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Sample records for dust exposure levels

  1. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels among Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; B??nl??kke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, ??yvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schl??nssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of obj

  2. Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling as a Tool to Make the First Estimate of Safe Human Exposure Levels to Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo Astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure ot lunar dust. Habitats for exploration, whether mobile of fixed must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. We have used a new technique we call Comparative Benchmark Dose Modeling to estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission.

  3. Traffic signatures in suspended dust at pedestrian levels in semiarid zones: Implications for human exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; González-Grijalva, Belem; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Coimbra, Rute; Ochoa-Landin, Lucas; Moreno-Rodríguez, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Deeper knowledge on dust suspension processes along semiarid zones is critical for understanding potential impacts on human health. Hermosillo city, located in the heart of the Sonoran Desert was chosen to evaluate such impacts. A one-year survey of Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) was conducted at two different heights (pedestrian and rooftop level). The minimum values of TSPM were reported during monsoon season and winter. Maximum values showed a bimodal distribution, with major peaks associated with increase and decrease of temperature, as well as decreasing humidity. Concentrations of TSPM were significantly exceeded at pedestrian level (∼44% of analyzed days) when compared to roof level (∼18% of analyzed days). Metal concentrations of As, Pb, Cu, Sb, Be, Mg, Ni, and Co were higher at pedestrian level than at roof level. Pixel counting and interpretations based on scanning electron microscopy of dust filters showed a higher percentage of fine particulate fractions at pedestrian level. These fractions occur mainly as metal-enriched agglomerates resembling coarser particles. According to worldwide guidelines, particulate matter sampling should be conducted by monitoring particle sizes equal and inferior to PM10. However, this work suggests that such procedures may compromise risk assessment in semiarid environments, where coarse particles act as main carriers for emergent contaminants related to traffic. This effect is especially concerning at pedestrian level, leading to an underestimation of potential impacts of human exposure. This study brings forward novel aspects that are of relevance for those concerned with dust suspension processes across semiarid regions and related impact on human health.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor dust in China: levels, spatial distribution and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Wen-Long; Song, Wei-Wei; Qi, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor environment is an important source of human exposure to several toxicants, such as brominated flame retardants. Indoor dust samples were collected in winter season in 2010, which covered 23 provinces across China, for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PBDEs (Σ14PBDEs) ranged from 8.92 to 37,500 ng/g, with the mean of 3520 ng/g. BDE-209 was the most dominate congener, followed by BDE-183, BDE-47 and BDE-99. PBDE concentrations and the longitude were significantly correlated (pPBDEs through dust ingestion and dermal absorption indicated that the toddlers had the highest exposure dose, with the median value of 6.0 ng/kg-bw/day. According to the hazard quotients, health risk of PBDEs via dust ingestion in China is currently acceptable. Monte Carlo simulation was implemented to quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of exposure models for determining the most influential variables. The results suggested that more specific and accurate parameters should be used for dust ingestion and dermal absorption exposure models in future.

  5. Investigating relationships between biomarkers of exposure and environmental copper and manganese levels in house dusts from a Portuguese industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A P; Costa, S; Santos, I; Patinha, C; Noack, Y; Wragg, J; Cave, M; Sousa, A J

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on data obtained from a pilot survey focusing on house dust and toenail metal(loids) concentrations in residents living in the industrial city of Estarreja. The study design hereby described aims at investigating relationships between human toenails and both copper and manganese levels in settled house dusts. A total of 21 households and 30 individuals were recruited for the pilot study: 19 households corresponding to 27 residents living near the industrial complex, forming the exposed group, plus 2 households and 3 residents from residential areas with no anticipated environmental contaminants that were used for comparison. Factorial analysis was used for source identification purposes. Investigation on the potential influence of environmental factors over copper and manganese levels in the toenails was carried out via questionnaire data and multiple correspondence analysis. The results show that copper concentrations are more elevated in the indoor dusts, while manganese concentrations are more elevated in the outdoor dust samples. The geometrical relationships in the datasets suggest that the backyard soil is a probable source of manganese to the indoor dust. Copper and manganese contents in the toenail clippings are more elevated in children than in adults, but the difference between the two age groups is not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Investigation of environmental factors influencing the exposure-biomarker association indicates a probable relationship between manganese contents in indoor dust and manganese levels in toenail clippings, a result that is partially supported by the bioaccessibility estimates. However, for copper, no relationship was found between indoor dusts and the biomarkers of exposure.

  6. Historical exposure levels of inhalable dust in the Polish rubber industry compared to levels in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F.; Kromhout, H.; Sobala, W.; Peplonska, B.

    2009-02-01

    Although studies have been carried out to assess inhalable dust exposure levels in the rubber manufacturing industry, the levels of exposure in factories in Eastern Europe are less well documented. Routine stationary sampling for compliance testing of inhalable aerosols has however been conducted in a large factory producing tires and tubes in Poland between 1981 and 1996 (N=6,152). This study was conducted to assess historical inhalable aerosol levels in different departments in this rubber plant and to compare the results with estimates based on European data from the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany, and also Poland (EXASRUB project). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations in the factory ranged from 2.41 mg/m3 to 5.82 mg/m3 and were to a large extent associated to the actual production capacity of the plant and flow of the production process. Whereas 3-4 fold differences between departments existed prior to about 1985, stronger reduction of exposure in the raw materials and finishing departments (-12%/year) compared to other departments (range -5%/yr to -3%/yr), resulted in comparable levels in the 1990s. However, in the pre-treating departments, average concentrations were still about a factor 2-3 higher than in other departments, which could presumably be attributed to the use of anti-tacking agents. GM concentrations have been modelled using (1) stationary measurements collected in the Polish factory only, or (2) all European data collected in the EXASRUB project. Comparison of the estimates showed that these were fairly similar for both datasets. This analysis showed that the levels of inhalable aerosols in the Polish rubber industry have been at least a factor three to four higher than in Western European countries in the 1980s and 1990s, depending on the department, but that these differences were getting smaller in the 1990s. Furthermore, the estimates based on all European data from EXASRUB provides valid estimates compared to factory-specific data.

  7. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  8. Historical exposure levels of inhalable dust in the Polish rubber industry compared to levels in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vocht, F de [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, School of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Kromhout, H [Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sobala, W; Peplonska, B, E-mail: Frank.devocht@manchester.ac.u [Department of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology, NOFER Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2009-02-01

    Although studies have been carried out to assess inhalable dust exposure levels in the rubber manufacturing industry, the levels of exposure in factories in Eastern Europe are less well documented. Routine stationary sampling for compliance testing of inhalable aerosols has however been conducted in a large factory producing tires and tubes in Poland between 1981 and 1996 (N=6,152). This study was conducted to assess historical inhalable aerosol levels in different departments in this rubber plant and to compare the results with estimates based on European data from the UK, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany, and also Poland (EXASRUB project). Geometric mean (GM) concentrations in the factory ranged from 2.41 mg/m{sup 3} to 5.82 mg/m{sup 3} and were to a large extent associated to the actual production capacity of the plant and flow of the production process. Whereas 3-4 fold differences between departments existed prior to about 1985, stronger reduction of exposure in the raw materials and finishing departments (-12%/year) compared to other departments (range -5%/yr to -3%/yr), resulted in comparable levels in the 1990s. However, in the pre-treating departments, average concentrations were still about a factor 2-3 higher than in other departments, which could presumably be attributed to the use of anti-tacking agents. GM concentrations have been modelled using (1) stationary measurements collected in the Polish factory only, or (2) all European data collected in the EXASRUB project. Comparison of the estimates showed that these were fairly similar for both datasets. This analysis showed that the levels of inhalable aerosols in the Polish rubber industry have been at least a factor three to four higher than in Western European countries in the 1980s and 1990s, depending on the department, but that these differences were getting smaller in the 1990s. Furthermore, the estimates based on all European data from EXASRUB provides valid estimates compared to factory

  9. Occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust and hair samples from Northern Poland; an assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among most ubiquitous compounds to be found in indoor environment and ingestion of household dust is considered an important route of exposure to PBDEs, especially in toddlers and young children. The present work reported concentration levels of PBDE congeners (PBDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) in hair and dust samples from selected households from Northern Poland. The concentrations of PBDEs in dust ranged from PBDEs via ingestion of household dust varied from 21 to 92ngd(-1) in toddlers and from 3.7 to 20ngd(-1) in adults. By comparison of correlation between the concentrations of PBDEs in paired hair and dust samples the present work also investigated the possibility of use of hair for reflecting the actual exposure to PBDEs in humans. Finally the possible uncertainties associated with exposure assessment were investigated in the present study.

  10. The effects of exposure to diesel fumes, low-level radiation and respirable dust and quartz on cancer mortality in coalminers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Buchanan, D.; Hurley, J.F.; Robertson, A.; Hutchison, P.A.; Kidd, M.W.; Pilkington, A.; Soutar, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Following findings of the British National Coal Board's Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) major research programme into the health effects of respirable coal mine dust, a new programme was set up to identify and quantify any relationships between mortality from lung, stomach and other cancers, and exposure to respirable dust and quartz, diesel exhaust particulates from underground vehicles, and radon and thoron daughters. The cohort for analysis was 18,166 men, entering follow-up at various surveys from the 2nd to 6th round of the PFR programme. These contributed over 408,000 person-years at risk up to the end of 1992, and 7002 deaths. Investigations of exposure-response relationships for specific causes of death were based on comparisons within the cohort, using the general framework of Cox's proportional hazard regression models to adjust for age, smoking hazards, periods of cohort entry etc. Mortality from pneumoconiosis showed a clear relationship with exposure to respirable dust, which was a better predictor of risk than respirable quartz. Neither bladder cancer or leukaemia showed a significant relationship with any of the exposures. Stomach cancer risks were not related to dust or quartz exposure, nor to time spent in the industry, suggesting that the explanation for the raised Standardised Mortality Ratio lies elsewhere than in the conditions of work. In most of the analyses of lung cancer, there was no strong evidence of exposure effects. In one series of analyses, exposure to respirable quartz was related to lung cancer mortality at conventional levels of statistical significance, but the effect was strongly confounded with pit differences. A similar but weaker effect was observed with radiation exposures. These findings could be artefacts of other factors which differed between the working practices or surrounding environments of the collieries involved.

  11. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  12. Wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry using conventional and passive monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, V; Vinzents, P S; Mikkelsen, A B; Schaumburg, I

    2001-03-01

    A study of wood dust exposure at furniture factories in one county in Denmark was performed as a cross sectional study. Dust exposure was measured with personal passive dust monitors and calibrated against active sampling on filters. Measurements of 1685 workers were included in the exposure assessment. The passive dust monitor conversion models for equivalent concentrations of inhalable dust and total dust based on data from the present study were not significantly different from the original models. Therefore models based on all available data were used. The parameters of the distribution of equivalent concentration of inhalable dust were 0.94 mg/m3 (geometric mean) and 2.10 (geometric standard deviation). Compared with a national cross sectional study from 1988 the exposure level (geometric mean) was reduced by a factor 2.0. Inhalable dust exposure was about 50% higher than exposure measured by the Danish 'total' dust method.

  13. Dust exposure in indoor climbing halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Dirsch, Thomas; Ebert, Martin; Hofmann, Heiko; Kandler, Konrad

    2008-05-01

    The use of hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide (magnesia alba) for drying the hands is a strong source for particulate matter in indoor climbing halls. Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured with an optical particle counter in 9 indoor climbing halls and in 5 sports halls. Mean values for PM10 in indoor climbing halls are generally on the order of 200-500 microg m(-3). For periods of high activity, which last for several hours, PM10 values between 1000 and 4000 microg m(-3) were observed. PM(2.5) is on the order of 30-100 microg m(-3) and reaches values up to 500 microg m(-3), if many users are present. In sports halls, the mass concentrations are usually much lower (PM10 sport in which magnesia alba is also used) similar dust concentrations as for indoor climbing were observed. The size distribution and the total particle number concentration (3.7 nm-10 microm electrical mobility diameter) were determined in one climbing hall by an electrical aerosol spectrometer. The highest number concentrations were between 8000 and 12 000 cm(-3), indicating that the use of magnesia alba is no strong source for ultrafine particles. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that virtually all particles are hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide. In-situ experiments in an environmental scanning electron microscope showed that the particles do not dissolve at relative humidities up to 100%. Thus, it is concluded that solid particles of magnesia alba are airborne and have the potential to deposit in the human respiratory tract. The particle mass concentrations in indoor climbing halls are much higher than those reported for schools and reach, in many cases, levels which are observed for industrial occupations. The observed dust concentrations are below the current occupational exposure limits in Germany of 3 and 10 mg m(-3) for respirable and inhalable dust. However, the dust concentrations exceed the German guide

  14. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  15. Silica dust exposures during selected construction activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mary Ellen; Seixas, Noah; Majar, Maria; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study characterized exposure for dust-producing construction tasks. Eight common construction tasks were evaluated for quartz and respirable dust exposure by collecting 113 personal task period samples for cleanup; demolition with handheld tools; concrete cutting; concrete mixing; tuck-point grinding; surface grinding; sacking and patching concrete; and concrete floor sanding using both time-integrating filter samples and direct-reading respirable dust monitors. The geometric mean quartz concentration was 0.10 mg/m(3) (geometric standard deviation [GSD]=4.88) for all run time samples, with 71% exceeding the threshold limit value. Activities with the highest exposures were surface grinding, tuck-point grinding, and concrete demolition (GM[GSD] of 0.63[4.12], 0.22[1.94], and 0.10[2.60], respectively). Factors recorded each minute were task, tool, work area, respiratory protection and controls used, estimated cross draft, and whether anyone nearby was making dust. Factors important to exposure included tool used, work area configuration, controls employed, cross draft, and in some cases nearby dust. More protective respirators were employed as quartz concentration increased, although respiratory protection was found to be inadequate for 42% of exposures. Controls were employed for only 12% of samples. Exposures were reduced with three controls: box fan for surface grinding and floor sanding, and vacuum/shroud for surface grinding, with reductions of 57, 50, and 71%, respectively. Exposures were higher for sweeping compound, box fan for cleanup, ducted fan dilution, and wetted substrate. Construction masons and laborers are frequently overexposed to silica. The usual protection method, respirators, was not always adequate, and engineering control use was infrequent and often ineffective.

  16. Dust exposures in the wood processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D; Lee, J; Mayhew, T; Baker, W

    1999-01-01

    Workers at four different woodworking processes--two logging sites, four sawmills, one major woodchipping operation, and five joineries situated in the state of New South Wales in Australia--were studied for personal inhalable dust exposures (N = 182). The geometric mean exposure at logging sites was 0.6 mg/m3 (N = 7), sawmills 1.6 mg/m3 (N = 93), woodchipping 1.9 mg/m3 (N = 9), and joineries 3.7 mg/m3 (N = 66). Overall, 62% of the exposures exceeded the current standards. Among joineries, 95% of the hardwood exposures and 35% of the softwood exposures were above the relevant standards. A majority of workers (approximately 90%) did not wear appropriate respirators approved for wood dust, while the ones who did wear them, used them on average less than 50% of the time. The significant determinants of personal wood dust exposures (n = 163) were found to be local exhaust ventilation, job title, use of handheld tools, cleaning method used, use of compressed air, and green or dry wood processed. Type of wood processed (softwood or hardwood) was not found to be statistically significant.

  17. Undisturbed dust as a metric of long-term indoor insecticide exposure: Residential DDT contamination from indoor residual spraying and its association with serum levels in the VHEMBE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bornman, Riana; Crause, Madelein; Obida, Muvhulawa; Barr, Dana Boyd; Bradman, Asa; Bouwman, Henk; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although approximately 123 million people may be exposed to high levels of insecticides through the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control, few studies exist on indoor insecticide contamination due to IRS and its relationship with human exposure. In the present study, we developed a sampling method to collect undisturbed dust from 50 homes in Limpopo, South Africa, a region where dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used in IRS programs to prevent malaria for ~70years. We quantified DDT and its degradation products, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in dust samples to determine dust loading levels and compared these levels to paired serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in women residents. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE had the highest detection frequencies in both dust (58% and 34% detection, respectively) and serum samples (98% and 100% detection, respectively). Significantly higher detection frequencies for o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD were observed in dust samples collected in buildings that had been previously sprayed for malaria control. We also observed a significant, positive association between dust loading and serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE (Spearman's rho=0.68 and 0.54, respectively). Despite the low detection frequency in dust, our results indicate that undisturbed dust may be a good metric to quantify long-term home exposure to DDT-related compounds and that contamination of the home environment may be an important determinant/source of DDT and DDE exposure.

  18. PBDEs Levels in House Dust and Human Exposure to PBDEs via Dust Ingestion in Hangzhou%杭州城区室内灰尘中多溴联苯醚的含量及人体暴露水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金漫彤; 滕丹丹; 郑艳霞; 胡张璇; 沈学优; 金赞芳

    2016-01-01

    为了评估杭州城区室内灰尘中多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)污染程度,2013年3~8月,在杭州城区随机采集19个办公室、家庭和学生宿舍的室内灰尘样品.用 GC-ECD 定量分析了样品中14种 PBDEs 同系物的含量水平、同系物分布和可能的影响因素,并估算了成年人和儿童通过灰尘摄入对 PBDEs 的暴露水平.结果表明,办公室∑14 PBDEs 的平均值9.28×102 ng•g -1,中值为1.03×103 ng•g -1;家庭∑14 PBDEs 的平均值7.83×102 ng•g -1,中值为9.11×102 ng•g -1;学生宿舍∑14 PBDEs 的平均值4.07×102 ng•g -1,中值为4.03×102 ng•g -1,办公室的污染水平高于居住环境. BDE-209是贡献值最大的单体,其贡献值为75.48%,其次分别是 BDE-190、 BDE-154和 BDE-71.成年人和儿童通过灰尘摄入的 PBDEs 暴露水平分别为13.12~32.63 ng•d -1和32.40~54.54 ng•d -1,灰尘中儿童的 PBDEs 人体暴露量高于成人的人体暴露量,主要是因为儿童灰尘摄入量要高于成人.分析得出,从室内灰尘摄入的 PBDEs 存在健康隐患,儿童潜在危害最大.%In order to evaluate the pollution degree of the dust in Hangzhou City, the indoor dust samples of 19 offices, families and students’ dormitories were collected from August to March in 2013 at Hangzhou for evaluating the pollution level of polybrominated diphenyl ethers ( PBDEs), to analyze concentrations of 14 PBDEs congeners and congener distribution as well as the possible influencing factors, and to estimate the PBDEs exposure levels of adults and children through the dust intake. The results showed that the average ∑14 PBDEs of office was 9. 28 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 1. 03 × 103 ng•g - 1; the average ∑14 PBDEs of family was 7. 83 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 9. 11 × 102 ng•g - 1; the average ∑14 PBDEs of student dormitory was 4. 07 × 102 ng•g - 1 , and the median was 4. 03 × 102 ng•g - 1 . The pollution level of the office was higher

  19. Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica coffee processing factories in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.

  20. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7 and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ≥0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

  1. Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis in a South African pottery. 1. Study objectives and dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D; Cronje, R; du Toit, R S

    1992-07-01

    Dust exposure and pneumoconiosis were investigated in a South African pottery that manufactured wall tiles and bathroom fittings. This paper describes the objectives of the investigation and presents dust measurement data. x Ray diffraction showed that the clays used by the pottery had a high quartz content (range 58%-23%, mean 38%). Exposure to respirable dust was measured for 43 workers and was highest (6.6 mg/m3) in a bathroom fitting fettler. Quartz concentrations in excess of 0.1 mg/m3 were found in all sections of the manufacturing process from slip production to biscuit firing and sorting. The proportion of quartz in the respirable dust of these sections was 24% to 33%. This is higher than is usually reported in English potteries. Four hundred and six (80%) of the 509 workers employed at the pottery were potentially at risk of occupational lung disease. The finding of large numbers of pottery workers exposed to unacceptable dust concentrations is not surprising as poor dust control was found in all six wall tile and sanitary ware factories surveyed by the National Centre for Occupational Health between 1973 and 1989. Dust related occupational disease can be expected in potters for many years to come.

  2. Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Iversen, Martin; Brandslund, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Work in swine confinement buildings leads to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. We compared the inflammatory response of a control group of young former farm workers with age-matched former farm workers who had previously developed...... the lower airway symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings, and because of these symptoms had stopped work. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for 3 hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins...

  3. Decreased osteoblasts and increased osteoclasts in rats after coal dust exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Zoelkarnain Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling is a physiological process of cortical and trabecular bone reconstruction, with initial bone resorption, by osteoclasts and concurrent bone formation by osteoblasts. Oxidative stress due to coal dust exposure is not only found in the lungs, but also in the circulation or systemically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oxidative stress from coal dust exposure on the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in rats. In this experimental study, four groups were evaluated: control; coal dust exposure at 6.25 mg/m3 for 28 days; coal dust exposure at 12.5 mg/m3 for 28 days; coal dust exposure at 25 mg/m3 for 28 days (all exposures were given daily for one hour. Circulatory oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde level. Osteoblast and osteoclast numbers were counted by light microscopic examination of distal femoral cross-sections stained with hematoxylin eosin. This study showed that malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in coal dust exposure groups, in comparison with the control group (p0.05. Coal dust exposure increased malondialdehyde level and osteoclast numbers, and decreased osteoblast numbers, but no correlation was found between oxidative stress (caused by coal dust exposure and osteoblast and osteoclast numbers.

  4. [Occupational exposure to wood dust. Health effects and exposure limit values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, M; Goldberg, M; Luce, D

    2002-04-01

    This article presents a review of the health effects of occupational exposure to wood dusts and of the data that could be used for setting occupational exposure limits for this nuisance. The causal role of wood dust in the onset of sinonasal cancers is solidly established by numerous epidemiological studies, and the magnitude of the risk is particularly high for adenocarcinoma induced by exposure to hardwood dust. However, no current data allows to rule out the carcinogenic role of softwood dusts and, in the view of protecting the health of the workers, it does not seem relevant to distinguish these two types of wood. Various impairments of the lung function have been frequently associated with exposure to both 'allergenic' and 'non-allergenic' wood dusts and may occur at very low concentrations. According to the SUMER 94 and CAREX studies, about 200 000 workers are currently exposed to wood dusts in France (about 1% of the working population between 1990 and 1994). When taking into account full professional careers, the percentage of workers having been occupationally exposed can be estimated to be about 15% for men and 5% for women. Measurements performed in France between 1987 and 2000 show that exposure levels are high, about 50% of the samplings being over 1mg/m(3) (actual TWA in France). Although the studies present limits, particularly for the quantitative assessment of individual exposure levels, it seems that nonmalignant effects are susceptible to arise at the level of 1mg/m(3); a limit value of 0.5mg/m(3) would credibly allow to protect exposed workers from most of the risks of nonmalignant pulmonary effects. However, it is impossible to assure that this value will avoid the induction of sinonasal cancer, even if this level is certainly lower than the levels to which the cases of sinonasal cancers published in the literature were exposed.

  5. Mechanisms of particle-induced pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model: exposure to wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juha; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Haapakoski, Rita; Majuri, Marja-Leena; Wolff, Henrik; Rautio, Sari; Welling, Irma; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has long been known to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis and impairment of lung function. However, the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses of the airways after wood dust exposure are poorly known. We used a mouse model to elucidate the mechanisms of particle-induced inflammatory responses to fine wood dust particles. BALB/c mice were exposed to intranasally administered fine (more than 99% of the particles had a particle size of dusts twice a week for 3 weeks. PBS, LPS, and titanium dioxide were used as controls. Intranasal instillation of birch or oak dusts elicited influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs in mice. Enhancement of lymphocytes and neutrophils was seen after oak dust exposure, whereas eosinophil infiltration was higher after birch dust exposure. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was associated with an increase in the mRNA levels of several cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in lung tissue. Oak dust appeared to be a more potent inducer of these inflammatory mediators than birch dust. The results from our in vivo mouse model show that repeated airway exposure to wood dust can elicit lung inflammation, which is accompanied by induction of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Oak and birch dusts exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences in the elicitation of pulmonary inflammation, suggesting that the inflammatory responses induced by the wood species may rise via different cellular mechanisms.

  6. EXPOSURE TO SWINE HOUSING DUST MODULATES MACROPHAGE MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth J. Pender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine Confinement Facility (SCF dust consists of a complex mixture of feed grain particles, bacterial components, organic particulates and gases. When these particles are inhaled they deposit along the respiratory tract and mediate respiratory symptoms and disease in swine farmers and facility workers. Macrophages ingest and eliminate microbes and debris under chronic conditions; however, the role of macrophages in agricultural-related respiratory disease has not been fully elucidated. The goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to SCF dust causes inflammation by modulating pulmonary protein levels and macrophage function. Balb/c mice were exposed to 5, 12.5 and 25% SCF Dust Extract (DE via nebulization 30 min/day five days a week, for eight weeks with weekends excluded. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF was collected and analyzed for protein concentration, leukocyte distribution and macrophage morphology. For comparison, THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to 0.1-10% DE overnight and evaluated for phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species production. Repeated exposure to DE via nebulizer caused a significant increase in protein concentration and inflammatory cell number, namely macrophages, in a dose-dependent manner within the lung as compared to controls. Macrophages with pseudopods and vacuoles were the most abundant leukocytes within BALF of mice exposed to DE. Similarly, in vitro studies with 10% DE treated THP-1 cells revealed enhanced phagocytosis (p<0.05, pseudopodia and vacuolization following exposure to compared to control cells. In addition, there were time- and dose-dependent increases of intracellular ROS production by THP-1 cells exposed to 5 and 10% DE compared to control (p<0.01. These findings indicate repeated, long-term inhalation of swine confinement facility dust may mediate chronic airway and lung inflammation through modulation of protein concentration and macrophage function. The aerosolized dust

  7. Respiratory function and exposure-effect relationships in wood dust-exposed and control workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, D L; Sass-Kortsak, A M; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1985-07-01

    The effect of wood dust exposure on 50 cabinet makers was examined. Woodworkers reported more nasal and eye symptoms and more cough, sputum and wheezing than did 49 control workers. More irritated cells were present in the woodworkers' nasal cytological smears. In contrast to the control workers, the woodworkers had a significant decline in lung function over the workshift. An inverse correlation between baseline lung function and an exposure index (mean area dust level multiplied by length of exposure) was demonstrated in the woodworkers. Greater dust exposure was not associated with larger falls in lung function over the work shift.

  8. Organic dust exposures from compost handling: case presentation and respiratory exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Kullman, G; Petsonk, E; Jones, W G; Olenchock, S; Sorenson, W; Parker, J; Marcelo-Baciu, R; Frazer, D; Castranova, V

    1993-10-01

    Inhalation of dust from contaminated organic materials may result in acute respiratory tract illness. Possible mechanisms include toxic and cellular reactions to microbial and other organic products or immunologic responses after prior sensitization to an antigen. A case is presented of a 52 year old male who developed fever, myalgia, and marked dyspnea 12 hr after shoveling composted wood chips and leaves. Inspiratory crackles, hypoxemia, and bilateral patchy pulmonary infiltrates were seen. Precipitating antibody tests for the usual antigens were inconclusive. He improved over 3 days. In order to assess the environmental conditions the patient had experienced, we returned to the site to reproduce and measure respiratory exposures during hand loading of the compost. Visible clouds of fine particulate were easily generated during handling activities. Microscopic examination of these dusts indicated a predominance of spores. Endotoxin concentrations from inspirable and respirable dust samples ranged from 636 to 16,300 endotoxin units/m3. Levels of contaminants found were consistent with those associated with respiratory illness in other agricultural settings. Two respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS), may occur after exposure to organic dusts containing fungal spores and endotoxins. Despite extensive clinical and environmental investigations, we were unable to differentiate these two disorders, and suggest they may represent parts of a spectrum of responses to complex organic dusts, rather than completely distinct clinical entities.

  9. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  10. Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Iversen, Martin; Brandslund, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    -reactive protein and alpha(1)-antitrypsin peaked after 2 h. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and alpha (2) -macroglobulin were downregulated. In lavage, only SP-D, alpha (2)-macroglobulin and fibronectin were detected. FEV(1), FVC, TLC and FEV(25-75) did not vary during exposure. There was complement activation...

  11. Western red cedar dust exposure and lung function: a dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noertjojo, H K; Dimich-Ward, H; Peelen, S; Dittrick, M; Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between levels of cumulative red cedar dust exposure and decline in lung function was explored in an 11-yr follow-up study of 243 sawmill workers who participated in at least two occasions. We also studied 140 office workers in a similar manner as control subjects. Workers with asthma were excluded from the analysis. During the period of the study, 916 personal and 216 area samples of dust were collected from the sawmill. Cumulative wood dust exposure was calculated for each sawmill worker according to the duration and exposure in each job, based on the geometric mean of all dust measurements for that job. Average daily dust exposure was calculated by dividing the total cumulative exposure by the number of days of work. Workers were divided into low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups with mean daily level of exposure of 0.4 mg/m3, respectively. Sawmill workers had significantly greater declines in FEV1 and FVC compared with office workers adjusted for age, smoking, and initial lung function. A dose-response relationship was observed between the level of exposure and the annual decline in FVC. We conclude that exposure to Western red cedar dust is associated with a greater decline in lung function which may lead to development of chronic airflow limitation.

  12. Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Msamanga, G.I.; Burstyn, I.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Heederik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Workers in small-scale wood industries (SSWI) have increased risks of developing asthma and other respiratory diseases. Wood dust and microbial agents have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured endotoxin exposure in SSWI in Africa. We assessed inhalable dust levels in 281

  13. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  14. Influence of continuous mining arrangements on respirable dust exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, T. W.; Organiscak, J. A.; Pollock, D. E.; Potts, J. D.; Reed, W. R.

    2017-01-01

    In underground continuous mining operations, ventilation, water sprays and machine-mounted flooded-bed scrubbers are the primary means of controlling respirable dust exposures at the working face. Changes in mining arrangements — such as face ventilation configuration, orientation of crosscuts mined in relation to the section ventilation and equipment operator positioning — can have impacts on the ability of dust controls to reduce occupational respirable dust exposures. This study reports and analyzes dust concentrations measured by the Pittsburgh Mining Research Division for remote-controlled continuous mining machine operators as well as haulage operators at 10 U.S. underground mines. The results of these respirable dust surveys show that continuous miner exposures varied little with depth of cut but are significantly higher with exhaust ventilation. Haulage operators experienced elevated concentrations with blowing face ventilation. Elevated dust concentrations were observed for both continuous miner operators and haulage operators when working in crosscuts driven into or counter to the section airflow. Individual cuts are highlighted to demonstrate instances of minimal and excessive dust exposures attributable to particular mining configurations. These findings form the basis for recommendations for lowering face worker respirable dust exposures. PMID:28529441

  15. Silica dust exposure: Effect of filter size to compliance determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Suhaily; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz; Leman, Abdul Mutalib; Goh, Eric; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring of respirable dust was performed using a set of integrated sampling system consisting of sampling pump attached with filter media and separating device such as cyclone or special cassette. Based on selected method, filter sizes are either 25 mm or 37 mm poly vinyl chloride (PVC) filter. The aim of this study was to compare performance of two types of filter during personal respirable dust sampling for silica dust under field condition. The comparison strategy focused on the final compliance judgment based on both dataset. Eight hour parallel sampling of personal respirable dust exposure was performed among 30 crusher operators at six quarries. Each crusher operator was attached with parallel set of integrated sampling train containing either 25 mm or 37 mm PVC filter. Each set consisted of standard flow SKC sampler, attached with SKC GS3 cyclone and 2 pieces cassette loaded with 5.0 µm of PVC filter. Samples were analyzed by gravimetric technique. Personal respirable dust exposure between the two types of filters indicated significant positive correlation (p arithmetic mean(AM) and geometric mean(GM). In overall we concluded that personal respirable dust exposure either based on 25mm or 37mm PVC filter will give similar compliance determination. Both filters are reliable to be used in respirable dust monitoring for silica dust related exposure.

  16. 2013 Summit on Reducing Exposure to Dust from Treated Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pollinator Summit was part of EPA's ongoing collaboration with stakeholders to manage pesticide risks to bees. Focus: how to protect bees from unintended pesticide exposure, esp. dust in agricultural planting operations using pesticide-coated seeds.

  17. Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Kristin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo Ag; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Bibi, Momina; Bottai, Matteo; Bergström, Anna; Berglund, Marika

    2017-03-05

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier. The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266μg/g dust, respectively, and the non-phthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foam mattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling room were associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust. Children's exposure from preschool dust ingestion was below established health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2-27% of the total exposure. We found significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

  18. Systemic Inflammation Associated With World Trade Center Dust Exposures and Airway Abnormalities in the Local Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeros, Angeliki; Zhang, Enhan; Cheng, Xin; Shao, Yongzhao; Liu, Mengling; Qian, Meng; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta M; Ghumman, Muhammad; Chokshi, Neel P; Levy-Carrick, Nomi; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Parsia, Sam; Marmor, Michael; Reibman, Joan

    2015-06-01

    Destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001, released massive dust, gas, and fumes with environmental exposures for community members. Many community members have lower respiratory symptoms (LRSs) that began after September 11, 2001, and remain persistent. We evaluated whether systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein was associated with WTC dust exposures, persistent LRS, and lung function. Community members self-referred for the treatment of symptoms related to September 11, 2001. C-reactive protein and lung function measurements, including spirometry and forced oscillation tests (impulse oscillometry system), were included as routine analyses in patients (2007 to 2012). Increased C-reactive protein levels were associated with the type of WTC dust exposure, LRS, reduced spirometry, and increased forced oscillation measurements (n = 724). Ongoing systemic inflammation measured years after the event was associated with WTC dust exposures, persistent LRS, and abnormal lung function in a community cohort. These findings have implications for treatment and surveillance.

  19. Organophosphorus flame retardants in house dust from the Philippines: occurrence and assessment of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Malarvannan, Govindan; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Muto, Mamoru; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-02-01

    The use of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) as flame retardants and plasticizers has increased due to the ban on common polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures. However, only limited information on PFR contamination is available so far from Southeast Asia. In the present study, residual levels of PFRs in house dust and exposure through dust ingestion were investigated in the Philippines. House dust samples (n = 37) were collected from Malate (residential area) and Payatas (municipal dumping area) in the Philippines and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Among the targeted seven PFRs, triphenyl phosphate (TPP) was the predominant compound. Median levels of ΣPFRs in Malate (530 ng/g) were two times higher (p < 0.05) than in Payatas (240 ng/g). The estimated daily intake of PFRs in the Philippines (of areas studied) via house dust ingestion was below the guideline values. House dust may be an important contributor in the overall exposure of humans to TPP even when considering dietary sources. To our knowledge, this is a first report on PFR contamination in house dust from developing country. PFRs were ubiquitously detected in the home environments in the Philippines. Although estimated exposure levels through dust ingestion were below the guideline, it was suggested that toddlers are at higher risk. Therefore, further investigations to understand the behavior of PFRs in house and other microenvironments and overall exposure pathways for the country's populace to PFRs are necessary.

  20. Assessment of bioaerosols and inhalable dust exposure in Swiss sawmills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Anne; Rusca, Sophie; Charrière, Nicole; Vu Duc, Trinh; Droz, Pierre-Olivier

    2005-07-01

    An assessment of wood workers' exposure to airborne cultivable bacteria, fungi, inhalable endotoxins and inhalable organic dust was performed at 12 sawmills that process mainly coniferous wood species. In each plant, samples were collected at four or five different work sites (debarking, sawing, sorting, planing and sawing cockpit) and the efficiency of sampling devices (impinger or filter) for determining endotoxins levels was evaluated. Results show that fungi are present in very high concentrations (up to 35 000 CFU m(-3)) in all sawmills. We also find that there are more bioaerosols at the sorting work site (mean +/- SD: 7723 +/- 9919 CFU m(-3) for total bacteria, 614 +/- 902 CFU m(-3) for Gram-negative, 19 438 +/- 14 246 CFU m(-3) for fungi, 7.0 +/- 9.0 EU m(-3) for endotoxin and 2.9 +/- 4.8 g m(-3) for dust) than at the sawing station (mean +/- SD: 1938 +/- 2478 CFU m(-3) for total bacteria, 141 +/- 206 CFU m(-3) for Gram-negative, 12 207 +/- 10 008 CFU m(-3) for fungi, 2.1 +/- 1.9 EU m(-3) for endotoxin and 0.75 +/- 0.49 mg m(-3) for dust). At the same time, the species composition and concentration of airborne Gram-negative bacteria were studied. Penicillinium sp. were the predominant fungi, while Bacillus sp. and the Pseudomonadacea family were the predominant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria encountered, respectively.

