for discs and proto-spheroid (PSPH) starburst galaxies. In particular, we focus on the dust-to-stellar mass (DTS) ratio, as this quantity represents a true measure of how much dust per unit stellar mass survives the various destruction processes in galaxies and is observable. The theoretical models outline the strong dependence of this quantity on the underlying star formation history. Spiral galaxies are characterized by a nearly constant DTS as a function of the stellar mass and cosmic time, whereas PSPHs present an early steep increase of the DTS, which stops at a maximal value and decreases in the latest stages. In their late starburst phase, these models show a decrease of the DTS with their mass, which allows us to explain the observed anti-correlation between the DTS and the stellar mass. The observed redshift evolution of the DTS ratio shows an increase from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 1, followed by a roughly constant behaviour at 1 ≲ z ≲ 2.5. Our models indicate a steep decrease of the global DTS at early times, which implies an expected decrease of the DTS at larger redshift.

  17. FIR extended emission from cold gas and dust in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies: the anomalous cases of POX 186 and UM 461

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    FIR observation of BCD galaxies with Herschel has revealed a wealth of new insights in these objects which are thought to resemble high-redshift forming galaxies. Dust and cold gas showed to be colder, in more or less quantities than expected and of uncertain origin. However, not unlike in the local universe, not all the dust or the cold gas is accounted for, making it more challenging. SPICA and its factor 10 to 100 in sensitivity will allow to image the faint extended cold gas/dusty disks in BCDGs in addition to detect faint C and O lines only marginally or not at all detected by Herschel/

  18. Dust and star-formation properties of a complete sample of local galaxies drawn from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, M S; De Zotti, G; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Bonavera, L; Cosco, G; Guarese, G; Boaretto, L; Salucci, P; Baccigalupi, C; Clements, D L; Danese, L; Lapi, A; Mandolesi, N; Partridge, R B; Perrotta, F; Serjeant, S; Scott, D; Toffolatti, L

    2013-01-01

    We combine Planck HFI data at 857, 545, 353 & 217GHz with data from WISE, Spitzer, IRAS & Herschel to investigate the properties of a flux limited sample of local star-forming galaxies. A 545GHz flux density limit was chosen so that the sample is 80% complete at this frequency, giving a sample of 234 local galaxies. We investigate the dust emission and star formation properties of the sample via various models & calculate the local dust mass function. Although 1-component modified black bodies fit the dust emission longward of 80um very well (median beta=1.83) the degeneracy between dust temp & beta also means that the SEDs are very well described by a dust emissivity index fixed at beta=2 and 10dust component is required to fit shorter wavelength data, & contributes ~1/3 of the total infrared emission, its mass is negligible. No evidence is found for a very cold (6-10 K) dust component. The temp of the cold dust component is strongly influenced by ...

  19. A TALE OF THREE GALAXIES: ANOMALOUS DUST PROPERTIES IN IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013–0739, AND SDSS J0808+3948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    On a galactic scale, the 9.7 μm silicate emission is usually only seen in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They usually also display a flat emission continuum at ∼5-8 μm and the absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. In contrast, starburst galaxies, luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, and ultraluminous IR galaxies exhibit a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, and strong PAH emission bands. Here, we report the detection of anomalous dust properties by the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph in three galaxies (IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739, and SDSS J0808+3948) which are characterized by the simultaneous detection of a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features, as well as strong PAH emission bands. These apparently contradictory dust IR emission properties are discussed in terms of iron-poor silicate composition, carbon dust deficit, small grain size, and low dust temperature in the young AGN phase of these three galaxies.

  20. Effects of dust abundance on the far-infrared colours of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the FIR properties of a sample of BCDs observed by AKARI. By utilizing the data at wavelengths of $\\lambda =65 \\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, and 140 $\\mu$m, we find that the FIR colours of the BCDs are located at the natural high-temperature extension of those of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. This implies that the optical properties of dust in BCDs are similar to those in the Milky Way. Indeed, we explain the FIR colours by assuming the same grain optical properties, which may be appropriate for amorphous dust grains, and the same size distribution as those adopted for the Milky Way dust. Since both interstellar radiation field and dust optical depth affect the dust temperature, it is difficult to distinguish which of these two physical properties is responsible for the change of FIR colours. Then, in order to examine if the dust optical depth plays an important role in determining the dust temperature, we investigate the correlation between FIR colour (dust temperature) and dust-to-gas ratio. W...

  1. Environment of MAMBO galaxies in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris L; Schinnerer, Eva; McCracken, Henry J; Salvato, Mara; Riechers, Dominik; Sheth, Kartik; Smolcic, Vernesa; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Menten, Karl M

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter galaxies (SMG) represent a dust-obscured high-redshift population undergoing massive star formation activity. Their properties and space density have suggested that they may evolve into spheroidal galaxies residing in galaxy clusters. In this paper, we report the discovery of compact (~10"-20") galaxy overdensities centered at the position of three SMGs detected with the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer camera (MAMBO) in the COSMOS field. These associations are statistically significant. The photometric redshifts of galaxies in these structures are consistent with their associated SMGs; all of them are between z=1.4-2.5, implying projected physical sizes of ~170 kpc for the overdensities. Our results suggest that about 30% of the radio-identified bright SMGs in that redshift range form in galaxy density peaks in the crucial epoch when most stars formed.

  2. Mortality and dust expulsion in early phases of stellar clusters. Evidence from NIR photometry of nearby, spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grosboel, P

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that young stellar clusters suffer a significant infant mortality that is partly related to the expulsion of dust and gas in their early phases caused by radiation pressure from hot stars and supernovae. Near-infrared (J-K)-Mk diagrams of young stellar clusters in nearby spiral galaxies show a bi-modal distribution that is consistent with a fast decline of their intrinsic extinction at an early epoch. The distinct features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) and the fast change of colors for the youngest clusters allow us to place constraints on their early evolutionary phases, including the time scale for the decreasing extinction caused for instance by gas and dust expulsion. Monte Carlo simulations of cluster populations were performed using the power-law distribution function g(M, t) ~ M^a t^gam. Integrated colors were computed from Starburst99 models. The simulated near-infrared CMD were compared with those observed for six grand-design, spiral galaxies using statistical goodness-of-...

  3. Mid-infrared dust in two nearby radio galaxies, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, B Duah; Jarrett, T; Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Most radio galaxies are hosted by giant gas-poor ellipticals, but some contain significant amounts of dust, which is likely to be of external origin. In order to characterize the mid-IR properties of two of the most nearby and brightest merger-remnant radio galaxies of the Southern hemisphere, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36), we used observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron and Spitzer mid-infrared spectra. By applying a resolution-enhancement technique, new WISE images were produced at angular resolutions ranging from 2.6" to 5.5". Global measurements were performed in the four WISE bands, and stellar masses and star-formation rates were estimated using published scaling relations. Two methods were used to uncover the distribution of dust, one relying on two-dimensional fits to the 3.4 micron images to model the starlight, and the other one using a simple scaling and subtraction of the 3.4 micron images to estimate the stellar...

  4. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks V. Dust opacity, HI distributions and sub-mm emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    2005-01-01

    The opacity of spiral galaxy disks, from counts of distant galaxies, is compared to HI column densities. The opacity measurements are calibrated using the "Synthetic Field Method" from Gonzalez et al. (1998, ApJ, 506, 152), Holwerda et al. (2005a, AJ, 129, 1381). When compared for individual disks,

  5. The Dust Content and Opacity of Actively Star-Forming Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Armus, L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Kinney, A. L.; Koornneef, J.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    Submitted to: Astrophys. J. Abstract: (Abridged) We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 micron and 205 micron of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the ISO Photometer. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wavebands and these data are used, in conjunction with

  6. The dust content and opacity of actively star-forming galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D; Armus, L; Bohlin, RC; Kinney, AL; Koornneef, J; Storchi-Bergmann, T

    2000-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) photometry at 150 and 205 mu m of eight low-redshift starburst galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) ISOPHOT. Five of the eight galaxies are detected in both wave bands, and these data are used, in conjunction with IRAS archival photometry, to

  7. Dust extinction in high-z galaxies with gamma-ray burst afterglow spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elíasdóttir, Á.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the clear detection of the 2175 Å dust absorption feature in the optical afterglow spectrum of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 070802 at a redshift of z = 2.45. This is the highest redshift for a detected 2175 Å dust bump to date, and it is the first clear detection of the 2175 Å bump in ...

  8. Hα Kinematics of High-z Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Patrick; Casey, Caitlin; Hung, Chao-Ling; Cooray, Asantha R.; Sanders, David B.; Fu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Dusty Star Forming Galaxies (DSFGs) have the highest star formation rates in the Universe, but compared with other star forming galaxies at z > ~1 they are difficult to characterize, physically. Their low number density and extreme dust obscuration has led to very few kinematic studies of DSFGs at optical wavelengths. We present a rest-frame optical kinematic analysis of 5 DSFGs at z ~1.5 using long slit spectroscopy obtained with MOSFIRE at Keck Observatory. From our high signal-to-noise spectra we simultaneously fit Hα, [NII] λ6548, and [NII] λ6583 along each slit to generate position-velocity diagrams. We infer the kinematic disturbances and derive dynamical masses in order to compare with other derived quantities such as fractional obscuration, stellar and gas fractions, and dust characteristics.

  9. Dust-Corrected Star Formation Rates of Galaxies. I. Combinations of H-alpha and Infrared Tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, Robert C Jr; Calzetti, Daniela; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Bendo, George; Engelbracht, Charles W; Johnson, Benjamin D; Lee, Janice C

    2009-01-01

    We combine H-alpha emission-line and infrared continuum measurements of two samples of nearby galaxies to derive dust attenuation-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). We use a simple energy balance based method that has been applied previously to HII regions in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), and extend the methodology to integrated measurements of galaxies. We find that our composite H-alpha+IR based SFRs are in excellent agreement with attenuation-corrected SFRs derived from integrated spectrophotometry, over the full range of SFRs (0.01 -- 80 solar mass per year) and attenuations (0 -- 2.5 mag) studied. We find that the combination of H-alpha and total infrared luminosities provides the most robust SFR measurements, but combinations of H-alpha measurements with monochromatic luminosities at 24 micron and 8 micron perform nearly as well. The calibrations differ significantly from those obtained for HII regions (Calzetti et al. 2007), with the difference attributable to a more evolved ...

  10. A Battlefield Obscuration Model (Smoke & Dust)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    they 4.ould be exaziled Ln an upgrade4 m4oel. The rader is r•eierred to Rti. 5. a, account for ambient condit.oni. i.e., ensure = we ,roijs4 zhc ý45of...characteristics at the shock front to peak overpressure. 115 underground detonations, the equivalent free air charge weight is given by W(air) = W

  11. Global Properties of Local Star Forming Galaxies (ADP 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitherer, Claus

    2003-01-01

    We performed an archival study of the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) Astro-2 database. Nineteen spectra of star-forming regions and starburst galaxies were retrieved, reprocessed, and analyzed. The spectra cover the wavelength region 912- 1800 A, providing access to the domain of peak luminosity from a young stellar population. We created an atlas of galaxy spectra documenting the continuum and line properties with an emphasis on the relatively unexplored spectral region below 1200 A. The dust obscuration law was derived from a comparison of the HUT spectra with synthetic population models. The law is similar to the commonly adopted starburst reddening curve at longer wavelengths and approaches the Milky Way law near the Lyman break. A simple power-law parameterization is given, which allows users to express the reddening law in terms of the stellar or nebular color excess at ultraviolet or optical wavelengths. We studied the effect of time-dependent dust obscuration on synthetic ultraviolet line profiles of a young stellar population. If the youngest and most massive stars are more obscured than the older, less massive stars, the C IV 1550 and other stellar wind lines are significantly diluted with respect to a simple foreground screen model for the dust. We propose to use stellar wind lines as a probe of the dust-obscuration model instead of the previously employed nebular emission lines. Since purely stellar diagnostics are utilized, uncertain assumptions on the nebular properties are unnecessary. Photoionization models demonstrate that the C IV 1550 emission is typically dominated by stellar winds and nebular contamination is negligible. A first comparison with the galaxy sample observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope favors a dust geometry affecting ionizing and nonionizing stars equally. We point out the need for higher quality data for a more rigorous comparison. The Hubble Space Telescope is capable of obtaining such data in the future.