  1. Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Anders B; Schlunssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger

    2002-11-01

    This paper investigates the relation between wood dust exposure in the furniture industry and occupational hygiene variables. During the winter 1997-98 54 factories were visited and 2362 personal, passive inhalable dust samples were obtained; the geometric mean was 0.95 mg/m(3) and the geometric standard deviation was 2.08. In a first measuring round 1685 dust concentrations were obtained. For some of the workers repeated measurements were carried out 1 (351) and 2 weeks (326) after the first measurement. Hygiene variables like job, exhaust ventilation, cleaning procedures, etc., were documented. A multivariate analysis based on mixed effects models was used with hygiene variables being fixed effects and worker, machine, department and factory being random effects. A modified stepwise strategy of model making was adopted taking into account the hierarchically structured variables and making possible the exclusion of non-influential random as well as fixed effects. For woodworking, the following determinants of exposure increase the dust concentration: manual and automatic sanding and use of compressed air with fully automatic and semi-automatic machines and for cleaning of work pieces. Decreased dust exposure resulted from the use of compressed air with manual machines, working at fully automatic or semi-automatic machines, functioning exhaust ventilation, work on the night shift, daily cleaning of rooms, cleaning of work pieces with a brush, vacuum cleaning of machines, supplementary fresh air intake and safety representative elected within the last 2 yr. For handling and assembling, increased exposure results from work at automatic machines and presence of wood dust on the workpieces. Work on the evening shift, supplementary fresh air intake, work in a chair factory and special cleaning staff produced decreased exposure to wood dust. The implications of the results for the prevention of wood dust exposure are discussed.

  2. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  3. Respiratory health effects and exposure to superabsorbent polymer and paper dust - an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to dust from absorbent hygiene products containing superabsorbent polymer is related to symptoms from the airways and from the eyes. The secondary aim was to estimate the current exposure to superabsorbent polymer among production and maintenance workers in a plant producing hygiene products. Methods The cohort comprised 1043 workers of whom 689 were exposed to super absorbent polymer and 804 were exposed to paper dust (overlapping groups. There was 186 workers not exposed to either superabsorbent polymer or to paper dust They were investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about exposure, asthma, rhinitis and symptoms from eyes and airways. The results were analyzed with logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, atopy and smoking habits. An aerosol sampler equipped with a polytetrafluoroethylene filter with 1 μm pore size was used for personal samplings in order to measure inhalable dust and superabsorbent polymer. Results The prevalence of nasal crusts (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-2.0 and nose-bleeding (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4 was increased among the paper dust exposed workers (adjusted for superabsorbent polymer exposure. There were no significant effects associated with exposure to superabsorbent polymer (adjusted for paper dust exposure. The average exposure to inhalable levels of total dust (paper dust varied between 0.40 and 1.37 mg/m3. For superabsorbent polymer dust the average exposure varied between 0.02 and 0.81 mg/m3. Conclusions In conclusion, our study shows that workers manufacturing diapers in the hygiene industry have an increased prevalence of symptoms from the nose, especially nose-bleeding. There was no relation between exposure to superabsorbent polymer and symptoms from eyes, nose or respiratory tract, but exposure to paper dust was associated with nose-bleeding and nasal crusts. This group of workers had also a considerable

  4. Dust exposure and health of workers in duck hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Guillam

    2017-07-01

    Hatchery workers were at increased risk of compromised respiratory health due to dust exposure, particularly those who work in sorting rooms. Asthma and rhinitis were in excess in this population of workers. Thorough clinical examination of these workers should be performed and all exposures assessed.

  5. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070079803; Zock, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095184309; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  6. Mineral dust exposure in young Indian adults: an effect on lung growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D A; McAlpine, G; Semple, S; Cowie, H; Seaton, A

    2008-05-01

    Long-term occupational exposure to mineral dusts including quartz is known to cause pneumoconiosis but little is known about the effects of such exposure during the period of lung development in childhood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on young people of exposure to mineral dusts. We carried out a cross-sectional study of a group of 81 Indian stone crushers (average age 21) and a control group of 72 nearby slum dwellers (average age 21) in order to assess dust exposures, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Stone crushers' corrected 8-hour time weighted average concentrations of total inhalable dust, respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 143 mg/m(3), 39.7 mg/m(3) and 2.29 mg/m(3) respectively, which are 14, 10 and 23 times the UK workplace exposure limits, respectively. Both groups also had high exposures to outdoor and general domestic particulate matter. Compared to controls, stone crushers had significantly more symptoms, lower levels of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory time (FET) and higher levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/FVC ratio and mid-expiratory flow rate (MEF). There were no differences in FEV(1) levels. Symptoms and lung function were not associated with time lived on site or time spent in job. A selection of chest radiographs showed no silicosis by International Labour Office (ILO) criteria. Individuals exposed to mixed mineral dust in childhood and early adult life had excess symptoms and reduced vital capacity without airflow obstruction compared with control subjects. We interpret this as evidence of stunting of lung growth caused by exposure to respirable dust.

  7. Emphysema and dust exposure in a group of coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckley, V.A.; Gauld, S.J.; Chapman, J.S.; Davis, J.M.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.; Lamb, D.

    1984-04-01

    The lungs of 450 coal miners who had been studied previously in a long-term epidemiologic project at 24 British mines have been examined post-mortem for signs of dust-related fibrosis and emphysema. Reliable estimates of cumulative (working-life) exposures to respirable mine dust were available for 342 of the men. The relative frequency of emphysema increased with age at death, and both panacinar and centriacinar emphysema occurred more frequently in smokers than in nonsmokers. The proportion of subjects with any emphysema was 47% in 92 men with no palpable dust lesions, 65% in 183 with small, simple pneumoconiotic lesions, and 83% in 175 miners with massive fibrosis (PMF). The chance of finding centriacinar emphysema in those with PMF increased significantly with increasing exposure to coal dust in life (p less than 0.025). A similar but less convincing relationship was found in those with simple pneumoconiosis (p less than 0.11), but in both groups, increasing amounts of ash with a given exposure to coal reduced the probability of finding centriacinar emphysema. The occurrence of centriacinar emphysema was associated also with increasing amounts of dust retained in the lungs. A preliminary exploration of this association did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs clear dust less efficiently. We conclude that the association observed between exposure to respirable coal dust and emphysema in coal miners indicates a causal relationship. However, because it can be demonstrated only for men whose lungs show some dust-related fibrosis, it is suggested that the extent and nature of such fibrosis may be a crucial factor in determining the presence of centriacinar emphysema.

  8. Occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A systematic overview of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, A D; Muir, D C; Shannon, H S; Stock, S R; Hnizdo, E; Lange, H J

    1993-07-01

    The object of this study was to assess the relationship between occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies were identified using MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 1991), SCISEARCH, manual review of reference lists, and personal contact with more than 30 international experts. Studies of COPD, lung function, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or mortality in workers exposed to nonorganic dust were retrieved. Studies were included if dust exposure was measured quantitatively, and a quantitative relationship between dust exposure and one of the outcomes of interest was calculated while controlling at least for smoking and age. Methodological rigor was assessed, and data regarding the study populations, prognostic factors, and outcomes were extracted independently by two reviewers. Thirteen reports derived from four cohorts of workers met our inclusion criteria. Three of the cohorts were of coal miners and one was of gold miners. All of the studies found a statistically significant association between loss of lung function and cumulative respirable dust exposure. It was estimated that 80 (95% CI, 34 to 137) of 1,000 nonsmoking coal miners with a cumulative respirable dust exposure of 122.5 gh/m3 (considered equivalent to 35 years of work with a mean respirable dust level of 2 mg/m3) could be expected to develop a clinically important (> 20%) loss of FEV1 attributable to dust. Among 1,000 smoking miners the comparable estimate was 66 (95% CI, 49 to 84). The risk of a clinically important loss of lung function attributable to dust among nonsmoking gold miners was estimated to be three times as large as for coal miners at less than one fifth of the cumulative respirable dust exposure (21.3 gh/m3), the maximal exposure observed among the cohort of gold miners. We conclude that occupational dust is an important cause of COPD, and the risk appears to be greater for gold miners than for coal miners. One possible explanation of the greater

  9. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, K; Lofstedt, H; Berg, P; Eriksson, K; Axelsson, S; Bryngelsson, I; Fedeli, C

    2003-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment.

  10. [Exposure to silica dust in the Polish construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Maciejewska, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    In the construction industry, free crystalline silica (FCS), mostly in the form of quartz, is in a very common use. Construction, especially repair and demolition works, are associated with emission of considerable amounts of FCS-containing dusts. Studies concerning the work environment, carried out recently in other countries, indicate that exposure to quartz frequently exceeds hygiene standards, i.e. safety limits for workers' health. The aim of this study was to assess dust exposure of workers employed at selected workposts in the construction industry in Poland. The Polish study was performed in a group of workers employed in large and small enterprises and involved in establishing new constructions and demolishing old buildings. The group comprised 43 workers, employed at 9 workposts, who underwent 107 measurements of dust concentrations, of which 78 measurements were included in the analysis. At each workpost, concentrations of inhalable and respirable dusts were measured with the filtration and gravimetric method. Individual dust dosimeters were used to collect air samples and infrared spectrometry to determine concentrations of FCS dusts in samples of inhalable and respirable dusts. An identification analysis of dust samples was performed with use of X-ray diffraction. The results of the study show that geometric means of inhalable dust concentrations fell within a wide range from 2.1 (concrete mixer operator, plasterer) to 66.0 mg/m3 (laborer engaged in hand demolition), and those of respirable dust at the same workposts ranged from 0.4 to 16.2 mg/m3, respectively. Quartz was present in the majority of construction materials applied, and its concentration in inhalable dusts ranged from 7 to 13 mg/m3. It was found that dust concentrations exceeded hygiene standards at most of the workposts. Particularly high concentrations were observed at the workposts of surface abrasive grinders-coat finishers and workers engaged in drilling and hammering wholes. In

  11. Effect of exposure to dust on lung function of cement factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, H; Yap, C L; Zolkepli, O; Faridah, M

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to Portland cement dust has long been associated with the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and varying degrees of airway obstruction in man. Apart from respiratory diseases, it was also found to be the cause of lung and laryngeal cancer, gastrointestinal tumours and also dermatitis. This study was done to investigate the effect of dust exposure on ventilatory lung function of Portland cement factory workers in Rawang, Selangor. Spirometry tests of 62 male workers (exposed to total dust concentration of 10,180 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 8049 micrograms/m3) and 70 subjects from UPM (exposed to mean total dust of 192 micrograms/m3 and PM10 of 177 micrograms/m3--controls) revealed significant differences in spirometry values between the groups. The workers showed i) significantly lower FEV1% and FEF25-75%, and higher FMFT, ii) reduced FEV1% with increasing level of dust exposure and iii) higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Therefore, we suggest that exposure to dust in the cement factory leads to higher incidence of respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function.

  12. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: estimating residential soil and house dust exposures to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Kerger, Brent D

    2013-04-01

    The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study provides extensive data on elevated residential soil and house dust concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and adult body burdens among residents near a chemical manufacturing plant in Midland, Michigan. Recent reports found no significant contribution of residential soil/dust concentrations to serum lipid PCDD/Fs in adults. Although child body burdens were not studied by the University of Michigan, internal dose modeling that incorporates recent findings on demonstrated shorter elimination half life of PCDD/Fs in children (1-2 year half life in children vs. ~7 years in older adults) can be applied to assess this important issue. The model examines children (ages 0-7 years) with background dietary intake and exposure to residential soils at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 pg/g 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents, TEQ) using the congener patterns observed in Midland. Model predictions assuming 50th percentile TEQ uptake from soil/dust-related dermal and ingestion exposures indicate no measurable changes in serum lipid TEQ concentrations up to 1000 pg/g in soil/dust. Assuming 95th percentile uptake, the model shows no measurable serum lipid TEQ change up to 100 pg/g in soil/dust, but serum lipid TEQ levels rose ~2 pg/g at 1000 pg/g in soil/dust. Since the vast majority of soil/dust data were below 100 pg/g, Michigan children exposed to such soil/dust TEQ concentrations are not reasonably expected to exhibit measurable changes in serum lipid TEQ concentrations when compared to typical background dietary exposures. With adequate data, this approach can be applied to evaluate child dose and risk for other persistent chemicals.

  13. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  14. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    New initiatives to begin lunar and martian colonization within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. One of NASA's major concerns with extended human space exploration is the inadvertent and repeated exposure to unknown dust. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates both the geochemical reactivity (e.g. iron solubility and acellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and the relative toxicity (e.g. in vitro and in vivo pulmonary inflammation) of six meteorite samples representing either basalt or regolith breccia on the surface of the Moon, Mars, and Asteroid 4Vesta. Terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is also used for comparison. The MORB demonstrated higher geochemical reactivity than most of the meteorite samples but caused the lowest acute pulmonary inflammation (API). Notably, the two martian meteorites generated some of the highest API but only the basaltic sample is significantly reactive geochemically. Furthermore, while there is a correlation between a meteorite's soluble iron content and its ability to generate acellular ROS, there is no direct correlation between a particle's ability to generate ROS acellularly and its ability to generate API. However, assorted in vivo API markers did demonstrate strong positive correlations with increasing bulk Fenton metal content. In summary, this comprehensive dataset allows for not only the toxicological evaluation of astromaterials but also clarifies important correlations between geochemistry and health.

  15. Worker exposure to silica dust in South African non-mining industries in Gauteng: An exploratory study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, NN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available /m?, respectively. Of the occupations measured, 53% were exposed to silica dust at above the RSA-OEL. 18 The clay worker and dispatch clerk occupations were exposed to silica dust where mean, median and maximum levels exceeded the RSA-OEL of silica dust. Only 2... of silica dust exposure, as this is the one of the major industries reported in literature. 4.5 Ceramics/potteries Handling clay or sand that contains silica is the main source of worker exposure to respirable silica in the ceramics/pottery working...

  16. Inhalable dust and protein exposure in soybean processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Adri; Rees, David; Fourie, Anna M; Wilson, Kerry S; Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Robinson, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about inhalable dust concentrations in soybean processing plants in southern Africa. This project measured inhalable dust in soybean plants in the region and correlated dust measurements with total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor. Sixty-four personal inhalable dust measurements were taken in three processing plants. Levels of total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were determined in only two of the three plants. Correlations between inhalable dust, total protein and trypsin inhibitor were determined for 44 of 64 samples. In plants' production areas, inhalable dust levels were 0.24-35.02 mg/m3 (median 2.58 mg/m3). Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor levels were 29.41-448.82 microg/m3 (median 90.09 microg/m3) and 0.05-2.58 microg/m3 (median 0.07 microg/m3), respectively. No statistically significant correlations between presence of inhalable dust and soy trypsin inhibitor were found. Total protein and soy trypsin inhibitor were better correlated. This study indicates that total protein might be a good proxy for soybean specific protein concentrations in soybean processing plants.

  17. Occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde and risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer among Finnish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Sie Sie; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyrönen, Pentti; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Pukkala, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether or not occupational inhalation exposure to wood dust and/or formaldehyde increases risk for respiratory cancers. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of nasal, nasopharyngeal, and lung cancer in relation to occupational exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde among Finnish men. The cohort of all Finnish men born between the years 1906 and 1945 and in employment during 1970 was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cases of cancers of the nose (n = 292), nasopharynx (n = 149), and lung (n = 30,137) during the period 1971-1995. The subjects' occupations, as recorded in the population census in 1970, were converted to estimates of exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, asbestos, and silica dust through the Finnish job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE) was calculated based on the prevalence, average level, and estimated duration of exposure. The relative risk (RR) estimates for the CE categories of wood dust and formaldehyde were defined by Poisson regression, with adjustments made for smoking, socioeconomic status, and exposure to asbestos and/or silica dust. Men exposed to wood dust had a significant excess risk of nasal cancer overall (RR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.38), and specifically nasal squamous cell carcinoma (RR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Workers exposed to formaldehyde had an RR of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.12-1.25) for lung cancer. There was no indication that CE to wood dust or formaldehyde would increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Occupational exposure to wood dust appeared to increase the risk of nasal cancer but not of nasopharyngeal or lung cancer. The slight excess risk of lung cancer observed for exposure to formaldehyde may be the result of residual confounding from smoking. In summary, this study provides further evidence that exposure to wood dust in a variety of occupations may increase the risk of nasal cancer.

  18. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Potential of Air Samples from Occupational Settings with Exposure to Organic Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Viegas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic dust and related microbial exposures are the main inducers of several respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to organic dust is very common and has been reported in diverse settings. In vitro tests using relevant cell cultures can be very useful for characterizing the toxicity of complex mixtures present in the air of occupational environments such as organic dust. In this study, the cell viability and the inflammatory response, as measured by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β, were determined in human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytic cells. These cells were exposed to air samples from five occupational settings known to possess high levels of contamination of organic dust: poultry and swine feed industries, waste sorting, poultry production and slaughterhouses. Additionally, fungi and particle contamination of those settings was studied to better characterize the organic dust composition. All air samples collected from the assessed workplaces caused both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. The highest responses were observed in the feed industry, particularly in swine feed production. This study emphasizes the importance of measuring the organic dust/mixture effects in occupational settings and suggests that differences in the organic dust content may result in differences in health effects for exposed workers.

  19. Engineering controls for selected silica and dust exposures in the construction industry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2003-04-01

    This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with selected tasks in the construction industry. Exposure to crystalline silica can cause silicosis and lung fibrosis, and evidence now links it with lung cancer. Of over 30 references identified and reviewed, 16 were particularly significant in providing data and analyses capable of documenting the efficacy of various engineering controls. These reports include information on generation rates and worker exposures to silica and dust during four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces. The major controls are wet methods and local exhaust ventilation. The studies suggest that while the methods provide substantial exposure reductions, they may not reduce levels below the current ACGIH threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable quartz. Although further research on controls for these operations is indicated, it is clear that effective methods exist for significant exposure reduction.

  20. Algorithm Research Exposure Dust Emissions Enterprises Of Building Production On The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, E. V.; Trushkova, E. A.; Sidelnikov, M. V.; Pushenko, S. L.; Staseva, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithm research level of exposure to dust emissions, the organization and layout of the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise of building production on the basis of statistical data on emissions share in Russia in the Rostov region, the issues of the impact of harmful substances on the human body and developed measures to reduce air emissions.

  1. A novel system to generate WTC dust particles for inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany J; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Soukup, Joleen M; Zelikoff, Judith T; Ghio, Andrew; Peltier, Richard E; Asgharian, Bahman; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D

    2014-01-01

    First responders (FRs) present at Ground Zero within the critical first 72 h after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have progressively exhibited significant respiratory injury. The majority (>96%) of WTC dusts were >10 μm and no studies have examined potential health effects of this size fraction. This study sought to develop a system to generate and deliver supercoarse (10-53 μm) WTC particles to a rat model in a manner that mimicked FR exposure scenarios. A modified Fishing Line generator was integrated onto an intratracheal inhalation (ITIH) system that allowed for a bypassing of the nasal passages so as to mimic FR exposures. Dust concentrations were measured gravimetrically; particle size distribution was measured via elutriation. Results indicate that the system could produce dusts with 23 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) at levels up to ≥1200 mg/m(3). To validate system utility, F344 rats were exposed for 2 h to ≈100 mg WTC dust/m(3). Exposed rats had significantly increased lung weight and levels of select tracer metals 1 h after exposure. Using this system, it is now possible to conduct relevant inhalation exposures to determine adverse WTC dusts impacts on the respiratory system. Furthermore, this novel integrated Fishing Line-ITIH system could potentially be used in the analyses of a wide spectrum of other dusts/pollutants of sizes previously untested or delivered to the lungs in ways that did not reflect realistic exposure scenarios.

  2. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  3. Middle East Desert Dust Exposure: Health Risks from Metals and Microbial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    In the Middle East, dust and sand storms are a persistent problem and can deliver significant amounts of micro-particulates via inhalation into the mouth, nasal pharynx, & lungs due to the fine size and abundance of these micro-particulates. The chronic and acute health risks of this dust inhalation have not been well studied nor has the dust been effectively characterized as to its chemical composition, mineral content, or microbial flora. Scientific experiments were designed to study the Kuwaiti and Iraqi dust as to its physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and for its potential to cause adverse health effects. First, dust samples from different locations were collected and processed and exposure data collected. Initial chemical and physical characterization of each sample including particle size distribution and inorganic analysis was conducted, followed by characterization of biologic flora of the dust, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Data indicates that the mineralized dust is composed of calcium carbonate over a matrix of metallic silicate nanocrystals containing a variety of trace and heavy metals constituting ~3 % of the PM10 particles by weight, of which ~1% is bioaccessible aluminum and reactive iron, each. The particles also consist of ~1% bioavailable aluminum and reactive iron each. Microbial analysis reveals a significant biodiversity of bacterial, fungi, and viruses of which ~30% are known pathogens. Of the microbes identified, several have hemolytic properties and most have significant antibiotic resistance. Viral analysis indicates a tremendous amount of virons with a large percent of RNA viruses. The level of total suspended particle mass at PM 10 along with environmental & physiological conditions present constitute an excessive exposure to micro-particulates including PM 2.5 and the potential for adverse health effects. Reported data on cell culture and animal studies have indicated a high level of toxicity to these dust

  4. An analysis of employee exposure to organic dust at large-scale composting facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.; Allen, J. A.; Wildsmith, J. D.; Jones, K. P.

    2009-02-01

    The occupational health implications from exposure to dust, endotoxin and 1-3 β Glucan at commercial composting sites are uncertain. This study aims to establish employee exposure levels to inhalable and respirable dust, endotoxin and 1-3 β Glucan during various operational practices in the composting process. Personal samples were collected and the inhalable and respirable dust fractions were determined by gravimetric analysis. Endotoxin concentrations were determined using a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). 1-3 β Glucan levels were estimated using a specific blocking agent to establish the contribution that these compounds gave to the original endotoxin assay. Employees' exposure to dust was found to be generally lower than the levels stipulated in the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 (as amended), (median inhalable fraction 1.08 mg/m3, min 0.25 mg/m3 max 10.80 mg/m3, median respirable fraction 0.05 mg/m3, min 0.02 mg/m3, max 1.49 mg/m3). Determination of the biological component of the dust showed that employees' exposures to endotoxin were elevated (median 31.5 EU/m3, min 2.00 EU/m3, max 1741.78 EU/m3), particularly when waste was agitated (median 175.0 EU/m3, min 2.03 EU/m3, max 1741.78 EU/m3). Eight out of 32 (25%) of the personal exposure data for endotoxin exceeded the 200 EU/m3 temporary legal limit adopted in the Netherlands and thirteen out of 32 (40.6%) exceeded the suggested 50 EU/m3 guidance level suggested to protect workers from respiratory health effects. A significant correlation was observed between employee inhalable dust exposure and personal endotoxin concentration (r = 0.728, pdisease mechanisms are not well understood at this present time. Consequently, in light of this uncertainty, it is recommended that a precautionary approach be adopted in managing the potential health risks associated with inhalation of organic dusts at composting sites.

  5. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde, spirometric results and dust exposure assessment in ceramics production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study aimed at measuring exhaled breath malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA in workers exposed to dust containing silica and at its comparison with the non-exposed control group. Material and methods The cross sectional, case-control study (N = 50 was performed in a tile and ceramics production factory in Yazd, Iran. EBC-MDA was quantified in exhaled breath of the participants by a lab made breath sampler. Exposure intensity was measured according to the NIOSH 0600 method in selected homogeneous exposure groups. Additionally, spirometry test was conducted to investigate a correlation between EBC-MDA and spirometric findings in the exposed workers. Results There was no difference in the observed exposure intensities of silica containing dust in different units. However, “coating preparation” was the unit with the highest concentration of dust. Although, the level of EBC-MDA in the cases was slightly higher than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant (U = 252, p = 0.464. A significant and positive correlation was found between dust exposure intensity in working units and the measured EBC-MDA of workers (r = 0.467, N = 25, p = 0.027. There were also no statistically significant differences among job categories in the exposed group for the values of FEV1% (F(3, 44 = 0.656, p = 0.584, FVC% (F(3, 44 = 1.417, p = 0.172, and FEV1/FVC% (F(3, 44 = 1.929, p = 0.139. Conclusions The results showed a significant correlation between respirable dust exposure intensity and the level of EBC-MDA of the exposed subjects. However, our results did not show a significant correlation between lung function decreases and EBC-MDA.

  6. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  7. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Malarvannan, Govindan; Kadi, Mohammad W; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Rehan, Mohammad; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analyzed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To the best of our knowledge, this is first study in literature reporting emerging Br/Cl FRs and OPFRs in AC filter dust and also first to report on their occurrence in dust from KSA. Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ΣOPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analyzed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values.

  8. An analysis of employee exposure to organic dust at large-scale composting facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, P; Allen, J A; Wildsmith, J D; Jones, K P, E-mail: psykes@uwic.ac.u [University of Wales Institute Cardiff (UWIC), Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The occupational health implications from exposure to dust, endotoxin and 1-3 beta Glucan at commercial composting sites are uncertain. This study aims to establish employee exposure levels to inhalable and respirable dust, endotoxin and 1-3 beta Glucan during various operational practices in the composting process. Personal samples were collected and the inhalable and respirable dust fractions were determined by gravimetric analysis. Endotoxin concentrations were determined using a Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). 1-3 beta Glucan levels were estimated using a specific blocking agent to establish the contribution that these compounds gave to the original endotoxin assay. Employees' exposure to dust was found to be generally lower than the levels stipulated in the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 (as amended), (median inhalable fraction 1.08 mg/m{sup 3}, min 0.25 mg/m{sup 3} max 10.80 mg/m{sup 3}, median respirable fraction 0.05 mg/m{sup 3}, min 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}, max 1.49 mg/m{sup 3}). Determination of the biological component of the dust showed that employees' exposures to endotoxin were elevated (median 31.5 EU/m{sup 3}, min 2.00 EU/m{sup 3}, max 1741.78 EU/m{sup 3}), particularly when waste was agitated (median 175.0 EU/m{sup 3}, min 2.03 EU/m{sup 3}, max 1741.78 EU/m{sup 3}). Eight out of 32 (25%) of the personal exposure data for endotoxin exceeded the 200 EU/m{sup 3} temporary legal limit adopted in the Netherlands and thirteen out of 32 (40.6%) exceeded the suggested 50 EU/m{sup 3} guidance level suggested to protect workers from respiratory health effects. A significant correlation was observed between employee inhalable dust exposure and personal endotoxin concentration (r = 0.728, p<0.05) and also personal endotoxin exposure and 1-3 beta Glucan concentration (r = 0.817, p<0.05). Further work is needed to explore the possibility of using inhalable dust concentration as a predictor for personal endotoxin

  9. Effect of in vivo coal dust exposure on arachidonic acid metabolism in the rat alveolar macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, D.C.; Stanley, C.F.; El-Ayouby, N.; Demers, L.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey, PA (USA). M.S. Hershey Medical Center, Dept. of Pathology)

    1990-01-01

    Oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) are produced by the alveolar macrophage (AM) and have been shown to mediate inflammatory reactions. We therefore assessed the production of eicosanoids by AM harvested from the lungs of rats exposed to a bituminous coal dust for 2 wk in an inhalation chamber in order to determine if AA metabolism was altered in a manner that may promote an inflammatory response in the lung. Exposure to coal dust resulted in a 66% increase in the number of AM harvested, an increase in thromboxane A{sub 2}(TxA{sub 2}) and leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production to 222% and 181% of control values, respectively, and a decrease in prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production to 62% of control values. In AM harvested from rats allowed to breathe clean air for 2 wk following coal dust exposure, PGE{sub 2} production returned to control levels but TxA{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} production remained elevated. The TxA{sub 2} synthesis inhibitor UK 38,485 reduced TxA{sub 2} production in dust-exposed AM both immediately and 2 wk following exposure. Thus, exposure of rats to coal dust significantly alters the metabolism of AA in AM, with potentially important aspects of AA metabolism remaining altered even after a 2-wk recovery period. Based on the established role of eicosanoids in inflammatory and fibrotic processes, these results suggest that the alteration of AM eicosanoid production as a result of the inhalation of coal mine dust may be an important factor in the pathophysiology of coal workers' pneumoconiosis. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Variations in exposure to inhalable wood dust in the Danish furniture industry. Within- and between-worker and factory components estimated from passive dust sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzents, P S; Schlünssen, V; Feveile, H; Schaumburg, I

    2001-10-01

    Variability of exposure to wood dust at large factories in the Danish furniture industry was studied. Three repeated exposure measurements of 292 workers at 38 factories were included in the study. The measurements were carried out by use of personal passive dust monitors. The components of variance were estimated by means of a random effects ANOVA model. The ratio of within- to between-worker variance was 1.07. Based on this result, and three repeated exposure measurements, the observed relation between health outcome and exposure will be attenuated to 74% of the true value. Grouping by factory showed very poor exposure contrast, as the contrast in exposure level among factories was as low as 0.15.

  11. Phthalates in dormitory and house dust of northern Chinese cities: Occurrence, human exposure, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Jia; Huo, Chun-Yan; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Liu, Li-Yan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-09-15

    Phthalates are widely used chemicals in household products, which severely affect human health. However, there were limited studies emphasized on young adults' exposure to phthalates in dormitories. In this study, seven phthalates were extracted from indoor dust that collected in university dormitories in Harbin, Shenyang, and Baoding, in the north of China. Dust samples were also collected in houses in Harbin for comparison. The total concentrations of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin and Shenyang samples were significantly higher than those in Baoding samples. The total geometric mean concentration of phthalates in dormitory dust in Harbin was lower than in house dust. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant phthalate in both dormitory and house dust. The daily intakes of the total phthalates, carcinogenic risk (CR) of DEHP, hazard index (HI) of di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and DEHP were estimated, the median values for all students in dormitories were lower than adults who live in the houses. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to predict the human exposure risk of phthalates. HI of DiBP, DBP, and DEHP was predicted according to the reference doses (RfD) provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the reference doses for anti-androgenicity (RfD AA) developed by Kortenkamp and Faust. The results indicated that the risks of some students had exceeded the limitation, however, the measured results were not exceeded the limitation. Risk quotients (RQ) of DEHP were predicted based on China specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) and Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL). The predicted results of CR and RQ of DEHP suggested that DEHP could pose a health risk through intake of indoor dust.

  12. Work Tasks as Determinants of Grain Dust and Microbial Exposure in the Norwegian Grain and Compound Feed Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumfors, Anne; Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Wouters, Inge M; Eduard, Wijnand

    2015-07-01

    The grain and compound feed industry entails inevitable risks of exposure to grain dust and its microbial content. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate task-dependent exposure differences in order to create knowledge basis for awareness and exposure reducing measures in the Norwegian grain and compound feed industry. A total of 166 samples of airborne dust were collected by full-shift personal sampling during work in 20 grain elevators and compound feed mills during one autumn season and two winter seasons. The personal exposure to grain dust, endotoxins, β-1→3-glucans, bacteria, and fungal spores was quantified and used as individual outcomes in mixed models with worker nested in company as random effect and different departments and tasks as fixed effects. The exposure levels were highest in grain elevator departments. Exposure to endotoxins was particularly high. Tasks that represented the highest and lowest exposures varied depending on the bioaerosol component. The most important determinants for elevated dust exposure were cleaning and process controlling. Cleaning increased the dust exposure level by a factor of 2.44 of the reference, from 0.65 to 1.58mg m(-3), whereas process controlling increased the dust exposure level by a factor of 2.97, from 0.65 to 1.93mg m(-3). Process controlling was associated with significantly less grain dust exposure in compound feed mills and the combined grain elevators and compound feed mills, than in grain elevators. The exposure was reduced by a factor of 0.18 and 0.22, from 1.93 to 0.34mg m(-3) and to 0.42mg m(-3), respectively, compared with the grain elevators. Inspection/maintenance, cleaning, and grain rotation and emptying were determinants of higher exposure to both endotoxin and β-1→3-glucans. Seed winnowing was in addition a strong determinant for endotoxin, whereas mixing of animal feed implied higher β-1→3-glucan exposure. Cleaning was the only task that contributed significantly to

  13. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Sand Washing Workers Exposed to Silica Dusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Parsaseresht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:The health of sand washing workers could be threatened by the crystalline silica dust exposure. The aim of this study was the evaluation of occupational and biological monitoring with crystalline silica dusts in the sand washing workers. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical and cross-sectional study of 44 sand washing workers exposed to crystalline silica and also 63 municipality gardeners as a control group in the city of Dorood. Occupational exposure monitoring to respirable total dust and silica dust was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH methods 0600 and 7602-respectively. Biological monitoring of workers' was carried out according to the Karatas method for the analysis of Malondialdehyde in the blood serum of exposed and control subjects. The informed consents were taken for obtaining blood samples of workers, according to the Helsinki Declaration. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS version 16. The statistical test of Pearson, t-tests and linear regression was applied. Results: The occupational exposure of 54.55% was exceeded the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 3 mg/m3. The mean exposure of sand miners and control group to respirable silica dust was evaluated at 0.219 ± 0.177 and 0.010 ± 0.002 as mg/m3respectively. Occupational exposure of all sand washing workers was higher than the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 0.025 mg/m3.The concentration of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA exposed group and the control group were 36.64 ± 10.75 and 19.40 ± 4.68 as µM respectively. Conclusion: Due to the positive correlation between exposure of sand washing workers to silica dust sand serum MDA among exposed group(P-value<0.0001, r=0.881, periodical biological monitoring along with effective control measures of workers are recommended for the health promotion of these workers.

  14. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paula I. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Box 90328, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Mukherjee, Bhramar [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hauser, Russ [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. - Highlights: ► Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including PBDEs and alternates were measured. ► Exposure to BFRs is characterized from concentrations in participant vacuum bag dust. ► Exposure to PBDEs and

  15. Exposure to house dust phthalates in relation to asthma and allergies in both children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bamai, Yu; Shibata, Eiji; Saito, Ikue; Araki, Atsuko; Kanazawa, Ayako; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Nakayama, Kunio; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Takigawa, Tomoko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Chikara, Hisao; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kishi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    Although an association between exposure to phthalates in house dust and childhood asthma or allergies has been reported in recent years, there have been no reports of these associations focusing on both adults and children. We aimed to investigate the relationships between phthalate levels in Japanese dwellings and the prevalence of asthma and allergies in both children and adult inhabitants in a cross-sectional study. The levels of seven phthalates in floor dust and multi-surface dust in 156 single-family homes were measured. According to a self-reported questionnaire, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in the 2 years preceding the study was 4.7%, 18.6%, 7.6%, and 10.3%, respectively. After evaluating the interaction effects of age and exposure categories with generalized liner mixed models, interaction effects were obtained for DiNP and bronchial asthma in adults (Pinteraction=0.028) and for DMP and allergic rhinitis in children (Pinteraction=0.015). Although not statistically significant, children had higher ORs of allergic rhinitis for DiNP, allergic conjunctivitis for DEHP, and atopic dermatitis for DiBP and BBzP than adults, and liner associations were observed (Ptrendphthalates levels collected from multi-surfaces. This study suggests that the levels of DMP, DEHP, DiBP, and BBzP in floor dust were associated with the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in children, and children are more vulnerable to phthalate exposure via household floor dust than are adults. The results from this study were shown by cross-sectional nature of the analyses and elaborate assessments for metabolism of phthalates were not considered. Further studies are needed to advance our understanding of phthalate toxicity.

  16. Cotton dust exposure: Analysis of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat M Dangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cotton industry workers are exposed to various hazards in the different departments of textile factories. The major health problems associated with cotton dust are respiratory problems, byssinosis, bronchitis and asthma. Objective: To study the effect of cotton dust exposure on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at cotton mill in the Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: One hundred cotton mill workers of the weaving and spinning area participated in this study while 100 age- and gender-matched male subjects living in the residential area served as the control group. A questionnaire was used to inquire about respiratory symptoms and spirometry was done in both the groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used to find the difference between spirometric parameters, and Chi-square test was used to find the difference between respiratory symptoms. Results: Respiratory symptoms were statistically significantly more common in the cotton mill workers compared to control group. Cotton mill workers group also showed significant (P < 0.0001 decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, ratio of FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and peak expiratory flow rate, and no significant difference of FVC between groups. There was an association of duration of exposure and symptoms with spirometric abnormality. Conclusion: Cotton mill workers showed a significant decrease in spirometric parameters and increase in respiratory symptoms. As the duration of exposure and symptoms increased, spirometric abnormality increased.

  17. Exposure to wood dust and heavy metals in workers using CCA pressure-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Paul; Cohen, Beverly; Butala, John H; Gordon, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Chemical pesticide treatment enables relatively nonresistant woods to be used in outdoor construction projects. The most prevalent procedure used to protect these woods is pressure treatment with chromium, copper, and arsenic (CCA). This pilot study examined the airborne concentration and particle size distribution of wood particles, chromium, copper, and arsenic at both outdoor (measured over the whole work day) and indoor (measured during the performance of specific tasks) work sites. At the outdoor residential deck construction sites, the arithmetic mean total dust concentration, measured using personal filter cassette samplers, was 0.57 mg/m3. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (da) of the outdoor wood dust was greater than 20 microm. Indoor wood dust concentrations were significantly greater than those measured outdoor and were job category-dependent. The highest mean breathing zone dust concentration, 49.0 mg/m3, was measured at the indoor sanding operation. Personal impactor sampling demonstrated that the mean total airborne concentration of arsenic, but not chromium or copper, was consistently above recommended occupational exposure levels at the indoor work site, and occasionally at the outdoor work sites. At the indoor sanding operation, the mean total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were 345, 170, and 342 microg/m3, respectively. Thus, significant exposure to airborne heavy metals can occur as a result of indoor and outdoor exposure to CCA pressure-treated wood dust. Therefore, current standards for wood dust may not adequately protect workers from the heavy metals commonly used in CCA pressure-treated wood.

  18. Analysis on occupational exposure levels and control effectiveness of dust in cement production line of new dry method%新型干法水泥生产线粉尘职业暴露水平及控制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德军; 隋少峰; 孔凡玲; 黄东海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occupational exposure levels of dust in new suspension preheater dry process (NSP) cement production line and put forward rectification measures for dust-exposed posts,and to provide ideas for the modern cement production enterprises in dust control and occupational health management.Methods Occupational health field investigation combined with field test were used to measure the time-weighted average concentration (CTWA) of the dust in the workplace.Rectification measures were taken for the dust-exposed posts with unqualified dust concentration,and the protective effects of dustproof facilities in the rectified workplace were evaluated.Results The field investigation revealed incompletely closed dustproof facilities,improperly set dust hoods,excess of dust leakage points,and other problems in the dust-exposed posts of an NSP cement production line before rectification,and the dustproof facilities could hardly exert dust removal effect.The field test showed that the vast majority of dust-exposed posts had the dust concentrations exceeding the occupational exposure limits (OELs),with a qualified rate as low as 31.8%.A series of rectification measures were taken for these posts.After the rectification,the dust-exposed posts demonstrated dramatically dropped CTWA,and the qualified rate of dust concentration in the dust-exposed posts rose to 90.9%.Conclusion The dust hazards in NSP cement production line cannot be ignored.Taking appropriate protective measures are critical for curbing dust hazards in modern cement production.%目的 了解新型干法水泥生产线粉尘职业暴露水平,提出整改治理措施,为现代水泥生产企业的粉尘治理及职业卫生管理提供思路.方法 采用职业卫生现场调查和现场检测相结合的方法,测定工作场所粉尘时间加权平均浓度(CTWA),对粉尘浓度不合格的作业岗位进行整改治理,评估整改粉尘作业场所防尘设施的防护效果.结果

  19. Chronic Lunar Dust Exposure on Rat Cornea: Evaluation by Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, C. A.; Glass, A.; Lam, C-W.; James, J.; Zanello, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Lunar dust is capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments by sticking to spacesuits or other objects that are transferred into the spacecraft from the lunar surface and has been reported to cause irritation upon exposure. During the Apollo missions, crewmembers reported irritation specifically to the skin and eyes after contamination of the lunar and service modules. It has since been hypothesized that ocular irritation and abrasion might occur as a result of such exposure, impairing crew vision. Recent work has shown that both ultrafine and unground lunar dust exhibited minimal irritancy of the ocular surface (i.e., cornea); however, the assessment of the severity of ocular damage resulting from contact of lunar dust particles to the cornea has focused only on macroscopic signs of mechanical irritancy and cytotoxicity. Given the chemical reactive properties of lunar dust, exposure of the cornea may contribute to detrimental effects at the molecular level including but not limited to oxidative damage. Additionally, low level chronic exposures may confound any results obtained in previous acute studies. We report here preliminary results from a tissue sharing effort using 10-week-old Fischer 344 male rats chronically exposed to filtered air or jet milled lunar dust collected during Apollo 14 using a Jaeger-NYU nose-only chamber for a total of 120 hours (6 hours daily, 5 days a week) over a 4-week period. RNA was isolated from corneas collected from rats at 1 day and 7 days after being exposed to concentrations of 0, 20, and 60 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Microarray analysis was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array with Affymetrix Expression Console and Transcriptome Analysis Console used for normalization and secondary analysis. An Ingenuity iReport"TM" was then generated for canonical pathway identification. The number of differentially expressed genes identified increases with dose compared to controls suggesting a more severe

  20. Attempts to reduce exposure to fungi, β-glucan, bacteria, endotoxin and dust in vegetable greenhouses and a packaging unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2014-01-15

    Indoor handling of large amounts of plant materials occurs in different occupational settings including greenhouses and causes exposure to bioaerosols. The bioaerosol components fungi, β-glucan, bacteria and endotoxin are involved in different airway symptoms and health effects can be dose-dependent. Therefore, there is a persistent need to reduce exposure. The aims of this study were to identify tasks causing exposure and to evaluate preventive measures aimed at reducing exposure of greenhouse workers to bioaerosols, and to study factors affecting the exposure. We have focused on different exposure scenarios; one with high short-term exposure found during clearing of old cucumber plants; the other with long-term, mid-level exposure found during tomato picking, leaf nipping, stringing up tomato plants, and packaging of cucumbers. Clearing of non-dried cucumber plants compared with clearing of dried cucumber plants significantly reduced the exposure to dust, endotoxin, bacteria, fungal spores and β-glucan. More endotoxin and fungi are emitted and more of the emitted particles were of respirable size if the leaves were dried. Along the cucumber packaging line, exposure levels were highly specific to each personal subtask. The subtask 'unloading of cucumbers' was the source of exposure making task ventilation or shielding of the process a possibility. Elimination of leaf debris on the floor reduced the exposure to fungi significantly. However, leaf debris on the floor did not contribute significantly to the exposure to dust, endotoxin and bacteria. Furthermore, to eliminate leaf debris, it had to be cleared away and this was associated with a higher exposure to dust and endotoxin. The age of the plants affected the exposure level to bioaerosols with higher exposures from old plants. In conclusion, different tasks and subtasks cause very different exposure levels. It is possible to reduce exposure by identifying subtasks causing the exposure and by modifying work

  1. Total and respirable dust exposures among carpenters and demolition workers during indoor work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    or the variation between the different work tasks. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess if there were differences in dust exposure between carpenters and demolition workers who were expected to have low and high dust exposure, respectively. METHODS: Through interviews of key persons...... out for carpenters and 20 measurements of total dust, 11 of respirable dust and 11 of respirable crystalline silica dust on four different works tasks for demolition workers. Dust measurements were tested for differences using linear regression, t-test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: For carpenters...... deviation 11.6) and the respirable dust was 1.06 mg/m(3) (geometric standard deviation 5.64). The mean difference between total dust for demolition workers and carpenters was 11.4 (95 % confidence interval 3.46-37.1) mg/m(3). The mean difference between respirable dust for demolition workers and carpenters...

  2. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to study the effects of exposure to Lunar Dust on human health. To date, no scientifically defensible toxicological studies have been performed on lunar dusts, specifically the determination of exposure limits and their affect on human health. The multi-center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology Advisory Group) was formed in response to the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Office s (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk defining risk criteria for human lunar dust exposure.

  3. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  4. Cats' Internal Exposure to Selected Brominated Flame Retardants and Organochlorines Correlated to House Dust and Cat Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrgran Engdahl, J; Bignert, A; Jones, B; Athanassiadis, I; Bergman, Å; Weiss, J M

    2017-03-07

    Pet cats may be used as a biomarker for assessing exposures to organohalogen compounds (OHCs) adsorbed to household dust in home environments. This study explores two exposure routes of OHCs, ingestion of OHCs (i) via house dust and (ii) via cat food. House dust from 17 Swedish homes and serum from the participating families' pet cats were collected, and cat food was purchased matching the diet reported. Paired samples of cat serum, house dust, and cat food were analyzed for brominated flame retardants/natural products (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), OH-PBDEs) and organochlorines (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP)). Significant correlations were found between serum and dust samples from the living rooms for BDE-47 (p cat serum levels and household dust has been established, a finding that supports the hypothesis that dust is a significant exposure route for cats. Serum levels were also significantly correlated with concentrations found in cat food for 6-OH-BDE47 (p cats.

  5. Geochemistry and health risk assessment of arsenic exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sujuan; Zheng, Na; Liu, Jingshuang; Wang, Yang; Chang, Shouzhi

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate arsenic (As) accumulation in street dust and health risk of population. The investigation concentrated on: a. pollution levels of As in street dust; b. spatial distribution of As in street dust; c. physicochemical properties analysis of street dust; and d. assessment of population health risk due to As exposure to street dust. As concentration in street dust ranged from 3.33 to 185.1 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 33.10 mg kg(-1), which was higher than the background value of Liaoning soil. As contamination level of the area closing to Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP) was highest. Spatial variation showed that the pollution center was close to HZP, formed radial distribution pattern and extended to the northeast and southwest of HZP. The pH and organic matter of street dust were both higher than the background values of soil in Liaoning. There was significantly negative correlation between As concentration and the pH. The mass percentages of particles 180-100, 63, and 63 μm were 29.8, 3.7, 21.3, and 4.2 %, respectively. The highest of As concentration was found in the smallest particle size (63 μm). As loadings in the particles of grain size 180-100 and 63 μm were higher than other particle fractions. Results of the risk assessment indicated that the highest risk was associated with the ingestion of street dust particles. Health risk for different use scenarios to human decreased in the order of HZP > Industrial district > School > Commercial center > Residential area. Around HZP, Hazard Index (HI) for children and cancer risk of As by street dust exposure exceeded the acceptable values. It indicated that there was a potential adverse effect on children health by As exposure to the street dust of Huludao.

  6. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, G.; Schluenssen, V.; Schaumburg, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory...... volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure...... time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg.year.m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV1 was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders...

  7. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory...... volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure...... time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted...

  8. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in E

  9. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, RB; Jerrett, M; Smith, DR; Jursa, T; Yousefi, P; Camacho, J; Hubbard, A; Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. Materials and methods We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Results Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m2 at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Conclusions Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. PMID:25146905

  10. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  11. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  12. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunier, R.B., E-mail: gunier@berkeley.edu [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, M. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, D.R.; Jursa, T. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yousefi, P.; Camacho, J.; Hubbard, A.; Eskenazi, B.; Bradman, A. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. Materials and methods: We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Results: Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m{sup 2} at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Conclusions: Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. - Highlights: • Manganese dust

  13. Medical Geology in the Middle East: Potential Health Risks from Mineralized Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, M. B.; Fredrickson, H. L.; Bednar, A. J.; Fannin, H. B.; Griffin, D. W.; Sobecki, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Middle East, dust and sand storms are a persistent problem delivering significant amounts of mineralized particulates via inhalation into the mouth, nasal pharynx, and lungs. The health risks of this dust inhalation are presently being studied but accurate characterization as to the potential health effects is still lacking. Experiments were designed to study the chemical composition, mineral content, and microbial flora of Kuwaiti and Iraqi dust particles for the potential to cause adverse human health effects both acute and chronic. Multiple site samples were collected and chemical and physical characterization including particle size distribution and inorganic analysis was conducted, followed by analysis and identification of biologic flora to include bacteria, fungi and viruses. Additionally, PM10 exposure data was collected hourly over a 12 day period (>10,000 ug/m3). Data indicates that the mineralized dust is composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium sulfate coating over a precipitated matrix of metallic silicate nanocrystals of various forms containing a variety of trace and heavy metals constituting ~3 % of the particles by weight. This includes ~ 1% by weight bioaccessible aluminum and reactive iron with the remaining 1% a mixture of bioaccessible trace and heavy metals. Microbial analysis reveals a significant biodiversity of bacteria of which ~25 % are known pathogens. Of the microbes identified, several have hemolytic properties and most have significant antibiotic resistance. Viral analysis indicates a tremendous amount of virons with a large percent of RNA viruses. The level of total suspended particle mass at PM10 constitutes an excessive exposure micro-particulates including PM 2.5 (~1,0000 ug/m3). Reported data on cell culture and animal studies have indicated a high level of toxicity to these dust particles. Taken together, these data suggest that at the level of dust exposure commonly found in the Middle East (i.e., Iraq, Kuwait, and

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of oak dust exposure in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juha; Haapakoski, Rita; Lehto, Maili; Leino, Marina; Tillander, Sari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri

    2007-09-01

    Repeated airway exposure to wood dust has been reported to cause adverse respiratory effects such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. In our recent study, we found that exposure of mice to oak dust induced more vigorous lung inflammation compared to birch dust exposure. In the present study, we assessed the immunomodulatory effects of repeated intranasal exposure to oak dust both in nonallergic and in ovalbumin-sensitized, allergic mice. Allergen-induced influx of eosinophils and lymphocytes was seen in the lungs of allergic mice. Oak dust exposure elicited infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in nonallergic mice. Interestingly, oak dust-induced lung neutrophilia as well as oak dust-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and chemokine CCL3 were significantly suppressed in allergic mice. On the other hand, allergen-induced expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. Finally, allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity to inhaled metacholine was significantly suppressed in oak dust-exposed allergic mice. The present results suggest that repeated airway exposure to oak dust can regulate pulmonary inflammation and airway responses depending on the immunological status of the animal.

  15. Lung fibrosis and exposure to wood dusts: Two cases report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF occurs more often in subjects previously exposed to wood dusts than in non-exposed subjects. Here we report 2 cases of the IPF among workers prolongedly exposed to high levels of hardwood dusts. Case report: The case No. 1: An 83 year-old male former smoker, retired joiner developed mild dyspnoea and chronic dry cough over the period preceding the examination. Pulmonary function tests (PFT identified a mild restrictive pattern and diffusion capacity for carbon dioxide (CO2 that was severely impaired (57% of predicted value. High resolution computer tomography (HRCT identified bilateral, subpleural basal reticular opacities in honeycombing, without any nodules or ground-glass opacities. The case No. 2: A 73 year-old male retired joiner, never smoker, presented a 3-year history of progressive breathlessness and non-productive cough in mild hypoxemia. Pulmonary function tests suggested a moderate restrictive pattern in severely impaired diffusion capacity for CO2 (54% of predicted value. High resolution computer tomography identified diffuse peripheral reticular opacities and honeycombing of lower fields, with apico-basilar gradient. Both cases received diagnosis of the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Discussion: The pulmonary fibrosis is a common feature of several diseases and may be induced by inflammatory disorders following inhalation of organic and inorganic dusts (e.g., asbestos, silica, and several reports suggest that many cases of the IPF may be in fact secondary to occupational dust exposure as in the case reports we present here. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to wood dusts may be a risk factor for the IPF. Unfortunately, exposure reconstruction is frequently inconsistent and anamnesis often misses other causes of the pulmonary fibrosis (e.g., extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Med Pr 2015;66(5:739–747

  16. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  17. Wood dust and formaldehyde exposures in the cabinet-making industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass-Kortsak, A M; Holness, D L; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R

    1986-12-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) personal total and respirable dust exposures were determined gravimetrically for 48 subjects in 4 cabinet-making plants. TWA personal formaldehyde exposures also were obtained, with the use of 3M 3750 passive monitors. Selective area sampling for formaldehyde was undertaken using two methods. The results obtained with the passive monitors were compared to the standard chromotropic acid impinger method. Considerable variation was noted in the dust exposures. Cabinet-makers exposed to softwoods were found to have a mean exposure of approximately one half of the current applicable ACGIH TWA-TLV, while hard-wood exposure was twice the applicable TWA-TLV. The highest dust exposures were recorded for those workers sanding, the mean total dust being 2.91 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.70) and respirable dust 0.63 mg/m3 (S.E. 0.20). Sanding operations also were found to produce a higher proportion of respirable dust (22%) than other woodworking operations (6%-14%). Workers in assembly areas also were found to have higher dust exposures, likely reflecting the fact that conventional dust collection devices for stationary woodworking equipment are not appropriate for hand held tools and hand sanding. The importance of making respirable dust measurements is discussed. The poor correlation between paired total and respirable dust concentrations indicates that both measurements should be made. Some potential limitations to respirable wood dust sampling using 10 mm nylon cyclones are noted, however. Area dust concentrations were found to be significantly lower than personal exposures, emphasizing the importance of personal sampling data. Formaldehyde vapor exposures were very low, with a mean of 0.06 ppm (S.E. 0.01).

  18. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  19. Determination the Level of Dust ond Free Silica in Air of Khaf Iron Stone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dadpour4

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Silica is an inorganic material that found in the nature in various forms. The hazards of crystal of silica or α-quartz (free silica is greater than other forms. Exposure to dust that contains free silica result to pulmonary injury and result to silicosis and death finally. The present research was conducted in order to evaluate the level of workers exposure to free silica in air of Khaf Iron stone quarries."nMaterials and methods: The exposure level to total and respiratory dust measured based on personal and environmental sampling methods and concentration of dust determined based on gravimetric method. For determination of amounts of free silica, dust samples analyses based on X-ray diffraction (XRD method, and results compared with standard levels."nResults: The maximum amount of total dust and free silica measured in stone breaking station (800±155mg/m3 and 26.11±6.7 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in official and safeguarding station (8.28±2.2 mg/m3 and 0.012±0.0019 mg/m3. The maximum amount of respiratory dust and free silica measured in red mound digging number 1 (66.14±13.45 mg/m3 and 1.48±0.39 mg/m3 and minimum of them measured in air hammer machine station (5.26±2.62 mg/m3 and 0.01±0.005 mg/m3."nConclusion: Amount of total dust only in official and safeguarding station was lower than standard levels of Iran. Amount of respiratory dust in all stations was greater than Iran standard levels. Furthermore the level of respiratory free silica only in airy hammer machine station was lower than standard level of Iran. Regarding to this amounts it is so essential to that with applying different methods generation and emission of dust protected.

  20. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    Crew members can be directly exposed to celestial dust in several ways. After crew members perform extravehicular activities (EVAs), they may introduce into the habitat dust that will have collected on spacesuits and boots. Cleaning of the suits between EVAs and changing of the Environmental Control Life Support System filters are other operations that could result in direct exposure to celestial dusts. In addition, if the spacesuits used in exploration missions abrade the skin, as current EVA suits have, then contact with these wounds would provide a source of exposure. Further, if celestial dusts gain access to a suit's interior, as was the case during the Apollo missions, the dust could serve as an additional source of abrasions or enhance suit-induced injuries. When a crew leaves the surface of a celestial body and returns to microgravity, the dust that is introduced into the return vehicle will "float," thus increasing the opportunity for ocular and respiratory injury. Because the features of the respirable fraction of lunar dusts indicate they could be toxic to humans, NASA conducted several studies utilizing lunar dust simulants and authentic lunar dust to determine the unique properties of lunar dust that affect physiology, assess the dermal and ocular irritancy of the dust, and establish a permissible exposure limit for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during missions that would involve no more than 6 months stay on the lunar surface. Studies, with authentic lunar soils from both highland (Apollo 16) and mare (Apollo17) regions demonstrated that the lunar soil is highly abrasive to a high fidelity model of human skin. Studies of lunar dust returned during the Apollo 14 mission from an area of the moon in which the soils were comprised of mineral constituents from both major geological regions (highlands and mares regions) demonstrated only minimal ocular irritancy, and pulmonary toxicity that was less than the highly toxic terrestrial crystalline

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in house dust in Denmark – levels, patterns and changes over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2016-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as a source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular for children [1]. Since the EU ban of the commercial PBDE Penta- and OctaBDE mixtures in 2004 and the regulation of DecaBDE through the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances (Ro......HS) Directive, replacements might have been in use [2]. Building on our previous results on PBDEs in house dust from Denmark and associations with perinatal exposure [3], the present study addresses i) PBDE levels in dust sampled in 2014 in comparison with 2007, ii) the occurrence of novel flame retardants...

  2. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m(3) (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m(3)) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m(3), the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely.

  3. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m3 (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m3) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m3, the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely. PMID:28119784

  4. Cross-shift changes in FEV1 in relation to wood dust exposure: the implications of different exposure assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunssen, V; Sigsgaard, T; Schaumburg, I; Kromhout, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Exposure-response analyses in occupational studies rely on the ability to distinguish workers with regard to exposures of interest. Aims: To evaluate different estimates of current average exposure in an exposure-response analysis on dust exposure and cross-shift decline in FEV1 among woodworkers. Methods: Personal dust samples (n = 2181) as well as data on lung function parameters were available for 1560 woodworkers from 54 furniture industries. The exposure to wood dust for each worker was calculated in eight different ways using individual measurements, group based exposure estimates, a weighted estimate of individual and group based exposure estimates, and predicted values from mixed models. Exposure-response relations on cross-shift changes in FEV1 and exposure estimates were explored. Results: A positive exposure-response relation between average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 was shown for non-smokers only and appeared to be most pronounced among pine workers. In general, the highest slope and standard error (SE) was revealed for grouping by a combination of task and factory size, the lowest slope and SE was revealed for estimates based on individual measurements, with the weighted estimate and the predicted values in between. Grouping by quintiles of average exposure for task and factory combinations revealed low slopes and high SE, despite a high contrast. Conclusion: For non-smokers, average dust exposure and cross-shift FEV1 were associated in an exposure dependent manner, especially among pine workers. This study confirms the consequences of using different exposure assessment strategies studying exposure-response relations. It is possible to optimise exposure assessment combining information from individual and group based exposure estimates, for instance by applying predicted values from mixed effects models. PMID:15377768

  5. Intranasal organic dust exposure-induced airway adaptation response marked by persistent lung inflammation and pathology in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Jill A.; Wyatt, Todd A; Oldenburg, Peter J.; Elliott, Margaret K.; West, William W.; Sisson, Joseph H.; Von Essen, Susanna G.; Romberger, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dust exposure in agricultural environments results in an inflammatory response that attenuates over time, but repetitive exposures can result in chronic respiratory disease. Animal models to study these mechanisms are limited. This study investigated the effects of single vs. repetitive dust-induced airway inflammation in mice by intranasal exposure method. Mice were exposed to swine facility dust extract (DE) or saline once and once daily for 1 and 2 wk. Dust exposure resulted in inc...

  6. Job categories and their effect on exposure to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust in the U.K. baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Joanne; Beckett, Paul; Griffin, Peter; Evans, Paul; Sams, Craig; Roff, Martin; Curran, Andrew D

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes in flour improver, in particular fungal alpha-amylase, are known to be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in the baking industry. This study measured total inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures in U.K. bakeries, mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and determined whether assignment of job description could identify individuals with the highest exposures to fungal alpha-amylase and inhalable dust. A total of 117 personal samples were taken for workers in 19 bakeries, 2 mills, and a flour improver production and packing facility and were analyzed using a monoclonal based immunoassay. Occupational hygiene surveys were undertaken for each site to assign job description and identify individuals who worked directly with flour improvers. Analysis of exposure data identified that mixers and weighers from large bakeries had the highest exposures to both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase among the different categories of bakery workers (p<.01). Currently, the maximum exposure limit for flour dust in the United Kingdom is 10 mg/m(3) (8-hour time-weighted average reference period). In this study 25% of the total dust results for bakers exceeded 10 mg/m(3), and interestingly, 63% of the individuals with exposure levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3) were weighers and mixers. Individuals who worked directly with flour improvers were exposed to higher levels of both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase (p<.01) than those who were not directly handling these products. Before sensitive immunoassays were utilized for the detection of specific inhalable allergens, gravimetric analysis was often used as a surrogate. There was a weak relationship between inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures; however, inhalable dust levels could not be used to predict amylase exposures, which highlights the importance of measuring both inhalable dust and fungal alpha-amylase exposures.

  7. Assessment of the levels of DDT and its metabolites in soil and dust samples from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Batres-Esquivel, Lilia E; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of DDT and its metabolites in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) in five communities in Chiapas, Mexico. DDT and its metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The soil levels of total DDT ranged from non detectable (dust samples the levels ranged from non detectable (dust as important pathways of toxicant exposure. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis.

  8. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    . For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  9. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  10. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

  11. Contribution of dust storms to PM10 levels in an urban arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Helena; Katra, Itzhak; Koutrakis, Petros; Friger, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative information on the contribution of dust storms to atmospheric PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter storms to PM10 concentrations in a desert urban center, the city of Beer-Sheva, Negev, Israel, during the period of 2001-2012. Toward this end, a background value based on the "dust-free" season was used as a threshold value to identify potentially "dust days." Subsequently, the net contribution of dust storms to PM10 was assessed. During the study period, daily PM10 concentrations ranged from 6 to over 2000 microg/m3. In each year, over 10% of the daily concentrations exceeded the calculated threshold (BVt) of 71 microg/m3. An average daily net contribution of dust to PM10 of 122 microg/m3 was calculated for the entire study period based on this background value. Furthermore, a dust storm intensity parameter (Ai) was used to analyze several storms with very high PM10 contributions (hourly averages of 1000-5197 microg/m3). This analysis revealed that the strongest storms occurred mainly in the last 3 yr of the study. Finally, these findings indicate that this arid urban environment experiences high PM10 levels whose origin lies in both local and regional dust events. The findings indicate that over time, the urban arid environment experiences high PM10 levels whose origin lies in local and regional dust events. It was noticed that the strongest storms have occurred mainly in the last 3 yr. It is believed that environmental changes such as global warming and desertification may lead to an increased air pollution and risk exposure to human health.

  12. Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yih-Ming; Su, Jenn-Rong; Sheu, Jia-Yih; Loh, Ching-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2003-04-01

    One hundred and sixty-nine and 175 cotton textile workers (CTWs) were enrolled in the first (1991) and second (1996) surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between the cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The significant trend was also noted in both smokers and nonsmokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey (14.9% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the first survey (39.7% and 21.9%, respectively). The reduction of symptoms was due to remodeling of this old cotton mill. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers being significantly higher than in nonsmokers only found in the first survey, but not found in the second survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. The second study reveals high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure. Anti-smoking campaign, occupational health program to reduce the dust exposure, and periodical medical examination are measures to prevent from byssinosis.

  13. Health effects from exposure to atmospheric mineral dust near Las Vegas, NV, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Keil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desert areas are usually characterized by a continuous deposition of fine airborne particles. Over time, this process results in the accumulation of silt and clay on desert surfaces. We evaluated health effects associated with regional atmospheric dust, or geogenic dust, deposited on surfaces in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV recreational site frequented daily by riders, families, and day campers. Because of atmospheric mixing and the mostly regional origin of the accumulated particles, the re-suspended airborne dust is composed of a complex mixture of minerals and metals including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and others. Geogenic dust with a median diameter of 4.1 μm was administered via oropharyngeal aspiration to female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28-days. Immuno- and neurotoxicological outcomes 24 h following the last exposure were evaluated. Antigen-specific IgM responses were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg/day. Splenic and thymic lymphocytic subpopulations and natural killer cell activity also were significantly reduced. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were not affected, while brain CD3+ T cells were decreased in number. A lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg/day and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of 0.01 mg/kg/day were derived based on the antigen-specific IgM responses.

  14. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  15. Assessment of dust exposure in a steel plant in the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul, Ainun Hamzah; Shamsul, Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Noor Hassim, Ismail

    2016-11-22

    Steel manufacturing produces dust, fumes, and pollutant gases that may give adverse health effects to the respiratory function of workers. Improper occupational hygiene practice in the workplace will affect both workers wellbeing and productivity. To assess the level of particulate matter [(PM2.5, PM10, and Total Particulate Matter (TPM)], and trace metal dust concentrations in different sections of a steel plant and compare with the occupational exposure values. The work environmental parameters of the particulate matters were evaluated using Indoor Air Quality, while metal dust concentrations were measured using portable personal air sampler. A total of 184 personal samples were randomly collected from workers in three major sections; steel making plant, direct reduced plant, and support group. Trace metal dust concentrations were subjected to wet mineral acid mixture digestion and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The overall average PM2.5 concentration observed was varied according to the section: steel making plant was 0.18 mg/m3, direct reduced iron plant was 0.05 mg/m3, and support plant was 0.05 mg/m3. Average PM 10 concentration in steel making shop (SMS) plant, direct reduced (DR) plant, and support plant were 0.70 mg/m3, 0.84 mg/m3, and 0.58 mg/m3, respectively. The average TWA8 of trace metal dusts (cobalt and chromium) in all the sections exceeded 1 to 3 times the ACGIH prescribed values, OSHA PELs, NIOSH RELs as well as USECHH OSHA, whereas TWA8 concentration of nickel for each section did not exceed the occupational exposure values. The average PM2.5, PM10 and TPM did not exceed the prescribed values, while average trace metal dust concentration TWA8 for cobalt and chromium in all plants exceeded occupational exposure prescribed values. However, the nickel found did not exceed the prescribed values in all the plants except for NIOSH RELs.

  16. Human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via house dust in Korea: Implication to exposure pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhexi; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Park, Jong-Eun

    2016-05-15

    A wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), were measured in fifteen house dust and two nonresidential indoor dust of Korea. Total concentrations of PFASs in house dust ranged from 29.9 to 97.6 ng g(-1), with a dominance of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), followed by 8:2 FTOH, N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (EtFOSE), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA). In a typical exposure scenario, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of total PFASs via house dust ingestion were 2.83 ng d(-1) for toddlers and 1.13 ng d(-1) for adults, which were within the range of the mean EDIs reported from several countries. For PFOA and PFOS exposure via house dust ingestion, indirect exposure (via precursors) was a minor contributor, accounting for 5% and 12%, respectively. An aggregated exposure (hereafter, overall-EDIs) of PFOA and PFOS occurring via all pathways, estimated using data compiled from the literature, were 53.6 and 14.8 ng d(-1) for toddlers, and 20.5 and 40.6 ng d(-1) for adults, respectively, in a typical scenario. These overall-EDIs corresponded to 82% (PFOA) and 92% (PFOS) of a pharmacokinetic model-based EDIs estimated from adults' serum data. Direct dietary exposure was a major contributor (>89% of overall-EDI) to PFOS in both toddlers and adults, and PFOA in toddlers. As for PFOA exposure of adults, however direct exposure via tap water drinking (37%) and indirect exposure via inhalation (22%) were as important as direct dietary exposure (41%). House dust-ingested exposure (direct+indirect) was responsible for 5% (PFOS in toddlers) and house-dust ingestion was a minor contributor in this study, but should not be ignored for toddlers' PFOS exposure due to its significance in the worst-case scenario.

  17. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octaand deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. PMID:23333513

  18. Current exposure to persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) of Belgian students from food and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Laurence; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-04-15

    Human exposure to individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) through food (duplicate diets) and indoor dust ingestion was assessed for 19 Belgian students. The serum concentrations of the persistent PCB congeners in serum (PCB 118, 138, 153, 170, and 180) have been correlated with the individual intake through food and dust. Dietary intakes of SigmaPCBs ranged between 40 and 204 ng/day (median 133). PCB exposure through dust ingestion ranged between 0.1 and 0.8 ng/day (median 0.3) or 0.3 and 1.7 ng/day (median 0.8), assuming average dust ingestion (20 mg/day) and high dust ingestion rates (50 mg/day), respectively. Dietary intake of p,p'-DDE was comparable to that of PCBs with a range from 21 to 214 ng/day (median 92). The exposure to p,p'-DDE via dust ingestion ranged between 0.02 and 0.43 ng/day (median 0.17) or 0.05 and 1.09 ng/day (median 0.43), assuming average and high dust ingestion rates, respectively. Concentrations measured in blood serum were 28-153 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (median 74) and 32-264 ng/g lw (median 45) for SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE, respectively. Serum concentrations in the studied population are slightly lower compared to other European populations. In spite of the uncertainty associated with the dust ingestion rates, food was the predominant exposure pathway for each PCB congener and for p,p'-DDE in the studied population. Food intake contributed more than 99% of the combined PCB intake from food and dust. No significant positive correlations (p > 0.05) were observed between the serum concentrations of PCBs and p,p'-DDE and the total intake through food and dust for each participant. Instead, it is hypothesized that past and episodic higher current intakes are more important determinants of body burden than continuous background exposures at low levels.

  19. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Taudorf, E; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders, including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL x yr(-1) and -27.97 mL x yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg x yr x m(-3) or to >4.71 mg x yr x m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/low-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure and the cumulative incidence proportion of FEV(1)/FVC lung function, which may be clinically relevant.

  20. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakolis, I.; Heinrich, J.; Zock, J.P.; Norbäck, D.; Svanes, C.; Chen, C.M.; Accordini, S.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890

  1. Trends in wood dust inhalation exposure in the UK, 1985-2005.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galea, K.S.; van Tongeren, M.; Sleeuwenhoek, A.J.; While, D.; Graham, M.; Bolton, A.; Kromhout, H.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Wood dust data held in the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) National Exposure DataBase (NEDB) were reviewed to investigate the long-term changes in inhalation exposure from 1985 to 2005. In addition, follow-up sampling measurements were obtained from selected companies where exposure me

  2. A pilot study of personal exposure to respirable and inhalable dust during the sanding and sawing of medium density fibreboard (MDF) and soft wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Andrew; Allan, Fraser; Rowley, Louise; Smith, Frank

    2004-08-01

    A pilot study of production of respirable and inhalable dusts from sawing and sanding medium density fibreboard (MDF) and softwood in a typical cabinet-making workshop produced high but variable exposure levels at the bench and operator position. Exposure levels for the total inhalable fraction (approximately MDF and 2.5-45 mg m(-3) for softwood. For the respirable fraction (MDF and 0.4-2.9 mg m(-3) for softwood. These results show significant dust loading is produced in the coarser fraction and that the material used has a significant impact on levels produced. It suggests that fuller evaluation of operator influence of fine dust production is needed and may question the common application of a single inhalable exposure standard for wood dust to all wood working scenarios.

  3. Human lead (Pb) exposure via dust from different land use settings of Pakistan: A case study from two urban mountainous cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Khalid, Ramsha; Bostan, Nazish; Saqib, Zafeer; Mohmand, Jawad; Rehan, Mohammad; Ali, Nadeem; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Shen, Heqing

    2016-07-01

    The current study aims to determine the dust-borne lead (Pb) levels into outdoor dust, which were collected from the areas nearby the cities/districts of Islamabad and Swat in Pakistan. In general dust samples from all land use settings (industrial, urban and rural) showed significantly higher (patmospheric deposition from surrounding polluted areas. According to the calculated chemical daily intake (mg/kg-day) values, dust ingestion is one of the major routes of human exposure for lead. Hazard Index (HI) values, calculated for both adult and children populations, were above unity in industrial and urban areas, indicating serious health risks especially to the children populations.