  12. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured, Hyperluminous Quasars at Redshifts ˜ 0.5-3. I. ALMA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, M.; Kimball, A. E.; Blain, A.; Whittle, M.; Wilkes, B.; Stern, D.; Condon, J.; Kim, M.; Assef, R. J.; Tsai, C.-W.; Efstathiou, A.; Jones, S.; Eisenhardt, P.; Bridge, C.; Wu, J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Jones, K.; Jarrett, T.; Smith, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7\\lt {log}({P}\\text{3.0 GHz}/{{{W}} {Hz}}-1)\\lt 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 DOGs” (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (MISM/M⊙) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M⊙ yr-1, depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10-15 Myr) compact starburst.

  13. The First Billion Years project: constraining the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study investigating the dust attenuation law at z ≃ 5, based on synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated for a sample of N = 498 galaxies drawn from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project. The simulated galaxies at z ≃ 5, which have M1500 ≤ -18.0 and 7.5 ≤ log(M/M}_{⊙}) ≤ 10.2, display a mass-dependent α-enhancement, with a median value of [α /{Fe}]_{z=5} ˜eq 4 × [α /{Fe}]_{Z_{⊙}}. The median Fe/H ratio of the simulated galaxies is 0.14 ± 0.05 which produces steep intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) continuum slopes; 〈βi〉 = -2.4 ± 0.05. Using a set of simple dust attenuation models, in which the wavelength-dependent attenuation is assumed to be of the form A(λ) ∝ λn, we explore the parameter values which best reproduce the observed z = 5 luminosity function (LF) and colour-magnitude relation (CMR). We find that a simple model in which the absolute UV attenuation is a linearly increasing function of log stellar mass (A1500 = 0.5 × log(M/M⊙) - 3.3), and the dust attenuation slope (n) is within the range -0.7 ≤ n ≤ -0.3, can successfully reproduce the LF and CMR over a wide range of stellar population synthesis model assumptions, including the effects of massive binaries. This range of attenuation curves is consistent with a power-law fit to the Calzetti attenuation law in the UV (n = -0.55). In contrast, curves as steep as the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve (n = -1.24) are formally ruled out. Finally, we show that our models are consistent with recent 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and predict the form of the z ≃ 5 infrared excess (IRX)-β relation.

  14. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) II: Dust and Gas in Andromeda

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M W L; Gomez, H L; Duval, J Roman; Fritz, J; Braun, R; Baes, M; Blommaert, J A D L; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A R; Cortese, L; de Looze, I; Ford, G P; Gear, W K; Gordon, K D; Gentile, G; Kirk, J; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Mentuch, E; O'Halloran, B; Page, M J; Schulz, B; Spinoglio, L; Verstappen, J; Wilson, C D

    2012-01-01

    We present a dust analysis of Andromeda (M31), using Herschel images sampling the entire far-infrared peak (100-500 micron) observed as part of the HELGA survey. We fit a modified-blackbody model to ~4000 quasi-independant pixels and find that a variable dust-emissivity index (beta) is required to adequately fit the data. We find no significant long-wavelength excess above this model which would suggest the presence of a cold dust component. The gas-to-dust ratio has an exponential dependence with radius, increasing from ~20 in the centre to ~70 in the star-forming ring at 10kpc. The gas-to-dust gradient is consistent with the metallicity gradient if a constant fraction of metals is taken up by the dust grains. In the main 10kpc star-forming ring an average beta of ~1.9 is determined, in good agreement with values determined for the Milky Way. However, in contrast to the Milky Way, we find significant radial variations in beta, which increases from 1.9 at 10kpc to a peak value of ~2.5 at a radius of 3.1kpc an...

  15. Nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ricci, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    The material surrounding accreting supermassive black holes connects the active galactic nucleus with its host galaxy and, besides being responsible for feeding the black hole, provides important information on the feedback that nuclear activity produces on the galaxy. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the close environment of accreting supermassive black holes obtained from studies of local active galactic nuclei carried out in the infrared and X-ray regimes. The structure of this circumnuclear material is complex, clumpy and dynamic, and its covering factor depends on the accretion properties of the active galactic nucleus. In the infrared, this obscuring material is a transition zone between the broad- and narrow-line regions, and, at least in some galaxies, it consists of two structures: an equatorial disk/torus and a polar component. In the X-ray regime, the obscuration is produced by multiple absorbers across various spatial scales, mostly associated with the torus and the broad-line region. In the coming decade, the new generation of infrared and X-ray facilities will greatly contribute to our understanding of the structure and physical properties of nuclear obscuration in active galactic nuclei.

  16. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    CERN Document Server

    Vavrycuk, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused primarily by finite age of the Universe because the finite age limits the number of photons pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL: (1) a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe, and (2) light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by in...

  17. Dust extinction from Balmer decrements of star-forming galaxies at 0.75

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez, A; Henry, A L; Scarlata, C; Bedregal, A G; Malkan, M; Atek, H; Ross, N R; Colbert, J W; Teplitz, H I; Rafelski, M; McCarthy, P; Bunker, A; Hathi, N P; Dressler, A; Martin, C L; Masters, D

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of Halpha and Hbeta emission lines of 129 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75dust extinction is derived from stacking the Halpha/Hbeta flux ratio, the Balmer decrement, as a function of Halpha luminosity down to LHa ~ 3 x 10^{41} erg s^{-1}, galaxy stellar mass down to M_{*} ~ 4 x 10^{8} Msun, and rest-frame Halpha equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are five times fainter in Halpha luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z ~ 1.5. We provide empirical relations to correct for the effect of dust extinction in star-forming galaxies as a function of Halpha luminosity and stellar mass. A clear evolution is observed where galaxies of the same Halpha luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas ...

  18. Star-forming galaxies with hot dust emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) emission-line galaxies with very red 3.4mum - 4.6mum (W1-W2) colours in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) Preliminary Release Source Catalogue (PRSC) aiming to find objects with hot dust emission. For this purpose we considered a sample of ~16000 galaxies with strong emission lines selected out of a total of ~900000 SDSS spectra and identified them with the PRSC sources. We find that ~5000 sources out of the ~16000 SDSS galaxies are present in the PRSC, including ~1000 galaxies with sufficiently strong [OIII]4363 emission lines to permit reliable determinations of the oxygen abundance. No correlation of W1-W2 with metallicity is found. On the other hand, there is clear evidence for a redder W1-W2 index in galaxies with higher Hbeta luminosity and higher Hbeta equivalent width, implying that strong UV radiation from young starbursts efficiently heats interstellar dust to high temperatures. However, galaxies with very red colour...

  19. VALES - III. The calibration between the dust continuum and interstellar gas content of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. M.; Ibar, E.; Villanueva, V.; Aravena, M.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Cooray, A.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Ivison, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Smith, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.; Viaene, S.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2017-06-01

    We present the calibration between the dust continuum luminosity and interstellar gas content obtained from the Valparaíso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES) sample of 67 main-sequence star-forming galaxies at 0.02 Assembly survey. Adopting αCO = 6.5 (K km s-1 pc2)-1, the average ratio of L_{ν _{850}}/MH2 = (6.4 ± 1.4)× 1019 erg s-1 Hz-1 M_{⊙}^{-1}, in excellent agreement with literature values. We obtain a linear fit of log _{10} ({M}_{H2}/{M_{⊙}}) = (0.92± 0.02) log _{10} (L_{ν _{850}}/{erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1}})-(17.31± 0.59). We provide relations between L_{ν _{850}}, MH2 and MISM when combining the VALES and literature samples, and adopting a Galactic αCO value.

  20. Spatial Correlation Between Dust and H$\\alpha$ Emission in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jimmy,; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola; Salmon, Brett; Forrest, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of dwarf irregular galaxies selected from the ALFALFA blind HI-survey and observed using the VIMOS IFU, we investigate the relationship between H$\\alpha$ emission and Balmer optical depth ($\\tau_{\\text{b}}$). We find a positive correlation between H$\\alpha$ luminosity surface density and Balmer optical depth in 8 of 11 at $\\geq$ 0.8$\\sigma$ significance (6 of 11 at $\\geq$ 1.0$\\sigma$) galaxies. Our spaxels have physical scales ranging from 30 to 80 pc, demonstrating that the correlation between these two variables continues to hold down to spatial scales as low as 30 pc. Using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to test for correlation between $\\Sigma_{\\text{H}\\alpha}$ and $\\tau_{\\text{b}}$ in all the galaxies combined, we find $\\rho = 0.39$, indicating a positive correlation at 4$\\sigma$ significance. Our low stellar-mass galaxy results are in agreement with observations of emission line regions in larger spiral galaxies, indicating that this relationship is independent of the size of ...

  1. The effect of dust geometry on the Lyman-alpha output of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Scarlata, C; Teplitz, H I; Panagia, N; Hayes, M; Siana, B; Rau, A; Francis, P; Caon, A; Pizzella, A; Bridge, C

    2009-01-01

    We present the optical spectroscopic follow-up of 31 z=0.3 Lyman-alpha (Lya) emitters, previously identified by Deharveng et al. (2008). We find that 17% of the Lya emitters have line ratios that require the hard ionizing continuum produced by an AGN. The uniform dust screen geometry traditionally used in studies similar to ours is not able to simultaneously reproduce the observed high Lya/Halpha and Halpha/Hbeta line ratios. We consider different possibilities for the geometry of the dust around the emitting sources. We find that also a uniform mixture of sources and dust does not reproduce the observed line ratios. Instead, these are well reproduced by a clumpy dust screen. This more realistic treatment of the geometry results in extinction corrected (Lya/Halpha)_C values consistent with Case B recombination theory, whereas a uniform dust screen model would imply values (Lya/Halpha)_C higher than 8.7. Our analysis shows that there is no need to invoke "ad-hoc" multi phase media in which the Lya photons only...

  2. Circumstellar Dust Around AGB Stars and Implications for Infrared Emission from Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Villaume, Alexa; Johnson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population synthesis (SPS) models are used to infer many galactic properties including star formation histories, metallicities, and stellar and dust masses. However, most SPS models neglect the effect of circumstellar dust shells around evolved stars and it is unclear to what extent they impact the analysis of SEDs. To overcome this shortcoming we have created a new set of circumstellar dust models, using the radiative transfer code DUSTY Ivezic et al. 1999, for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and incorporated them into the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis code. The circumstellar dust models provide a good fit to individual AGB stars as well as the IR color-magnitude diagrams of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. IR luminosity functions from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are not well-fit by the 2008 Padova isochrones when coupled to our circumstellar dust models, and so we adjusted the lifetimes of AGB stars in the models to provide a match to the data. We show, in agreement with ...

  3. Fenestration obscuration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Michael

    2007-10-01

    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  4. Galaxies behind the deepest extinction layer of the southern Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Kraan-Korteweg, R C; Juraszek, S; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C.; Koribalski, Baerbel; Juraszek, Sebastian

    1998-01-01

    About 25% of the optical extragalactic sky is obscured by the dust and stars of our Milky Way. Dynamically important structures might still lie hidden in this zone. Various approaches are presently being employed to uncover the galaxy distribution in this Zone of Avoidance (ZOA). Results as well as the different limitations and selection effects from these multi-wavelengths explorations are being discussed. Galaxies within the innermost part of the Milky Way - typically at a foreground obscuration in the blue of A_B > 5mag and |b| < 5 deg - remain particularly difficult to uncover except for HI-surveys: the Galaxy is fully transparent at the 21cm line and HI-rich galaxies are easy to trace. We will report here on the first results from the systematic blind HI-search (v < 12700 km/s) in the southern Zone of Avoidance which is currently being conducted with the Parkes Multibeam (MB) Receiver.