  4. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Alonso-Sardón

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer.A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed.A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22, lung cancer (n = 11, and other types of cancer (n = 9. Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001, although a large degree of heterogeneity was found.Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined.

  5. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  6. French children's exposure to metals via ingestion of indoor dust, outdoor playground dust and soil: contamination data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorennec, Philippe; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara

    2012-09-15

    In addition to dietary exposure, children are exposed to metals via ingestion of soils and indoor dust, contaminated by natural or anthropogenic outdoor and indoor sources. The objective of this nationwide study was to assess metal contamination of soils and dust which young French children are exposed to. A sample of 484 children (6 months to 6 years) was constituted in order to obtain representative results for young French children. In each home indoor settled dust was sampled by a wipe in up to five rooms. Outdoor playgrounds were sampled with a soil sample ring (n=315) or with a wipe in case of hard surfaces (n=53). As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V were measured because of their potential health concern due to soil and dust ingestion. The samples were digested with hydrochloric acid, and afterwards aqua regia in order to determine both leachable and total metal concentrations and loadings by mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ICP-MS. In indoor settled dust most (total) loadings were below the Limit of Quantification (LOQ), except for Pb and Sr, whose median loadings were respectively 9 and 10 μg/m². The 95th percentile of loadings were 2 μg/m² for As, playgrounds were 2/16, playground soil median/95th percentile of concentrations (μg/g) were 8/26, soil and dust and the associated risks in urban and rural environments. Ratios of leachable/total concentrations and loadings, calculated on >LOQ measurements, differed among metals. To a lesser extent, they were also affected by type of matrix, with (except for Cd) a greater leachability of dust (especially indoor) compared to soils.

  7. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  8. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry: a baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurssen, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka; Spaan, Suzanne; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Meijster, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. This article describes a baseline exposure study that is part of a multidimensional intervention program aiming to reduce quartz exposure among construction workers. In this study, personal respirable dust and quartz exposure was assessed among 116 construction workers (bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers). Possible determinants of exposure, like job, tasks, and work practices, use of control measures, and organizational and psychosocial factors, were explored using exposure models for respirable dust and quartz separately. Stratified analyses by job title were performed to evaluate the effect of control measures on exposure and to explore the association between control measures and psychosocial factors. Overall, 62% of all measurements exceeded the Dutch occupational exposure limit for quartz and 11% for respirable dust. Concrete drillers and tuck pointers had the highest exposures for quartz and respirable dust (0.20 and 3.43mg m(-3), respectively). Significant predictors of elevated quartz exposure were abrasive tasks and type of material worked on. Surprisingly, in a univariate model, an increased knowledge level was associated with an increase in exposure. Although control measures were used infrequently, if used they resulted in approximately 40% reduction in quartz exposure among concrete drillers and tuck pointers. Only among concrete drillers, the use of control measures was associated with a higher score for social influence (factor 1.6); knowledge showed an inverse association with use of control measures for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. In conclusion, the detailed information on determinants of exposure, use of control measures, and constraints to

  9. Occupational exposure to poultry dust and effects on the respiratory system in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, S; Faísca, V M; Dias, H; Clérigo, A; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Farmers are occupationally exposed to many respiratory hazards at work and display higher rates of asthma and respiratory symptoms than other workers. Dust is one of the components present in poultry production that increases risk of adverse respiratory disease occurrence. Dust originates from poultry residues, molds, and feathers and is biologically active as it contains microorganisms. Exposure to dust is known to produce a variety of clinical responses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic airways obstructive disease (COPD), allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS). A study was developed to determine particle contamination in seven poultry farms and correlate this with prevalence rate of respiratory defects and record by means of a questionnaire the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases by European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Poultry farm dust contamination was found to contain higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) PM5 and PM10. Prevalence rate of obstructive pulmonary disorders was higher in individuals with longer exposure regardless of smoking status. In addition, a high prevalence for asthmatic (42.5%) and nasal (51.1%) symptoms was noted in poultry workers. Data thus show that poultry farm workers are more prone to suffer from respiratory ailments and this may be attributed to higher concentrations of PM found in the dust. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to dust will ameliorate occupational working conditions and enhance the health of workers.

  10. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts.

  11. [Dust exposure in a pottery plant assessed by using GRIMM dust monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Helena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna; Kita, Natalia

    2002-01-01

    In one of the pottery plants in which pneumoconiosis was the only certified occupational disease (16 cases during the years 1984-1997), the concentrations of dust in inhalable, thoracic and respirable fractions were measured at most characteristic workplaces. The highest concentrations in all the three fractions was found in the slip house; the mean concentrations were as follows: inhalable dust-7231.8 mg/m3; thoracic fraction--4834.9 mg/m3; and respirable fraction 1402.2 mg/m3. High concentrations of all the dust fractions were also observed at the workplace of the intershop transport worker who removed the waste body from cast and throw shops. The largest number of pneumoconiosis (7) cases was found among the workers of the slip house (20 persons employed); this was followed by the intershop transport workers-4 cases (4 persons employed). At the other workplaces (cast shop, throw shop and firing), concentrations of inhalable dust ranged from 1175 to 3232 mg/m3; thoracic from 726 to 2001 mg/m3; and respirable from 146 to 549 mg/m3. The contents of free crystalline silica (SiO2) in the air dust ranged from 3% in firing to 50% in slip house, in the latter mostly in the form of quartz or cristobalite. The main fraction of inhalable dust was the tracheobronchial fraction, ranging from 43.1 to 48.2%, the extrathoracic fraction ranged from 32.8 to 42.3% and respirable fraction from 11.8 to 21.6%. On the basis of the graphic record, such activities as pouring of raw materials into grinding mill and reloading of the waste body were identified at the workplaces of slip making and internship transport as those associated with the highest dust emission.

  12. Evaluation of coral pathogen growth rates after exposure to atmospheric African dust samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Gray, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess if exposure to atmospheric African dust stimulates or inhibits the growth of four putative bacterial coral pathogens. Atmospheric dust was collected from a dust-source region (Mali, West Africa) and from Saharan Air Layer masses over downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad and Tobago and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)]. Extracts of dust samples were used to dose laboratory-grown cultures of four putative coral pathogens: Aurantimonas coralicida (white plague type II), Serratia marcescens (white pox), Vibrio coralliilyticus, and V. shiloi (bacteria-induced bleaching). Growth of A. coralicida and V. shiloi was slightly stimulated by dust extracts from Mali and USVI, respectively, but unaffected by extracts from the other dust sources. Lag time to the start of log-growth phase was significantly shortened for A. coralicida when dosed with dust extracts from Mali and USVI. Growth of S. marcescens and V. coralliilyticus was neither stimulated nor inhibited by any of the dust extracts. This study demonstrates that constituents from atmospheric dust can alter growth of recognized coral disease pathogens under laboratory conditions.

  13. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  14. Metal Dust Exposure and Respiratory Health of Male Steel Work¬ers in Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Ainun HAMZAH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory health in male steel workers in Terengganu, Malaysia.Methods: Subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire from British Medical Research Council (BMRC Questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms and were examined their lung function using spirometer.Results: The mean trace metal dusts concentration TWA8 for cobalt and chromium in most of work unit exceeded occupational exposure prescribed values. Prevalence of chest tightness, chronic phlegm, and shortness of breath was 28.0%, 26.8%, 24.1%, and 20.2% respectively. Age and smoking were among the factors associated with respiratory symptoms (OR: 0.92 – 1.78. Smoking and cumulative respirable metal dust were negatively associated with FEV1.Conclusion: The mean metal dust for cobalt and chromium were 1 to 2 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL. This study found that respirable cumulative metal dust exposure is one of the contributing factors to lung function values among steel workers. Keywords: Respiratory symptoms, Lung function, Metal dust, Questionnaire

  15. A study of New Zealand wood workers: exposure to wood dust, respiratory symptoms, and suspected cases of occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrish, A E; Beasley, R; Hodgkinson, E J; Pearce, N

    1992-05-27

    A randomly selected group of 50 New Zealand wood workers was studied. The level of airborne wood dust to which they were exposed ranged from 1.0-24.5 mg/m3. The wood workers reported experiencing higher rates of both lower and upper respiratory tract symptoms than a control group of office workers. Inhaled wood dust, in particular from rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), was frequently cited by workers as being associated with respiratory tract symptoms. The wood workers' responses to the respiratory symptom questionnaire, and serial recordings of peak expiratory flow rate were used to screen the group for suspected cases of occupational asthma. Five cases fulfilled the study's criteria for suspected occupational asthma. In four of these, further evidence was found to support this diagnosis. We conclude that exposure to wood dust may cause occupational asthma in the woodworking industry in New Zealand.

  16. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J H; Krop, E J M; Borras-Santos, A; Zock, J-P; Taubel, M; Hyvarinnen, A; Pekkanen, J; Doekes, G; Heederik, D J J

    2014-04-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with different climates. Our aim was to characterize endotoxin levels in primary schools and evaluate associations with potential determinants. Endotoxin levels were repeatedly assessed in 23 schools in Spain (n = 7), the Netherlands (n = 10), and Finland (n = 6) using electrostatic dustfall collectors. In total, 645 measurements were taken in 237 classrooms. Endotoxin levels differed significantly between countries; Dutch schools had the highest levels, while Finnish schools showed the lowest levels. In each country, differences in endotoxin levels were observed between schools and over the sampling periods. Estimates improved after adjustment for sampling period. Factors affecting endotoxin levels in a school differed per country. In general, endotoxin levels were higher in lower grades and in classrooms with higher occupancy. School endotoxin levels may contribute significantly to total endotoxin exposure in children and teachers. As the correlation between the repeated measurements is reasonable, single endotoxin measurements form a reasonable basis for estimating annual endotoxin levels in schools.

  17. Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ali, Saeed Waqar; Sohail, Mohammad; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Subhani, Marghoob; Ghaffar, Bushra; Ullah, Rizwan; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (pPakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment for Lung Cancer from Exposure to Metal Ore Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUHUA; JINGXIPENG; 等

    1992-01-01

    To quantitatively assess risk for lung cancer of metal miners,a historical cohort study was conducted.The cohort consisted of 1113 miners who were employed to underground work for at least 12 months between January 1,1960and December,12,1974,According to the records or dust concentration,a cumulative dust dose of each miner in the cohort was estimated.There wer 162 deaths in total and 45 deaths from lung cancer with a SMR of 2184,The SMR for lung cancer increased from 1019 for those with cumulative dust of less than 500mg-year to 2469 for those with the dose of greater than 4500mg-year.Furthermore,the risk in the highest category of combined cumulative dust dose and cigarette smoking was 46-fold greater than the lowest category of dust dose and smoking.This study showed that there was an exposure-response relationship between metal ore dust and lung cancer,and an interaction of lung cancer between smoking and metal ore dust exposure.

  20. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    .... (2) Electronic mail: zzMSHA-comments@dol.gov . Include ``RIN 1219- AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (3) Facsimile: 202-693-9441. Include ``RIN 1219-AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (4... on appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler...

  1. Cement Dust Exposure and Perturbations in Some Elements and Lung and Liver Functions of Cement Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Egbe Edmund; Augusta Chinyere, Nsonwu-Anyanwu; Jeremaiah, Offor Sunday; Opara, Usoro Chinyere Adanna; Henrieta, Etukudo Maise; Ifunanya, Egbe Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cement dust inhalation is associated with deleterious health effects. The impact of cement dust exposure on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), liver function, and some serum elements in workers and residents near cement factory were assessed. Methods. Two hundred and ten subjects (50 workers, 60 residents, and 100 controls) aged 18–60 years were studied. PEFR, liver function {aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT) and total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB)}, and serum elements {lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As)} were determined using peak flow meter, colorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA and correlation at p = 0.05. Results. The ALT, TB, CB, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were significantly higher and PEFR, Fe, and Zn lower in workers and residents compared to controls (p < 0.05). Higher levels of ALT, AST, and Fe and lower levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were seen in cement workers compared to residents (p < 0.05). Negative correlation was observed between duration of exposure and PEFR (r = −0.416, p = 0.016) in cement workers. Conclusions. Cement dust inhalation may be associated with alterations in serum elements levels and lung and liver functions while long term exposure lowers peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:26981118

  2. Cement Dust Exposure and Perturbations in Some Elements and Lung and Liver Functions of Cement Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe Edmund Richard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cement dust inhalation is associated with deleterious health effects. The impact of cement dust exposure on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, liver function, and some serum elements in workers and residents near cement factory were assessed. Methods. Two hundred and ten subjects (50 workers, 60 residents, and 100 controls aged 18–60 years were studied. PEFR, liver function {aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT and total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB}, and serum elements {lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn, and arsenic (As} were determined using peak flow meter, colorimetry, and atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA and correlation at p=0.05. Results. The ALT, TB, CB, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were significantly higher and PEFR, Fe, and Zn lower in workers and residents compared to controls (p<0.05. Higher levels of ALT, AST, and Fe and lower levels of Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Mn, and Cu were seen in cement workers compared to residents (p<0.05. Negative correlation was observed between duration of exposure and PEFR (r=-0.416, p=0.016 in cement workers. Conclusions. Cement dust inhalation may be associated with alterations in serum elements levels and lung and liver functions while long term exposure lowers peak expiratory flow rate.

  3. Acute Meteorite Dust Exposure and Pulmonary Inflammation - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness [1-3]" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure [4]. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles [1]. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern [5]. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive [2, 6-9], and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz [6]. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary

  4. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  5. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  6. Exposure assessment to dust and free silica for workers of Sangan iron ore mine in Khaf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Jabbari, Hossein; Derakhshani, Elham; Amini, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    We aimed to conduct an exposure assessment to dust and free silica for workers of Sangan iron ore mine in Khaf, Iran. The maximum concentrations of total dust and free silica were measured in crusher machine station at 801 ± 155 and 26 ± 7 mg/m(3), respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum concentrations were measured in official and safeguarding station at 8.3 ± 2 and 0.012 ± 0.002 mg/m(3), respectively. Also, the maximum concentrations of respirable dust and free silica were measured in Tappeh Ghermez drilling no. 1 at 66 ± 13 and 1.5 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), respectively, while the minimum concentrations were measured in pneumatic hammer at 5.26 ± 3 and 0.01 ± 0.005 mg/m(3), respectively. Considerate to Iranian standard for respirable dust concentrations (0.11 mg/m(3)) and international standards (ACGIH = 0.1 and NIOSH = 0.05 mg/m(3)), it was found that dust and free silica amounts were much higher than national and international standard levels in this mine.

  7. Accumulation of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes in the lungs after exposure to pinewood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripenbäck, S; Lundgren, L; Eklund, A; Lidén, C; Skare, L; Tornling, G; Grunewald, J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust within the woodworking industry has been shown to cause a variety of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood from healthy individuals exposed to pinewood dust. Eleven healthy volunteers were exposed to pinewood dust for 1 h in a whole-body exposure chamber. BAL fluid and blood cells were differentially counted and the expression of activation, adhesion and subset markers on alveolar macrophages and T-lymphocytes was determined 2-6 weeks before and 20 h after the exposure. Following pinewood dust exposure, the total BAL fluid cell concentration increased from 81.4 (64.1-97.5) x 10(6) cells x L(-1) (median (interquartile range)) to 195.3 (154.6-341.2) x 10(6) cells x L(-1). The BAL fluid T-lymphocyte concentration increased from 3.8% (3.5-6.5%) to 7.6% (4.9-11.2%), and BAL fluid eosinophil concentration from 0.0% (0.0-0.2%) to 1.8% (0.6-3.5%). Inhalation of pinewood dust leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airways of healthy individuals. The increase in numbers of eosinophils, T-lymphocytes and mast cells, i.e. cells of crucial importance to airway inflammation, in the lungs may be related to the increased risk of developing respiratory disorders among woodworkers.

  8. Respirable quartz dust exposure and airway obstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Joachim; Huster, Katharina M; Nowak, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Studies on exposure to respirable quartz dust at the workplace and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were selected into a systematic review and meta-analysed to obtain an overall estimate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) reduction. PubMed and Embase were searched from 1970 to 2010. In total, 257 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were identified that reported on inorganic dust exposure and had available lung function data. Of the 55 publications which met our inclusion criteria, 11 reported on associations with occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust. The combined average effect estimate of respirable quartz dust on spirometric parameters was obtained using a random effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed via the I(2) statistic. Most studies found a significant negative association of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC related to increasing exposure to crystalline quartz at the workplace. One study found an effect only for smokers, and one did not observe such an effect at all. The meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies showed that the mean ratio FEV1 to FVC was reduced and FEV1 of workers exposed to respirable quartz dust was 4.6% less than predicted compared with workers with no/low exposure. Both results showed a statistically significant difference. Occupational exposure to respirable quartz dust was associated with a statistically significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, revealing airway obstruction consistent with COPD.

  9. Estimation of individual dust exposure by magnetopneumography in stainless steel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvinen, M; Oksanen, L; Kalliomäki, K; Kalliomäki, P L; Moilanen, M

    1997-06-20

    The objectives of the study were to measure the magnetic dust lung burden of workers in stainless steel production by magnetopneumography (MPG) and to investigate the relationship of the results with air-borne concentrations of dust, total and hexavalent chromium as well as urinary excretion of chromium. There were 128 workers from the chromite mine, sintering plant, ferrochrome smelter, stainless steel smelting shop, cold rolling mill and welding shop in the exposed groups and five persons from the office staff in the control group. The remanent magnetic field (RMF) in the lungs was slightly elevated among workers in the ferrochromium and steel smelting shops; the levels were, however, lower than those reported for welders earlier and those observed in the welding/repair shop. Workers in the mine, concentrator and sintering plants and in the cold rolling mill exhibited remanent magnetic fields comparable to the referents. There was a relationship between the RMF and the actual urinary chromium concentration. Miners and concentrator and sintering plant workers showed retarded relaxation rate (ReR) of the remanent magnetic field. However, the RMF of the first two of these groups were low (< 0.1 nT) and this made it difficult to measure the ReR accurately. The duration of exposure correlated weakly but significantly with the relaxation rate, while smoking was not related to it.

  10. A comprehensive assessment of exposures to respirable dust and silica in the taconite mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2017-05-01

    This study assessed the present-day levels (year 2010-2011) of exposure to respirable dust (RD) and respirable silica (RS) in taconite mines and evaluated how the mining process influences exposure concentrations. Personal samples (n = 679) were collected to assess exposure levels of workers to RD and RS at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. The RD and RS concentrations were measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 0600 and NIOSH 7500, respectively. Between-mine, between-SEG (similar exposure groups), within-SEG, and within-worker components of variability for RD and RS exposures were estimated using a two- or three-way nested random-effects ANOVA model. The majority of RD concentrations across all mines were below the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The highest concentrations of RD were often observed in either the Pelletizing or Crushing departments, which are inherently dusty operations. With a few exceptions, the concentrations of RS in the crushing and concentrating processes were higher than those in the other mining processes, as well as higher than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for RS. The magnetic separation and flotation processes in the concentrating department reduced the levels of RS significantly, and lowered the percentage of quartz in RD in the pelletizing department. There was little variability among the six mines or between the two mineralogically distinct zones for either RD or RS exposures. The between-SEG variability for RS did not differ substantially across most of the mines and was a major component of exposure variance. The within-SEG (or between-worker) variance component was typically the smallest because in many instances one worker from a SEG within a mine was monitored multiple times. Some of these findings were affected by the degree of censoring in each SEG and mine

  11. Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Dust and Crystalline Silica in Foundries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali OMIDIANIDOST; Mehdi GHASEMKHANI; Azari, Mansour R.; Golbabaei,Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The term “crystalline silica” refers to crystallized form of SiO2 and quartz, as the most abundant compound on the earth’s crust; it is capable of causing silicosis and lung cancer upon inhaling large doses in the course of occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to assess occupational exposure to dust and crystalline silica in foundries in Pakdasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, airborne dust samples were collected on PVC filters (37 mm diameter, 0.8 mm por...

  12. Overview on relative importance of house dust ingestion in human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): International comparison and Korea as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sang, Hee Hong

    2016-11-15

    Human exposure studies to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have reached different results about the relative importance of diet intake and house dust ingestion. In the present study, concentrations of PBDEs in Korean house dust (n=15) from geographically different cities were measured, which were in agreement with a previous result, and compared with those for 22 countries of five continents collected from the most recent scientific literature. Compared with other exposure pathways, diet intake was the most important contributor to total PBDEs exposure of Korean adults (i.e., 71% of overall intake). On global comparison, total PBDE levels in house dust differed by two to three orders of magnitude among the countries investigated, with a significant relationship with gross domestic product (GDP). Whereas, dietary daily intakes exhibited a narrow difference within one order of magnitude worldwide and no relationship with GDP. Consequently, the relative importance of major two pathways depended on the contamination extent of PBDEs in house dust, which may be associated with the amount of PBDE products in use. In most countries except for UK and USA, the contribution of house dust ingestion was less important than diet intake in the current and are expected to much more mitigate in the future. However, how fast the effect of regulation will be reflected to house dust and human exposure is necessary to be monitored steadily.

  13. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  14. [Lung tissue in intratracheal exposure to mine dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, A; Vodenicharov, E

    1984-01-01

    The experiment was performed 64 albino female rats by a single, intretracheal treatment with 50 mg mine dust. Dynamic biochemical studies were carried out - by 3th and 6th months of the experiment. The data obtained were compared with the changes observed in the positive controls - DQ12 and Ti02 The activity of the oxidation-reduction enzymes and hydrolytic ones was enhanced, the content of sulphhydryl groups and soluble proteins was increased. The results obtained are an evidence of the advancing metabolic disturbances in pulmonary tissue, being better manifested by 6th month of the experiment.

  15. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Karkhanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.

  16. Contamination of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in house dust from the Philippines: implications on human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-05-01

    Seven compounds of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) were determined in house dust samples collected from a residential area (Malate: n = 17) and municipal dumping area (Payatas: n = 20) in the Philippines. Total concentrations of the 7 BUVSs in house dust ranged from ND (not detected) to 1020 ng/g in Malate and ND to 277 ng/g in Payatas. Among the target compounds, the most abundant BUVS was UV-234, with a median value of 84 ng/g (ND-813 ng/g) in Malate and 41 ng/g (ND-212 ng/g) in Payatas, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations of UV-326 (p<0.01) and UV-327 (p<0.05) were found in house dust samples from Malate than those from Payatas, suggesting that the household products are the major sources of contamination in the indoor microenvironment. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of BUVSs through house dust ingestion in the Philippines were two to four orders of magnitude lower than the guideline values. However, the EDI of 5 BUVSs for toddlers in this study was 5 times higher than those for adults, suggesting that toddlers are at higher risk. House dust may be an important exposure route of UV-234 (88%) and UV-326 (69%) in worst-case scenarios, which using high dust ingestion and worst-case exposure (P95). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study on BUVSs in house dust samples from Asian developing countries and reporting the occurrence of UV-234 and UV-320 in dust samples.

  17. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  18. [Exposure to ceramic fibers in the work environment. II. Occupational exposure to dust in plants producing ceramic fiber; fibrogenic effect of the fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, J; Lao, I; Krajnow, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to assess the exposure to dust containing ceramic fibres among workers employed in the plant producing aluminosilicate fibres, and to investigate fibrogenic properties of produced ceramic aluminosilicate fibres (L-1). The studies carried out in the work environment revealed that workers were exposed to dust containing respirable fibres from materials produced (fibres, mats). Mean concentrations of these fibres ranged from 0.07 to 0.37 f/cm3 and they were considerably lower than MAC value (1 f/cm3) proposed for respirable ceramic fibres. Mean total dust concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.9 mg/m3, and at two working posts they exceeded the proposed MAC value (2 mg/m3). In animal experiments (Wistar female rats) a single dose (25 mg) of L-1 fibres administered intratracheally induced pathological symptoms in lungs, limited to reactive changes in the form of granuloma with weakly pronounced cytolysis, and mean levels of hydroxyproline in the lungs did not differ significantly from the physiological level. The L-1 fibre was classified in the group of dusts with insignificant fibrogenic effects.

  19. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennie; Indugula, Reshmi; Vesper, Stephen; Zhu, Zheng; Jandarov, Roman; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-08-31

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample collected with a Button™ inhalable aerosol sampler and four types of dust samples: a vacuumed floor dust sample, newly settled dust collected for four weeks onto two types of electrostatic dust cloths (EDCs) in trays, and a wipe sample of dust from above floor surfaces. The samples were obtained in the bedrooms of asthmatic children (n = 14). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to analyze the dust and air samples for the 36 fungal species that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The results from the samples were compared by four matrices: total concentration of fungal cells, concentration of fungal species associated with indoor environments, concentration of fungal species associated with outdoor environments, and ERMI values (or ERMI-like values for air samples). The ERMI values for the dust samples and the ERMI-like values for the 48 hour air samples were not significantly different. The total cell concentrations of the 36 species obtained with the four dust collection methods correlated significantly (r = 0.64-0.79, p sampling methods (r = 0.68-0.86, p samples primarily because of differences in concentrations of Cladosporium cladosporioides Type 1 and Epicoccum nigrum. A representative type of dust sample and a 48 hour air sample might both provide useful information about fungal exposures.

  20. Endotoxin levels in settled airborne dust in European schools: the HITEA school study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Krop, E.J.M.; Borràs-Santos, A.; Zock, J.P.; Täubel, M.; Hyvärinen, A.; Pekkanen, J.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbial agents is known to influence respiratory health. Besides home exposure, exposure in schools can affect respiratory health. In this study, we measured endotoxin in settled dust in primary schools in three European countries from three different geographical regions with d

  1. The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Aleksandropoulou, V; Glytsos, T; Lazaridis, M

    2012-12-01

    The current study focus on the determination of dust emissions from piles in open storage yards of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site and the subsequent atmospheric dust dispersion. The ISC3-ST (Industrial Source Complex Version 3 - Short Term) model was used for the evaluation of the PM(10) ambient concentrations associated with the dispersion of MSW compost dust emissions in air. Dust emission rates were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed dust resuspension formulation from open storage piles using local meteorological data. The dispersion modelling results on the spatial distribution of PM(10) source depletion showed that the maximum concentrations were observed at a distance 25-75 m downwind of the piles in the prevailing wind direction. Sensitivity calculations were performed also to reveal the effect of the compost pile height, the friction velocity and the receptor height on the ambient PM(10) concentration. It was observed that PM(10) concentrations (downwind in the prevailing wind direction) increased with increasing the friction velocity, increasing the pile height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source) and decreasing the receptor height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source). Furthermore, the results of ISC3-ST were analysed with the ExDoM (Exposure Dose Model) human exposure model. The ExDoM is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract (RT). PM(10) concentration at the composting site was calculated as the sum of the concentration from compost pile dust resuspension and the background concentration. It was found that the exposure to PM(10) and deposited lung dose for an adult Caucasian male who is not working at the composting site is less by 20-74% and 29-84%, respectively, compared to those for a worker exposed to PM concentrations at the composting site.

  2. A systematic review of occupational exposure to coal dust and the risk of interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Christiane; Kolstad, Henrik A; Søndergaard, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to coal dust can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD), but whether this is due to pure coal or to the contents of quartz in coal is less clear. Here, we systematically reviewed the relation between 'pure coal' and ILD. Methods: In a systematic review based on PRISMA criteria...

  3. Dust exposure in workers from grain storage facilities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zamora, María G; Medina-Escobar, Lourdes; Mora, Glend; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mora, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    About 12 million workers are involved in the production of basic grains in Central America. However, few studies in the region have examined the occupational factors associated with inhalable dust exposure. (i) To assess the exposure to inhalable dust in workers from rice, maize, and wheat storage facilities in Costa Rica; (ii) to examine the occupational factors associated with this exposure; and (iii) to measure concentrations of respirable and thoracic particles in different areas of the storage facilities. We measured inhalable (facilities in Costa Rica. We also measured respirable (facilities. Geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) inhalable dust concentrations were 2.0mg/m(3) and 7.8 (range=facilities, and in grain drying (2.3mg/m(3) and 3.1) and unloading (1.5mg/m(3) and 4.8) areas. Operators of grain storage facilities showed elevated inhalable dust concentrations, mostly above international exposure limits. Better engineering and administrative controls are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [New documentation sheet for medical examination due to exposures to dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Mannes, E; Koppisch, D; Otten, H; Dahmann, D

    2004-05-01

    With beginning of the year 2004 a new documentation sheet for occupational preventive medical examinations according to exposures to mineral dust (quartz, asbestos, ceramic fibres) will replace the existing sheet. The new investigation sheet is presented in this publication and changes are described.

  5. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  6. Association between environmental dust exposure and lung cancer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Giuliano; Morini, Maria; Marconato, Laura; Marcato, Paolo Stefano; Zini, Eric

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the accumulation of black dust matter in lungs (anthracosis) and primary lung cancer in dogs. A retrospective study was carried out on material from 35 dogs with primary lung cancer and 160 controls. The amount, histological appearance and birefringence of anthracosis were assessed in pulmonary specimens by light microscopy, and the odds ratio (OR) calculated for dogs with primary lung cancer. The same factors were analysed to identify an association between tumour histotype, histological grade, and clinical stage. Papillary adenocarcinoma was most commonly diagnosed (45.7%). The majority of tumours were of histological grade II, and the lung cancer was more often localised (clinical stage I). An increased risk of lung cancer was observed in dogs with higher amounts of anthracosis (OR: 2.11, CI 95%: 1.20-3.70; P cancer in dogs.

  7. World Trade Center (WTC) dust exposure in mice is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and epigenetic changes in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Vayas, Kinal N; Fang, Mingzhu; Zarbl, Helmut; Massa, Christopher; Gow, Andrew J; Cervelli, Jessica A; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert J; Lioy, Paul J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to World Trade Center (WTC) dust has been linked to respiratory disease in humans. In the present studies we developed a rodent model of WTC dust exposure to analyze lung oxidative stress and inflammation, with the goal of elucidating potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying these responses. Exposure of mice to WTC dust (20μg, i.t.) was associated with upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 within 3days, a response which persisted for at least 21days. Whereas matrix metalloproteinase was upregulated 7days post-WTC dust exposure, IL-6RA1 was increased at 21days; conversely, expression of mannose receptor, a scavenger receptor important in particle clearance, decreased. After WTC dust exposure, increases in methylation of histone H3 lysine K4 at 3days, lysine K27 at 7days and lysine K36, were observed in the lung, along with hypermethylation of Line-1 element at 21days. Alterations in pulmonary mechanics were also observed following WTC dust exposure. Thus, 3days post-exposure, lung resistance and tissue damping were decreased. In contrast at 21days, lung resistance, central airway resistance, tissue damping and tissue elastance were increased. These data demonstrate that WTC dust-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with epigenetic modifications in the lung and altered pulmonary mechanics. These changes may contribute to the development of WTC dust pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of matrix metalloproteinase activities from alveolar macrophages during chronic coal mine dust exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberson, D.; Wastiaux, A.; Lefevre, J.P.; Sebastien, P.; Lafuma, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UA-CNRS), Creteil (France). Lab. de Biochimie du Tissu Conjunctif

    1994-12-31

    Macrophage derived products have been implicated in pneumoconiosis induced by chronic coal dust inhalation. To assess the role of macrophages during chronic inflammatory processes in relation to pneumoconiosis, their capacity to secrete matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities was studied. Two groups of rats were exposed to 100 or 200 mg m{sup -3}, 6 h per day, 5 days per week and sacrified at 9, 28 and 78 days of exposure, and 6 months following the end of exposure. A total of 92 kDa proform and 88 kDa active form collagenase type IV (gelatinase) were investigated in macrophage culture medium (MEM), macrophage extracts (MACs) and bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL). In parallel, net gelatinase and interstitial collagenase activities were evaluated by degradation of radiolabelled specific substrates. Pneumoconiotic lessons developed during the late dust exposure and the recovery phase and were associated with macrophage alveolitis. Results showed that chronic coal dust inhalation induced the increase of total gelatinase activities secreted into the MEM and the BAL. The net gelatinase and collagenase activities were increased in parallel in MEM whereas they appeared inhibited when secreted in the BAL whatever the dust exposure time. These results suggest that chronic coal mine dust exposure is capable of inducing chronic alveolar MACs activation in regard to their persistent highly increased capacity to degrade in situ extracelluar matrix components, namely collagen types IV or V. Such a deregulation associated with the acute inhibition process towards MMPs in the alveolar space, allowed the authors to propose a role of MMPs during pneumoconiosis. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl A; Wagner, Cynthia D; Bisesi, Michael S; Ames, April L; Khuder, Sadik; Susi, Pam; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2010-12-01

    Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Task-specific geometric mean (GM) of respirable crystalline silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled-grinding, while GV was off/on, were 0.17/0.09, 0.57/0.13, 1.11/0.44, and 23.1/6.80, respectively. Silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ using 100-125 mm (4-5 inch) and 180 mm (7 inch) grinding cups were 0.53/0.22 and 2.43/0.56, respectively. GM concentrations of silica dust were significantly lower for (1) GV on (66.0%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (99.0%), LEV:Shop-vac- (98.1%) or wet- (94.4%) vs. uncontrolled-grinding. Task-specific GM of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled grinding, while GV was off/on, were 1.58/0.63, 7.20/1.15, 9.52/4.13, and 152/47.8, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP using 100-125 mm and 180 mm grinding cups were 4.78/1.62 and 22.2/5.06, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP were significantly lower for (1) GV on (70.2%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (98.9%), LEV:Shop-vac- (96.9%) or wet- (92.6%) vs. uncontrolled grinding. Silica dust and RSP were not significantly affected by (1) orientation of grinding surfaces (vertical vs. inclined); (2) water flow rates for wet grinding; (3) length of task-specific sampling time; or, (4) among cup sizes of 100, 115 or 125 mm. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the

  10. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, N.-Y.; Lee, C.-C.; Wang, J.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    in settled dust from the homes of 101 children (3–9 years old) were measured, along with their corresponding urinary metabolites. Other environmental risk factors, including indoor CO2, PM2.5, formaldehyde, 1,3-b-D-glucan, endotoxin, allergen and fungal levels, were concomitantly examined. Subjects health......). Higher levels of dibutyl phthalate and its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate were found to be the potential risk factors for the health outcomes of interest. Similarly, indoor fungal exposure remained a significant risk factor, especially for reported respiratory...

  11. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  12. Brominated flame retardants in house dust from e-waste recycling and urban areas in South China: implications on human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ma, Yun-Juan; Chen, She-Jun; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were examined in house dust from the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling and urban areas of South China. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were in the range of 227-160,000 ng/g in the e-waste recycling area and 530-44,000 ng/g in the urban area. These values were much higher than other BFRs, except for novel decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) whose value of 100-47,000 ng/g was dominant in approximately 1/4 of the samples from the urban area. Urban dust PBDE levels were generally higher than those in many European and Asian countries and comparable to the values found in North America. Urban dust DBDPE levels were higher than those of other areas in the world. The distinct dust BFR profiles observed in the two studied areas were reflective of activities in these areas (electronics industry vs. e-waste recycling). The presence of BDE202, as well as the BDE197 to BDE201 and the nona-BDEs to deca-BDE ratios in the dust samples from the studied areas were probably indicative of environmental degradation of deca-BDE. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of average adult and toddler via house dust ranged from 37.0 to 304 ng/day for PBDEs and from 3.01 to 87.6 ng/day for all other BFRs in the studied areas. The EDIs via house dust were much higher than those via other indoor pathways (air, fish, human milk, and toys). Despite the potentially low deleterious risk of PBDE exposure via house dust as suggested by the hazard quotients, this exposure pathway should be of great concern because of the higher BFR exposures for children and the presence of other BFRs (such as DBDPE) which have not yet been fully investigated.

  13. A case-control study of wood dust exposure, mutagen sensitivity, and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R

    1995-09-01

    The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.