  5. The very red afterglow of GRB 000418: Further evidence for dust extinction in a gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Masetti, N.;

    2000-01-01

    We report near-infrared and optical follow-up observations of the afterglow of the GRB 000418 starting 2.5 days after the occurrence of the burst and extending over nearly 7 weeks. GRB 000418 represents the second case for which the afterglow was initially identified by observations in the near-i......) bursts are associated with events in star-forming regions.......-infrared. During the first 10 days its R-band afterglow was well characterized by a single power-law decay with a slope of 0.86. However, at later times the temporal evolution of the afterglow flattens with respect to a simple power-law decay. Attributing this to an underlying host galaxy, we find its magnitude...... to be R = 23.9 and an intrinsic afterglow decay slope of 1.22. The afterglow was very red with R-K approximate to 4 mag. The observations can be explained by an adiabatic, spherical fireball solution and a heavy reddening due to dust extinction in the host galaxy. This supports the picture that (long...

  6. Chemical Abundances in the PN Wray16-423 in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy: Constraining the Dust Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of elemental abundances, dust features, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the C-rich planetary nebula (PN) Wray16-423 in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on a unique dataset taken from the Subaru/HDS, MPG/ESO FEROS, HST/WFPC2, and Spitzer/IRS. We performed the first measurements of Kr, Fe, and recombination O abundance in this PN. The extremely small [Fe/H] implies that most Fe atoms are in the solid phase, considering into account the abundance of [Ar/H]. The Spitzer/IRS spectrum displays broad 16-24 um and 30 um features, as well as PAH bands at 6-9 um and 10-14 um. The unidentified broad 16-24 um feature may not be related to iron sulfide (FeS), amorphous silicate, or PAHs. Using the spectral energy distribution model, we derived the luminosity and effective temperature of the central star, and the gas and dust masses. The observed elemental abundances and derived gas mass are in good agreement with asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models f...

  7. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor and Dust-to-Gas Ratio on Kiloparsec Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, K M; Walter, F; Bolatto, A D; Croxall, K V; Draine, B T; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M; Calzetti, D; Kennicutt, R C; Aniano, G; Meyer, J Donovan; Usero, A; Bigiel, F; Brinks, E; de Blok, W J G; Crocker, A; Dale, D; Engelbracht, C W; Galametz, M; Groves, B; Hunt, L K; Koda, J; Kreckel, K; Linz, H; Meidt, S; Pellegrini, E; Rix, H -W; Roussel, H; Schinnerer, E; Schruba, A; Schuster, K -F; Skibba, R; van der Laan, T; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Brandl, B; Gordon, K; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Montiel, E; Sauvage, M; Schmiedeke, A; Smith, J D T; Vigroux, L

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (alpha_co) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies with ~kiloparsec spatial resolution. We have simultaneously solved for alpha_co and DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kpc scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO integrated intensity and HI column density to solve for both alpha_co and DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, 12CO J=(2-1) maps from the IRAM 30m large program HERACLES and HI 21-cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our alpha_co results on the more typically used 12CO J=(1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not effect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions ...

  8. Merging Galaxy Cluster A2255 in Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2011-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, A2255, by the AKARI space telescope. Using AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3 and 24 μm and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (~11 μm) flux is a good indicator for discriminating galaxies at different evolutionary stages and for dividing galaxies into three classes accordingly: strong MIR-excess (N3 - S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies; weak MIR-excess (-2.0 S11 5 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars; and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2 S11 < 0.2) galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyr old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cluster-scale environments affect the individual galaxies. We derive the total star formation rate (SFR) and the specific SFR of A2255 using the strong MIR-excess galaxies. The dust-free, total SFR of A2255 is ~130 M sun yr-1, which is consistent with the SFRs of other clusters of galaxies at similar redshifts and with similar masses. We find no strong evidence that supports enhanced star formation either inside the cluster or in the substructure region, suggesting that the infall or the cluster merging activities tend to suppress star formation. The intermediate MIR-excess galaxies, representing galaxies in transition from star-forming galaxies to quiescent galaxies, are located preferentially at the medium density region or cluster substructures with higher surface density of galaxies. Our findings suggest that galaxies are being transformed from star-forming galaxies into red, quiescent galaxies from the infall region through near the core which can be explained

  9. Stellar Population Maps of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Tara; Reddy, Naveen; MOSDEF

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study of resolved galaxy structure can shed light on the formation and evolution of galactic properties, such as the distribution of stars and interstellar dust that obscures starlight. This requires high-resolution, multi-waveband photometry and spectroscopy to completely characterize the galaxies. Previous studies lacked key spectroscopic information, were comprised of small samples, or focused on the local universe. We use HST ACS/WFC3 high-resolution, multi-waveband imaging from the CANDELS project in parallel with moderate-resolution Keck I MOSFIRE spectra from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey to produce resolved stellar population and dust maps of ~500 galaxies at redshifts 1.4 < z < 2.6—covering the key epoch when galaxies accreted most of their mass. For data preparation and analysis we develop an automated Python program to process our large, comprehensive dataset. From the multi-waveband imaging and spectroscopic redshifts, we model the spectral energy distribution for every resolution element within each galaxy and compare these results to the spectroscopically measured global properties. From our stellar population and dust maps we identify resolved structures within these galaxies. We also investigate if spectroscopically measured galaxy properties are biased when compared with that of localized sub-galactic structures.

  10. On the nature of the most obscured C-rich AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Dell'Agli, F; García-Hernández, D A; Boyer, M L; Di Criscienzo, M

    2016-01-01

    The stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the largest degree of obscuration are used to probe the highly uncertain physics of stars in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Carbon stars in particular, provide key information on the amount of third dredge-up (TDU) and mass loss. We use two independent stellar evolution codes to test how a different treatment of the physics affects the evolution on the AGB. The output from the two codes are used to determine the rates of dust formation in the circumstellar envelope, where the method used to determine the dust is the same for each case. The stars with the largest degree of obscuration in the LMC and SMC are identified as the progeny of objects of initial mass $2.5-3~M_{\\odot}$ and $\\sim 1.5~M_{\\odot}$, respectively. This difference in mass is motivated by the difference in the star formation histories of the two galaxies, and offers a simple explanation of the redder infrared colours of C-stars in the LMC compared to their counterparts in the SMC. ...

  11. DUST ATTENUATION OF THE NEBULAR REGIONS OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: INSIGHT FROM UV, IR, AND EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I., E-mail: stephane.debarros@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ∼ 2 from previous studies.

  12. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Capak, Peter L; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [CII] and OH emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z=5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [CII], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 um continuum emission toward the SMG. The [CII] emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 x 10^10 Msun, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Sigma_SFR = 530 Msun/yr/kpc2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Sigma_SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [CII] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [CII] emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not dete...

  13. UVI colour gradients of 0.4 < z < 1.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies in CANDELS: dust extinction and star formation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Faber, S. M.; Liu, F. S.; Guo, Yicheng; Pacifici, Camilla; Koo, David C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Mao, Shude; Fang, Jerome J.; Chen, Zhu; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Ashby, M. L. N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper uses radial colour profiles to infer the distributions of dust, gas and star formation in z = 0.4-1.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies. We start with the standard UVJ-based method to estimate dust extinction and specific star formation rate (sSFR). By replacing J with I band, a new calibration method suitable for use with ACS+WFC3 data is created (i.e. UVI diagram). Using a multi-wavelength multi-aperture photometry catalogue based on CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), UVI colour profiles of 1328 galaxies are stacked in stellar mass and redshift bins. The resulting colour gradients, covering a radial range of 0.2-2.0 effective radii, increase strongly with galaxy mass and with global AV. Colour gradient directions are nearly parallel to the Calzetti extinction vector, indicating that dust plays a more important role than stellar population variations. With our calibration, the resulting AV profiles fall much more slowly than stellar mass profiles over the measured radial range. sSFR gradients are nearly flat without central quenching signatures, except for M⋆ > 1010.5 M⊙, where central declines of 20-25 per cent are observed. Both sets of profiles agree well with previous radial sSFR and (continuum) AV measurements. They are also consistent with the sSFR profiles and, if assuming a radially constant gas-to-dust ratio, gas profiles in recent hydrodynamic models. We finally discuss the striking findings that SFR scales with stellar mass density in the inner parts of galaxies, and that dust content is high in the outer parts despite low stellar mass surface densities there.

  14. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: jingwen.wu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  15. Submillimeter Follow-up of Wise-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., II; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Lake, Sean; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approximately 1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at zeta = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 micrometers. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (zeta greater than 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 micrometers, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) solar luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  16. Radio-selected Galaxies in Very Rich Clusters at z < 0.25 I. Multi-wavelength Observations and Data Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, G E; Ledlow, M J; Keel, W C; Hill, J M; Voges, W; Herter, T L

    2002-01-01

    Radio observations were used to detect the `active' galaxy population within rich clusters of galaxies in a non-biased manner that is not plagued by dust extinction or the K-correction. We present wide-field radio, optical (imaging and spectroscopy), and ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) X-ray data for a sample of 30 very rich Abell (R > 2) cluster with z 2E22 W/Hz) galaxy population within these extremely rich clusters for galaxies with M_R 5 M_sun/yr) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) populations contained within each cluster. Archival and newly acquired redshifts were used to verify cluster membership for most (~95%) of the optical identifications. Thus we can identify all the starbursting galaxies within these clusters, regardless of the level of dust obscuration that would affect these galaxies being identified from their optical signature. Cluster sample selection, observations, and data reduction techniques for all wavelengths are discussed.

  17. Galaxy Evolution in Rich Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, U.; Hill, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We present the first results of a study of the morphological and spectral evolution of galaxies within the dense cores of distant clusters at redshifts between z=0.4 and 1. The morphology, colors, concentration index, and asymmetry parameters of these cluster members are compared by using a combination of deep HST NICMOS and WFPC2 imaging, covering the rest-frame U and J bands. We also discuss the influence of dust obscuration on the derived measurements. Of particular interest is the morphology of galaxies at near-infrared wavelengths in rich clusters which show an excess of blue galaxies (Butcher-Oelmer effect), namely Abell 851 (z=0.4) and CL 1603+43 (z=0.92). We focus our study on optical/near-infrared measurements of galaxy asymmetry and central concentration, derived from a large number (>400) of objects detected within the core of Abell 851. The sensitivity and reliability of these parameters for galaxy classification and physical diagnostic purposes are tested. In conjunction with the use of recent source extraction software we are able to establish a fast, robust, and highly automated procedure of mapping the structural parameters of large galaxy samples. This work is supported by NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  18. GOODS-HERSCHEL: star formation, dust attenuation and the FIR-radio correlation on the Main Sequence of star-forming galaxies up to z~4

    CERN Document Server

    Pannella, Maurilio; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark E; Hwang, Ho Seong; Schreiber, Corentin; Strazzullo, Veronica; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Buat, Veronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Cibinel, Anna; Juneau, Stephanie; Ivison, Rob; Borgne, Damien Le; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Leiton, Roger; Lin, Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn E; Mullaney, James R; Onodera, Masato; Renzini, Alvio; Salim, Samir; Sargent, Mark T; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We use the deep panchromatic dataset available in the GOODS-N field, spanning all the way from GALEX ultra-violet to VLA radio continuum data, to select a star-forming galaxy sample at z~[0.5-4] and robustly measure galaxy photometric redshifts, star formation rates, stellar masses and UV rest-frame properties. We quantitatively explore, using mass-complete samples, the evolution of the star formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies up to z~4. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) we find that the slope of the SFR-M correlation is consistent with being constant, and equal to ~0.8 at least up to z~1.5, while the normalization keeps increasing to the highest redshift, z~4, we are able to explore; ii) for the first time in this work, we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z~4; iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-f...

  19. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey III: Comparisons of cold dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecular gas, and atomic gas in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Warren, B E; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Israel, F P; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Petitpas, G; Serjeant, S; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2009-01-01

    We used 3.6, 8.0, 70, 160 micron Spitzer Space Telescope data, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope HARP-B CO J=(3-2) data, National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12 meter telescope CO J=(1-0) data, and Very Large Array HI data to investigate the relations among PAHs, cold (~20 K) dust, molecular gas, and atomic gas within NGC 2403, an SABcd galaxy at a distance of 3.13 Mpc. The dust surface density is mainly a function of the total (atomic and molecular) gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust ratio monotonically increases with radius, varying from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc. The slope of the gas-to-dust ratio is close to that of the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-to-dust ratio within this galaxy. The exponential scale length of the radial profile for the CO J=(3-2) emission is statistically identical to the scale length for the stellar continuum-subtracted 8 micron (PAH 8 micron) emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightne...

  20. Gaming security by obscurity

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    Shannon sought security against the attacker with unlimited computational powers: *if an information source conveys some information, then Shannon's attacker will surely extract that information*. Diffie and Hellman refined Shannon's attacker model by taking into account the fact that the real attackers are computationally limited. This idea became one of the greatest new paradigms in computer science, and led to modern cryptography. Shannon also sought security against the attacker with unlimited logical and observational powers, expressed through the maxim that "the enemy knows the system". This view is still endorsed in cryptography. The popular formulation, going back to Kerckhoffs, is that "there is no security by obscurity", meaning that the algorithms cannot be kept obscured from the attacker, and that security should only rely upon the secret keys. In fact, modern cryptography goes even further than Shannon or Kerckhoffs in tacitly assuming that *if there is an algorithm that can break the system, the...

  1. Misaligned Disks as Obscurers in Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, A.; Elvis, M.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-06-02

    We review critically the evidence concerning the fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) which appear as Type 2 AGN, carefully distinguishing strict Type 2 AGN from both more lightly reddened Type 1 AGN, and from low excitation narrow line AGN, which may represent a different mode of activity. Low excitation AGN occur predominantly at low luminosities; after removing these, true Type 2 AGN represent 58{-+}5% of all AGN, and lightly reddened Type 1 AGN a further {approx}15%. Radio, IR, and volume-limited samples all agree in showing no change of Type 2 fraction with luminosity. X-ray samples do show a change with luminosity; we discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. We test a very simple picture which produces this Type 2 fraction with minimal assumptions. In this picture, infall from large scales occurs in random directions, but must eventually align with the inner accretion flow, producing a severely warped disk on parsec scales. If the re-alignment is dominated by tilt, with minimal twist, a wide range of covering factors is predicted in individual objects, but with an expected mean fraction of Type 2 AGN of exactly 50%. This 'tilted disc' picture predicts reasonable alignment of observed nuclear structures on average, but with distinct misalignments in individual cases. Initial case studies of the few well resolved objects show that such misalignments are indeed present.

  2. Improved spectral energy distribution fitting of galaxies at 1 < z <3.5 in the SFR-M* plane and their morphological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomee; Giavalisco, M.; Acquaviva, V.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M*) diagram, galaxies can be separated in four different populations: starbursts which lie above the main sequence of star formation (MS), normal star-forming galaxies on the tight MS, galaxies below the MS with a little star-forming activity and quiescent galaxies. Renzini (2009) suggested that galaxies on, above and below the MS follow very different time evolution of SFR. We test this idea with large samples of galaxies at 1 histories (SFH) for galaxies in the four different populations. We further study correlations and trends between the morphology of the galaxies and their positions relative to the MS using non-parametric (Sersic index) and parametric measures as well as the visual identification. We also explore the effects on the rest-frame colors of dust obscuration to constrain the slope and the scatter on the MS.

  3. The Dust Attenuation Curve versus Stellar Mass for Emission Line Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zeimann, Gregory R; Gronwall, Caryl; Bridge, Joanna; Brooks, Hunter; Fox, Derek; Gawiser, Eric; Gebhardt, Henry; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    We derive the mean wavelength dependence of stellar attenuation in a sample of 239 high redshift (1.90 < z < 2.35) galaxies selected via Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 IR grism observations of their rest-frame optical emission lines. Our analysis indicates that the average reddening law follows a form similar to that derived by Calzetti et al. for local starburst galaxies. However, over the mass range 7.2 < log M/Msolar < 10.2, the slope of the attenuation law in the UV is shallower than that seen locally, and the UV slope steepens as the mass increases. These trends are in qualitative agreement with Kriek & Conroy, who found that the wavelength dependence of attenuation varies with galaxy spectral type. However, we find no evidence of an extinction "bump" at 2175 A in any of the three stellar mass bins, or in the sample as a whole. We quantify the relation between the attenuation curve and stellar mass and discuss its implications.

  4. "Revealing a Population of Heavily Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei at z=0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Alexander, D M; Brusa, M; Bauer, F E; Comastri, A; Fabian, A C; Gilli, R; Lehmer, B D; Rafferty, D A; Schneider, D P; Vignali, C

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) We identify a numerically significant population of heavily obscured AGNs at z~0.5-1 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South by selecting 242 X-ray undetected objects with infrared-based star formation rates (SFRs) substantially higher (a factor of 3.2 or more) than their SFRs determined from the UV after correcting for dust extinction. An X-ray stacking analysis of 23 candidates in the central CDF-S region using the 4 Ms Chandra data reveals a hard X-ray signal with an effective power-law photon index of Gamma=0.6_{-0.4}^{+0.3}, indicating a significant contribution from obscured AGNs. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that 74+-25% of the selected galaxies host obscured AGNs, within which ~95% are heavily obscured and ~80% are Compton-thick (CT; NH>1.5x10^{24} cm^{-2}). The heavily obscured objects in our sample are of moderate intrinsic X-ray luminosity [ ~ (0.9-4)x10^{42} erg/s in the 2-10 keV band]. The space density of the CT AGNs is (1.6+-0.5)...

  5. AGN Obscuration and the Unified Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Stefano; Risaliti, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unification Models of Active Galactic Nuclei postulate that all the observed differences between Type 1 and Type 2 objects are due to orientation effects with respect to the line-of-sight to the observer. The key ingredient of these models is the obscuring medium, historically envisaged as a toroidal structure on a parsec scale. However, many results obtained in the last few years are clearly showing the need for a more complex geometrical distribution of the absorbing media. In this paper we review the various pieces of evidence for obscuring media on different scales, from the vicinity of the black hole to the host galaxy, in order to picture an updated unification scenario explaining the complex observed phenomenology. We conclude by mentioning some of the open issues.

  6. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devour, Brian M.; Bell, Eric F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78 721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-near-IR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star-forming main sequence varies from ˜0.55 mag up to ˜1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at M3.4 μm ≈ -21.5, corresponding to M* ≈ 3 × 1010 M⊙. This behaviour stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed to reliably probe to higher luminosities, and were insensitive to the decrease in attenuation with increasing luminosity for the brightest star-forming discs. Back-of-the-envelope scaling relations predict the strong variation of dust optical depth with specific star formation rate and stellar mass. More in-depth comparisons using the scaling relations to model the relative attenuation require the inclusion of star-dust geometry to reproduce the details of these variations (especially at high luminosities), highlighting the importance of these geometrical effects.

  7. The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1998-01-01

    Galaxies represent the visible fabric of the Universe and there has been considerable progress recently in both observational and theoretical studies. The underlying goal is to understand the present-day diversity of galaxy forms, masses and luminosities. Popular models predict the bulk of the population assembled recently, in apparent agreement with optical observations. However, numerous uncertainties remain, including the role that dust might play in obscuring star-forming systems. Astronomers now seek more detailed tests to verify that the Hubble sequence of types arises from transformations driven by the dynamical assembly of smaller systems. Multi-wavelength surveys and studies of the resolved internal properties of distant galaxies promise answers to these fundamental questions.

  8. GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC): Star Formation Rates, Stellar Masses, and Dust Attenuations of 700,000 Low-redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Samir; Lee, Janice C.; Janowiecki, Steven; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickinson, Mark; Boquien, Médéric; Burgarella, Denis; Salzer, John J.; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC), a catalog of physical properties (stellar masses, dust attenuations, and star formation rates [SFRs]) for ˜700,000 galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) redshifts below 0.3. GSWLC contains galaxies within the Galaxy Evolution Explorer footprint, regardless of a UV detection, covering 90% of SDSS. The physical properties were obtained from UV/optical spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting following Bayesian methodology of Salim et al., with improvements such as blending corrections for low-resolution UV photometry, flexible dust attenuation laws, and emission-line corrections. GSWLC also includes mid-IR SFRs derived from IR templates based on 22 μ {{m}} Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations. These estimates are independent of UV/optical SED fitting, in order to separate possible systematics. The paper argues that the comparison of specific SFRs (sSFRs) is more informative and physically motivated than the comparison of SFRs. The sSFRs resulting from the UV/optical SED fitting are compared to the mid-IR sSFRs and to sSFRs from three published catalogs. For “main-sequence” galaxies with no active galactic nucleus (AGN) all sSFRs are in very good agreement (within 0.1 dex on average). In particular, the widely used aperture-corrected SFRs from the MPA/JHU catalog show no systematic offsets, in contrast to some integral field spectroscopy results. For galaxies below the main sequence (log sSFR \\lt -11), mid-IR (s)SFRs based on fixed luminosity-SFR conversion are severely biased (up to 2 dex) because the dust is primarily heated by old stars. Furthermore, mid-IR (s)SFRs are overestimated by up to 0.6 dex for galaxies with AGNs, presumably due to nonstellar dust heating. UV/optical (s)SFRs are thus preferred to IR-based (s)SFRs for quenched galaxies and those that host AGNs.

  9. Far-infrared dust properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hibi, Yasunori; SHIBAI, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A recent data analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) map of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds has shown that there is a tight correlation between two FIR colours: the 60 um-100 um and 100 um-140 um colours. This FIR colour relation called ``main correlation'' can be interpreted as indicative of a sequence of various interstellar radiation fields with a common FIR optical property of grains. In this paper, we constrain the FIR optical properties of grains by comparing the calculated FIR colours...

  10. The Sombrero Galaxy III Ionised gas and dust in the central 200 pc

    CERN Document Server

    Emsellem, E; Emsellem, Eric; Ferruit, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of new 3D TIGER spectroscopic observations and archived HST/WFPC2 and NICMOS images of the central region of M 104. The [NII]+Ha images reveal the presence of a nuclear spiral structure, and the gaseous kinematics in the central arcsecond shows evidence for kinematical decoupling of the central peak. A straight nuclear dust lane, with a weak symmetric counterpart, is seen in the V-I and V-H colour maps. These results hint for the presence of a strong nuclear bar, that would be located inside the inner Linblad resonance of the large-scale bar discussed by Emsellem (1995).

  11. DUSTiNGS III: Distribution of Intermediate-Age and Old Stellar Populations in Disks and Outer Extremities of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Mitchell, Mallory B; Skillman, Evan D; Gehrz, R D; Groenewegen, Martin A T; McDonald, Iain; Sloan, G C; van Loon, Jacco Th; Whitelock, Patricia A; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2016-01-01

    We have traced the spatial distributions of intermediate-age and old stars in nine dwarf galaxies in the distant parts of the Local Group, using multi-epoch 3.6 and 4.5 micron data from the DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) survey. Using complementary optical imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the 3.6 micron photometry, separating thermally-pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars from the larger red giant branch (RGB) populations. Unlike the constant TRGB in the I-band, at 3.6 micron the TRGB magnitude varies by ~0.7 mag, making it unreliable as a distance indicator. The intermediate-age and old stars are well mixed in two-thirds of the sample with no evidence of a gradient in the ratio of the intermediate-age to old stellar populations outside the central ~1-2'. Variable AGB stars are detected in the outer extremities of the galaxies, indicating that chemical enrichment from these dust-producing stars may occur in the outer re...