  14. Exposure to cement dust at a Portland cement factory and the risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestbo, J; Knudsen, K M; Raffn, E; Korsgaard, B; Rasmussen, F V

    1991-01-01

    The relation between exposure to cement dust and cancer was examined in a population of 546 cement workers and a reference population of 858 randomly sampled men of similar age and area of residence. In 1974 all men gave lifelong occupational and smoking histories; information on incidence of cancer in the period 1974-85 was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. No increased risk of overall cancer was found among cement workers. Among men with more than 20 years exposure to cement dust, 14 cases of respiratory cancer were observed (observed/expected (O/E) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90-2.57) when compared with all Danish men. Men with 1-20 years exposure had O/E 1.14 (95% CI 0.59-2.19) based on nine cases of cancer. After excluding all men with documented exposure to asbestos during employment in an asbestos cement factory no increased risk of overall cancer or respiratory cancer was found among cement workers compared with white collar workers from the local reference population, using a Cox regression model controlling for age and smoking habits. Relative risks were 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-1.5) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.4-2.6) for men with 1-20 and more than 20 years of exposure to cement dust respectively compared with white collar workers. PMID:1772795

  15. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  16. Cellulosic building insulation versus mineral wool, fiberglass or perlite: installer's exposure by inhalation of fibers, dust, endotoxin and fire-retardant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, N O; Schneider, T; Jørgensen, O; Valdbjørn Rasmussen, T; Skibstrup Eriksen, S

    2003-11-01

    A task-specific exposure matrix was designed for workers installing building insulation materials. A priori, a matrix element was defined by type of task (installer or helper), type of work area (attic spaces or wall cavities) and type of insulation material (slabs from mineral wool, fiberglass or flax; loose-fill cellulosic material or perlite). In the laboratory a mock-up (full scale) of a one-family house was used for simulated installation of insulation materials (four replicates per matrix element). Personal exposure to dust and fibers was measured. The dust was analyzed for content of endotoxin and some trace elements (boron and aluminum) from fire-retardant or mold-resistant additives. Fibers were characterized as WHO fibers or non-WHO fibers. In support of the exposure matrix, the dustiness of all the materials was measured in a rotating drum tester. For installers in attic spaces, risk of exposure was low for inhalation of dust and WHO fibers from slab materials of mineral wool or fiberglass. Slab materials from flax may cause high risk of exposure to endotoxin. The risk of exposure by inhalation of dust from loose-fill materials was high for installers in attic spaces and for some of the materials risk of exposure was high for boron and aluminum. Exposure by inhalation of cellulosic WHO fibers was high but little is known about the health effects and a risk assessment is not possible. For the insulation of walls, the risk of installers' exposure by inhalation of dust and fibers was low for the slab materials, while a high risk was observed for loose-fill materials. The exposure to WHO fibers was positively correlated to the dust exposure. A dust level of 6.1 mg/m3 was shown to be useful as a proxy for screening exposure to WHO fibers in excess of 10(6) fibers/m3. In the rotating drum, slabs of insulation material from mineral wool or fiberglass were tested as not dusty. Cellulosic loose-fill materials were tested as very dusty, and perlite proved to be

  17. [Indoor dust as a pathway of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Czaja, Katarzyna; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2012-01-01

    The brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) belong to a class of synthetic, additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs). PBDEs are used to reduce the flammability of commercial and household products such as textiles, various plastic polymers, furnishing foam, and electronic equipment. People spend a large percentage of their life-time indoors at home, in offices and cars, etc, providing many opportunities for lengthy exposure to PBDEs from residential settings and commercial products in an indoor environment. In recent time, the foodstuffs, mainly food of animal origin, have been indicated as the main pathway of human exposure to PBDEs. However, many studies have shown that the indoor environment, mainly indoor dust, can be also a significant source of exposure to PBDEs, especially for younger children (toddlers) because of their behavioral patterns, eg. putting fingers, toys, and other items in their mouth. Numerous studies show that the median intakes of PBDEs via dust for adult range from 1.41 to 277 ng x day(-1) is lower than that via food which range from 135 to 333 ng x day-', while the median intake of these compounds via indoor dust for children range from 101 to 404 ng x day(-1) is much higher than via food: 77-190 ng x day(-1). The congener pattern observed in the indoor dust is different to that found in food. The indoor dust is dominated by the congener BDE-209 vs. food where the most dominated congeners are BDE-47 and BDE-99. Human exposure to PBDEs and other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is widely widespread throughout the world and it depends on a country range of usage, production and legislation concerning these chemicals as well as a citizen's behavior. Generally, human exposure has been found higher in North America than in Europe and Asia. Within European countries the significant highest concentrations in dust have been found in the United Kingdom. It should be noted that many uncertainty factors such as personal habits, dietary preferences

  18. Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-)mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Jantzen, Kim; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells and acell...

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: determinants of residential carpet dust levels and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Jones, Rena R.; Colt, Joanne S.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with residential carpet dust measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods We evaluated the relationship between residential carpet dust PAH concentrations (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, and their sum) and risk of NHL (676 cases, 511 controls) in the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results multicenter case–control study. As a secondary aim, we investigated determinants of dust PAH concentrations. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for associations between NHL and concentrations of individual and summed PAHs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, and study center. Determinants of natural log-transformed PAHs were investigated using multivariate least-squares regression. Results We observed some elevated risks for NHL overall and B cell lymphoma subtypes in association with quartiles or tertiles of PAH concentrations, but without a monotonic trend, and there was no association comparing the highest quartile or tertile to the lowest. In contrast, risk of T cell lymphoma was significantly increased among participants with the highest tertile of summed PAHs (OR = 3.04; 95 % CI, 1.09–8.47) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (OR = 3.20; 95 % CI, 1.13–9.11) compared with the lowest tertile. Predictors of PAH dust concentrations in homes included ambient air PAH concentrations and the proportion of developed land within 2 km of a residence. Older age, more years of education, and white race were also predictive of higher levels in homes. Conclusion Our results suggest a potential link between PAH exposure and risk of T cell lymphoma and demonstrate the importance of analyzing risk by NHL histologic type. PMID:26573845

  20. Histological changes in the nasal mucosa in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, M; Wilhelmsson, B; Hellquist, H

    1989-01-01

    Wood dust is a well known nasal carcinogen in man, as formaldehyde is in rats. In certain occupational environments, combined exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde is common. Little is known about the effects of this combination. A pilot study was performed on four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: one exposed to wood dust (25 mg/m3), another to formaldehyde (12.4 ppm) and a third to both wood dust and formaldehyde; the fourth group served a control group. After 104 weeks of exposure the nose and lungs were examined histologically. One well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was found in the formaldehyde group. Squamous cell metaplasia was found significantly more often among the formaldehyde-exposed rats. Squamous cell metaplasia with dysplasia was most frequently observed, however, in the group exposed to both formaldehyde and wood dust. There were also significantly more rats with pulmonary emphysema in the groups exposed to wood dust than in the other groups.

  1. Risk evaluation and exposure control of mineral dust containing free crystalline silica: a study case at a quarry in the Recife Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Mario; Kohlman Rabbani, E; Barkokébas Junior, Beda; Lago, Eliane

    2012-01-01

    During the production of aggregates at quarry sites, elevated quantities of micro-particulate mineral dust are produced in all stages of the process. This dust contains appreciable amounts of free crystalline silica in a variety of forms which, if maintained suspended in the air in the work environment, expose the workers to the risk of developing occupational silicosis, which causes reduced ability to work and potential shortening of lifespan. This study was conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate workers' exposure to mineral dust containing free crystalline silica at a midsized quarry in the Recife metropolitan area, in the State of Pernambuco. It involved evaluation of the industrial process, collection and analysis of representative dust samples, and interviews with the management team of the company with the intent to assess the compliance of the company with Regulatory Standard (NR) 22--Occupational safety and health in mining. In order to assist the company in managing risks related to dust exposure, three protocols were developed, implemented and made available, the first based on NR 22, from which the company was also given an economic safety indicator, the second based on the recommendations and requirements of Fundacentro to implement a Respiratory Protection Program and, finally, an assessment protocol with respect to the guidelines of the International Labor Organization to implement a health and safety management system. This study also showed the inadequacy of the formula for calculating tolerance limits in Brazilian legislation when compared with the more strict internationally accepted control parameters. From the laboratory results, unhealthy conditions at the quarry site were confirmed and technical and administrative measures were suggested to reduce and control dust exposure at acceptable levels, such as the implementation of an occupational health and safety management system, integrated with other management systems. From these

  2. Ara h2 levels in dust from homes of individuals with peanut allergy and individuals with peanut tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Jodi; Barnes, Charles; Nanda, Maya; Dinakar, Chitra; Ciaccio, Christina

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 1% of the U.S. population has a peanut allergy. Previous studies that measured peanut protein in house dust support the hypothesis that household peanut consumption may lead to clinical sensitization through transdermal exposure. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize Ara h2 levels in house dust from homes with and without individuals with peanut allergy. Household dust was obtained from homes with an individual with peanut allergy and from homes with no individual with peanut allergy. Ara h2 levels were determined by using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay with a level of determination of 150 ng per gram of dust. Peanut consumption information was obtained by questionnaire. A total of 85 dust samples were collected: 38 from homes with a individual with peanut allergy and 47 from control homes. The median Ara h2 level in homes with an individual with peanut allergy was 1236 ng/g (interquartile range [IQR], 256-1342 ng/g), whereas the median Ara h2 level in homes without an individual with peanut allergy was 650 ng/g (IQR, 163-2201 ng/g). Ara h2 levels in dust from homes of individuals with peanut allergy were not significantly lower than in dust from control homes. Of the homes with an individual with peanut allergy, 15 reported complete avoidance of peanut in the home (39%). Ara h2 levels in homes that completely avoided peanuts were not significantly lower than Ara h2 levels in homes that did not restrict peanuts (p = 0.531). Although families may restrict peanuts and peanut products in the home, there was still detectable Ara h2 levels found in homes. Each subject's definition of restriction may vary, there seemed to be peanut protein entering the home, although the protein origin is not known. Possibilities include cross-reactivity with another antigen or transport into the home on some vector. Further investigation of hypotheses regarding cross-reactivity and environmental exposure to Ara h2 is necessary.

  3. Occupational exposure to wood dust in the british woodworking industry in 1999/2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nigel; Dilworth, Martin; Summers, Nick

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to inhalable wood dust and compliance with the British Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 were assessed at a representative cross-section of the British woodworking industry. Median exposures ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 mg/m(3) across the selected industry groups, the lowest being in sawmilling and planing of wood. Overall, 27% of values exceeded the maximum exposure limit (MEL) at that time of 5 mg/m(3). These results showed that the percentage of exposures above the MEL was less than in a survey carried out 10 years earlier. A wide variation of exposures was identified at different machines and tasks. At least 90% at bandsawing and cross-cut sawing were woodworking activities.

  4. Exposure assessment of organophosphorus and organobromine flame retardants via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizouchi, Shigekazu; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takamuku, Toshiyuki; Miyajima, Toru; Kodama, Hiroki; Someya, Takashi; Ueno, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    To assess the exposure of flame retardants (FRs) for school-children, organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) and organobromine flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in the indoor dust samples collected from elementary schools and domestic houses in Japan in 2009 and 2010. PFRs were detected in all the dust samples analyzed and the highest concentration of total PFRs was thousand-fold higher than that of BFRs. Among the PFRs, tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP) showed the highest concentration with a median (med.) of 270,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (3700-5,500,000 ng g(-1) dry weight), followed by tris(methylphenyl)phosphate (TMPPs)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)=tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP)=tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP)=tris(2chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP)>ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP). Significantly higher concentrations of TBOEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), TPHP, TMPPs, and total-PFRs were found in dust samples from elementary schools than from domestic houses. It might be due to that higher concentrations of TBOEP (as leveling agent) were detected from the floor polisher/wax products collected in those elementary schools. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of TCEP, TCIPPs, and total chloroalkyl-PFRs were found in domestic houses than in elementary schools. Exposure assessments of PFRs via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses were conducted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Among PFRs, HQs for TBOEP exceeded 1 (higher than reference dose: RfD) and its highest value was 1.9. To reduce the intake of TBOEP by school-children, it is recommended that the use of floor polisher/wax containing TBOEP be reduced in schools.

  5. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (industry in Viborg County, further improvements are possible. There should be more focus on improved exhaust ventilation, professional cleaning methods and avoiding use of compressed air. PMID:18407937

  6. Risk assessments of PAHs and Hg exposure via settled house dust and street dust, linking with their correlations in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fuyong; Zheng, Jinshu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-15

    Domestic energy, chemicals bioaccessibility and particle size were found as three critical factors for risk assessment of PAHs exposure via settled house dust (SHD) and street dust. ∑PAHs and Hg contained in SHD were significantly (p10(-4)) via SHD exposure. The highest accumulation trend of PAHs and Hg were found in PAHs led to a significant decrease on related cancer risks and decreased in the order of 1.9, 1.1, 0.6 and 0.4 μg g(-1) with the increase of particle sizes (PAHs (0.05-0.9 μg g(-1)) and Hg (0.04-1.6 μg g(-1)). Different PAHs profiles were found between PAHs in SHD and those of hair, indicating that exogenous exposure to PAHs adsorbed on dust was not the major source of hair PAHs.

  7. Indoor and outdoor dust in Damaturu Nigeria : composition, exposure and risk to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Fatima Sule

    2013-01-01

    Harmattan and Dust (sand) storms together with anthropogenic activities including the use of firewood and kerosene as fuel for cooking, and diesel/petrol generators for electricity generation are potential sources of particulate and gaseous pollutants in homes in Damaturu town, Nigeria. Other activities like the burning of locally produced incense and mosquito coils as well as the use of aerosol sprays are further possible sources of indoor pollution, which may result in exposure of people to...

  8. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  9. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs - A review of levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    ingest more dust than adults. Infants are also exposed to PBDEs via breast milk. Internal human exposure has generally been found to be one order of magnitude larger in North America than in Europe and Asia. These differences cannot solely be explained by the dietary intake as meat products are the only......This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic...... compounds, PBDEs accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. Consequently, food items like fish from high trophic levels or lipid-rich oils have been found to contain relatively high concentrations of PBDEs, thus presenting an important exposure pathway to humans. The presence of PBDEs in various products of everyday...

  10. Phthalates in indoor dust in Kuwait: implications for non-dietary human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevao, B; Al-Ghadban, A N; Bahloul, M; Uddin, S; Zafar, J

    2013-04-01

    Phthalates are semivolatile organic compounds with a ubiquitous environmental distribution. Their presence in indoor environments is linked to their use in a variety of consumer products such as children's toys, cosmetics, food packaging, flexible PVC flooring among others. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence and concentration of phthalates in dust from homes in Kuwait and to assess non-dietary human exposure to these phthalates. Dust samples were randomly collected from 21 homes and analyzed for eight phthalates. The concentrations of total phthalates were log normally distributed and ranged from 470 to 7800 μg/g. Five phthalates [Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DcHP)] were routinely detected. The major phthalate compound was DEHP at a geometric mean concentration of 1704 μg/g (median, 2256 μg/g) accounting for 92% of the total phthalates measured. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates for children and adults, estimated human non-dietary exposure based on median phthalate concentrations ranged from 938 ng/kg-bd/day for adults to 13362 ng/kg-bd/day for toddlers. The difference in exposure estimates between children and adults in this study supports previous reports that children are at greater risk from pollutants that accumulate indoors.

  11. Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-)mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Jantzen, Kim; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells......, Hmox-1 and Ogg1. The levels of oxidatively damaged DNA were unchanged in lung tissue. The exposure to SWCNT significantly increased the expression of Ccl-2 in the lung tissue of the mice. The exposure to DEP and SWCNT was associated with elevated ROS production in cultured cells, whereas intratracheal...

  12. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  13. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  14. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  15. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2013-04-12

    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  16. A 20-year follow-up study on the effects of long-term exposure to thorium dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴安; 程永娥; 肖慧娟; 冯国栋; 邓芸辉; 冯志良; 陈莲; 韩轩茂; 杨英杰; 董智华; 甄荣

    2003-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible effects of long-term exposure to dust containing thorium and thoron progeny dust-exposed miners. Methods A negative, high voltage, exhaled thoron progeny measurement system was used to estimate the miners' thorium lung burden. Results The highest thorium lung burden of 638 miners was 11.11 Bq. The incidence of stage 0+ pneumoconiosis was higher among dust-exposed miners. Lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners was significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.005). Conclusion There is a difference in cancer rates between those who have long-term exposure to dust containing thorium (in which carcinogenic ThO2 and SiO2 exist) and thoron progeny and those who have not.

  17. Cotton Dust Exposure and Resulting Respiratory Disorders Among Home-Based Garment Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Prayomyong, Somchit; Sujitrat, Dusit; Suwan-Ampai, Plernpit

    2016-03-01

    Cotton dust exposures and resulting respiratory disorders among Thai home-based garment workers in Bangkok were explored. Structured interviews focused on occupational health assessments of respiratory disorders; workflow process observations, lung function screening tests, and garment dust density assessments were used to gather data. Results revealed that garment workers in this study had worked in home-based tailoring an average of 14.88 years; 88.5% reported average health status, only 2.6% currently smoked cigarettes, and 8.6% had impaired lung function. The prevalence of respiratory disorders in this occupational group was 25%. Significant respiratory tract signs and symptoms were associated with lung function capacity (odds ratio [OR] = 52.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [6.49, 419.60]). Long work hours and few preventive behaviors were significantly associated with respiratory disorders (OR = 2.89 and OR = 10.183, respectively). Improving working conditions at home and minimizing fabric dust exposure among garment workers are recommended.

  18. Occupational health risk assessment and exposure to floor dust PAHs inside an educational building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkidou, Androniki; Arar, Sharif; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart; Jaghbeir, Omar; Faouri, Dina; Hämeri, Kaarle; Hussein, Tareq

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) settled in floor dust play an important role in human health. Although many studies investigated occupational exposure to PAHs, no attempts have been made to report PAHs concentrations as well as their health risk assessment inside an educational building in Jordan. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to report the PAHs concentrations in floor dust and evaluate their exposure and health risk inside the Department of Physics of the University of Jordan. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 714 to 5246ng/g. The high concentrations were observed inside some offices, where tobacco smoking took place. One of those offices was previously renovated and some petrochemical liquids were used to remove the remaining glue from a previous carpet. Interestingly, the PAHs inside these offices were higher than those reported inside lecture rooms and the workshop area, where extensive activates of heavy machinery and use of petroleum products (such as lubricating oils). This implies that the health effects of exposure to tobacco smoking inside small micro-environmental places that are poorly ventilated can be very harmful. We also made a simple exposure and health risk assessment for the ingested dust (hand-to-mouth) by calculating the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) and benzo(a)pyrene equivalent carcinogenic power (BaPE). The total EDI was less than 3.75ng/kg-bw/day whereas the BaPE was less than 385ng/g. These values are lower than what was reported in some previous studies in Europe and Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New tools to monitor personal exposure to respirable coal mine dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkwein, J.C.; Thimons, E.D. [NIOSH/Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    2001-07-01

    The compliance sampling method for coal mine dust in the United States has not changed appreciably in the last 30 years. A call for more frequent sampling with immediately available results is leading to new instruments that may supplement or replace the existing sampler. This report discusses two such instruments that provide immediate results of dust levels. The first, called the Respirable Dust Dosimeter (RDD), is designed to supplement the existing U. S. cyclone compliance sampling method. It uses the pressure drop across a filter to provide an inexpensive screening type of measurement. The RDD has been tested in the laboratory and a limited number of coal mines. Side by side testing has compared the RDD performance with personal coal mine samplers in triplicate area sample measurements. Results show that the differential pressure of specific filtration media can be an effective surrogate for respirable mass. Data show that there is a dependence on coal type and an effect of relative humidity. There also appear to be two distinct responses related to coal type. For specific coals the coefficients of determination, R{sub 2}, are better than 0.9. For general use the detector tube, using laboratory generated calibration curves, can be used to estimate respirable dust levels. However, a calibration to a specific coal type may substantially improve the accuracy. Another sampler in development is called the Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). Designed to give compliance quality accuracy, the PDM uses the frequency change of a vibrating element to measure dust and give immediate feedback of results. Results of laboratory comparison of the prototype PDM sampler to personal gravimetric samplers indicate R{sub 2} values of better than 0.99 for three different coal types. Work is in progress to package the components into a person-wearable unit combined with a cap lamp system with a total projected weight of less than 1.4 kg (3 lbs). 4 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts.

  1. A systematic review of occupational exposure to coal dust and the risk of interstitial lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christiane; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Heederik, Dick; Olsen, Karen E.; Omland, Øyvind; Petsonk, Edward; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sherson, David L.; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Exposure to coal dust can cause interstitial lung disease (ILD), but whether this is due to pure coal or to the contents of quartz in coal is less clear. Here, we systematically reviewed the relation between ‘pure coal’ and ILD. Methods: In a systematic review based on PRISMA criteria 2945 articles were identified. Strict eligibility criteria, which evaluated the ‘pure coal effect’, led to the inclusion of only nine studies. Results: Among these nine studies six studies indicated an independent effect of the non-quartz part of coal on the development and progression of ILD, two did not demonstrate an effect and one was inconclusive. Conclusions: Although an independent effect of non-quartz coal dust on the development of ILD is supported, due to methodological limitations the evidence is limited and further evidence is needed.

  2. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

  3. Exposure Factors in Health Risk Assessment for Soil and Dust Exposure%土壤/尘健康风险评价中的暴露参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗爽; 段小丽; 王贝贝; 王叶晴; 钱岩; 聂静; 张金良

    2012-01-01

    该文在参考美国暴露参数手册及国内外相关研究的基础上,总结了土壤/尘摄入率及皮肤黏附系数的研究方法,阐述不同土壤/尘摄入人群的分级定义,并对国外报道中各类人群土壤/尘摄入率及不同情境下的土壤/尘-皮肤黏附系数进行了归纳,为土壤暴露相关的健康风险评价提供资料参考.%Based on the US Exposure Factor Handbook and domestic and foreign related researches, the research methods of soil intake rate were described, the rating definition of different levels that people ingesting soil was defined. And then, exposure factors such as soil and dust intake rate, soil/dust -skin adhesion factor were stated, in order to provide recommendation to health risk assessment for the people exposed to environmental soil.

  4. A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Llop-Guevara

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM, we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+ DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway.

  5. Associations Between Subjective Symptoms and Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels During Asian Dust Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Otani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon caused by the displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Mongolian and Chinese deserts. Although the frequency of Asian dust events and atmospheric dust levels have steadily increased in the eastern Asia region, the effects on human health remain poorly understood. In the present study, the impact of Asian dust on human health was determined in terms of allergic reactions. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were tested for a relationship between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and subjective symptoms during a 3-day Asian dust event recorded in April 2012. They filled daily questionnaires on the severity of nasal, pharyngeal, ocular, respiratory, and skin symptoms by a self-administered visual analog scale. Serum levels of non-specific IgE and 33 allergen-specific IgE molecules were analyzed. Spearman rank-correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations between nasal symptom scores and 2 microbial-specific IgE levels (Penicillium and Cladosporium. Microbes migrate vast distances during Asian dust events by attaching themselves to dust particles. Therefore, some of these symptoms may be associated with type 1 allergic reactions to certain type of microbes.

  6. Pharmaceutical dust exposure at pharmacies using automatic dispensing machines: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Durgam, Srinivas; Mueller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) used in pharmacies concentrate and dispense large volumes of pharmaceuticals, including uncoated tablets that can shed dust. We evaluated 43 employees' exposures to pharmaceutical dust at three pharmacies where ADMs were used. We used an optical particle counter to identify tasks that generated pharmaceutical dust. We collected 72 inhalable dust air samples in or near the employees' breathing zones. In addition to gravimetric analysis, our contract laboratory used internal methods involving liquid chromatography to analyze these samples for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or lactose, an inactive filler in tablets. We had to choose samples for these additional analyses because many methods used different extraction solvents. We selected 57 samples for analysis of lactose. We used real-time particle monitoring results, observations, and information from employees on the dustiness of pharmaceuticals to select 28 samples (including 13 samples that were analyzed for lactose) for analysis of specific APIs. Pharmaceutical dust was generated during a variety of tasks like emptying and refilling of ADM canisters. Using compressed air to clean canisters and manual count machines produced the overall highest peak number concentrations (19,000-580,000 particles/L) of smallest particles (count median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2 μm). Employees who refilled, cleaned, or repaired ADM canisters, or hand filled prescriptions were exposed to higher median air concentrations of lactose (5.0-12 μg/m(3)) than employees who did other jobs (0.04-1.3 μg/m(3)), such as administrative/office work, labeling/packaging, and verifying prescriptions. We detected 10 APIs in air, including lisinopril, a drug prescribed for high blood pressure, levothyroxine, a drug prescribed for hypothyroidism, and methotrexate, a hazardous drug prescribed for cancer and other disorders. Three air concentrations of lisinopril (1.8-2.7 μg/m(3)) exceeded the lower

  7. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.

  8. Human exposure to toxic metals via contaminated dust: Bio-accumulation trends and their potential risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohmand, Jawad; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Fasola, Mauro; Alamdar, Ambreen; Mustafa, Irfan; Ali, Nadeem; Liu, Liangpo; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the levels of potentially toxic trace metals, Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), and Cadmium (Cd), in dust, hair, nail and serum, sampled in rural, urban and industrial areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Trace metals occurrence in all samples, in descending order, was: Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Cd. The samples from the urban areas showed significantly higher concentration of toxic trace metals (Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, and Cd) than those from industrial (which conversely had higher levels of Pb and Cu), and than samples from rural areas. Bioaccumulation patterns showed that dust exposure is one of the major routes into human body for Cd, Pb, Co, Mn and Cr, while the burden of Zn, Cu, and Ni can be more linked to dietary sources. The concentrations of trace metals in the samples from Punjab were comparable and/or higher than those reported worldwide. In many cases, the levels of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd in hair and nail were beyond the ATSDR threshold guideline values that may cause some serious health effects. Hazard Index (HI) calculated for trace metal concentrations in the human population of Punjab points particularly to health risks from Cd (for children in urban and industrial areas) and from Pb (for all sub-groups). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  10. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillrud, Steven N; Grass, David; Ross, James M; Coulibaly, Drissa; Slavkovich, Vesna; Epstein, David; Sax, Sonja N; Pederson, Dee; Johnson, David; Spengler, John D; Kinney, Patrick L; Simpson, H James; Brandt-Rauf, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 reflected increasing concern about potential effects of low-level airborne metal exposure on a wide array of illnesses. Here we summarize results demonstrating that the New York City (NYC) subway system provides an important microenvironment for metal exposures for NYC commuters and subway workers and also describe an ongoing pilot study of NYC transit workers' exposure to steel dust. Results from the TEACH (Toxic Exposure Assessment, a Columbia and Harvard) study in 1999 of 41 high-school students strongly suggest that elevated levels of iron, manganese, and chromium in personal air samples were due to exposure to steel dust in the NYC subway. Airborne concentrations of these three metals associated with fine particulate matter were observed to be more than 100 times greater in the subway environment than in home indoor or outdoor settings in NYC. While there are currently no known health effects at the airborne levels observed in the subway system, the primary aim of the ongoing pilot study is to ascertain whether the levels of these metals in the subway air affect concentrations of these metals or related metabolites in the blood or urine of exposed transit workers, who due to their job activities could plausibly have appreciably higher exposures than typical commuters. The study design involves recruitment of 40 transit workers representing a large range in expected exposures to steel dust, the collection of personal air samples of fine particulate matter, and the collection of blood and urine samples from each monitored transit worker.

  11. Tetrabromobisphenol A and heavy metal exposure via dust ingestion in an e-waste recycling region in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yanyan; Kang, Duan; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Dongli; Pan, Bishu; Lin, Zhenkun; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-01-15

    This study was designed to investigate a prevalent brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and four heavy metals of Pb, Cr, As, Cd in dust samples (52 indoor and 52 outdoor) collected from residential houses in an e-waste recycling area in Southeast China. For TBBPA, the mean concentration in indoor dust (3435 ng/g, dw) was higher than that in outdoor dust (1998 ng/g, dw). For heavy metals, the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, As, Cd were 399, 151, 48.13, and 5.85 mg/kg in indoor dust, respectively, and were 328, 191, 17.59, and 4.07 mg/kg in outdoor dust, respectively. Except for As, concentrations of TBBPA and other metals decreased with the increased distance away from the e-waste recycling center, suggesting significant contribution of e-waste activities. The daily exposure doses of TBBPA ranged from 0.04 to 7.50 ng/kg-bw/day for adults and from 0.31 to 58.54 ng/kg-bw/day for children, representing the highest values reported to date for TBBPA exposure via dust ingestion. Daily exposure doses of Cr, As, and Cd were all below the reference doses. However, daily exposure dose of Pb for children in areas near the e-waste processing center was above the reference dose, posing significant health concern for children in that region.

  12. Dose level of occupational exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Liang'an; Ju, Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before.

  13. Worker exposure to silica dust in the non-mining sectors: literature review.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, N

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available of silicosis in the non-mining industry in South Africa, including a breakdown by industries. 10/2009 4 Statistics on the incidence of silicosis in the non-mining industry in South Africa, with a breakdown by industries. 10/2009 5 Statistics on the annual... of the literature review To present the major literature review findings on occupational silica dust exposure of workers in the non-mining industries/sectors Slide 5 in South Africa ? CSIR 2009 www.csir.co.za Silica overview...

  14. Seasonal differences in airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients : Relationship with allergen exposure and sensitization to house dust mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHeide, S; deMonchy, JGR; deVries, K; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    Background The degree of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthmatic patients may be influenced by changes in environmental exposure to inhalant allergens. Objective This study investigates the relationship between seasonal changes in exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens and non-specific

  15. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, E.; Ferrer, J.; Zock, J.P.; Serra, I.; Antó, J.M.; Batlle, J. de; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.; Donaire-Gonzalez, D.; Benet, M.; Balcells, E.; Monso, E.; Gayete, A.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. Methods: We s

  16. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M.; De Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Àngel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Vollmer, Ivan; Barberà, Joan Albert; Gómez, Federico P.; Paré, Carles; Roca, Josep; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Agustí, Àlvar; Freixa, Xavier; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Gimeno, Elena; Portillo, Karina; Andreu, Jordi; Pallissa, Esther; Casan, Pere; Güell, Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Marín, Alicia; Morera, Josep; Farrero, Eva; Escarrabill, Joan; Ferrer, Antoni; Sauleda, Jaume; Togores, Bernat; Gáldiz, Juan Bautista; López, Lorena; Belda, José

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients.\

  17. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M.; De Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Àngel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Guerra, Stefano; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Vollmer, Ivan; Barberà, Joan Albert; Gómez, Federico P.; Paré, Carles; Roca, Josep; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Agustí, Àlvar; Freixa, Xavier; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Gimeno, Elena; Portillo, Karina; Andreu, Jordi; Pallissa, Esther; Casan, Pere; Güell, Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Marín, Alicia; Morera, Josep; Farrero, Eva; Escarrabill, Joan; Ferrer, Antoni; Sauleda, Jaume; Togores, Bernat; Gáldiz, Juan Bautista; López, Lorena; Belda, José

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients.\

  18. [Evaluating exposure of population to dust, with consideration of components and dispersion contents of industrial discharges from enterprise extracting and processing mineral raw materials (discussion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, I V; Zagorodnov, S Iu; Popova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning disperse content of solid components of discharges from main dust- generating technologic operations in extraction and processing of mineral raw materials (pouring ore to conveyor, drying with combustion gas in fluid-bed, pouring of end product, sorting ore on riddle, drying on vibration dry and cool device, etc). Findings are that fractions under 10 and 2.5 micrometers approach 50% in general structure of dust discharges. Maximal share of low-disperse dust enters ambient air from vibraion dry and cool devices, riddles and pouring places. Exceeded reference values for acute and chronic exposure are registered on TSP and PM10 at a sanitary protection zone border and in the nearest living area points--that can forecast intolerable risks for health of population exposed and necessitate instrumental confirmation of the detected jeopardy level.

  19. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and e-waste facilities are cleaned thoroughly regularly.

  20. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  1. Dust Exposure and Coccidioidomycosis Prevention Among Solar Power Farm Construction Workers in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermeyer Cooksey, Gail L; Wilken, Jason A; McNary, Jennifer; Gilliss, Debra; Shusterman, Dennis; Materna, Barbara L; Vugia, Duc J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate if work activities, dust exposure, and protection measures were associated with a 2011 to 2014 coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing 2 solar farms in California. In 2013, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to employees who were onsite at the solar farms where the outbreak occurred to identify cases of clinical coccidioidomycosis and compare with asymptomatic workers by using multivariate logistic regression. When we compared 89 workers with clinical coccidioidomycosis to 325 asymptomatic workers, frequently being in a dust cloud or storm (odds ratio [OR] = 5.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18, 11.06) significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis, whereas frequently wetting soil before soil-disturbing activity (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24, 0.75) was protective. When we controlled for being in a dust cloud or storm, frequent soil disturbance significantly increased the odds of clinical coccidioidomycosis only among those who reported wearing a respirator infrequently (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = 1.27, 4.21). Utilization of personal and employer-driven safety practices and increased coccidioidomycosis awareness among construction workers should be considered during the planning of any construction work in coccidioidomycosis-endemic regions to prevent occupational infections and outbreaks.

  2. [Particle Size Distribution, Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Human Exposure Assessment of Heavy Metals in Typical Settled Dust from Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-guo; Yu, Gang; Lü, Xiang-ying; Wang, Meng-lei; Li, Qi-lu; Feng, Jing-lan; Yan, Guang-xuan; Yu, Hao; Sun, Jian-hui

    2016-04-15

    Four types of dust from dormitories, offices, hotels and roads in Beijing were collected and fractionated into 9 fractions, respectively. Totally 36 samples were obtained and analyzed for heavy metals including Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd and Ni. Particle size distributions of those heavy metals in these four types of dust were investigated and the influencing mechanisms were discussed. Distribution patterns of the same heavy metal in different types of dust showed various characteristics. Also different metals in the same type of dust represented different distribution patterns. Heavy metals in road dust tended to concentrate in finer particles. Two offices from the same building, located in Beijing, China, were selected to study the seasonality of heavy metals in dust. Dust sampling from Office A was conducted at weekly intervals between March 2012 and August 2012, while dust from Office B was sampled fortnightly from March 2012 to December 2012. Generally, levels of all heavy metals remained stable among different seasons, however, Cr and Pb represented more significant fluctuations than other four heavy metals. Based on the geo-accumulation index method, the pollution of Zn, Cu and Pb was more serious in the investigated samples, and dust from offices and hotels were moderately polluted by Zn. According to the risk assessment results, the carcinogenic health risks of the six heavy metals in the four types of dust were negligible.

  3. Acute Respiratory Failure due to Alveolar Hemorrhage after Exposure to Organic Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is associated with severe outcomes. We report a case of acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation and was clinically and pathologically diagnosed as DAH related to exposure to organic dust. A 39-year-old man, who had visited a warehouse to grade beans for purchase, was referred to our hospital for impending respiratory failure. His initial radiographic examinations revealed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities in his lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage resulted in progressively bloodier returns, which is characteristic of DAH. He underwent bedside open lung biopsy of his right lower lobe in the intensive care unit. Biopsy results revealed DAH and organization with accumulation of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and a few fibroblastic foci. The patient was treated with empirical antibiotics and high-dose corticosteroids and successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. DAH might be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute respiratory failure after exposure to organic particles.

  4. [Evaluation of exposure of workers to asbestos dust in asbestos-processing plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroszejn-Mrowca, G; Wiecek, E

    1985-01-01

    Working environments have been tested in plants producing asbestos products, asbestos-cement products, textile asbestos products, asbestos-caoutchouc plates, asbestos boards and asbestos frictional materials for automotive industry, Measurements of total dust concentrations and concentrations of asbestos fibres 5 micron long supported workers' exposure investigations. Basing on literature data on the working environment at the Mining Metallurgical Plant in Szklary, the health risk for workers producing nickel from ores containing asbestos mixtures has been analysed. The asbestos-exposure in asbestos-processing plants has been found to be still considerable despite modernization of the plants. Particularly dangerous to health have been regarded the conditions at asbestos spinning-mills and the Mining-Metallurgical Plant at Szklary, where even average asbestos concentrations considerably exceed the threshold limit values.

  5. Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene of drivers of diesel-powered equipment in underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, P T J; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Anzion, R; Dahmann, D; Poole, J; Bos, R P

    2003-07-01

    A field study was conducted in two mines in order to determine the most suitable strategy for ambient exposure assessment in the framework of a European study aimed at validation of biological monitoring approaches for diesel exhaust (BIOMODEM). Exposure to dust and particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was studied in 20 miners of black coal by the long wall method (Czech Republic) and in 20 workers in oil shale mining by the room and pillar method (Estonia). The study in the oil shale mine was extended to include 100 workers in a second phase (main study). In each mine half of the study population worked underground as drivers of diesel-powered trains (black coal) and excavators (oil shale). The other half consisted of workers occupied in various non-diesel production assignments. Exposure to diesel exhaust was studied by measurement of inhalable and respirable dust at fixed locations and by personal air sampling of respirable dust. The ratio of geometric mean inhalable to respirable dust concentration was approximately two to one. The underground/surface ratio of respirable dust concentrations measured at fixed locations and in the breathing zones of the workers was 2-fold or greater. Respirable dust was 2- to 3-fold higher in the breathing zone than at fixed sampling locations. The 1-NP content in these dust fractions was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and ranged from 0.003 to 42.2 ng/m(3) in the breathing zones of the workers. In mine dust no 1-NP was detected. In both mines 1-NP was observed to be primarily associated with respirable particles. The 1-NP concentrations were also higher underground than on the surface (2- to 3-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold or more in the oil shale mine). Concentrations of 1-NP in the breathing zones were also higher than at fixed sites (2.5-fold in the coal mine and 10-fold in the oil shale mine). For individual exposure assessment personal air sampling is preferred over air sampling

  6. Human Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Halogenated Flame Retardants via Inhalation and Dust Ingestion in a Norwegian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Joo Hui; Sellström, Ulla; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-07-18

    In this study, we estimated human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), and several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) via inhalation and dust ingestion. Sixty indoor stationary air samples, 13 personal air samples, and 60 settled dust samples were collected from a Norwegian cohort during winter 2013. PBDEs showed the highest median concentration in dust (1200 ng/g), followed by EFRs (730 ng/g) and HBCDDs (190 ng/g). The PBDE concentrations in dust were mainly driven by BDE-209 and those of EFRs by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate. EFRs predominated in stationary air samples, with 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate and 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane having the highest median concentrations (150 and 25 pg/m(3) (sum of α- and β-isomers), respectively). Different profiles and concentrations were observed in personal air samples compared to the corresponding stationary air samples. In relation to inhalation exposure, dust ingestion appears to be the major exposure pathway to FRs (median total exposure 230 pg/kg bw/d, accounting for more than 65% of the total exposure) for the Norwegian cohort. The calculated exposure due to air inhalation was substantially lower when the stationary air concentrations were used rather than personal air concentrations (43 pg/kg bw/d versus 130 pg/kg bw/d). This suggests that other exposure situations (such as outdoors or in offices) contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure, which cannot be included by using only a stationary air sampling technique. The median and 95th percentile exposures for all target FRs did not exceed the reference dose.

  7. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping; Feng, Yujie; Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E-05 to 7.37E-05 and 1.74E-05 to 6.95E-05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and heat shock protein 72 and 73 in lymphocytes among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing J.C.; Chen W.H.; Wang F.; Han W.H.; Ren H.M; ; Wu T.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Health, School of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    To assess the expression of Hsp72 and Hsp73 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate their roles in damage from coal dust exposure. A case control study of 50 coal miners suffering from COPD and 50 healthy coal miners were selected from one coal mine. The levels of Hsp72 and Hsp73 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry for all subjects. The expression of basic Hsp72 of peripheral blood lymphocytes for patients and controls was not different from that inducible expressed Hsp72 by 42 degrees C heat stress or by BPDE exposure. (2) The expression of Hsp72 in COPD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy coal miners. On the other hand, the expression of Hsp73 in COPD patients was higher than that in healthy coal miners. (3) A-positive relationship between the expression of Hsp72 and cumulative inhaling coal dust exposure was observed. No relationship was found between Hsp73 and cumulative inhaling coal dust exposure. The decreased expressions of Hsp72 in peripheral blood lymphocytes of COPD coal miners.

  9. Bioaccessibility of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from house dust: in-vitro methods and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Harald; Butte, Werner

    2012-11-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals like pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) tend to accumulate in house dust. This may result in residues of some parts per million (p.p.m.), closely associated with health impairments and diseases like cancer. To explain these associations, we must establish whether a relevant absorption from house dust into human organisms occurs, and most crucially the release of chemicals, that is, their bioaccessibility. Digestive as well as dermal bioaccessibilities were examined using in-vitro methods. On average, the digestive bioaccessibility was ~40% for the pesticides and ~60% for the PCB. The dermal penetration availability reached ~60% for the pesticides and ~70% for the PCB (percentages of the concentrations in the dust). Based on the bioaccessibility, an estimate of internal exposure was calculated and expressed as percentages of acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values. Exposure via the respiratory tract proved to be very low. Exposure via the digestive tract had maximum values of 4% for pesticides and 12% for PCB. Dermal exposure was much higher. Even for average concentrations in house dust (≈0.5 p.p.m.), children exposed to DDT and PCB showed up to 300% of the ADI/TDI values, and adults about 60%. With high concentrations of contaminants in house dust, the maximum doses absorbed through the skin reached 5000%.

  10. Domestic mite antigens in floor and airborne dust at workplaces in comparison to living areas: a new immunoassay to assess personal airborne allergen exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. METHODS: At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA. RESULTS: The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87% of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62% floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33% of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. CONCLUSIONS: A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87% of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas.

  11. Arsenic in residential soil and household dust in Cornwall, south west England: potential human exposure and the influence of historical mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Daniel R S; Watts, Michael J; Beriro, Darren J; Hamilton, Elliott M; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca M; Polya, David A

    2017-04-19

    Exposure to arsenic (As) via residential soil and dust is a global concern, in regions affected by mining or with elevated concentrations present in underlying geology. Cornwall in south west England is one such area. Residential soil (n = 127) and household dust (n = 99) samples were collected from across Cornwall as part of a wider study assessing exposure to environmental As. Samples were analysed for total As (soil and dust samples) and human ingestion bioaccessible As (soil samples from properties with home-grown produce). Arsenic concentrations ranged from 12 to 992 mg kg(-1) in soil and 3 to 1079 mg kg(-1) in dust and were significantly higher in areas affected by metalliferous mineralisation. Sixty-nine percent of soils exceeded the 37 mg kg(-1) Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL), a generic assessment criteria for As in residential soils in England, which assumes 100% bioavailability following ingestion. The proportion of exceedance was reduced to 13% when the bioavailability parameter in the CLEA model was changed to generate household specific bioaccessibility adjusted assessment criteria (ACBIO). These criteria were derived using bioaccessibility data for a sub-set of individual household vegetable patch soils (n = 68). Proximity to former As mining locations was found to be a significant predictor of soil As concentration. This study highlights the value of bioaccessibility measurements and their potential for adjusting generic assessment criteria.

  12. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Liu, Sa [Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-7360 (United States); Ye, Wenyuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers ' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E − 05 to 7.37E − 05 and 1.74E − 05 to 6.95E − 05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Ni had relatively higher bioaccessibility and mobility in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust. • Bioaccessible metal concentrations were higher in gasoline-fueled buses than those in CNG-fueled buses. • The carcinogenic risk probabilities to drivers were around the acceptable level.

  13. Respirable dust and silica exposure among World Trade Center cleanup workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Mirer, Franklin E

    2017-03-01

    The cleanup effort following the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) was unprecedented and involved removal of 1.8 million tons of rubble over a nine-month period. Work at the site occurred 24 hr a day, 7 days a week and involved thousands of workers during the process. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) conducted personal and area exposure sampling during the cleanup of the site. Secondary data analysis was performed on OSHA air sampling data for respirable dust and silica from September 2001 to June 2002 at the WTC recovery site to characterize workers' exposure. Results for silica and respirable particulate were stratified by area and personal samples as well as job task for analysis. Of 1108 samples included in the analysis, 693 were personal and 415 were area. The mean result for personal silica samples was 42 μg/m(3) (Range: 4.2-1800 μg/m(3)). Workers identified as drillers had the highest mean silica exposure (72 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-800 μg/m(3)) followed by workers identified as dock builders (67 μg/m(3); range: 5.8-670 μg/m(3)). The mean result for personal samples for respirable particulate was 0.44 mg/m(3) (range: 0.00010-13 mg/m(3)). There were no discernable trends in personal respirable dust and silica concentrations with date.

  14. Flame retardants and organochlorines in indoor dust from several e-waste recycling sites in South China: composition variations and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Chen, Kehui; Zeng, Yanhong; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Several classes of flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), dechlorane plus (DPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), together with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in indoor dust from five villages located in three e-waste recycling regions in Guangdong Province, South China. The medians of PBDEs, NBFRs, and PFRs in dust in five sites ranged from 685-67,500, 1460-50,010, and 2180-29,000ng/g, respectively. These concentrations were much higher than the medians of PCBs (52-2900ng/g). BDE 209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the two major halogen flame retardants in dust, while tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the major PFRs. Principle component analysis revealed the different pollutant patterns among different sites. The estimated median human exposures of PBDEs, NBFRs, PFRs, and PCBs via dust ingestion were 1.1-24.1, 0.73-20.3, 1.36-23.5, and 0.04-0.93ng/kgbw/day for adults, and 16.2-352, 10.7-296, 19.9-343, 0.05-0.61, 0.65-13.6ng/kgbw/day for toddlers, respectively. Residents from Site 5 had the highest exposure (95 percentile levels and high dust ingestion for toddlers) of PBDEs (3920ng/kgbw/day), NBFRs (3200ng/kgbw/day), and PFRs (5280ng/kgbw/day). More attention should be paid to the contamination with NBFRs and PFRs, instead of PCBs, in these e-waste recycling regions, and local public health threat from PBDE alternatives should remain of concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human exposure assessment of PFRs at e-waste sites.

  15. How much North African dust emission is associated with breakdowns of nocturnal low-level jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, S.; Schepanski, K.; Heinold, B.; Knippertz, P.; Tegen, I.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol has important impacts on atmospheric radiation transfer, optical properties and precipitability of clouds, as well as human health and eco-systems. Time, location and amount of dust emission are key factors for simulating the atmospheric life cycle of dust and its effects accurately. Dust emission is a non-linear function of surface properties, and the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. A phenomenon capable of mobilizing dust is the Nocturnal Low-Level Jet (NLLJ), a wind speed maximum at night caused by air accelerating due to reduced dynamical friction in the nocturnal boundary layer. Momentum from the NLLJ is transferred downwards by turbulence, predominantly during the following morning when surface heating erodes the nocturnal temperature inversion. While this breakdown of NLLJs has been suggested to be a main driver for dust storms in North Africa, a quantitative investigation based on analysis data is lacking. As part of the European Research Council funded 'Desert Storms' project, this work presents the first statistical analysis of the importance of NLLJs for the mineral dust amount emitted in North Africa. A new automated detection algorithm for NLLJs has been developed for analyzing the spatio-temporal characteristics and associated mineral dust emission amounts. The algorithm is applied to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim re-analysis for 1979-2010. Near-surface wind speed and soil moisture from ERA-interim drive an off-line dust model for calculating associated dust emission fluxes. Annually and spatially averaged, NLLJs form in 29 % of the nights in North Africa. The areal distribution of NLLJs highlights their frequent occurrence along the margins of the Saharan heat-low in summer, and in regions affected by mountain channeling like the Bodélé Depression, Chad, predominantly in winter. In these seasonally varying hotspots NLLJs are identified in 40-80 % of the nights

  16. Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Youn; Ko, Han-Jong; Kim, Hyeon-Tae; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Kim, Yoon-Shin; Roh, Young-Man

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study is to demonstrate an effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, total airborne fungi and ammonia were significantly higher in the treated nursery pig house with feeding than the control nursery pig house without feeding. Although there is no significant difference in respirable dust and total airborne fungi between the treatment and the control, their concentrations in the treated nursery pig house were also higher than the control nursery pig house. The result that the level of ammonia in the treated nursery pig house is lower than the control nursery pig house would be reasoned by the mechanism of ammonia generation in the pig house and adsorption property of ammonia to dust particles. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increased the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to no feeding activity.

  17. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  18. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy.

  19. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy. PMID:27618081

  20. Effect of jute dust exposure on ventilatory function and the pertinence of cough and smoking to the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Alams, J; Gangopadhyay, P K; Saiyed, H N

    1995-06-01

    The ventilatory capacity of 32 men exposed to jute dust in the jute industry, was estimated at the beginning and end of shifts on the first day and last day of a working week. A detailed occupational, clinical and smoking history was recorded and a more detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was completed prior to the pulmonary function tests. The presence of a productive cough among workers was noted. A mean decrease of forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) was observed among workers according to processes, concentration of dust exposure and smoking habit on the first day and last day of the week. The mean difference of values was observed in most of the comparisons but only a few were statistically significant. Low mean values of FEV1 were observed in workers having high dust exposure, a smoking history and productive cough in comparison to the low dust exposure group, non-smokers and workers without cough symptoms. The significant deterioration of FEV1 was found between before shift and after shift values of the low dust exposed group of workers who had a cough and smoking history. The relevance of these factors on the ventilatory function is observed and discussed.

  1. Wood dust exposure during furniture manufacture--results from an Australian survey and considerations for threshold limit value development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, D L; Connell, K E; Muriale, L

    1991-11-01

    A survey of time-weighted average (TWA) personal inhalable dust exposures for woodworkers in 15 Australian furniture factories was undertaken. There was significant variation in the individual dust measurements with mean exposures of 3.2, 5.2, and 3.5 mg/m3 for wood machinists, cabinetmakers, and chair framemakers, respectively. Hardwoods, softwoods, and reconstituted woods are used in the industry, but only minor differences in mean exposures or particle size distributions were found for the broad categories. In addition, a modified British Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was used to obtain information about work-related symptoms and job activities. Compared with a control group, the woodworkers reported more eye, ear, and nasal problems, with the differences being statistically significant. However, among the woodworkers themselves, with the exception of several nasal symptoms, the prevalences of reported symptoms were poorly correlated with gravimetric measurements of personal dust exposure. The problem of selection bias in cross-sectional studies is discussed. For a mean TWA personal exposure of about 3 mg/m3, hardwood users were more likely to report nasal symptoms than users of reconstituted wood. The question of appropriate exposure standards for woods in general is addressed by reference to those important health effects, besides sino-nasal cancer, that have been investigated. Further exposure guidelines should be formulated for groups of woods that are known to cause a common health effect, such as nasal/respiratory sensitization.

  2. Relationship between chicken cellular immunity and endotoxin levels in dust from chicken housing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Katharine; Shin, Kyung-Min; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous biochemical agents in animal husbandry indoor environments are known to promote the occurrence of various illnesses among workers and animals. The relationship between endotoxin levels in dust collected from chicken farms and various immunological markers was investigated. Peripheral blood was obtained from 20 broiler chickens and 20 laying hens from four different chicken farms in Korea. Concentrations of total or respirable dust in the inside the chicken farm buildings were measured using a polyvinyl chloride membrane filter and mini volume sampler. Endotoxin levels in the dust were determined by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Kinetic method. Interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with concanavalin A was significantly lower in broilers or layers from the farms with higher endotoxin concentrations than the chickens from the farms with lower endotoxin levels. An opposite pattern was observed for plasma cortisol concentrations with higher cortisol levels found in chickens from the farms with higher endotoxin levels. When peripheral lymphocytes were examined, the percentage of CD3(-)Ia(+) B cells was lower in layers from farms with higher endotoxin levels than those from locations with lower endotoxin levels. Overall, these results suggest a probable negative association between dust endotoxin levels and cell-mediated immunity in chickens.

  3. Effects of Fetal Exposure to Asian Sand Dust on Development and Reproduction in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Seiichi; Ichinose, Takamichi; Arashidani, Keiichi; He, Miao; Takano, Hirohisa; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-11-23

    In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproduction in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproduction have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproduction in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproduction of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproduction of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.

  4. K-ras mutations in sinonasal cancers in relation to wood dust exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Hansen, Johnni; Steiniche, Torben

    2008-01-01

    carefully reviewed pathologically before inclusion. Paraffin embedded tumour samples from 58 adenocarcinomas, 109 squamous cell carcinomas and 7 other carcinomas were analysed for K-ras codon 12, 13 and 61 point mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequencing. Information...... mutations were suggested to be related to wood dust exposure, but these studies were too limited to detect statistically significant associations. Methods We examined 174 cases of sinonasal cancer diagnosed in Denmark in the period from 1991 to 2001. To ensure uniformity, all histological diagnoses were...... to unexposed [OR = 21.0, CI = 8.0–55.0]. K-ras was mutated in 13% of the adenocarcinomas (seven patients) and in 1% of squamous cell carcinomas (one patient). Of these eight mutations, five mutations were located in the codon 12. The exact sequence change of remaining three could not be identified...

  5. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  6. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured. PMID:26366418

  7. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Torres Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2. An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982, medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201, length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748, and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334. These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured.

  8. Effects of occupational dust exposure on the health status of portland cement factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Manjula

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic exposure to Portland cement dust has been reported to lead to greater prevalence of various clinical conditions (includes both respiratory and non-respiratory. These conditions are consistently associated with the degree and duration of exposure. Regular use of appropriate personal protective equipment if made available at the work site could protect the cement factory workers from adverse health effects. Objective: To study the morbidity profile of the cement factory workers. Type of Study: Retrospective cohort study. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in the Portland Cement Factory in North Karnataka. Data was collected using predesigned questionnaire by personal interview method and clinical examination. A total of 64 male workers are randomly selected who are working in various departments like crushing, raw/cement mill, rotary kiln and packing department. Equal number of unexposed controls was selected from the area atleast 5 kms from the factory and those who are not exposed to cement dust in the past, who are matched for age, Socio economic status and smoking with the exposed population. Statistical Analysis: Chisquare test for qualitative data and unpaired t test for quantitative data using Epi info. Results: A total of 64 male workers and equal number of matched controls who are not exposed to the cement dust were included in the study. Among exposed maximum of 36% were employed in Crushing department, 25% each in Packing and cement/raw mill. Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure was found to be higher among the exposed, which is statistically highly significant (p<0.001. There is significant increase in weight among exposed (p<0.001. Maximum 29(45.3% of the workers had stuffy nose and epistaxis when compared to unexposed with Relative risk(RR of 2.6, followed by Dermatological complaints and lower respiratory complaints with RR of 2.18 and 2.3 respectively. Conclusion: Personal protective equipment

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in house dust in Denmark – levels, patterns and changes over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2016-01-01

    House dust has been recognized as a source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular for children [1]. Since the EU ban of the commercial PBDE Penta- and OctaBDE mixtures in 2004 and the regulation of DecaBDE through the EU Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Dir...... reported from the USA [4]. BDE-209 and DBDPE were found to be correlated in the dust samples, which might reflect similar use patterns. Future work will focus on the significance of the occurrence of these compounds in dust for questions of human exposure. [...

  10. Exposure to rubber process dust and fume since 1970s in the United Kingdom; influence of origin of measurement data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; de Vocht, F.; van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Galea, K.S.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare measured concentrations of rubber process dust and rubber fume originating from different sources in the British rubber manufacturing industry. Almost 8000 exposure measurements were obtained from industry-based survey results collected by the British Rubbe

  11. Thoracic dust exposure is associated with lung function decline in cement production workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Karl-Christian; Notø, Hilde; Eduard, Wijnand; Skogstad, Marit; Fell, Anne Kristin; Thomassen, Yngvar; Skare, Øivind; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Abderhalden, Rolf; Kongerud, Johny; Kjuus, Helge

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesised that exposure to workplace aerosols may lead to lung function impairment among cement production workers.Our study included 4966 workers in 24 cement production plants. Based on 6111 thoracic aerosol samples and information from questionnaires we estimated arithmetic mean exposure levels by plant and job type. Dynamic lung volumes were assessed by repeated spirometry testing during a mean follow-up time of 3.5 years (range 0.7-4.6 years). The outcomes considered were yearly change of dynamic lung volumes divided by the standing height squared or percentage of predicted values. Statistical modelling was performed using mixed model regression. Individual exposure was classified into quintile levels limited at 0.09, 0.89, 1.56, 2.25, 3.36, and 14.6 mg·m(-3), using the lowest quintile as the reference. Employees that worked in administration were included as a second comparison group.Exposure was associated with a reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 6 s and forced vital capacity. For FEV1 % predicted a yearly excess decline of 0.84 percentage points was found in the highest exposure quintile compared with the lowest.Exposure at the higher levels found in this study may lead to a decline in dynamic lung volumes. Exposure reduction is therefore warranted.

  12. Checklist Model to Improve Work Practices in Small-Scale Demolition Operations with Silica Dust Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Succop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic approach was developed to review, revise and adapt existing exposure control guidance used in developed countries for use in developing countries. One-page employee and multiple-page supervisor guidance sheets were adapted from existing documents using a logic framework and workers were trained to use the information to improve work practices. Interactive, hands-on training was delivered to 26 workers at five small-scale demolition projects in Maputo City, Mozambique, and evaluated. A pre-and-post walkthrough survey used by trained observers documented work practice changes. Worker feedback indicated that the training was effective and useful. Workers acquired knowledge (84% increase, p < 0.01 and applied the work practice guidance. The difference of proportions between use of work practice components before and after the intervention was statistically significant (p < 0.05. Changes in work practices following training included preplanning, use of wet methods and natural ventilation and end-of-task review. Respirable dust measurements indicated a reduction in exposure following training. Consistency in observer ratings and observations support the reliability and validity of the instruments. This approach demonstrated the short-term benefit of training in changing work practices; follow-up is required to determine the long-term impact on changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  13. Saharan dust inputs and high UVR levels jointly alter the metabolic balance of marine oligotrophic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Marco J.; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; González-Olalla, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel; Carrillo, Presentación

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic balance of the most extensive bioma on the Earth is a controversial topic of the global-change research. High ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels by the shoaling of upper mixed layers and increasing atmospheric dust deposition from arid regions may unpredictably alter the metabolic state of marine oligotrophic ecosystems. We performed an observational study across the south-western (SW) Mediterranean Sea to assess the planktonic metabolic balance and a microcosm experiment in two contrasting areas, heterotrophic nearshore and autotrophic open sea, to test whether a combined UVR × dust impact could alter their metabolic balance at mid-term scales. We show that the metabolic state of oligotrophic areas geographically varies and that the joint impact of UVR and dust inputs prompted a strong change towards autotrophic metabolism. We propose that this metabolic response could be accentuated with the global change as remote-sensing evidence shows increasing intensities, frequencies and number of dust events together with variations in the surface UVR fluxes on SW Mediterranean Sea. Overall, these findings suggest that the enhancement of the net carbon budget under a combined UVR and dust inputs impact could contribute to boost the biological pump, reinforcing the role of the oligotrophic marine ecosystems as CO2 sinks.

  14. Evaluation of workers' exposure to total, respirable and silica dust and the related health symptoms in Senjedak stone quarry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabaei, Farideh; Barghi, Mohammad-Ali; Sakhaei, Manouchehr

    2004-01-01

    The present research was conducted in a stone quarry of marble located in northeast of Iran. Time weighted average of total dust, respirable dust, and crystalline silica (alpha-quartz) concentration in workers' breathing zone were monitored by using both gravimetric and XRD methods. The results showed that the employees working in hammer drill process had the highest exposure to the total and respirable dust: 107.9 +/- 8.0 mg/m3, 11.2 +/- 0.77 mg/m3 respectively, while the cutting machine workers had the lowest exposure (9.3 +/- 3.0 mg/m3, 1.8 +/- 0.82 mg/m3). The maximum concentration of a-quartz in total and respirable dust were detected equal to 0.670 +/- 8.49 x 10(-2) and 5.7 x 10(-2) +/- 1.6 x 10(-2) mg/m3 respectively, which belonged to the exposure of the workers of hammer drill process. The prevalence of skin and respiratory symptoms were higher in hammer drill workers, however, respiratory symptoms showed no significant prevalence. Regarding the average age of workers (31.6 +/- 1.9 yr) and average of their work history (3.8 +/- 1.0 yr), these results were predictable.

  15. Characteristics of a residential and working community with diverse exposure to World Trade Center dust, gas, and fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibman, Joan; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Qinyi; Liautaud, Sybille; Rogers, Linda; Lau, Stephanie; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta M; Marmor, Michael; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Tonorezos, Emily S; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee E; Gonzalez, Jaime; Filner, Joshua; Walter, Dawn; Kyng, Kymara; Rom, William N

    2009-05-01

    To describe physical symptoms in those local residents, local workers, and cleanup workers who were enrolled in a treatment program and had reported symptoms and exposure to the dust, gas, and fumes released with the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001. Symptomatic individuals underwent standardized evaluation and subsequent treatment. One thousand eight hundred ninety-eight individuals participated in the WTC Environmental Health Center between September 2005 and May 2008. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms that began after September 11, 2001 and persisted at the time of examination were common in each exposure population. Many (31%) had spirometry measurements below the lower limit of normal. Residents and local workers as well as those with work-associated exposure to WTC dust have new and persistent respiratory symptoms with lung function abnormalities 5 or more years after the WTC destruction.

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus after heavy exposure to quartz dust in uranium mines: clinical and serological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, K; Mehlhorn, J; Lüthke, K; Dörner, T; Frank, K H

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and serological data of uranium miners with symptoms of connective tissue diseases (CTD) were collected during the control examinations for occupational lung diseases since 1975. Twenty eight definite (four or more ARA criteria) and 15 probable (2-3 ARA criteria) SLE were diagnosed. The estimated prevalence among heavily silica exposed uranium miners was up to 93 in 100,000. The only significant differences to nonexposed SLE patients were decreased frequency of arthritis and photosensitivity and the absence of anti-Sm and anti-U1-RNP antibodies. ANA were found in all definite SLE patients examined with the following specificities: anti-dsDNA (in 44.4%), & anti-Ro/SSA (in 55.6%, four cases together with anti-dsDNA) and anti-La/SSB (in 22.2%). The autoantibody profiles of patients with probable SLE were similar, but with a lower frequency of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-Ro/SSA. Middle to high-titred autoantibodies to dsDNA, Ro/SSA and La/SSB were detected in 3.2% uranium miners with no (N = 1229) and in 20.6% with some symptoms (one ARA criterion and/or two or more of other CTD typical symptoms, N = 68) of CTD development. We conclude, that the strong exposure to dust with a high content of silica may predispose to or initiate the development of SLE. The detection of SLE-typical antibodies in quartz dust-exposed miners may indicate a higher risk for the development of systemic autoimmune disease.

  17. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan-Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M; de Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Angel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George's questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.

  18. Lifetime occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes is associated with bronchitis symptoms and higher diffusion capacity in COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. METHODS: We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. RESULTS: 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5 years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16. High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George's questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.

  19. Optical Estimation on Pollution Level of Respirable Dust Based on Infrared Transmitting Behavior in Coalmine Fully Mechanized Working Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respirable coal particle generated during underground mining is the main cause for gas-dust explosions and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP which needs accurate monitoring especially on its concentration. Focusing on the coal dust pollution in the fully mechanized working face of Huangbaici coalmine, coal particle was sampled for further industrial analysis and FT-IR test to obtain its chemical composition and optical constant. Combined with the simulated spatial distribution of airborne dust, the spectral transmission characteristics of coal dust within wavelengths of 2.5 to 25 μm under different operating conditions were obtained. The simulation results show that the transmittance and aerosol optical depth (AOD of coal dust are closely linked and obviously influenced by the variation of dust generation source (intensity of dust release, position of coal cutting, and the wetting of the coal seam and airflow field (wind speed and direction of ventilation. Furthermore, an optical channel of 1260–1280 cm−1 (7.937–7.813 μm which is almost only sensitive to the variation of dust concentration but dull to the diameter change of coal dust was selected to establish the correlation of dust concentration and infrared transmittance. The fitting curve was then applied to retrieve the equivalent dust concentration based on optical information, and the comparison results demonstrate that the estimated pollution level is consistent with field measurement data in engineering practice.

  20. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria exposure as determined by work task, season, and type of plant in a flower greenhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, T.; Madsen, A. M.; Basinas, I.;

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure. METHODS: Seventy-six personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 38 employees in a Danish flower greenhouse producing Campanula...... the greenhouse electronic task logging system. Associations between log-transformed exposure outcomes, season, and work tasks were examined in linear mixed-effects regression with worker identity as random effect. RESULTS: Measured concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 2.41mg m(-3) for inhalable dust...... or packing Rhipsalideae, and fungi exposure was elevated by subtasks performed in the research and development area for Campanula, and by potting, packing/dumping Campanula. Sticking and working with subtasks in the research and development area for Campanula increased bacteria exposure. CONCLUSION...

  2. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  3. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  4. Exposure Assessment of Allergens and Metals in Settled Dust in French Nursery and Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the contamination in settled dust in French classrooms and to provide an overview of the influencing factors of dust contamination. Cat, dog and dust mite allergens and metals were measured in 51 classrooms at 17 schools. The concentrations of pet allergens in settled dust were generally low (mean value of 0.1 µg·g−1, with carpeted and rug-covered floors presenting higher dust and cat allergen concentrations. The highest metal loadings in dust were observed for manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, while the lead (Pb loadings were lower (16 ± 19 µg·m−2 and fell below the French guideline. Higher metal leachability was found for cadmium (Cd, Cu, Pb and strontium (Sr at values of approximately 80%, which suggest that, in cases of dust ingestion by children, a large proportion should be assimilated through the gastro-intestinal tract. The intra-classroom and intra-school variabilities of the metal concentrations in settled dust were lower than the variability between schools. Classrooms with tiled floors had higher Pb loadings than classrooms with wood or vinyl floors. In addition, wet cleaning less than once a week resulted in greater loadings of Cu and Pb in the settled dust. Lastly, enrichment factors showed that metals in settled dust of classrooms were not only from the contribution of the natural background concentrations in soils.

  5. Saharan dust contribution to PM levels: The EC LIFE+ DIAPASON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Wille, H.; Sozzi, R.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Frey, S.; Bolignano, A.; Di Giosa, A.

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of Saharan-dust advections to both daily and annual PM average values can be significant all over Southern Europe. The most important effects of dust on the number of PM exceedances are mostly observed in polluted areas and large cities. While a wide literature exists documenting episodes of Saharan dust transport towards the Euro-Mediterranean region and Europe in general, a limited number of studies are still available providing statistically significant results on the impact of Saharan dust on the particulate matter loads over the continent. A four-year (2001-2004) study performed in Rome (Italy) found these events to contribute to the average ground PM10 with about 15±10 µg/m3 on about 17% of the days in a year. Since the PM10 yearly average of many traffic stations in Rome is close to 40 μg/m3, these events can cause the PM10 concentration to exceed air quality limit values (50 μg/m3 as daily average) set by the EU Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC. Although the European legislation allows Member States to subtract the contribution of natural sources before counting PM10 exceedances, definition of an optimal methodology to quantitatively assess such contribution is still in progress. On the basis of the current European Guidelines on the assessment of natural contributions to PM, the DIAPASON project ("Desert-dust Impact on Air quality through model-Predictions and Advanced Sensors ObservatioNs", recently funded under the EC LIFE+ program) has been formulated to provide a robust, user-oriented methodology to assess the presence of desert dust and its contribution to PM levels. To this end, in addition to satellite-based data and model forecasts, the DIAPASON methodology will employ innovative and affordable technologies, partly prototyped within the project itself, as an operational Polarization Lidar-Ceilometer (laser radar) capable of detecting and profiling dust clouds from the ground up to 10 km altitude. The DIAPASON Project (2011

  6. Health Risks and Contamination Levels of Heavy Metals in Dusts from Parks and Squares of an Industrial City in Semi-Arid Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiufeng; Lu, Xinwei; Qinggeletu; Wu, Yongfu

    2017-01-01

    The contamination characteristics and health risk of barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) in samples of dust gathered from squares and parks of Baotou city, an industrial city situated in a semi-arid location of the northwest China were investigated. The contents of Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in the collected dust samples were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, while the contents of As and Hg in the dust were investigated by use of the ICP-MS. Further, cadmium was quantified through the atomic absorption spectrometry. Levels of contamination of heavy metals analyzed in the dust samples were evaluated using the Geo-Accumulation index (Igeo) as well as through a Pollution Load Index (PLI). Their health risks to children and adults were evaluated based on the US EPA model of health risk. The findings portrayed that the mean concentrations of Ba, Co Cr, Cu, Pb, V, Cd, and Hg were elevated as compared with their local soil background values. Mean values of Igeo illustrate the order of Co > Cr> Cd > Hg > Pb > Cu > Ba > V > Ni > Mn > Zn > As. It was evident that dusts from the parks and squares were “unpolluted” to “moderately polluted”. Assessment of health risk depicts that ingestion is the foremost route of exposure in regard to the heavy metals, then the dermal adsorption follows. Hg exposure from dust might also set impending health threats to children. Besides, the cancer risks of Co, Cr, Ni, Cd, and As are considered to be within the presently tolerable range. PMID:28783109

  7. Mortality from myocardial infarction in relation to exposure to vibration and dust among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björ, Bodil; Burström, Lage; Eriksson, Kåre; Jonsson, Håkan; Nathanaelsson, Lena; Nilsson, Tohr

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial infarction (MI) mortality in relation to exposure to hand/arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV) as well as exposure to dust among men employed in two Swedish iron-ore mines. This study comprised employed men at two iron-ore mines in Sweden who had been employed for at least 1 year from 1923 up to 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Myocardial infarction mortality was obtained by linking personal identification numbers to the national cause of death register. Poisson regression was used for risk estimations on exposure-response relation, and analyses were made on the two age groups 60 years. Relative risks for MI mortality in relation to exposure were significantly increased for exposure (0/>0) to WBV (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.31) and dust (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31), and the results indicated an exposure-response relation for WBV and dust separately. For 60 years and younger, exposure to HAV (0/>0) (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.74) and WBV (0/>0) (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.72) increased the risk of MI mortality. An exposure-response was found for HAV and WBV, as the medium and high exposed categories showed significantly increased risk estimates. None of the exposures significantly increased the risk in the group above 60 years. The increased risk estimates for exposure to WBV remained when adjusting for exposure to dust. The results for the working age (< or =60 years) group showed significantly increased MI mortality for univariate exposure to HAV, WBV and dust. We found an association between increased mortality from MI and occupational exposure to WBV, and the risk remained after adjustment for dust exposure.