  12. Dust-depletion sequences in damped Lyman-{\\alpha} absorbers: a unified picture from low-metallicity systems to the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    De Cia, Annalisa; Mattsson, Lars; Petitjean, Patrick; Srianand, Raghunathan; Gavignaud, Isabelle; Jenkins, Edward B

    2016-01-01

    We study metal depletion due to dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) to infer the properties of dust grains and characterize the metal and dust content of galaxies, down to low metallicity and intermediate redshift z. We provide metal column densities and abundances of a sample of 70 damped Lyman-{\\alpha} absorbers (DLAs) towards quasars, observed at high spectral resolution with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). This is the largest sample of phosphorus abundances measured in DLAs so far. We use literature measurements for Galactic clouds to cover the high-metallicity end. We discover tight (scatter <= 0.2 dex) correlations between [Zn/Fe] and the observed relative abundances, which are due to dust depletion. This implies that grain-growth in the ISM is an important process of dust production. These sequences are continuous in [Zn/Fe] from dust-free to dusty DLAs, and to Galactic clouds, suggesting that the availability of refractory metals in the ISM is cr...

  13. Dust Attenuation and H-alpha Star Formation Rates of z~0.5 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ly, Chun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z~0.40 and 249 z~0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7^{+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeli...

  14. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies at $z\\sim3$

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Márquez, J; Heinis, S; Buat, V; Faro, B Lo; Béthermin, M; López-Fortín, C E; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Hurley, P; Ibar, E; Ilbert, O; Koekemoer, A M; Lemaux, B C; Pérez-Fournon, I; Rodighiero, G; Salvato, M; Scott, D; Taniguchi, Y; Vieira, J D; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    We explore from a statistical point of view the far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) properties of a large sample of LBGs (22,000) at z~3 in the COSMOS field. The large number of galaxies allows us to split it in several bins as a function of UV luminosity, UV slope, and stellar mass to better sample their variety. We perform stacking analysis in PACS (100 and 160 um), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 um) and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images. Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions. We obtain the full IR spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of UV luminosity, UV slope, and stellar mass. The average IRX is roughly constant over the UV luminosity range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with UV slope, and stellar mass. We investigate using a statistically-controlled stacking analysis as a function of (stellar mass, UV slope) the dispersion ...

  15. Dirbe evidence for a wrap in the interstellar dust layer and stellar disk of the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, H. T.; Berriman, G. B.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Sodroski, T. J.; Toller, G. N.; Weiland, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has mapped the surface brightness distributions of the Galactic plane at wavelengths from 1.25 to 240 micrometers. In these maps the latitude of peak brightness, as a function of longitude, traces a roughly sinusoidal curve of period approximately 360 deg. In the far-infrared, where emission by interstellar dust dominates the surface brightness, this curve agrees well with that derived from maps of the velocity-integrated H 1, suggesting that the layers of dust and neutral atomic hydrogen are similarly displaced from the Galactic plane. In the near-infrared (lambda less than 5 micrometers), where old disk stars dominate the emission, the brightness crest exhibits the same phase but roughly half the amplitude. The reduced amplitude of the warp in stellar light could result from a lesser warping of the stellar disk, or from a more rapid falloff of the density of stars relative to the density of gas, possibly due to a radial truncation of the disk.

  16. Attenuation law of normal disc galaxies with clumpy distributions of stars and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A K

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the attenuation law seen through an interstellar medium (ISM) with clumpy spatial distributions of stars and dust. The clumpiness of the dust distribution is introduced by a multi-phase ISM model. We solve a set of radiative transfer equations with multiple anisotropic scatterings through the clumpy ISM in a 1-D plane-parallel geometry by using the mega-grain approximation, in which dusty clumps are regarded as very large particles (i.e. mega-grains). The clumpiness of the stellar distribution is introduced by the youngest stars embedded in the clumps. We assume a smooth spatial distribution for older stars. The youngest stars are surrounded by denser dusty gas and suffer stronger attenuation than diffuse older stars (i.e. age-selective attenuation). The apparent attenuation law is a composite of the attenuation laws for the clumpy younger stars and for the diffuse older stars with a luminosity weight. In general, the stellar population dominating the luminosity changes from older stars to youn...

  17. Ultra-faint ultraviolet galaxies at z ∼ 2 behind the lensing cluster A1689: The luminosity function, dust extinction, and star formation rate density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Richard, Johan [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: anahita.alavi@email.ucr.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbits) filters. These images are used to identify z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break, in the same manner that galaxies are typically selected at z ≥ 3. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the lensing cluster, we detect galaxies 100× fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing all multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample in the range –19.5 < M {sub 1500} < –13 AB mag. Because the mass distribution of A1689 is well constrained, we are able to calculate the intrinsic sensitivity of the observations as a function of source plane position, allowing for accurate determinations of effective volume as a function of luminosity. We fit the faint-end slope of the luminosity function to be α = –1.74 ± 0.08, which is consistent with the values obtained for 2.5 < z < 6. Notably, there is no turnover in the luminosity function down to M {sub 1500} = –13 AB mag. We fit the UV spectral slopes with photometry from existing Hubble optical imaging. The observed trend of increasingly redder slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of (E(B – V)) = 0.15 mag. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z {sub ☉}) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z {sub ☉}), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived values for dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2 is 4.31{sub −0.60}{sup +0.68}×10{sup 26} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} Mpc{sup –3}, more than 70% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity range of our sample. Finally, we determine the global star formation rate density from UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 (assuming a constant dust

  18. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Observations of dust continuum and CO emission lines of cluster-lensed submillimetre galaxies at z=2.0-4.7

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J A; Aretxaga, I; Hughes, D H; Wilson, G W; Geach, J E; Egami, E; Gurwell, M A; Wilner, D J; Smail, Ian; Blain, A W; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Edge, A C; Montana, A; Nakajima, K; Rawle, T D; Sanchez-Arguelles, D; Swinbank, A M; Webb, T M A; Zeballos, M

    2015-01-01

    We present Early Science observations with the Large Millimeter Telescope, AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum images and wide bandwidth spectra (73-111 GHz) acquired with the Redshift Search Receiver (RSR), towards four bright lensed submillimetre galaxies identified through the Herschel Lensing Survey-snapshot and the SCUBA-2 Cluster Snapshot Survey. This pilot project studies the star formation history and the physical properties of the molecular gas and dust content of the highest redshift galaxies identified through the benefits of gravitational magnification. We robustly detect dust continuum emission for the full sample and CO emission lines for three of the targets. We find that one source shows spectroscopic multiplicity and is a blend of three galaxies at different redshifts (z=2.040, 3.252 and 4.680), reminiscent of previous high-resolution imaging follow-up of unlensed submillimetre galaxies, but with a completely different search method, that confirm recent theoretical predictions of physically unassociated b...

  19. Global dust attenuation in disc galaxies: strong variation with specific star formation and stellar mass, and the importance of sample selection

    CERN Document Server

    Devour, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We study the relative dust attenuation-inclination relation in 78,721 nearby galaxies using the axis ratio dependence of optical-NIR colour, as measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to avoid to the greatest extent possible attenuation-driven biases, we carefully select galaxies using dust attenuation-independent near- and mid-IR luminosities and colours. Relative u-band attenuation between face-on and edge-on disc galaxies along the star forming main sequence varies from ~0.55 mag up to ~1.55 mag. The strength of the relative attenuation varies strongly with both specific star formation rate and galaxy luminosity (or stellar mass). The dependence of relative attenuation on luminosity is not monotonic, but rather peaks at $M_{3.4\\mu m} \\approx -21.5$, corresponding to $M_* \\approx 3\\times 10^{10}M_{Sun}$. This behavior stands seemingly in contrast to some older studies; we show that older works failed...

  20. Evolution of Infrared Luminosity functions of Galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Deep field: Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, H; Takeuchi, T T; Pearson, C; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Oyabu, S; Ohyama, Y; Malkan, M; Lee, H M; Lee, M G; Inami, H; Hwang, N; Hanami, H; Im, M; Imai, K; Ishigaki, T; Serjeant, S; Shim, H

    2010-01-01

    Dust-obscured star-formation becomes much more important with increasing intensity, and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with the AKARI. We construct restframe 8um, 12um, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15

  1. Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies II: Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Marshall, Jason; Evans, Aaron; Haan, Sebastian; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dongchan; Murphy, Eric J; Rich, Jeff A; Spoon, Henrik W W; Inami, Hanae; Petric, Andreea; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between ...

  2. Extinction law variations and dust excitation in the spiral galaxy NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Seibert, M; Helou, G; Madore, B F; Martin, C

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the strong radial gradient in the ultraviolet-to-infrared ratio in the spiral galaxy NGC 300, and emphasize the importance of local variations in the interstellar medium geometry, concluding that they cannot be neglected with respect to metallicity effects. This analysis is based upon a combination of maps from GALEX and Spitzer, and from the ground (UBVRI, Halpha and Hbeta). We select ionizing stellar clusters associated with HII regions of widely varying morphologies, and derive their fundamental parameters from population synthesis fitting of their spectral energy distributions, measured to eliminate local backgrounds accurately. From these fits, we conclude that the stellar extinction law is highly variable in the line of sight of young clusters of similar ages. In the particular model geometry that we consider most appropriate to the sampled regions, we checked that our findings are not significantly altered by the correct treatment of radiative transfer effects. The variatio...

  3. The evolution of emission lines in HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Leitherer, C; Stasinska, Grazyna; Schaerer, Daniel; Leitherer, Claus

    2001-01-01

    We constructed diagnostic diagrams using emission line ratios and equivalent widths observed in several samples of HII galaxies. The diagrams are compared to predictions from new photoionization models for evolving starbursts. We find that HII galaxies from objective-prism surveys are not reproduced by models of instantaneous starbursts surrounded by constant density, ionization bounded HII regions. The observed relations between emission line ratios and Hb equivalent width (W(Hb)) can be understood if older stellar populations are not negligible in HII galaxies. Also, different dust obscuration for stars and gas and leakage of Lyman continuum photons from the observed HII regions can be important. As a result, HII galaxies selected from objective-prism surveys are unlikely to contain many objects in which the most recent starburst is older than about 5~Myr. The observed increase of [OI]/Hb with decreasing W(Hb) can result from the dynamical effects of winds and supernovae. This interpretation provides also a...

  4. The Quest for Dusty Primeval Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Danese, L.

    2016-06-01

    We exploit the continuity equation approach and the 'main sequence' star-formation timescales to show that the observed high abundance of galaxies with stellar masses ? a few >10^10 M_⊙ at redshift z >? 4 implies the existence of a galaxy population featuring large star formation rates (SFRs) ψ >? 10^2 M_⊙ yr^-1 in heavily dust-obscured conditions. These galaxies constitute the high-redshift counterparts of the dusty star-forming population already surveyed for zdensity at z 30 M_⊙ yr^-1 cannot be estimated relying on the UV luminosity function alone, even when standard corrections for dust extinction based on the UV slope are applied. We compute the number counts and redshift distributions (including galaxy-scale gravitational lensing) of this galaxy population, and show that current data from AzTEC-LABOCA, SCUBA-2 and ALMA-SPT surveys are already digging into it. We substantiate how an observational strategy based on a color preselection in the far-IR or (sub-)mm band with Herschel and SCUBA-2, supplemented by photometric data via on-source observations with ALMA, can allow to reconstruct the bright end of the SFR functions out to z ? 8. In parallel, such a challenging task can be managed by exploiting current UV surveys in combination with (sub-)mm observations by ALMA and NIKA2 and/or radio observations by SKA and its precursors.

  5. [Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Adámek, S

    2013-08-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding represents 5% of all cases of bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The cause of this type of bleeding cannot be found by gastroscopy or colonoscopy - the most common cause being bleeding from the source in the small intestine. In other cases it is bleeding from other parts of the digestive tube which has already stopped or was not noticed during admission endoscopy. Imaging methods (X-ray, CT, MRI, scintigraphy) and endoscopic methods (flexible or capsule enteroscopy) are used in the diagnosis and treatment. If, despite having used these methods, the source of bleeding is not found and the bleeding continues, or if the source is known but the bleeding cannot be stopped by radiologic or endoscopic intervention, surgical intervention is usually indicated. The article provides an overview of current diagnostic and treatment options, including instructions on how to proceed in these diagnostically difficult situations.