  8. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Pieters

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM of benzo(apyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 390.7-767.3 and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 1000-1980 in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002 for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04. Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(apyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  9. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD) 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 390.7-767.3) and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 1000-1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  10. Dust Propagation and Radiation In the Presence of a Low-level Jet in Central China on March 17, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, B. K.; Chen, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended dust in the air can directly change the energy budget in the atmosphere and at the surface through scattering and absorption of radiation. Thus, dust can potentially modify the development of weather systems. To explore the dust-radiation effects on weather systems, a dust model was developed based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The calculations of dust processes in the WRF dust model include emission, advection, boundary layer mixing, cumulus mixing, dust-radiation interaction, wet scavenging, and sedimentation. Due to a high vertical spatial resolution near the surface a time splitting method was applied to the calculation of dust sedimentation to relax the numerical time step. The "Hexi Corridor" is the historical name given to a string of oases along the northern slope of the Tibetan Plateau that formed a relatively easy transportation route between eastern China and central Asia. As trade developed over the centuries, this route became known as the Silk Road. This corridor also marks the transition from the relatively flat Gobi desert area in northern China to the elevated mountains of the Tibetan Plateau. These mountains present a southern barrier to the paths of dust storms that develop during spring outbreaks of the Mongolian Cyclone. In March of 2010, a series of dust storms developed in the Gobi Desert north of the Hexi Corridor that transported massive amounts of dust eastward to central and northeastern China, Korea and Japan. On March 17 during this event, a low-level jet developed along the northern perimeter of the Plateau, in alignment with upper level winds and the Hexi Corridor. Over the course of the day, a well-defined short-duration dust plume was emitted in the southern Gobi desert area and was transported over 1300 km in a southeast direction, over the Loess Plateau and into the Gansu Province. In this study, the interactions of synoptic conditions with regional topography that led to the development of the low-level

  11. Levels of crystalline silica dust in dental laboratorium of Dental Health Technology Study Program of Vocational Faculty, Universitas Airlangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Inayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhaling particles of crystalline silica in a long time. The disease then results in inflammation and defects in lung tissue. Prosthesis construction is usually conducted in dental laboratory using a lot of materials containing crystalline silica, such as gypsum, ceramics, planting material, sandblast and others. Purpose: This research aims to determine levels of crystalline silica dust in the dental laboratory of Dental Health Technology Diploma Study Program, Vocational Faculty, Universitas Airlangga. Method: Three measurement points was determined, namely point 1, point 2 and point 3 in each dental laboratory space (I and II. Suctioning dust was performed at those points using Low Volume Dust Sampler (LVDS. Samples taken were divided into two groups, namely X and Y. Taking dust samples were carried out for 30 minutes. Elements of crystalline silica contained in the dust were quantitatively measured using XR Defractometry tool, while size and morphology of silica were measured using SEM EDX tool. Data obtained were statistically analyzed by paired t test. Result: The results showed significant differences in the levels of the total dust measured and crystalline silica in the form of quartz and cristobalite among those two dental laboratory spaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the levels of the total dust and silica quartz dust in the dental laboratory spaces I and II were greater than the Threshold Limit Value (TLV determined.

  12. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  13. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  14. Measurement of absorbed dose and proposed radiation exposure level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masayuki; Furukawa, Tomo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). Hospital

    2003-03-01

    Absorbed dose was measured in clinical X-ray examinations using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). Moreover, we distributed the levels of radiation exposure into 3 classes. The presumed dose of the internal organs, e.g., uterus dose, was computed to depth doses with a surface dose. This information provides a prediction of the influence of radiation, and the examination can be performed with the informed consent of the patient. Moreover, we examined the distribution of the level of absorbed dose. We proposed two kinds of radiation exposure level, one to the fetus in a pregnant woman and a general level of radiation exposure that is not applied to pregnant women. The levels were as follows: 0.5 mGy and 100 mGy were considered the boundaries for fetal radiation exposure in a pregnant woman, and 200 mGy and 3 Gy were considered the boundaries for the general level of radiation exposure (excluding pregnant women). (author)

  15. Trends of road dust emissions contributions on ambient air particulate levels at rural, urban and industrial sites in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Pandolfi, M.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2014-04-01

    The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with diameteer road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust increased PM10 levels on average by 21-35% at traffic sites, 29-34% at urban background sites heavily affected by road traffic emissions, 17-22% at urban-industrial sites and 9-22% at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentration trends over the sampling years were found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases the decreases were less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10, as expected but still important (21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting the idea that air quality managers should drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.

  16. The effects of indoor and outdoor dust exposure on the growth, sensitivity to oxidative-stress, and biofilm production of three opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraju, Mohammed O; Lalinde-Barnes, Sloan; Sanamvenkata, Sachindra; Esmaeili, Mahsa; Shishodia, Shishir; Rosenzweig, Jason A

    2015-12-15

    Within the last decade, many studies have highlighted the radical changes in the components of indoor and outdoor dust. For example, agents like automobile emitted platinum group elements and different kinds of organic phthalates and esters have been reported to be accumulating in the biosphere. Humans consistently face dermal, respiratory, and dietary exposures to these particles while indoors and outdoors. In fact, dust particulate matter has been associated with close to 500,000 deaths per year in Europe and about 200,000 deaths per year in the United States. To date, there has been limited examination of the physiological impact of indoor and outdoor dust exposure on normal flora microbes. In this study, the effect of indoor- and outdoor-dust exposure on three opportunistic bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was assessed. Specifically, bacterial growth, oxidative stress resistance, and biofilm production were measured following indoor- and outdoor-dust exposures. Studies were conducted in nutritionally-rich and -poor environments typically encountered by bacteria. Surprisingly, indoor-dust (200μg/mL), enhanced the growth of all three bacterial species in nutrient-poor conditions, but slowed growth in nutrient-rich conditions. In nutrient-rich medium, 100μg/mL exposure of either indoor- or outdoor-dust resulted in significantly reduced oxidative stress resistance in E. coli. Most interestingly, dust (indoor and outdoor), either in nutrient-rich or -poor conditions, significantly increased biofilm production in all three bacterial species. These data suggest that indoor and outdoor dust, can modify opportunistic bacteria through altering growth, sensitivity to oxidative stress, and their virulence potential through enhanced biofilm formation.

  17. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 75 workers employed in a tobacco factory producing cheroots we measured cellular contents of tear fluid, redness of eyes, discomfort, total (0–5.7 mg/m3) and respirable dust in the breathing zone and total ambient dust by stationary sampling (0.08–1.0 mg/m3). A matched group of 50 o...

  18. Occupational exposure to organic dust, microorganisms, endotoxin and peptidoglycan among plants processing workers in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Anna; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Krawczyk, Paweł; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Cholewa, Grazyna; Larsson, Lennart; Jarosz, Mirosław; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The objective of present work was to determine and compare the components of bioaerosol in several sectors of plant processing industries. The study was conducted in 10 facilities engaged in herb and grain processing, flax threshing, grain storing, baking, and cereals production. The air samples were taken on glass fibre filters with an AS-50 sampler. We determined the concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust, endotoxin and peptidoglycan. Total concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms ranged from 0.18-861.4 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). The highest levels of microbial contamination of the air were observed at flax farms, in grain elevators and in a herb processing plant. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi were detected at all sampling sites and their median concentrations were respectively 18.1 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) and 0.66 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). The concentration of Gram-negative bacteria ranged from 0.0-168.0 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). The concentration of thermophilic actinomycetes ranged from 0.0-1.45 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). Qualitatively, Gram-positive bacteria constituted 23-93% of the total microbial count. The most common species were: Staphylococcus spp., Curtobacterium pusillum, Rhodococcus fascians, Aureobacterium testaceum, Sanguibacter keddieii, Microbacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. Gram-negative bacteria formed 0-48% of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans dominated in all examined air samples. Fungi constituted 2.5-76.9% of the total microbial count. Among them, Penicillium spp., Mucor spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus spp. were found. The dust concentration ranged from 0.18-86.9 mg/m(3). The concentration of endotoxin was large and ranged from 0.0041-1562.6 microg/m(3). Muramic acid, the chemical marker of peptidoglycan, was detected in 9 out of 13 (69.2%) collected samples. The concentration of peptidoglycan ranged from 1.93-416 ng/m(3). A highly significant correlation was found between the individual components of bioaerosol

  19. Relationship between levels of very virulent MDV in poultry dust and in feather tips from vaccinated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigent, Susan J; Kgosana, Lydia B; Gamawa, Ahmed A; Smith, Lorraine P; Read, Andrew F; Nair, Venugopal K

    2013-06-01

    To assess the effect of various vaccine strains on replication and shedding of virulent Marek's disease virus from experimentally infected chickens, quantitative PCR (q-PCR) methods were developed to accurately quantify viral DNA in infected chickens and in the environment in which they were housed. Four groups of 10 chickens, kept in poultry isolators, were vaccinated at 1 day old with one of four vaccines covering each of the three vaccine serotypes, then challenged with very virulent MDV strain Md5 at 8 days of age. At regular time-points, feather tips were collected from each chicken and poultry dust was collected from the air-extract prefilter of each isolator. DNA was extracted from feather and dust samples and subjected to real-time q-PCR, targeting the U(S)2 gene of MDV-1, in order to measure Md5 level per 10(4) feather tip cells or per microgram of dust. Accuracy of DNA extraction from dust and real-time q-PCR were validated by comparing either q-PCR cycle threshold values or the calculated MDV genome level; for use in q-PCR, DNA was extracted from serial dilutions of MDV-infected dust diluted with noninfected dust, or DNA from MDV-infected dust was diluted with DNA from noninfected dust. The results confirmed the accuracy and sensitivity of dust DNA extraction and subsequent q-PCR and showed that differences in virus levels between dust samples truly reflect differences in shedding. Vaccination delayed both replication of Md5 in feather tips and shedding of Md5. First detection of Md5 in feather tips always preceded or coincided with first detection in dust in each group. pCVI988 and HVT+SB-1 were the most efficient vaccines in reducing both replication and shedding of Md5. There was close correlation between mean virus level in feathers of each group and mean virus level in the dust shed by that group. This relationship was similar in each of the vaccinated groups, demonstrating that measurement of the virus in dust can be used to monitor accurately both

  20. Exploring hotspots of pneumococcal pneumonia and potential impacts of ejecta dust exposure following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Mitchell, Peter; Apparicio, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) is well-known. Yet, some events may increase its incidence. Natural disasters may worsen air quality, a risk factor for PP. We investigated spatial/spatio-temporal clustering of PP pre- and post-earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand. The earthquakes resulted in deaths, widespread damage and liquefaction ejecta (a source of air-borne dust). We tested for clusters and associations with ejecta, using 97 cases (diagnosed 10/2008-12/2011), adjusted for age and area-level deprivation. The strongest evidence to support the potential role of ejecta in clusters of PP cases was the: (1) geographic shift in the spatio-temporal cluster after deprivation adjustment to match the post-earthquake clusters and; (2) increased relative risk in the fully-adjusted post-earthquake compared to the pre-earthquake cluster. The application of spatial statistics to study PP and ejecta are novel. Further studies to assess the long-term impacts of ejecta inhalation are recommended particularly in Christchurch, where seismic activity continues.

  1. On the health effects of transported and resuspended dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean area people are often exposed to high levels of both transported mineral dust and to resuspended urban dust. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe two aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust and its effects on the local microbiome will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to exposing water soluble extracts of fresh and aged dust particles from the Israeli Negev Desert to alveolar macrophages.

  2. Organic contaminants and heavy metals in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China: Spatial characteristics and implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Xiao; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Mei-Huan; Tan, Xiao; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-02-27

    The concentrations of several organic contaminants (OCs) and heavy metals were measured in indoor dust from e-waste recycling, rural, and urban areas in South China to illustrate the spatial characteristics of these pollutants and to further evaluate human exposure risks. The median concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs) were 38.6-3560, 2360-30,100, 665-2720, and 19.5-1860ng/g, while the median concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Zn were 2.46-40.4, 206-1380, 217- 1200, 25.3-134, and 176-212μg/g in indoor dust. The levels of all pollutants, except Zn, in dust from the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than those from the other areas. Cd, Pb, and most OCs exhibited similar pollution patterns in the three areas, indicating that e-waste recycling activities are the major pollution source. In contrast, Cu, Cr, Zn, and penta-BDE are likely derived from household products in the rural and urban areas. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of PCBs, PBDEs, DBDPE, and DPs were 0.15-163, 3.97-1470, 1.26-169, and 0.11-134ng/kg bw/day for toddlers and adults. The highest EDIs of BDE 209 and Pb in toddlers in the e-waste recycling area were 16% and 18 times higher than the reference doses, indicating the high exposure risk of these pollutants in the e-waste recycling area.

  3. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  4. Effect of duration of exposure to cement dust on respiratory function of non-smoking cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Al Masri, Abeer A; Al Rouq, Fawzia; Azeem, Muhammad Abdul

    2013-01-16

    This study aimed to determine the effect of long term exposure to cement dust on lung function in non-smoking cement mill workers. This is a cross-sectional study of respiratory functions. Spirometry was performed in 100 apparently healthy volunteers; 50 non-smoking cement mill workers and 50 non-smoking un-exposed subjects. Based on the duration of exposure, cement mill workers were divided into three groups, less than 5, 5-10 and greater than 10 years. All subjects were individually matched for age, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV(1)), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation in cement mill workers who had been working in the cement industry for more than 10 years compared to their matched un-exposed group. Lung functions in cement mill workers were significantly impaired and results show a long term duration response effect of years of exposure to cement dust on lung functions.

  5. Assessment of violations of the proteomic profile in blood plasma in children being under inhalation exposure to fine dust containing vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and evaluation of the protein profile in blood plasma in children, that have been exposed to long-term effect of fine dust containing vanadium in the zone of influence of metallurgical production sources, are demonstrated. It was established that under conditions of poor air quality in the residential area due to vanadium pentoxide dust content at the level up to 1.2 mean daily MAC (34 RfC chr , by the suspended solids – up to 0.6 mean daily MAC (1.2 RfC chr , there is vanadium concentration in blood of the exposed 4–7 aged children, that exceeds up to 6 times the reference level. The technology of the proteomic analysis showed that children with high content of vanadium in blood have changes in proteomic profile in blood plasma in the type of increase of the relative volume of acid glycoprotein alpha-1; reduction of clusterin, apolipoprotein A-IV, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, that are associated with vanadium concentration in blood. In the absence of timely primary and secondary prevention and the preservation of vanadium sustained exposure the revealed cell-molecular abnormalities allow us to predict further development of functional disturbances on tissue and organ levels as the early development of osteoporosis and osteoarticular pathology, atherosclerotic vascular changes, autoimmune allergic processes on the background of disorders of immune regulation, oncology diseases.

  6. Levels of Non-Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Brominated Flame Retardants in Residential House Dust Samples and Fire Station Dust Samples in California

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, F. Reber; Whitehead, Todd P; Park, June-Soo; Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto X

    2014-01-01

    Eleven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were analyzed in dust samples from California homes as a part of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and from the living quarters of California fire stations as a part of the Firefighter Occupational Exposure (FOX) study using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The eleven NBFRs, were: α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (α- and β-DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,3,6-tribromophenylether (BATE), p...

  7. Health effects following long-term exposure to thorium dusts. A fourteen-year follow-up study in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xingan; Cheng Younge; Zhen Rong [Ministry of Public Health, Beijing (China). Lab. of Industrial Hygiene

    2000-05-01

    A fourteen-year follow-up study was carried out at Baiyan Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine in China. It has been operating for forty one years. It's ore contains ThO2 at a percentage of 0.04. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible health effects of 2903 dust-inhaled miners following long-term exposure to thorium dusts. An electrostatic collection system was used to measure the exhaled thoron activity of each examinee, through simple calculation, each examinee's thorium lung burden obtained. Health status was ascertained through questionnaire, physical examination and clinical laboratory tests. An epidemiological study on the mortality rates of lung cancers of the dust-inhaled miners and internal controls was also carried out. Results showed that the highest thorium lung burden for 1158 measurements of 638 miners was at a value of 11.11 Bq, one tenth of the maximum thorium lung burden. In a ten-year investigation on the four haematological parameters and four hepatic parameters of 638 exposed miners, no adverse effects were observed. The incidence of severe breathlessness, lung function tests, pneumoconiosis of stage O{sup +} and the concentration of ceruloplasmin in the serum of high thorium lung burden group are much higher than that of low thorium lung burden group. However, owing to the concentration of SiO2 (10%) are much higher than that of the ThO2 (0.04%) in the dust, the disorders of respiratory tract are mainly due to the fibrogenic effects of SiO2, Epidemiology study showed that both the SMRs of the dust-inhaled miners and the dust-free miners are all greater than one (5.15 vs. 2.30). The SMR of the dust miners was much higher than that of the controls. However, there was no statistic significant difference between these two SMRs (X{sup 2}=3.75 P>0.05). This means that the high SMR of the dust-inhaled miners was not solely due to the long-term inhaled thorium and short-lived thoron daughters. Because of very high percentage of smokers

  8. A study of pulmonary function test among tea garden factory workers in relation to exposure of tea dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birinchi Kartik Das

    2015-10-01

    Results: The investigator is interested to test whether there were significant differences between parameters of PFT among the study and control group. For this purpose student t test has been applied and significant differences were found in all the parameters of PFT as P < 0.01. Conclusions: Exposure to tea dust affects the lung volumes and flow rates, thereby causing increased prevalence of respiratory, allergic symptoms and significant degree of airway obstruction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2686-2693

  9. Respiratory consequences of exposure to wood dust and formaldehyde of workers manufacturing oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, F A; Hessel, P A; Melenka, L S; Yoshida, K; Nakaza, M

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed at a plant in which 99 workers were employed in the manufacture of oriented strand board. This group was compared with 165 unexposed workers from the petroleum industry. Both groups were assessed, using a questionnaire, spirometry, and skin prick tests to common environmental antigens. Environmental studies showed a low dust level of 0.27 mg/m3, consisting of particles of a mass median aerodynamic equivalent diameter of 2.5 microns. There were variable concentrations of formaldehyde, up to 0.27 ppm. A significant difference between the oriented strand board workers and oil field workers was noted for the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, without significant differences in either the forced expiratory volume in 1 s or the forced vital capacity. Oriented strand board workers who were current smokers were three times as likely to have a forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 75% of that found in the currently smoking oil field workers. Significant reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p = .044) and forced vital capacity (p = .022) in oriented strand board workers were noted across the work shift. The oriented strand board workers complained of self-reported asthma and of lower respiratory tract symptoms significantly more frequently than did oil workers for all of the symptoms examined. The prevalence of atopy was not different in the two groups. Lung function was significantly better in oriented strand board workers who had no symptoms, compared with oriented strand board workers who were symptomatic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dust emissions created by low-level rotary-winged aircraft flight over desert surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, J. A.; Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; McAlpine, J. D.; King, J.; Uppapalli, S.; Nikolich, G.; Engelbrecht, J.

    2010-03-01

    There is a dearth of information on dust emissions from sources that are unique to U.S. Department of Defense testing and training activities. Dust emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from low-level rotary-winged aircraft travelling (rotor-blade ≈7 m above ground level) over two types of desert surfaces (i.e., relatively undisturbed desert pavement and disturbed desert soil surface) were characterized at the Yuma Proving Ground (Yuma, AZ) in May 2007. Fugitive emissions are created by the shear stress of the outflow of high speed air created by the rotor-blade. The strength of the emissions was observed to scale primarily as a function of forward travel speed of the aircraft. Speed affects dust emissions in two ways: 1) as speed increases, peak shear stress at the soil surface was observed to decline proportionally, and 2) as the helicopter's forward speed increases its residence time over any location on the surface diminishes, so the time the downward rotor-generated flow is acting upon that surface must also decrease. The state of the surface over which the travel occurs also affects the scale of the emissions. The disturbed desert test surface produced approximately an order of magnitude greater emission than the undisturbed surface. Based on the measured emission rates for the test aircraft and the established scaling relationships, a rotary-winged aircraft similar to the test aircraft traveling 30 km h -1 over the disturbed surface would need to travel 4 km to produce emissions equivalent to one kilometer of travel by a light wheeled military vehicle also traveling at 30 km h -1 on an unpaved road. As rotary-winged aircraft activity is substantially less than that of off-road vehicle military testing and training activities it is likely that this source is small compared to emissions created by ground-based vehicle movements.

  11. Health risks due to coffee dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Bittner, Cordula; Baur, Xaver

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed current health risks due to occupational exposure to coffee dust. We performed a cross-sectional study in a coffee haulage company (n = 24), a coffee silo (n = 19), and a decaffeinating company (n = 17). Cross-shift and cross-week case histories of these employees as well as lung function values were recorded. During the handling of green coffee, measurements of airborne dust were conducted. The employees in these workplaces were mainly affected by erythematous and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. They occurred especially in subjects exposed to a high dust load (> 10 mg of inhalable dust per cubic meter of air; n = 28) [Pearson chi(2) test, p = 0.020 and p = 0.023]. IgE antibodies to green coffee and castor beans were detected in 3 workers and 10 workers, respectively. The majority of them (two employees and six employees, respectively) had shown respiratory symptoms during the past 12 months. The preshift lung function values were below average but were not dependent on the level of the inhalable coffee dust exposure. Employees with a coffee dust load > 10 mg/m(3) of air showed higher unspecific bronchial responsiveness more frequently than those with lower exposures. During the transshipment (especially during unloading) of green coffee, a high and clinically relevant exposure to irritative and sensitizing dust occurs. Therefore, efforts to reduce these dust exposures are generally recommended.

  12. Potential exposure levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A H; Munshi, A A; Goodman, A K

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the potential exposure levels and pursuant public health implications of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill. This site received ash from a single incinerator without pollution control devices from 1954-1973. Soil was sampled for 10 heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin and furan congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil concentrations for these substances were converted to estimates of exposure, health effects, and/or cancer risk by the application of a general exposure model and exposure/effect and exposure/risk models for specific substances. The results of soil analysis and modeling indicate that the level of lead detected on the site was considerably above the recommended levels of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and may lead to an elevated blood lead level in exposed children above that currently defining a case of lead poisoning. The potential for health effects resulting from exposure to other substances measured in the soil on this site is considered to be small, and no significant increased cancer risk is expected. Comparison of levels of various substances obtained at this site with levels obtained in fresh bottom ash in other studies suggests that these results may be applicable to exposures from other municipal incinerator bottom ash landfills.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-08-19

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10(-7) to 1.2 × 10(-5) (year(-1)) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10(-7) to 7.2 × 10(-6) (year(-1)) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities

  14. Exposure to respirable dust and crystalline silica in bricklaying education at Dutch vocational training centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, D.; Spee, T.; Lumens, M.E.G.L.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Construction workers are educated at vocational training centers before they begin their working lives. Future bricklayers and their instructors are exposed to respirable dust and possibly to hazardous respirable crystalline silica from trial mortar. METHODS: Thirty-six personal air samp

  15. Dust exposure, eye redness, eye cytology and mucous membrane irritation in a tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, O.F.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 75 workers employed in a tobacco factory producing cheroots we measured cellular contents of tear fluid, redness of eyes, discomfort, total (0–5.7 mg/m3) and respirable dust in the breathing zone and total ambient dust by stationary sampling (0.08–1.0 mg/m3). A matched group of 50...... office workers in a telephone company (total ambient dust concentration between 0.08–0.13 mg/m3) was similarly examined as referents. We found a difference between the two companies with regard to cell counts, with tobacco workers having the largest numbers except for lymphocytes. Among tobacco workers...... we furthermore found that the number of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells increased during the day. The increase of cuboidal cells, however, occurred mainly in a small group of tobacco workers exposed to the highest concentrations of tobacco dust (mean =1.26 mg/m3). No difference...

  16. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  17. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked.

  18. Macrocyclic-, polycyclic-, and nitro musks in cosmetics, household commodities and indoor dusts collected from Japan: implications for their human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Hinosaka, Mari; Yanagimoto, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the occurrence and concentrations of macrocyclic-, polycyclic- and nitro musks in cosmetics and household commodities collected from Japan. The high concentrations and detection frequencies of Musk T, habanolide, and exaltolides were found in commercial products, suggesting their large amounts of production and usage in Japan. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, also showed high concentrations in cosmetics and products. The estimated dairy intakes of Musk T and HHCB by the dermal exposure to commercial products were 7.8 and 7.9 μg/kg/day in human, respectively, and perfume and body lotion are dominant exposure sources. We also analyzed synthetic musks in house dusts. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, showed high concentrations in samples, but macrocyclic musks were detected only in a few samples, although these types of musks were highly detected in commercial products. This is probably due to easy-degradation of macrocyclic musks in indoor environment. The dairy intakes of HHCB by dust ingestions were 0.22 ng/kg/day in human, which were approximately five orders of magnitudes lower than those of dermal absorption from commercial household commodities.

  19. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam.

  20. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (pallergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (pallergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  1. Research by NIOSH for controlling respirable dust and methane gas on continuous miner faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, G.V.R.; Taylor, C.D.; Colinet, J.F.; Thimons, E.D. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Dust and Toxic Substances Control Branch

    2001-07-01

    The importance of controlling respirable dust and methane gas levels in underground coal mining cannot be underestimated. While respirable dust can significantly affect the occupational health of underground coal miners, methane gas accumulations pose significant safety concerns for these same workers. Water sprays and machine mounted dust scrubbers offer effective control of respirable dust exposures and methane gas accumulations. Water must not only be applied carefully to avoid dust rollback to the machine operator but must create sufficient turbulence to remove dead zones that could contain high concentrations of methane gas. While the flooded-bed dust scrubber has been generally responsible for decreased worker exposures to respirable dusts, this device has proved effective in controlling methane levels at the face. This paper reviews practical applications of water sprays and dust scrubbers to control respirable dust and methane gas on continuous miner faces. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  3. Relating indoor NO 2 levels to infant personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlos, David P.; Marbury, Marian; Samet, Jonathan; Spengler, John D.

    We report here the results of a field survey of personal nitrogen dioxide exposure (PNO 2) of infants and simultaneous indoor NO 2 levels from various points throughout the infants' homes. Personal nitrogen dioxide levels can be predicted by average room NO 2 concentrations when appropriately weighted by infant presence in the room. Bedroom NO 2 concentration alone presents an alternative predictor which is more suitable for use in large scale surveys. Because of the typical infant's peculiar time-location patterns, they receive most of their NO 2 exposures in bedrooms (65 %)and living rooms (32 %), while the kitchen (5 %) and outdoor environments (> 2%)contribute only a small fraction of daily exposure. Average NO 2 exposure during cooking periods can be predicted using passive samplers placed directly over stoves and hours of stove use time.

  4. Hormesis [Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (Belle)] and Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Haw-Yueh; Maibach, Howard I.

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis, or biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE), is characterized by nonmonotonic dose response which is biphasic, displaying opposite effects at low and high dose. Its occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models and diverse type of exposure. Since hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon in many areas, the objective of this review is to explore its occurrence related to dermatology and its public health and risk assessment implication....

  5. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat and Bla g1 (cockroach allergens were found in the children’s bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  6. Assessment of dust sampling methods for the study of cultivable-microorganism exposure in stables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normand, A.C.; Vacheyrou, M.; Sudre, B.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Piarroux, R.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown a link between living on a farm, exposure to microbial components (e.g., endotoxins or beta-d-glucans), and a lower risk for allergic diseases and asthma. Due to the lack of validated sampling methods, studies of asthma and atopy have not relied on exposure assessment based on

  7. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M. [University of KwaZuluNatal, Congella (South Africa). Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  8. Effect of Exposure to Portland Cement Dust on the Periodontal Status and on the Outcome of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cement dust contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium, pollutants hazardous to the biotic environment, with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems. Objective To investigate if long term exposure to cement dust can affect the periodontal health and affect the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods A total of sixty subjects were included in this study. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into; Group I comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis working in the Portland Cement Company and Group II comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis who does not work in cement factories nor live near any of them. Twenty healthy subjects were included in this study as healthy control group (Group III). Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CLA) were scored for all patients before and after periodontal therapy. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy together with strict oral hygiene program for one month. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from both groups at baseline and one month after periodontal therapy. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the GCF samples for detection and assessment of the levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Results The two studied groups responded well to non-surgical periodontal treatment and there was no significant difference between GI and GII (P>0.05). The levels of TNFα was higher in GI than in GII before and after periodontal therapy (P0.05), but represented with a highly significant difference between G1 and GII after periodontal therapy (Psurgical periodontal treatment but it affects the levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators leading to more periodontal tissue destruction. PMID:27610057

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Silica Dust and Risk of Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Chinese Workers: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihong; Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Hnizdo, Eva; Sun, Yi; Su, Liangping; Zhang, Xiaokang; Weng, Shaofan; Bochmann, Frank; Hearl, Frank J.; Chen, Jingqiong; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-01-01

    Background Human exposure to silica dust is very common in both working and living environments. However, the potential long-term health effects have not been well established across different exposure situations. Methods and Findings We studied 74,040 workers who worked at 29 metal mines and pottery factories in China for 1 y or more between January 1, 1960, and December 31, 1974, with follow-up until December 31, 2003 (median follow-up of 33 y). We estimated the cumulative silica dust exposure (CDE) for each worker by linking work history to a job–exposure matrix. We calculated standardized mortality ratios for underlying causes of death based on Chinese national mortality rates. Hazard ratios (HRs) for selected causes of death associated with CDE were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The population attributable risks were estimated based on the prevalence of workers with silica dust exposure and HRs. The number of deaths attributable to silica dust exposure among Chinese workers was then calculated using the population attributable risk and the national mortality rate. We observed 19,516 deaths during 2,306,428 person-years of follow-up. Mortality from all causes was higher among workers exposed to silica dust than among non-exposed workers (993 versus 551 per 100,000 person-years). We observed significant positive exposure–response relationships between CDE (measured in milligrams/cubic meter–years, i.e., the sum of silica dust concentrations multiplied by the years of silica exposure) and mortality from all causes (HR 1.026, 95% confidence interval 1.023–1.029), respiratory diseases (1.069, 1.064–1.074), respiratory tuberculosis (1.065, 1.059–1.071), and cardiovascular disease (1.031, 1.025–1.036). Significantly elevated standardized mortality ratios were observed for all causes (1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.11), ischemic heart disease (1.65, 1.35–1.99), and pneumoconiosis (11.01, 7.67–14.95) among workers exposed

  10. Perchlorate in dust fall and indoor dust in Malta: An effect of fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alfred J; Chircop, Cynthia; Micallef, Tamara; Pace, Colette

    2015-07-15

    We report on the presence of perchlorate in the settleable dust of Malta, a small central Mediterranean island. Both dust fall collected directly as it precipitated from atmosphere over a period of one month and deposited indoor dust from domestic residences were studied. Perchlorate was determined by ion chromatography of water extracts of the collected dusts. Dust fall was collected from 43 towns during 2011 to 2013 and indoor dust was sampled from homes in the same localities. Perchlorate was detected in 108 of 153 samples of dust fall (71%) and in 28 of 37 indoor dust samples (76%). Detectable perchlorate in dust fall ranged from 0.52μgg(-1) to 561μgg(-1) with a median value of 6.2μgg(-1); in indoor dust, levels were from 0.79μgg(-1) to 53μgg(-1) with a median value of 7.8μgg(-1), the highest recorded anywhere to date. Statistical analysis suggested that there was no significant difference in perchlorate content of indoor dust and dust fall. Perchlorate levels in dust fall escalate during the summer in response to numerous religious feasts celebrated with fireworks and perchlorate persists at low μgg(-1) concentrations for several months beyond the summer festive period. In Malta, perchlorate derives exclusively from KClO4, imported for fireworks manufacture. Its residue in dust presents an exposure risk to the population, especially via ingestion by hand to mouth transfer. Our results suggest that wherever intensive burning of fireworks takes place, the environmental impact may be much longer lived than realised, mainly due to re-suspension and deposition of contaminated settled dust in the urban environment.

  11. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  12. Rubberwood dust and lung function among Thai furniture factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Demers, Paul A; Thepaksorn, Phayong; Saowakhontha, Sastri; Keifer, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting lung function among 685 workers in the rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) furniture industry in the Chonburi and Rayung provinces of eastern Thailand. Study data were gathered using questionnaires, by sampling wood dust, and by spirometry. The mean wood dust exposure level in the factories was 4.08 mg/m3 (SD = 1.42, range: 1.15-11.17 mg/m3). The mean overall percent of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC values were 84 % (SD = 13.41), 86 % (SD = 14.40), and 99% (SD = 10.42), respectively. Significant negative correlations were found between mean dust exposure levels and FVC (p = 0.0008), and FEV1/FVC% (p lung function and wood dust levels among wood workers suggests that rubberwood dust exposure negatively affects lung function.

  13. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, E.; Piscator, M.; Nogawa, K.

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces.

  14. Estimation of exposure distribution adjusting for association between exposure level and detection limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchen; Shelton, Brent J; Tucker, Thomas T; Li, Li; Kryscio, Richard; Chen, Li

    2017-08-15

    In environmental exposure studies, it is common to observe a portion of exposure measurements to fall below experimentally determined detection limits (DLs). The reverse Kaplan-Meier estimator, which mimics the well-known Kaplan-Meier estimator for right-censored survival data with the scale reversed, has been recommended for estimating the exposure distribution for the data subject to DLs because it does not require any distributional assumption. However, the reverse Kaplan-Meier estimator requires the independence assumption between the exposure level and DL and can lead to biased results when this assumption is violated. We propose a kernel-smoothed nonparametric estimator for the exposure distribution without imposing any independence assumption between the exposure level and DL. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in practical situations. A colon cancer study is provided for illustration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  16. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lee Lim

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695. The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus and Der f 1 (from D. farinae allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035, any airway symptoms (p= 0.032, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005, current asthma (p= 0.007, current rhinitis (p= 0.021 and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001. Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021, wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033, any airway symptoms (p= 0.034, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010, current asthma (p= 0.020 and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042. Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033 especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001 and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001. In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  17. Health risk assessment of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contained in residential air particulate and dust in Guangzhou and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jinshu; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Huang, Min-juan; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in air particulate PM2.5 (less than 2.5 μm), TSP (Total Suspend Particle) and dust samples from different households of two major urban centers of Pearl River Delta (PRD). ∑PBDEs in PM2.5 of households in Guangzhou (GZ) (52.9-2.03 × 103 pg m-3 mean 239 pg m-3) were significantly higher than Hong Kong (HK) (0.25-160 pg m-3, mean 43.8 pg m-3). Higher ∑PBDEs occurred in indoor TSP, ranging between 117 and 1.14 × 103 pg m-3, with a median of 333 pg m-3. BDE-209 was the largest contributor to PBDEs contained in household dust, PM2.5 and TSP samples of GZ. Among the particles in household environment, PM2.5 accumulated the highest PBDEs, especially BDE-209. The constant Cparticle/Cdust values suggested that sorption is the dominant mechanism through which PBDEs are associated with settled dust and airborne particles. PBDEs were fairly uniform from urban sites to suburban sites, indicating the predominant indoor sources of PBDEs. Compared with indoor PM2.5, indoor dust ingestion made an important contribution of particle associated PBDEs exposure for adults (25 years old) and toddlers (1-2 years old). Non-dietary exposure dominated total PBDEs exposure, accounting for 91.8-99.0% exposure dose for toddlers and 45.1-82.2% for adults. Dust ingestion (69.3-96.1%) was the predominant PBDEs exposure route for toddlers.

  18. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory.

  19. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is

  20. Imaging-based dust sensors: equipment and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Greco, Sonia

    2004-05-01

    Dust detection and control in real time, represent one of the most challenging problem in all those environments where fine and ultrafine airborne particulate solids products are present. The presence of such products can be linked to several factors, often directly related and influenced by the working-production actions performed. Independently from the causes generating dust, airborne contaminants are an occupational problem of increasing interest as they are related to a wide number of diseases. In particular, airborne dusts are well known to be associated with several classical occupational lung diseases, such as the pneumoconiosis, especially at high levels of exposure. Nowadays there is also an increasing interest in other dust related diseases, from the most serious as cancer and asthma, to those related with allergies or irritation and other illnesses, also occurring at lower levels of exposure. Among the different critical factors influencing health risk for airborne dust exposure, mainly four have to be considered, that is: i) nature of the dust resulting from working in terms of presence of specific poisoning material, i.e. free silica, and morphological and morphometrical attributes of particulates constituting airborne dust; ii) size of the particles, iii) duration of exposure time and, finally, iv) airborne dust concentration in the breathing zone where the worker performs his activity. A correct dust detection is not easy, especially if some of the previous mentioned factors, have to be detected and quantified in real time in order to define specific "on-line" control actions aimed to reduce the level of the exposure to dust of the workers, as for example: i) modification of aspirating devices operating condition, change of filtering cleaning sequence, etc. . The more severe are the environmental conditions, in terms of dust presence (in quantity and quality) more difficult is to utilize efficient sampling devices. Detection devices, in fact, tend

  1. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsson, E; Piscator, M; Nogawa, K

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The corresponding ranges were 97-2577 and 31-1102 microgram/day. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces. Since even among some nonsmokers much higher values for fecal cadmium were recorded, this was interpreted as being the result of ingestion of cadmium from contaminated hands and other body surfaces. Among the smokers, direct oral contact with contaminated cigarettes or pipes is an additional factor; the smokers also inhale cadmium in the tobacco smoke from contaminated cigarettes. Part of that cadmium is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance and also adds to the fecal cadmium.