  6. Qualitative Description of Obscuration Factors in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    enviroments , In late 1977 the Army Vice Chief of Staff expressed concern about the use of realistic battlefield enviromental conditions throughout the Army...are discussed in the chapter on natural obscurants. Battlefield ohscurants are dust, smoke , and fire resulting from battle and intentional smoke . The...APPENDIX B. QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF SMOKE ......... 102 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS....... . ........ 102 2. DISSEMINATION AO,.4.........,.,.,. , 103

  7. The broad-line region and dust torus size of the Seyfert 1 galaxy PGC50427

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Westhues, C; Haas, M; Chini, R; Steenbrugge, K; Domínguez, A Barr; Kaderhandt, L; Hackstein, M; Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Hodapp, Klaus W; Murphy, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a three years monitoring campaigns of the $z = 0.024$ type-1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) PGC50427. Through the use of Photometric Reverberation Mapping with broad and narrow band filters, we determine the size of the broad-line emitting region by measuring the time delay between the variability of the continuum and the H$\\alpha$ emission line. The H$\\alpha$ emission line responds to blue continuum variations with an average rest frame lag of $19.0 \\pm 1.23$ days. Using single epoch spectroscopy we determined a broad-line H$\\alpha$ velocity width of 1020 km s$^{-1}$ and in combination with the rest frame lag and adoption a geometric scaling factor $f = 5.5$, we calculate a black hole mass of $M_{BH} \\sim 17 \\times 10^{6} M_{\\odot}$. Using the flux variation gradient method, we separate the host galaxy contribution from that of the AGN to calculate the rest frame 5100\\AA~ luminosity at the time of our monitoring campaign. The rest frame lag and the host-subtracted luminosity permit u...

  8. LoCuSS: Luminous infrared galaxies in the merging cluster Abell 1758 at z=0.28

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, C P; Egami, E; Okabe, N; Takada, M; Ellis, Richard S; Moran, S M; Umetsu, K

    2009-01-01

    We present the first galaxy evolution results from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS), a multi-wavelength survey of 100 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.15 5x10^10 L_sun. The obscured activity in A1758 is therefore comparable with that in Cl 0024+1654, the most active cluster previously studied at 24um. The obscured galaxies faithfully trace the cluster potential as revealed by the weak-lensing mass map of the cluster, including numerous mass peaks at R~2-3Mpc that are likely associated with infalling galaxy groups and filamentary structures. However the core (R<500kpc) of A1758N is 2x more active in the IR than that of A1758S, likely reflecting differences in the recent dynamical history of the two clusters. The 24micron results from A1758 therefore suggest that dust-obscured cluster galaxies are common in merging clusters and suggests that obscured activity in cluste rs is triggered by both the details of cluster-cluster mergers and processes that operate at larger radii including those wi...

  9. Merging Galaxy Cluster Abell 2255 in Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2010-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, Abell 2255 by the AKARI space telescope. Using the AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3-24 micron and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (11 micron) flux is a good indicator to discriminate galaxies at different evolutionary stages, and divide galaxies into three classes accordingly : strong MIR-excess (N3-S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies, weak MIR-excess (-2.05 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars, and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyrs old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cl...

  10. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals

  11. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkic, Laura; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Cardiff, Ann H.; Durell, Pat R.

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended time-scales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by Tzanavaris et al. (2010) and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 m photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFRUV) using the UVOT uvw2 photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 m photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFRIR). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-red), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-blue) have redder UV colours, lower specific SFRs, and tend to lie in Hi-poor groups. We find the SFRs to be continuously distributed with a peak at about 1 M yr1, indicating this might be the most common value in compact groups. In contrast, the specific SFR distribution is bimodal, and there is a clear distinction between star-forming and quiescent galaxies. Overall, our results suggest that the specific SFR is the best tracer of gas depletion and galaxy evolution in compact groups.

  12. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific subclass of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This subclass contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative x-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter, which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source catalogs, this method is applied to specify a sample of low redshift radio galaxies for which an increased neutrino production is expected.

  13. Are compact massive galaxies at high-z really quiescent? A mid-infrared to submillimeter study of the GOODS NICMOS Survey sample

    CERN Document Server

    Viero, Marco P; Buitrago, Fernando; Marsden, Gaelen; Bauer, Amanda E; Trujillo, Ignacio; Conselice, Christopher J; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Halpern, Mark; Mentuch, Erin; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the average flux densities of massive ($M_{*} \\approx 2\\times 10^{11}~\\rm M_{\\odot}$) galaxies at redshifts $1.7 2$ (spheroid-like) population is forming stars with median [interquartile] $\\rm SFR=57~[36, 83]~\\rm M_{\\odot}~yr^{-1}$. Thus, while the star formation signal in this sample is clearly dominated by disk-like galaxies, on average the compact, spheroid-like population appear to be red but not dead, and that localized, dust obscured star formation is a likely mechanism for size evolution in this population, consistent with several models of galaxy growth.

  14. Photometric and Obscurational Completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R A

    2005-01-01

    We report a method that uses "completeness" to estimate the number of exrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with a direct-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function for Earth-like planets on "habitable" orbits for an instrument with a central field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detection zone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a "delta magnitude" with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects (given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimation by applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of October 2004. We establish an initial relationship between the size, quality, and stability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet mission science requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity and versatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discuss how the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a whole, t...

  15. Sensitive radio survey of obscured quasar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars in samples at both low (z ˜ 0.5) and high (z ˜ 2.5) redshift to understand the role of radio activity in accretion, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 6.0 GHz and 1.4 GHz. Our z ˜ 2.5 sample consists of optically selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of νLν[1.4 GHz] ≲ 1040 erg s-1. Only a single source is individually detected in our deep (rms˜10 μJy) exposures. This population would not be identified by radio-based selection methods used for distinguishing dusty star-forming galaxies and obscured active nuclei. In our pilot A-array study of z ˜ 0.5 radio-quiet quasars, we spatially resolve four of five objects on scales ˜5 kpc and find they have steep spectral indices with an average value of α = -0.75. Therefore, radio emission in these sources could be due to jet-driven or radiatively driven bubbles interacting with interstellar material on the scale of the host galaxy. Finally, we also study the additional population of ˜200 faint ( ˜ 40 μJy-40 mJy) field radio sources observed over ˜120 arcmin2 of our data. 60 per cent of these detections (excluding our original targets) are matched in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and are, in roughly equal shares, active galactic nuclei (AGN) at a broad range of redshifts, passive galaxies with no other signs of nuclear activity and infrared-bright but optically faint sources. Spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed star-forming galaxies constitute only a small minority of the matches. Such sensitive radio surveys allow us to address important questions of AGN evolution and evaluate the AGN contribution to the radio-quiet sky.

  16. A Spatially Resolved Study of Cold Dust, Molecular Gas, H ii Regions, and Stars in the z = 2.12 Submillimeter Galaxy ALESS67.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Hodge, J. A.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Walter, Fabian; Simpson, J. M.; Calistro Rivera, Gabriela; Bertoldi, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dannerbauer, H.; De Breuck, C.; Harrison, C. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Karim, A.; Knudsen, K. K.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiß, A.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    We present detailed studies of a z = 2.12 submillimeter galaxy, ALESS67.1, using sub-arcsecond resolution ALMA, adaptive optics-aided VLT/SINFONI, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS data to investigate the kinematics and spatial distributions of dust emission (870 μm continuum), 12CO(J = 3–2), strong optical emission lines, and visible stars. Dynamical modeling of the optical emission lines suggests that ALESS67.1 is not a pure rotating disk but a merger, consistent with the apparent tidal features revealed in the HST imaging. Our sub-arcsecond resolution data set allows us to measure half-light radii for all the tracers, and we find a factor of 4–6 smaller sizes in dust continuum compared to all the other tracers, including 12CO; also, ultraviolet (UV) and Hα emission are significantly offset from the dust continuum. The spatial mismatch between the UV continuum and the cold dust and gas reservoir supports the explanation that geometrical effects are responsible for the offset of the dusty galaxy on the IRX–β diagram. Using a dynamical method we derive an {α }{CO}=1.8+/- 1.0, consistent with other submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) that also have resolved CO and dust measurements. Assuming a single {α }{CO} value we also derive resolved gas and star formation rate surface densities, and find that the core region of the galaxy (≲ 5 kpc) follows the trend of mergers on the Schmidt–Kennicutt relationship, whereas the outskirts (≳ 5 kpc) lie on the locus of normal star-forming galaxies, suggesting different star formation efficiencies within one galaxy. Our results caution against using single size or morphology for different tracers of the star formation activity and gas content of galaxies, and therefore argue the need to use spatially resolved, multi-wavelength observations to interpret the properties of SMGs, and perhaps even for z> 1 galaxies in general.

  17. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Prototypical Starburst Galaxy NGC7714

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, B R; Higdon, S J U; Charmandaris, V; Spoon, H W W; Herter, T L; Hao, L; Bernard-Salas, J; Houck, J R; Armus, L; Soifer, B T; Grillmair, C J; Appleton, P N

    2004-01-01

    We present observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 7714 with the Infrared Spectrograph IRS on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra yield a wealth of ionic and molecular features that allow a detailed characterization of its properties. NGC 7714 has an HII region-like spectrum with strong PAH emission features. We find no evidence for an obscured active galactic nucleus, and with [NeIII]/[NeII]~0.73, NGC7714 lies near the upper end of normal-metallicity starburst galaxies. With very little slicate absorption and a temperature of the hottest dust component of 340K, NGC 7714 is the perfect template for a young, unobscured starburst

  18. The Role of Star-Formation and AGN in Dust Heating of z=0.3-2.8 Galaxies - II. Informing IR AGN fraction estimates through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roebuck, Eric; Hayward, Christopher C; Pope, Alexandra; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Hernquist, Lars; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A key question in extragalactic studies is the determination of the relative roles of stars and AGN in powering dusty galaxies at $z\\sim$1-3 where the bulk of star-formation and AGN activity took place. In Paper I, we present a sample of $336$ 24$\\mu$m-selected (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies, (U)LIRGs, at $z \\sim 0.3$-$2.8$, where we focus on determining the AGN contribution to the IR luminosity. Here, we use hydrodynamic simulations with dust radiative transfer of isolated and merging galaxies, to investigate how well the simulations reproduce our empirical IR AGN fraction estimates and determine how IR AGN fractions relate to the UV-mm AGN fraction. We find that: 1) IR AGN fraction estimates based on simulations are in qualitative agreement with the empirical values when host reprocessing of the AGN light is considered; 2) for star-forming galaxy-AGN composites our empirical methods may be underestimating the role of AGN, as our simulations imply $>$50% AGN fractions, $\\sim$3$\\times$ higher than previous...

  19. The Interstellar Medium In Galaxies Seen A Billion Years After The Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, P L; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-01-01

    Evolution in the measured rest frame ultraviolet spectral slope and ultraviolet to optical flux ratios indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of galaxies during the first 3 billion years of cosmic time (z>4). This evolution implies a change in the average interstellar medium properties, but the measurements are systematically uncertain due to untested assumptions, and the inability to measure heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to directly measure the interstellar medium in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons with one notable exception. Here we report measurements of the [CII] gas and dust emission in 9 typical (~1-4L*) star-forming galaxies ~1 billon years after the big bang (z~5-6). We find these galaxies have >12x less thermal emission compared with similar systems ~2 billion years later, and enhanced [CII] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the interstellar medium properties in the early u...

  20. The Buildup of Passive Galaxies in Clusters and the Field Over the Last 7 Billion Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory; van der Wel, A.; Moustakas, J.; Jablonka, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of galaxy evolution's most long-standing problems is determining how clusters affect the properties of infalling galaxies. One useful metric for this is how quickly the passive galaxy population in clusters assembles over time. Standard practice has been to assume that all red sequence galaxies are passive and to measure the evolution in the red fraction and red sequence luminosity function over time. This approach, however, neglects the possible contribution of dusty galaxies to the red sequence, which can be significant at intermediate environment and low to intermediate stellar masses. We move beyond a simple red sequence cut by using a new multi-color technique to distinguish red passive galaxies from red dusty star-forming galaxies. Isolating passive galaxies is inherently more physical than studying galaxies selected on one color alone. We track the buildup of passive galaxies in the field and in clusters using the COSMOS data for the former and a large imaging and spectroscopy survey of intermediate redshift clusters for the latter. The fraction of passive galaxies in clusters increases with increasing galaxy mass, increasing cluster velocity dispersion, and with time at a fixed mass and velocity dispersion. We relate the passive fraction in clusters to that for field galaxies of similar masses and use this to constrain the processes that shut off star formation in infalling cluster galaxies. The fraction of dust-obscured star forming galaxies changes with stellar mass and environment and this affects the interpretation of the rapid evolution in the faint red sequence galaxy population and its environmental dependence, as seen in other works.

  1. The evolution of obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, Murray

    2012-09-01

    We present results on the evolution of Compton thick AGN with redshift, and the nature of this obscuration, important for understanding the accretion history of the universe and for AGN unification schemes. We use lessons learned from spectral complexity of local AGN (Brightman & Nandra 2012) and up to date spectral models of heavily absorbed AGN, which take into account Compton scattering, self consistent Fe Ka modeling and the geometry of the circumnuclear material (Brightman & Nandra 2011), to optimise our identification of Compton thick AGN and understanding of the obscuring material. Results from the Chandra Deep Field South are presented (Brightman & Ueda, 2012), which show an increasing fraction of CTAGN with redshift and that most heavily obscured AGN are geometrically deeply buried in material, as well as new results from and extension of this study to AEGIS-XD and Chandra-COSMOS survey, which aim to fully characterise the dependence of heavy AGN obscuration on redshift and luminosity.

  2. GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC): Star Formation Rates, Stellar Masses and Dust Attenuations of 700,000 Low-redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Salim, Samir; Janowiecki, Steven; da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickinson, Mark; Boquien, Médéric; Burgarella, Denis; Salzer, John J; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present GALEX-SDSS-WISE Legacy Catalog (GSWLC), a catalog of physical properties (stellar masses, dust attenuations and star formation rates (SFRs)) of ~700,000 galaxies with SDSS redshifts below 0.3. GSWLC contains galaxies within the GALEX footprint, regardless of a UV detection, covering 90% of SDSS. The physical properties were obtained from UV/optical SED fitting following Bayesian methodology of Salim et al. (2007), with improvements such as blending corrections for low-resolution UV photometry, flexible dust attenuation laws, and emission line corrections. GSWLC includes mid-IR SFRs derived from IR templates based upon 22 micron WISE observations. These estimates are independent of UV/optical SED fitting, in order to separate possible systematics. The paper argues that the comparison of specific SFRs (SSFRs) is more informative and physically motivated than the comparison of SFRs. SSFRs resulting from the UV/optical SED fitting are compared to the mid-IR SSFRs, and to SSFRs from three...

  3. The spiral galaxy M33 mapped in the FIR by ISOPHOT: A spatially resolved study of the warm and cold dust

    CERN Document Server

    Hippelein, H; Tuffs, R J; Lemke, D; Stickel, M; Klaas, U; Völk, H J

    2003-01-01

    The Sc galaxy M33 has been mapped with ISOPHOT in the far-infrared, at 60, 100, and 170mue. The spatial resolution of these FIR maps allows the separation of spiral arms and interarm regions and the isolation of a large number of star-forming regions. The spectral energy distribution in the FIR indicates a superposition of two components, a warm one originating from dust at ~45K, and a cold one, at ~16K. The warm component is concentrated towards the spiral arms and the star-forming regions, and is likely heated by the UV radiation from OB stars. The cold component is more smoothly distributed over the disk, and heated by the diffuse interstellar radiation. For the about 60 star-forming regions detected the H-alpha/FIR flux ratio increases significantly with the distance from the galaxy center, probably due to decreasing extinction. An anti-correlation of F_Ha/F_60 with F_170 suggests the intrinsic extinction to be related to the cold dust surface brightness according to A_V/S_170~0.03mag/MJy*sr. For the tota...

  4. Cold Galaxies on FIRE: Modeling the Most Luminous Starbursts in the Universe with Cosmological Zoom Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika

    2014-10-01

    As the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, Submillimeter Galaxies at z 2-4 are key players in galaxy evolution. Since their discovery, SMGs have received significant attention from HST in characterizing their physical morphology, stellar masses, and star formation histories. Unfortunately, these physical constraints have been difficult for theorists to reconcile with galaxy formation simulations. Previous generations of simulations have all either {a} neglected baryons; {b} neglected radiative transfer {and connecting to observations}; or {c} neglected cosmological conditions. Here, we propose to conduct the first ever cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Submillimeter Galaxy formation that couple with bona fide 3D dust radiative transfer calculations. These ultra-high resolution simulations {parsec-scale} will be the first to resolve the sites of dust obscuration, the cosmic growth history of SMGs, and their evolutionary destiny. Our proposal has two principle goals: {1} Develop the first ever model for SMG formation from cosmological simulations that include both baryons and dust radiative transfer; {2} Capitalize on our parsec-scale resolution to understand the connection between the physical properties of star-forming regions in high-z starbursts, and recent IMF constraints from present-epoch massive galaxies.

  5. Star Formation Laws in Both Galactic Massive Clumps and External Galaxies: Extensive Study with Dust Coninuum, HCN (4-3), and CS (7-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott

    2016-10-01

    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of ˜100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L TIR) and molecular line luminosities ({L}{mol}\\prime ) of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L TIR ˜ 103 L ⊙. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L TIR-{L}{mol}\\prime correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and σ line/σ vir. Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L TIR-L‧mol correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L TIR larger than L TIR ˜ 104.5 L ⊙. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M clump-L‧mol and L TIR-L‧mol relations.

  6. San Pedro Martir observations of microvariability in obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Polednikova, Jana; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio; Bongiovanni, Angél; Oteo, Iván; García, Ana M Pérez; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fast brightness variations are a unique tool to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN). These variations are called microvariability or intra-night variability, and this phenomenon has been monitored in samples of blazars and unobscured AGNs. Detecting optical microvariations in targets hidden by the obscuring torus is a challenging task because the region responsible for the variations is hidden from our sight. However, there have been reports of fast variations in obscured Seyfert galaxies in X-rays, which rises the question whether microvariations can also be detected in obscured AGNs in the optical regime. Because the expected variations are very small and can easily be lost within the noise, the analysis requires a statistical approach. We report the use of a one-way analysis of variance, ANOVA, with which we searched for microvariability. ANOVA was successfully employed in previous studies of unobscured AGNs. As a result, we found microvariable events during three observing blocks: ...

  7. An Intensely Star-Forming Galaxy at z~7 with Low Dust and Metal Content Revealed by Deep ALMA and HST Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Momose, Rieko; Kurono, Yasutaka; Ashby, M L N; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Willner, S P; Fazio, G G; Tamura, Yoichi; Iono, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    We report deep ALMA observations complemented with associated HST imaging for a luminous (m_uv=25) galaxy, 'Himiko', at a redshift z=6.595. The galaxy is remarkable for its high star formation rate, 100 Mo/yr, securely estimated from our deep HST and Spitzer photometry, and the absence of any evidence for strong AGN activity or gravitational lensing magnification. Our ALMA observations probe an order of magnitude deeper than previous IRAM observations, yet fail to detect a 1.2mm dust continuum, indicating a flux <52uJy comparable with or weaker than that of local dwarf irregulars with much lower star formation rates. We likewise provide a strong upper limit for the flux of [CII] 158um, L([CII]) < 5.1x10^7 Lo, a diagnostic of the hot interstellar gas often described as a valuable probe for early galaxies. In fact, our observations indicate Himiko lies off the local L([CII]) - star formation rate scaling relation by a factor of more than 30. Both aspects of our ALMA observations suggest Himiko is an uniqu...

  8. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.6 I. H\\alpha -based star formation rates and dust extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Kashino, D; Rodighiero, G; Renzini, A; Arimoto, N; Daddi, E; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D B; Kartaltepe, J; Zahid, H J; Nagao, T; Sugiyama, N; Capak, P; Carollo, C M; Chu, J; Hasinger, G; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Kewley, L J; Koekemoer, A M; Kovač, K; Fèvre, O Le; Masters, D; McCracken, H J; Onodera, M; Scoville, N; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Taniguchi, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the COSMOS field, using the Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) on the Subaru telescope, designed to characterize the star-forming galaxy population at 1.4galaxies that yield a H\\alpha\\ detection thus providing a redshift and emission-line luminosity to establish the relation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. With further J-band spectroscopy for 89 of these, the level of dust extinction is assessed by measuring the Balmer decrement using co-added spectra. We find that the extinction (0.6\\lesssim A_H\\alpha\\ \\lesssim 2.5) rises with stellar mass and is elevated at high masses compared to low-redshift galaxies. Using this subset of the spectroscopic sample, we further find that the differential extinction b...

  9. Spectra of Nearby Galaxies Measured with a New Very Broadband Receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Gopal; Erickson, Neal R; Chung, Aeree; Heyer, Mark H; Yun, Min; Irvine, William M; 10.1017/S1743921308021698

    2008-01-01

    Three-millimeter-wavelength spectra of a number of nearby galaxies have been obtained at the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) using a new, very broadband receiver. This instrument, which we call the Redshift Search Receiver, has an instantaneous bandwidth of 36 GHz and operates from 74 to 110.5 GHz. The receiver has been built at UMass/FCRAO to be part of the initial instrumentation for the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) and is intended primarily for determination of the redshift of distant, dust-obscured galaxies. It is being tested on the FCRAO 14m by measuring the 3mm spectra of a number of nearby galaxies. There are interesting differences in the chemistry of these galaxies.

  10. The evolution of the dust-to-metals ratio in high-redshift galaxies probed by GRB-DLAs

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, P; Bolmer, J; Krühler, T; Yates, R M; Greiner, J; Fynbo, J P U

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several issues regarding the nature of dust at high redshift remain unresolved: its composition, its production and growth mechanisms, and its effect on background sources. Aims: This paper aims to provide a more accurate relation between dust depletion levels and dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and to use the DTM to investigate the origin and evolution of dust in the high redshift Universe via GRB-DLAs. Methods: We use absorption-line measured metal column densities for a total of 19 GRB-DLAs, including five new GRB afterglow spectra from VLT/X-shooter. We use the latest linear models to calculate the dust depletion strength factor in each DLA. Using this we calculate total dust and metal column densities to determine a DTM. We explore the evolution of DTM with metallicity, and compare this to previous trends in DTM measured with different methods. Results: We find significant dust depletion in 16 of our 19 GRB-DLAs, yet 18 of the 19 have a DTM significantly lower than the Milky Way. We find that DTM is...

  11. Evolution of the dust-to-metals ratio in high-redshift galaxies probed by GRB-DLAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, P.; Schady, P.; Bolmer, J.; Krühler, T.; Yates, R. M.; Greiner, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several issues regarding the nature of dust at high redshift remain unresolved: its composition, its production and growth mechanisms, and its effect on background sources. Aims: We provide a more accurate relation between dust depletion levels and dust-to-metals ratio (DTM), and to use the DTM to investigate the origin and evolution of dust in the high-redshift Universe via gamma-ray burst damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (GRB-DLAs). Methods: We use absorption-line measured metal column densities for a total of 19 GRB-DLAs, including five new GRB afterglow spectra from VLT/X-Shooter. We use the latest linear models to calculate the dust depletion strength factor in each DLA. Using these values we calculate total dust and metal column densities to determine a DTM. We explore the evolution of DTM with metallicity, and compare it to previous trends in DTM measured with different methods. Results: We find significant dust depletion in 16 of our 19 GRB-DLAs, yet 18 of the 19 have a DTM significantly lower than the Milky Way. We find that DTM is positively correlated with metallicity, which supports a dominant ISM grain-growth mode of dust formation. We find a substantial discrepancy between the dust content measured from depletion and that derived from the total V-band extinction, AV, measured by fitting the afterglow SED. We advise against using a measurement from one method to estimate that from the other until the discrepancy can be resolved. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, Program IDs: 088.A-0051(B), 089.A-0067(B), 091.C-0934, 094.A-0134(A).

  12. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey: far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, Jacopo; S. Bianchi; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, GJ; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, Maarten; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, JI; De Looze, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 mu m integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 mu m wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and...

  13. Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Caitlin M; Cooray, Asantha

    2014-01-01

    Far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength surveys have now established the important role of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) in the assembly of stellar mass and the evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. The brightest of these galaxies have infrared luminosities in excess of 10$^{13}$ L$_{\\odot}$ with implied star-formation rates of thousands of solar masses per year. They represent the most intense starbursts in the Universe, yet many are completely optically obscured. Their easy detection at submm wavelengths is due to dust heated by ultraviolet radiation of newly forming stars. When summed up, all of the dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe produce an infrared radiation field that has an equal energy density as the direct starlight emission from all galaxies visible at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The bulk of this infrared extragalactic background light emanates from galaxies as diverse as gas-rich disks to mergers of intense starbursting galaxies. Major advances in far-infrare...

  14. The Ultraviolet and Infrared Star Formation Rates of Compact Group Galaxies: An Expanded Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lenkic, Laura; Gallagher, Sarah; Desjardins, Tyler; Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey; Fedotov, Konstantin; Charlton, Jane; Hornschemeier, Ann; Durrell, Pat; Gronwall, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    Compact groups of galaxies provide insight into the role of low-mass, dense environments in galaxy evolution because the low velocity dispersions and close proximity of galaxy members result in frequent interactions that take place over extended timescales. We expand the census of star formation in compact group galaxies by \\citet{tzanavaris10} and collaborators with Swift UVOT, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry of a sample of 183 galaxies in 46 compact groups. After correcting luminosities for the contribution from old stellar populations, we estimate the dust-unobscured star formation rate (SFR$_{\\mathrm{UV}}$) using the UVOT uvw2photometry. Similarly, we use the MIPS 24 \\micron\\ photometry to estimate the component of the SFR that is obscured by dust (SFR$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$). We find that galaxies which are MIR-active (MIR-"red"), also have bluer UV colours, higher specific star formation rates, and tend to lie in H~{\\sc i}-rich groups, while galaxies that are MIR-inactive (MIR-"blue") have redder ...

  15. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  16. Molecular gas and dust in the highly magnified z = 2.8 galaxy behind the Bullet Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Daniel; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Muller, Sebastien; Birkinshaw, Mark; Black, John H; Bremer, Malcolm N; Wall, William F; Bertoldi, Frank; Castillo, Edgar; Ibarra-Medel, Hector Javier; 10.1051/0004-6361/201117918

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational magnification provided by massive galaxy clusters makes it possible to probe the physical conditions in distant galaxies that are of lower luminosity than those in blank fields and likely more representative of the bulk of the high-redshift galaxy population. We aim to constrain the basic properties of molecular gas in a strongly magnified submm galaxy located behind the massive Bullet Cluster. This galaxy (SMM J0658) is split into three images, with a total magnification factor of almost 100. We used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to search for {12}CO(1--0) and {12}CO(3--2) line emission from SMM J0658. We also used the SABOCA bolometer camera on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope to measure the continuum emission at 350 micron. CO(1--0) and CO(3--2) are detected at 6.8 sigma and 7.5 sigma significance when the spectra toward the two brightest images of the galaxy are combined. From the CO(1-0) luminosity we derive a mass of cold molecular gas of (1.8 \\pm 0.3) ...

  17. Towards a comprehensive picture of powerful quasars, their host galaxies and quasar winds at z ~ 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin; Obied, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Luminous type-2 quasars in which the glow from the central black hole is obscured by dust are ideal targets for studying their host galaxies and the quasars' effect on galaxy evolution. Such feedback appears ubiquitous in luminous obscured quasars where high velocity ionized nebulae have been found. We present rest-frame yellow-band (~5000 Angstroms) observations using the Hubble Space Telescope for a sample of 20 luminous quasar host galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.6 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For the first time, we combine host galaxy observations with geometric measurements of quasar illumination using blue-band HST observations and [OIII] integral field unit observations probing the quasar winds. The HST images reveal bright merger signatures in about half the galaxies; a significantly higher fraction than in comparison inactive ellipticals. We show that the host galaxies are primarily bulge-dominated, with masses close to M*, but belong to < 30% of elliptical galaxies that are highly st...

  18. Peering through the Dust: NuSTAR Observations of Two FIRST-2MASS Red Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    LaMassa, Stephanie M; Glikman, Eilat; Urry, C Megan; Stern, Daniel; Yaqoob, Tahir; Lansbury, George B; Civano, Francesca; Boggs, Steve E; Brandt, W N; Chen, Chien-Ting J; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Chuck J; Harrison, Fiona; Hickox, Ryan C; Koss, Michael; Ricci, Claudio; Treister, Ezequiel; Zhang, Will

    2016-01-01

    Some reddened quasars appear to be transitional objects in the merger-induced black hole growth/galaxy evolution paradigm, where a heavily obscured nucleus starts to be unveiled by powerful quasar winds evacuating the surrounding cocoon of dust and gas. Hard X-ray observations are able to peer through this gas and dust, revealing the properties of circumnuclear obscuration. Here, we present NuSTAR and XMM-Newton/Chandra observations of FIRST-2MASS selected red quasars F2M 0830+3759 and F2M 1227+3214. We find that though F2M 0830+3759 is moderately obscured ($N_{\\rm H,Z} = 2.1\\pm0.2 \\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$) and F2M 1227+3214 is mildly absorbed ($N_{\\rm H,Z} = 3.4^{+0.8}_{-0.7}\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$) along the line-of-sight, heavier global obscuration may be present in both sources, with $N_{\\rm H,S} = 3.7^{+4.1}_{-2.6} \\times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $< 5.5\\times10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$, for F2M 0830+3759 and F2M 1227+3214, respectively. F2M 0830+3759 also has an excess of soft X-ray emission below 1 keV which i...

  19. Evolution of infrared luminosity functions of galaxies in the AKARI NEP-deep field. Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T.; Takagi, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Pearson, C.; Wada, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Oyabu, S.; Ohyama, Y.; Malkan, M.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Inami, H.; Hwang, N.; Hanami, H.; Im, M.; Imai, K.; Ishigaki, T.; Serjeant, S.; Shim, H.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: Dust-obscured star-formation increases with increasing intensity and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal the cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with AKARI. Methods: We constructed restframe 8 μm, 12 μm, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15 < z < 2.2 using 4128 infrared sources in the AKARI NEP-deep field. A continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelength (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24 μm) by the AKARI satellite allowed us to estimate restframe 8 μm and 12 μm luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on an SED fit, which was the largest uncertainty in previous work. Results: We find that all 8 μm (0.38 < z < 2.2), 12 μm (0.15 < z < 1.16), and TIR LFs (0.2 < z <1.6) show continuous and strong evolution toward higher redshift. Our direct estimate of 8 μm LFs is useful since previous work often had to use a large extrapolation from the Spitzer 24 μm to 8 μm, where SED modeling is more difficult because of the PAH emissions. In terms of cosmic infrared luminosity density (Ω_IR), which was obtained by integrating analytic fits to the LFs, we find good agreement with previous work at z<1.2. We find the Ω_IR evolves as propto(1 + z)4.4± 1.0. When we separate contributions to Ω_IR by LIRGs and ULIRGs, we found more IR luminous sources are increasingly more important at higher redshift. We find that the ULIRG (LIRG) contribution increases by a factor of 10 (1.8) from z = 0.35 to z = 1.4. This research is based on the observations with AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. Far-Infrared Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies from Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing state-of-the-art, adaptive mesh-refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with ultra-high resolution (114h-1pc) and large sample size (>3300 galaxies of stellar mass >10^9Msun), we show how the stellar light of Lyman Break Galaxies at z=2 is distributed between optical/ultra-violet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) bands. With a single scalar parameter for dust obscuration we can simultaneously reproduce the observed UV luminosity function for the entire range (3-100 Msun/yr) and extant FIR luminosity function at the bright end (>20Msun/yr). We quantify that galaxies more massive or having higher SFR tend to have larger amounts of dust obscuration mostly due to a trend in column density and in a minor part due to a mass (or SFR)-metallicity relation. It is predicted that the FIR luminosity function in the range SFR=1-100Msun/yr is a powerlaw with a slope about -1.7. We further predict that there is a "galaxy desert" at SFR(FIR) < 0.02 (SFR(UV)/10Msun/yr)^2.1 Msun/yr in the SFR(UV)-SFR(FIR) plane...

  1. A SUBSTANTIAL POPULATION OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4 FROM ZFOURGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Allen, Rebecca; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Altieri, Bruno [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andy; Murphy, David; Persson, S. Eric; Quadri, Ryan, E-mail: straatman@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    We report the likely identification of a substantial population of massive M ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z ∼ 4 with suppressed star formation rates (SFRs), selected on rest-frame optical to near-IR colors from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). The observed spectral energy distributions show pronounced breaks, sampled by a set of near-IR medium-bandwidth filters, resulting in tightly constrained photometric redshifts. Fitting stellar population models suggests large Balmer/4000 Å breaks, relatively old stellar populations, large stellar masses, and low SFRs, with a median specific SFR of 2.9 ± 1.8 × 10{sup –11} yr{sup –1}. Ultradeep Herschel/PACS 100 μm, 160 μm and Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data reveal no dust-obscured SFR activity for 15/19(79%) galaxies. Two far-IR detected galaxies are obscured QSOs. Stacking the far-IR undetected galaxies yields no detection, consistent with the spectral energy distribution fit, indicating independently that the average specific SFR is at least 10 × smaller than that of typical star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 4. Assuming all far-IR undetected galaxies are indeed quiescent, the volume density is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} to a limit of log{sub 10} M/M {sub ☉} ≥ 10.6, which is 10 × and 80 × lower than at z = 2 and z = 0.1. They comprise a remarkably high fraction (∼35%) of z ∼ 4 massive galaxies, suggesting that suppression of star formation was efficient even at very high redshift. Given the average stellar age of 0.8 Gyr and stellar mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the galaxies likely started forming stars before z = 5, with SFRs well in excess of 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, far exceeding that of similarly abundant UV-bright galaxies at z ≥ 4. This suggests that most of the star formation in the progenitors of quiescent z ∼ 4 galaxies was obscured by dust.

  2. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...... for the survival of free speech....

  3. Churches in Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    In Hardy's novel,Jude the Obscure,many images and scenes relating to churches function to reveal the hero's,or the author's views towards Christian religion.This essay makes an analysis of the church architecture,church scenes and clerical characters in the novel.

  4. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  5. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, Roderik; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S; Martin, D Christopher; Neill, James D; Rich, R Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshift. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z<0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high redshift samples (LBGs, BzK, and sub-mm galaxies at z=2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z=2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on...

  6. Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny E

    2014-01-01

    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III]5007 emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ~13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore in samples of obscured and unob...

  7. The role of star-formation and AGN in dust heating of z = 0.3-2.8 galaxies - I. Evolution with redshift and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from $z=0.3-2.8$. We diagnose the presence of an AGN by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star-formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGN, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright $S_{24}$, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2-1000 $\\mu$m). We fit the far-IR emission using a two temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures ($T_c$ and $T_w$). We find that $T_c$ does not depend on mid-IR classification, while $T_w$ shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}$. AGN, composites...

  8. Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z~4.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wagg, J; Aravena, M; Cox, P; Lentati, L; Maiolino, R; McMahon, R G; Riechers, D; Walter, F; Andreani, P; Hills, R; Wolfe, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J=2-1 line emission in BR1202-0725 at z=4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI1335-0417 at z=4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the Low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J=2-1 line luminosities of BR1202-0725 are L'(CO) = (8.7+/-0.8)x10^10 K km/s pc^2 and L'(CO) = (6.0+/-0.5)x10^10 K km/s pc^2 for the submm galaxy (SMG) and quasar, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J=5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ~9x10^10 Msun. In BRI1335-0417 we measure L'(CO) = (7.3+/-0.6)x10^10 K km/s pc^2. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BR1202-0725 North (S(44GHz) =