  2. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  3. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  4. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    OpenAIRE

    Regina A. A.; I. Mohammad Halim Shah

    2010-01-01

    The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model uti...

  5. Factors Affecting Vegetable Growers’ Exposure to Fungal Bioaerosols and Airborne Dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. M.; Meyling, Nicolai; Winding, Anne

    2012-01-01

    with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including......-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m23) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers’ exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked....... Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected...

  6. Allergen exposure modifies the relation of sensitization to fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels in children at risk for allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Joanne E; Webb, Tara; Kwan, Doris; Kamel, Jimmy; Hoffman, Elaine; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R

    2011-05-01

    Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to the increase in FENO levels is unknown. We evaluated (1) whether FENO levels were increased in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not unsensitized, children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO levels independent of allergen exposures. At age 12 years, in a birth cohort of children with a parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) by means of ELISA, specific allergic sensitization primarily based on specific IgE levels, and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of television viewing/video game playing by means of questionnaire. Children performed spirometric maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses and had FENO levels measured by using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO). FENO levels were increased in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2 ppb) compared with subjects without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4-16.6 ppb, P mite) predicted higher FENO levels and explained one third of the variability in FENO levels. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday television viewing was associated with a 0.64-log increase in FENO levels after controlling for indoor allergen exposure, body mass index, and allergic sensitization. Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (television viewing/video game playing) might increase airway inflammation, which was measured as the FENO. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dust inhalation exposures from the handling of small volumes of powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowherd, C; Grelinger, M A; Wong, K F

    1989-03-01

    Worker exposure to airborne particulates was stimulated in a laboratory under controlled conditions. Small volumes, 3.8 L (1 gal.), of finely divided powders were transferred at 1-min intervals to 23-L (6-gal.) containers over 30-min time intervals. A high-volume filter array in the exit vent of the specially designed exposure laboratory was used both to control the ventilation rate and to determine the emission factor of the pouring operation. The room ventilation rate, method of transfer, and drop height were varied, and the resulting particulate concentrations were monitored by personal and area samplers. The four powders studied were talc, sodium chloride, Portland cement, and Direct Yellow 4 dye. Based on this study, a model was developed to predict potential worker exposure from the pouring of small volumes of powders. The model is based on the following major conclusions. First, the space- and time-averaged concentration of suspended particulate matter at breathing height agrees well with the mean concentration of suspended particulate matter in the room air effluent. Second, material-specific suspended particulate emission factors vary approximately in direct proportion to the drop height. Third, emission factors for scooping/dumping operations agree well with factors for pouring operations for a given drop height. Fourth, emission factors compare well with dustiness indexes that were determined using a bench-scale dustiness test chamber described in a companion paper. Parameters of the exposure model include dustiness index, drop height of the pouring operation, total quantity of material poured, averaging time, and the fraction of respirable material. For the validation of the model, additional data would be necessary.

  8. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  9. Influence of social and environmental factors on dust, lead, hand lead, and blood lead levels in young children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.; Dietrich, K.N.; Clark, C.S.; Que Hee, S.; Hammond, P.B.

    1985-10-01

    The roles of environmental and behavioral factors in determining blood lead levels were studied in a cohort of young children living in an urban environment. The subjects were observed at 3-month intervals from birth to 24 months of age. Repeated measurements were made of the children's blood lead levels, environmental levels of lead in house dust, and in the dust found on the children's hands. A qualitative rating of the residence and of the socioeconomic status of the family was obtained. Interviews and direct observation of parent and child at home were used to evaluate various aspects of caretaker-child interactions. Data analysis consisted of a comparison of results obtained by (a) simple correlational analysis, (b) multiple regression analysis, and (c) structural equations analysis. The results demonstrated that structural equation modeling offers a useful approach to unraveling the complex interactions present in the data set. In this preliminary analysis, the suspected relationship between the levels of lead in house dust and on hands and the blood lead level was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, the analyses indicated an important interplay between environmental sources and social factors in the determination of hand lead and blood lead levels in very young children.

  10. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, PIgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (PIgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.

  11. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  12. Ortho-phthalaldehyde exposure levels among endoscope disinfection workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Keiko; Yoshida, Jin; Kumagai, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) has been increasing as an alternative to glutaraldehyde for endoscope disinfection. To better understand OPA exposure and its health effects among disinfection workers, we conducted environmental monitoring and administered a questionnaire in 17 endoscope disinfection rooms. There were 9 manual disinfection rooms using immersion vats for scope disinfection and 8 automatic rooms using automatic washers. OPA exposure concentration during the disinfection process of scope was significantly higher in the manual group (median: 1.43ppb, range: not detected (ND-5.37ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.35 ppb, range: ND-0.69 ppb). Similarly, during charging and discharging the antiseptic solution, OPA levels were significantly higher in the manual group (median: 2.58 ppb, range: 0.92-10.0 ppb) than in the automatic group (median: 0.46ppb, range: ND-1.35 ppb). Time-weighted averages of OPA exposure concentration during work shifts were 0.33 to 1.15 ppb (median 0.66 ppb) in the manual group and 0.13 to 1.28 ppb (median 0.33 ppb) in the automatic group, which suggests that manual workers are exposed to OPA at higher levels. Among 80 female disinfection workers who used only antiseptic solutions containing OPA, the incidence of disinfection-related complaints were 10% skin, 9% eye, and 16% respiratory symptoms. These findings suggest that it is desirable to introduce automatic washers to decrease OPA exposure levels among disinfection workers.

  13. Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D L; Litnovsky, A; West, W P; Yu, J H; Boedo, J A; Bray, B D; Brezinsek, S; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Hollmann, E M; Huber, A; Hyatt, A W; Krasheninnikov, S I; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; Pigarov, A Y; Philipps, V; Pospieszczyk, A; Smirnov, R D; Sharpe, J P; Solomon, W M; Watkins, J G; Wong, C C

    2009-02-17

    Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Direct heating of the dust particles by the neutral beam injection (NBI) and acceleration of dust particles by the plasma flows are observed. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. Large flakes or debris falling into the plasma may result in a disruption. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by introducing micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with {approx}30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure ({approx}0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate the core plasma and only moderately perturbed the edge plasma, as evidenced by an increase of the edge carbon content.

  14. THE MEASUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WOOD DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario Proto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the woodworking industry presents many issues in terms of occupational health and safety. This study on exposure to wood dust could contribute to the realization of a prevention model in order to limit exposure to carcinogenic agents to the worker. The sampling methodology illustrated the analysis of dust emissions from the woodworking machinery in operation throughout the various processing cycles. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of exposure was performed using two different methodologies. The levels of wood dust were determined according to EN indications and sampling was conducted using IOM and Cyclon personal samplers. The qualitative research of wood dust was performed using an advanced laser air particle counter. This allowed the number of particles present to be counted in real time. The results obtained allowed for an accurate assessment of the quality of the dust emitted inside the workplace during the various processing phases. The study highlighted the distribution of air particles within the different size classes, the exact number of both thin and ultra-thin dusts, and confirmed the high concentration of thin dust particles which can be very harmful to humans.

  15. Trabalho rural, exposição a poeiras e sintomas respiratórios entre agricultores Farm work, dust exposure and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2006-10-01

    associated with increases in respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and the associations of these with occupational risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in 1996 with 1,379 farmers from Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic and farming-production parameters were collected, as were levels of exposure to organic and mineral dusts. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by a modified version of American Thoracic Society-Division of Lung Disease questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used in analyses, controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS: The majority (52% of interviewees worked in activities with intense exposure to dust. Workers on farms with better economic indicators had a lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Poultry workers showed more symptoms of chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.05-2.42. Farmers exposed to high concentrations of dust had more than 70% higher risk of asthma symptoms (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.10-2.67 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.77; 95% CI: 1.25-2.50. CONCLUSIONS: The rural workers studied herein were exposed to high levels of organic and mineral dusts. Those exposed to higher dust concentrations, such as poultry workers, showed an increased risk of work-related respiratory symptoms. The implementation of respiratory protection programs is recommended, emphasizing workers involved with poultry production.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Hwa Wan

    Full Text Available Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC. This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  17. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  18. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-06-23

    Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children's Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. UMIN000010826. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Birth cohort study on the effects of desert dust exposure on children's health: protocol of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Adachi, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Noma, Hisashi; Onishi, Kazunari; Hamazaki, Kei; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ito, Isao; Egawa, Miho; Sato, Keiko; Go, Tohshin; Kurozawa, Youichi; Inadera, Hidekuni; Konishi, Ikuo; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Desert dust is estimated to constitute about 35% of aerosol in the troposphere. Desertification, climatic variability and global warming all can contribute to increased dust formation. This study aims to examine possible health effects of desert dust exposure on pregnant women and their children. The purpose of this report was to present the study protocol. Methods and analysis This 4-year birth cohort study began in 2011 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study (JECS) involving three regions: Kyoto, Toyama and Tottori. The JECS participants of the three regions above who also agreed to participate in this adjunct study were enrolled prior to delivery. Light Detecting and Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarisation analyser, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles, is used for exposure measurements. Outcomes are allergic symptoms for mothers and development of asthma and other allergic or respiratory diseases for their children. Data are acquired in a timely manner by connecting local LIDAR equipment to an online questionnaire system. Participants answer the online questionnaire using mobile phones or personal computers. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of Kyoto University, University of Toyama and Tottori University. All participants provided written informed consent. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to the scientific community and general public. Trial Registration number UMIN000010826. PMID:24958210

  20. Prediction of Exposure Level of Energetic Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.; Blattnig, S.

    2016-12-01

    The potential for exposure to large solar particle events (SPEs) with fluxes that extend to high energies is a major concern during interplanetary transfer and extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lunar and Martian surfaces. Prediction of sporadic occurrence of SPEs is not accurate for near or long-term scales, while the expected frequency of such events is strongly influenced by solar cycle activity. In the development of NASA's operational strategies real-time estimation of exposure to SPEs has been considered so that adequate responses can be applied in a timely manner to reduce exposures to well below the exposure limits. Previously, the organ doses of large historical SPEs had been calculated by using the complete energy spectra of each event and then developing a prediction model for blood-forming organ (BFO) dose based solely on an assumed value of integrated fluence above 30 MeV (Φ30) for an otherwise unspecified future SPE. While BFO dose is determined primarily by solar protons with high energies, it was reasoned that more accurate BFO dose prediction models could be developed using integrated fluence above 60 MeV (Φ60) and above 100 MeV (Φ100) as predictors instead of Φ30. In the current study, re-analysis of major SPEs (in which the proton spectra of the ground level enhancement [GLE] events since 1956 are correctly described by Band functions) has been used in evaluation of exposure levels. More accurate prediction models for BFO dose and NASA effective dose are then developed using integrated fluence above 200 MeV (Φ200), which by far have the most weight in the calculation of doses for deep-seated organs from exposure to extreme SPEs (GLEs or sub-GLEs). The unconditional probability of a BFO dose exceeding a pre-specified BFO dose limit is simultaneously calculated by taking into account the distribution of the predictor (Φ30, Φ60, Φ100, or Φ200) as estimated from historical SPEs. These results can be applied to the development of

  1. Chemical speciation, human health risk assessment and pollution level of selected heavy metals in urban street dust of Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Tazarvi, Zahra; Rajabzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Najmeddin, Ali

    2015-10-01

    The distribution, pollution level, sources and health risk of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn in urban street dust were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis of dust samples shows that the mineralogy of airborne dusts is dominated by calcite, dolomite and quartz. The total concentration of trace elements across the sampling sites ranged from 36.8 to 234.3 mg kg-1 for Pb, 0.004-4.504 mg kg-1 for Hg, 160.9-778.3 mg kg-1 for Zn, 245-652 mg kg-1 for Mn, 39.4-117.9 mg kg-1 for Ni, 31.6-105.9 mg kg-1 for Cr, 49.8-232.5 mg kg-1 for Cu, 5.3-8.6 mg kg-1 for As, 0.31-0.85 mg kg-1 for Cd, 0.76-9.45 mg kg-1 for Sb, and 16,300-24,900 mg kg-1 for Fe. The enrichment factor results reveal the following order: Cu > Hg > Sb > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > As > Mn > Cd > Fe. Among the measured elements, the highest mobility factor belongs to Pb (79.2%), Hg (74.6%), Zn (64.1%) and Mn (56.4%). According to the calculated Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI), special attention should be paid to Hg, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the street dusts of Shiraz. Multivariate statistics indicate that traffic, natural soil particles and industrial activities are likely to be the main sources of heavy metals in Shiraz street dusts.

  2. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  3. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  4. Is Exposure to Low Radiation Levels Good For You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroyannis, Dimitri

    1996-05-01

    Little is known about the biological effects of very low levels of ionizing radiation. We propose an experiment to compare cell response to such low radiation levels, using fast replicating yeast cells. Saccharomyces Cerevisae (SC), a type of yeast, is an eukariotic unicellular microorganism with a mean cell generation time of 90 min. Its genetic organization is similar to that of superior organisms, but at the same time is very easy to handle, with special reference to its genetic analysis. Certain CS strains are widely employed for mutagenesis studies. We propose to expose simultaneously three indentical CS cultures for a period of up to a few weeks (100s of cell generations): to natural backgroung (NB) ionizing radiation (at a ground level lab), to sub-NB level (underground) and to supra-NB level (at a high altitude). At the end of the exposure we will chemically challenge the cultured cells with methyl-methane-sulphonate (MMS), a standard chemical mutagen. Mitotic recombination frequency in the MMS exposed cultures is an index of early DNA damage induction at high survival levels (ie at very low radiation levels). This experiment can be handsomely and inexpensively accomodated in one of the existing underground laboratories.

  5. Respiratory symptoms and cross-shift lung function in relation to cotton dust and endotoxin exposure in textile workers in Nepal: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Semple, SEAN; Gairhe, Santosh; Steiner, Markus F C; Niven, Rob; Jon G. Ayres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Inhalation of a cotton-based particulates has previously been associated with respiratory symptoms and impaired lung function. This study investigates the respiratory health of Nepalese textile workers in relation to dust and endotoxin exposure. Methods: A total of 938 individuals from four sectors (garment, carpet, weaving and recycling) of the textile industry in Kathmandu, Nepal completed a health questionnaire and performed spirometry. A subset (n=384) performed cross-shift sp...

  6. Lung dust analysis in the assessment of past exposure of man-made mineral fibre workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C; Case, B W; Enterline, P E; Henderson, V; McDonald, A D; Plourde, M; Sébastien, P

    1990-10-01

    In the cohort of American MMMF workers reported by ENTERLINE et al. [Ann. occup. Hyg. 31, 625-656 (1987)] autopsies were recorded in 652 (13.5%) of 4840 deaths. Lung tissue samples were sought from all pathologists and obtained in 145 (22.2%), together with similar samples from 124 matched referents. Lung fibre counts by phase contrast microscopy were 60% higher (P less than 0.05) in workers than referents. Electron microscopy (ATEM) also showed more fibres of all kinds--MMMF, asbestos and other--but no convincing excess of any one type. Lung samples of only 26% of workers contained any MMMF, almost all siliceous in nature and in low concentration. There were too few cases of lung cancer (19) for any useful conclusion; however, in the plant with the highest lung cancer SMR (200), and a probable mesothelioma, amosite at greater than 1.0 fibres per micrograms (f micrograms-1) was found in four of six workers but in none of their matched referents. Although our findings contribute little to the interpretation of the results obtained by ENTERLINE et al. they indicate the potential value of tissue analyses in monitoring epidemiological studies of MMMF exposure.

  7. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  8. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  9. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  10. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  11. Thalamic GABA levels and occupational manganese neurotoxicity: Association with exposure levels and brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoyun E; Ward, Eric J; Yeh, Chien-Lin; Snyder, Sandy; Long, Zaiyang; Gokalp Yavuz, Fulya; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Dydak, Ulrike

    2017-09-02

    Excessive occupational exposure to Manganese (Mn) has been associated with clinical symptoms resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), impairing cognitive and motor functions. Several studies point towards an involvement of the brain neurotransmitter system in Mn intoxication, which is hypothesized to be disturbed prior to onset of symptoms. Edited Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) offers the unique possibility to measure γ-amminobutyric acid (GABA) and other neurometabolites in vivo non-invasively in workers exposed to Mn. In addition, the property of Mn as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent may be used to study Mn deposition in the human brain. In this study, using MRI, MRS, personal air sampling at the working place, work history questionnaires, and neurological assessment (UPDRS-III), the effects of chronic Mn exposure on the thalamic GABAergic system was studied in a group of welders (N=39) with exposure to Mn fumes in a typical occupational setting. Two subgroups of welders with different exposure levels (Low: N=26; mean air Mn=0.13±0.1mg/m(3); High: N=13; mean air Mn=0.23±0.18mg/m(3)), as well as unexposed control workers (N=22, mean air Mn=0.002±0.001mg/m(3)) were recruited. The group of welders with higher exposure showed a significant increase of thalamic GABA levels by 45% (p<0.01, F(1,33)=9.55), as well as significantly worse performance in general motor function (p<0.01, F(1,33)=11.35). However, welders with lower exposure did not differ from the controls in GABA levels or motor performance. Further, in welders the thalamic GABA levels were best predicted by past-12-months exposure levels and were influenced by the Mn deposition in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Importantly, both thalamic GABA levels and motor function displayed a non-linear pattern of response to Mn exposure, suggesting a threshold effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs in Indoor Air: Levels and Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hazrati

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PBDE levels in 26 different indoor microenvironments including 13 homes, 12 offices and a private car were investigated. A mean indoor air concentration of 143.8 pg/m3 was determined with the offices being more contaminated than residential homes. The most abundant congener was identified to be BDE 47 followed by #s 99, 100, and 28, respectively. ΣPBDE concentrations in indoor air were on average ~ 7 times higher than HiVol derived outdoor air levels providing a significant source of these compounds to outdoor ambient air. The average daily human inhalation exposure to PBDEs was estimated to be 4.3 ng/person with a maximum intake value of 21.8 ng/person.

  13. Concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house hold dust from various countries. Inhalation a potential route of human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedin, A. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); McGahee III, E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA (US)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are congeners of a class of environmental contaminants that have been present in the environment for decades. PBDEs were first identified in the River Viskan in Sweden and have since then been recognized as an environmental contaminant with a global distribution as shown by the detection of this compound class in aquatic and terrestrial environments in Europe and North America. However, PBDEs will still be present in consumer products sold prior to the phase out of pentaBDE and octaBDE for decades to come. Hence it is of utmost importance to identify the exposure routes to humans especially in the Unites States where much higher levels of PBDEs have been observed in people. An average level of 34 ng/g lipid has been observed in human serum pools collected in 2002 and values in the range of 2.9-272 ng lipid (average 41ng/g lipid) have been observed in human milk. This can be contrasted to levels observed in Swedish milk pools (2.3 ng/g lipid) collected in 1997. Human exposure to persistent chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls has traditionally been considered to be mainly through food consumption. Other direct exposure routes such as inhalation and/or dermal exposure are only of quantitatively more importance in the case of occupational exposures. However, this may or may not be true for PBDEs which are still being used in the modern indoor environment. This is further supported by the relatively low concentrations recently reported in foodstuffs sampled in the United States.

  14. Tributyltin exposure alters cytokine levels in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shanieek; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Whalen, Margaret M

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a toxic environmental contaminant, has been widely utilized for various industrial, agricultural and household purposes. Its usage has led to a global contamination and its bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and terrestrial mammals. Previous studies suggest that TBT has debilitating effects on the overall immune function of animals, rendering them more vulnerable to diseases. TBT (at concentrations that have been detected in human blood) alters secretion of inflammatory cytokines from human lymphocytes ex vivo. Thus, it is important to determine if specified levels of TBT can alter levels of cytokines in an in vivo system. Mice were exposed to biologically relevant concentrations of TBT (200, 100 or 25 nM final concentrations). The quantitative determination of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL2, IL5, IL7, IL12βp40, IL13, IL15, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP), MIP2 and regulated on activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted (RANTES) was performed in mouse sera by MAGPIX analysis and Western blot. Results indicated alterations (both decreases and increases) in several cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-2, IL5, IL12βp40 and IL-15 were altered as were the chemokines MIP-1 and RANTES and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. Increases in IFNγ and TNFα were seen in the serum of mice exposed to TBT for less than 24 h. Levels of IL1β, IL-12 βp40, IL-5 and IL-15 were also modulated in mouse serum, depending on the specific experiment and exposure level. IL-2 was consistently decreased in mouse serum when animals were exposed to TBT. There were also TBT-induced increases in MIP-1β, RANTES and IL-13. These results from human and murine samples clearly suggest that TBT exposures modulate the secretion inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2008-01-01

    A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.

  16. Cancer mortality and wood dust exposure among participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, S D; Demers, P A; Colin, D; Boffetta, P

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified wood duct as a human carcinogen, based on very strong evidence of a carcinogenic risk of sino-nasal cancer. Excesses of other cancers, including lung and stomach, have been reported among persons employed in wood industries or occupationally exposed to wood dust, but not as consistently. We investigated such possible associations using the mortality experience of 362,823 men enrolled in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982 and followed up for 6 years. Within this group, 45,399 men (12.5%) reported either employment in a wood-related occupation or exposure to wood dust or both. Among woodworkers, a small but significant excess risk was found for all cases of death (RR 1.17 (95% CI 1.11-1.24)) and for total malignancies (RR 1.17 (1.05-1.30)). Among men who reported exposure to wood dust, there was an elevated risk of total mortality (Rr 1.07 (1.03-1.11)), total malignancies (RR 1.08 (1.01-1.15)), and lung cancer (RR 1.17 (1.04-1.31)). Among woodworkers, a significant trend (P = 0.02) of increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing duration of exposure was observed. An unexpected, significantly increased mortality from prostate cancer was observed in both wood-employed and wood-exposed, and a twofold increased risk of fatal brain cancer was seen among the former. Lung cancer mortality was especially high among woodworkers who also reported exposure to asbestos or formaldehyde, and it appears that exposure to these known carcinogens may partly explain the observed increased risks. Excess sino-nasal cancer was not observed, but the number of cases was small.

  17. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  18. Engineering gravimetric monitoring methods to cope with excessively high dust levels-2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Belle, BK

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available point of view, it is a well-observed phenomenon that some of the respirable dust 14 particles deposit on the inner walls of cyclones. This observed behaviour is unavoidable and persisted during most of the sampling done underground. It can therefore... in the aerosol concentrations. 18 Figure 4: Layout of the test section 5 Data analysis Typically, the inaccuracy maps and penetration curves for the cyclones used in the samplers are available from the instrument manufacturer or at laboratories...

  19. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in roadside dusts of Thessaloniki, Greece in relation to motor vehicle traffic density and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Caroline; Anagnostopoulou, Maria A; Ward, Neil I

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, the level of heavy metal pollution in urban areas has been of considerable concern. The principal source has been attributed to the motor vehicle and increasing inner city congestion, which has lead to a change and enlargement of transport stop-start zones. These areas of high traffic density are associated with an increased release of heavy metals into the adjacent residential or commercial areas. Seventy-five roadside dust samples were collected throughout the inner city and by-pass motorway areas of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Samples were taken from arterial, major and minor roads, as well as the ring road, to compare and contrast the levels of heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn and Pb. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) was developed to quantitatively determine concentrations of both total element and geochemical fractionation, within the two dust particulate fraction sizes congestion/stop-start traffic patterns did influence and have led to increased levels of heavy metal deposition along inner city roads compared to levels observed on the new relief ring road. Dust particulate fraction sizes were only found to show statistically significant differences in cadmium and manganese, at the probability P 0.05 or 95% confidence limit. Road type was seen to have little affect on cadmium and manganese, though lead, copper and zinc were all found to show higher levels on the inner city routes. This can be related back to the wear-and-tear of vehicle components as a result of the stop-start traffic patterns (brake pads etc). Both Pb and Zn have shown to be in chemical forms that are bio available to ecosystems.

  20. Factors affecting the level and pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at Gosan, Korea during a dust period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100, Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ghim, Young Sung, E-mail: ysghim@hufs.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Wangsan-ri, Mohyeon-myeon, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, BK21 Team for Biohydrogen Production, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young [Center for Environmental Technology Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Pyo [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected air samples at a remote site during an Asian dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed levels, patterns, and gas/particle partitioning of PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particulate PAHs were highly correlated with PM{sub 2.5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fraction of particulate PAHs increased during the dust period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine particles might be an important carrier of PAHs emitted from China. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both gas and total suspended particles were measured at Gosan, Jeju Island in Korea, a remote background site, for 15 days (March 29-April 12, 2002). During the sampling period, a severe three-day Asian dust (AD) event originating from Mongolia and northern China was observed throughout the Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island. In addition, pollution (PO) and normal (NO) periods were also identified based on the levels of anthropogenic pollutants. Despite a large difference of PM{sub 10} concentrations between the AD and PO periods, the levels of particulate PAHs in both periods were comparable (2.7 {+-} 1.0 and 2.4 {+-} 0.5 ng m{sup -3}, respectively) since they were determined by the concentration of anthropogenic PM{sub 2.5} transported from industrial areas of China. In the AD period, the level of gaseous PAHs, which were mostly from local sources, was the lowest due to strong winds; the gas/particle partitioning was close to equilibrium as the effect of long-range transport was manifested. The results of backward air trajectories, correlation analysis, and diagnostic ratios show that long-range transport of particulate PAHs produced by coal/biomass burning in China could strongly affect the levels and patterns of PAHs at Gosan, Korea.

  1. Galvanizing industry: evaluation of exposure levels using biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Sabino, Claudia de V.S.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mattos, Silvania V. de M. [FUNED, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Bromatologia e Toxicologia; S. Filho, Serafim [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Saude do Trabalhador; Maia, Elene Cristina P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    In Brazil, statistical surveys concerning occupational diseases refer to accidents and damages. The surveys do not refer to the occupational diseases developed through long exposures to hazardous work conditions, involving physical risk and toxic chemical substances. The Program of Medical Control of Occupational Health determines the Maximum Biological Levels Allowed and the Values of Normality References. But concerning metal and toxic inorganic, values of only few elements are established. In Belo Horizonte and surroundings areas, which is an important industrial centre in the country, there are different industries distributed over various areas. There are about 80 galvanizing industries which are responsible for the majority of the metal contamination hospitalities. A preliminary sampling was performed in order to conduct a survey of the exposures to elements related to occupational diseases in galvanizing industry. The preliminary results for toxic and non-toxic elements obtained using hair and fingernails as biomonitors are shown. The K{sub 0} parametric neutron activation analysis method was applied and the elements determined were: Ag, Al, Au, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Ti, V, Ta, and Zn. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: menezes at urano.cdtn.br

  2. African dust influence on ambient PM levels in South-Western Europe (Spain and Portugal): A quantitative approach to support implementation of Air Quality Directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Pey, J; Perez, N; Escudero, M; Castillo, S; Alonso-Perez, S [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC. Barcelona (Spain); Cristobal, A; Pallares, M; Gonzalez, A; Jimenez, S; Alonso, N [D.G. Calidad y Evaluacion Ambiental, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (Spain); Cuevas, E [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Agencia Estatal de MeteorologIa, Tenerife (Spain); Rosa, J de la [Universidad de Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: xavier.querol@ija.csic.es

    2009-03-01

    This manuscript proposes and validates a methodology for the quantification of the daily African PM load during dust outbreaks in southern Europe. The daily net dust load in PM10 attributable to an African episode can be obtained by subtracting the daily regional background (RB) level from the PM{sub 10} concentration value at a RB station. The daily RB level can be obtained by applying a monthly moving 30th percentile to the PM{sub 10} time series at a RB station after a prior extraction of the data coincident with African dust transport. For days with influence of African dust, the dust load is given by the difference between the daily PM{sub 10} values minus the daily PM{sub 10} RB levels. This method allows us to quantify the net African dust load without chemical speciation. The comparison between the estimated net load during African dust outbreaks (ADO) and the crustal load determined by chemical speciation of PM{sub 10} filters at three RB stations in Spain had resulted in a very good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.60-0.83), being the equivalence (correlation lines' slopes {approx} 1) highly significant in the three cases.

  3. Epidemic Spreading in Contact Networks Based on Exposure Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wen-Qi; CHEN Zhong; LIU Zeng-Rong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Most epidemic models for the spread of diseases in contact networks take the assumption of the infected probability of a susceptible agent dependent on its absolute number of infectious neighbours. We introduce a new epidemic model in which the infected probability of a susceptible agent in contact networks depends not on its degree but on its exposure level. We find that effective average infection rate (λ) (i.e., the average number of infections produced by a single contact between infected individuals and susceptible individuals) has an epidemic threshold (λ)c = 1, which is related to recovery rate, epidemic mechanisms and topology of contact network. Furthermore,we show the dominating importance of epidemic mechanisms in determining epidemic patterns and discussed the implications of our model for infection control policy.

  4. Characterization of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor dust of e-waste workshops: implication for on-site human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Yangcheng; Wang, Junxia; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Jinfu; Pan, Bishu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-04-01

    Forty-four indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected from e-waste workshops and were analyzed to characterize the heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) as well as on-site human exposure. The results showed that the most abundant Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) congener from three sites was deca-BDE, and it was penta-BDE for the other site. A significant and positive association was found between BDE-209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). The high percentage of nona-BDE indicated the debromination of deca-BDE during e-waste recycling. The ratio comparison of BDE-47 to (BDE-100 + BDE-99) indicated that the outdoor dust went through more physiochemical processes. The enrichment factors for Cu and Pb were high in both the indoor and outdoor samples. Cd significantly exceeded the Chinese soil guideline grade III. The PCA results combined with the enrichment factor (EF) values suggested common sources and behaviours of Cu, Pb and Sb in the indoor dust. Co, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn in the outdoor samples were more likely affected by crust. Strong correlations were found only for Pb and Sb with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The hazard index for on-site human exposure to Pb was at a chronic risk. Despite the low deleterious risk of BFRs, concern should be given to DBDPE; the chronic toxicity of which is not known.

  5. Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences--source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Jun; Yamasaki, Kumiko; Yonemura, Ayumi; Ishibashi, Yuri; Kaido, Takaya; Mizuno, Kodai; Takagi, Mai; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    The levels of 25 elements in house dust collected from 100 general Japanese residences were measured. Factor analysis was applied on the multi-element data to explore source of Pb (median concentration 49.1 mg/kg) in house dust. Six factors were extracted and Pb was found to have great loading on the fifth factor with Sb and Sn, suggesting solder (Sn), and plastic and metals (Sb) may be the sources of Pb in the house dust of Japanese residences. No significant loading was found on soil-related factors indicating non-significant contribution of Pb in track-in soil. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn) were found in house dust at >10 times more condensed than crustal abundance. Health risk of these elements to children via the ingestion of house dust was estimated based on the comparison with tolerable daily intake and found to be non-significant for most of the elements.

  6. On the assessment of shooting sounds : Loudness-level weightings versus A- and C-weighted sound exposure levels (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Geurtsen, F.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative to the A-weighted sound exposure level (ASEL) Schomer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2390-2397 (2001)] used the equal-loudness level contours as a dynamic filter to determine the loudness-level-weighted sound exposure level (LLSEL). From their analyses they concluded that the LLS

  7. Coal mine dust as a benchmark for standards for other poorly soluble dusts. Partial Position Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.A.; Soutar, C.A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    An extensive programme of research provides the legacy of an atypically comprehensive database on the respiratory health and exposure experienced by thousands of coalminers, collected at intervals during their working life. The development of generic standards for poorly soluble dusts would be greatly aided if health risks quantified for coal dust were a good surrogate for those of other low toxicity dusts. The authors compared the published effects of low toxicity mineral dust exposures on lung function (FEV1) in four occupational groups (talc workers, coal miners, PVC workers and heavy clay workers), with some additional investigation of respiratory symptoms, standardising units and refitting comparable regression models where necessary. Coalminers and talc workers had similar exposure levels on average. PVC workers had lower average exposure levels, but this may have been due, at least in part, to an underestimation of cumulative dust exposure in this population. Coalminers showed a decline of 0.19 standardised units of FEV1 for each 100 units increase in dust exposure, 0.26 standardised units in talc workers and 0.66 units in PVC workers. Relative risks of reporting symptoms were very similar for coalminers and heavy clay workers, but could not be calculated for talc or PVC workers. Allowing for possible underestimation of the PVC exposures, these risks of respiratory ill health were clearly of the same orders of magnitude in the occupations studied. Further more detailed cross- sectional or longitudinal analyses on the coalminers' data sets are thus likely to be informative about risks of dusty exposures in other industries. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Neutralization of TSLP inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma induced by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang-Gui Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. However, the initiating factor that links airway inflammation to remodeling is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelium-derived cytokine, can strongly activate lung dendritic cells (DCs through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathways to promote Th2 differentiation. To determine whether TSLP is the underlying trigger of airway remodeling in chronic allergen-induced asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extracts for up to 5 consecutive weeks. We showed that repeated respiratory exposure to HDM caused significant airway eosinophilic inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine. These effects were accompanied with a salient Th2 response that was characterized by the upregulation of Th2-typed cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, as well as the transcription factor GATA-3. Moreover, the levels of TSLP and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 were also increased in the airway. We further demonstrated, using the chronic HDM-induced asthma model, that the inhibition of Th2 responses via neutralization of TSLP with an anti-TSLP mAb reversed airway inflammation, prevented structural alterations, and decreased AHR to methacholine and TGF-β1 level. These results suggest that TSLP plays a pivotal role in the initiation and persistence of airway inflammation and remodeling in the context of chronic allergic asthma.

  9. Increased ventilation rate as way to reduce the exposure to house dust mites and improve the health of asthmatic children - an intervention design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    International field studies have documented that indoor air quality is unsatisfactory in many buildings. The overall hypothesis of this project is that improving the indoor environment in dwellings can improve health and reduce suffering from indoor related diseases such as allergy and asthma...... that have shown a marked increase in incidence all around the world during last decades. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of increased ventilation and expected lower exposure to house dust mites on symptoms and medication intake among asthmatic children. This will be done by installing...... for the intervention are children with verified asthma and allergy to house dust mites. Children will be exposed to titration of medication prior to the study and randomly distributed to groups with fake or controlled ventilation system. The intervention will last for nine months in each house and will be blinded...

  10. Correlation of in vivo relative bioavailability to in vitro bioaccessibility for arsenic in household dust from China and its implication for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-12-01

    Incidental ingestion of household dust is an important arsenic (As) exposure pathway for children. However, compared to soils, assessment of As relative bioavailability (RBA) in household dust is limited. In this study, As-RBA in 12 household dust samples (7–38 mg kg(–1)) was measured using an in vivo mouse model and compared to As bioaccessibility determined using 4 assays [Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium method (SBRC), in vitro gastrointestinal method (IVG), Deutsches Institut für Normunge.V. method (DIN), and physiologically based extraction test (PBET)]. Arsenic RBA ranged from 21.8 ± 1.6 to 85.6 ± 7.2% with samples containing low Fe and high total organic carbon content having higher As-RBA. Strong in vivo–in vitro correlations (IVIVC) were found between As-RBA and As bioaccessibility for SBRC and DIN (r2 = 0.63–0.85), but weaker ones were obtained for IVG and PBET (r2 = 0.29–0.55). The developed IVIVC for SBRC and DIN were used to calculate As-RBA based on As bioaccessibility for an additional 12 household dust samples. Although As bioaccessibility differed significantly (up to 7.7-fold) based on in vitro methods, predicted As-RBA was less variable (up to 3.0-fold) when calculated using As bioaccessibility data and the corresponding IVIVC. Our data suggested that both SBRC and DIN had potential to assess As bioavailability in household dust samples; however, additional research is needed.

  11. House dust mite allergen level and allergen sensitization as risk factors for asthma among student in Central Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study is a community-based study to get an overview about House Dust Mite (HDM) allergen level, allergen sensitization as risk factors of asthma. This is a cross-sectional study on 3,840 students from 19 junior high schools, aged 13-14 years. All of the respondents filled out the International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire. Of 3840 respondents, 288 (7.5%) were assigned to asthma group (experience wheezing during the last 12 months). The skin prick test was...

  12. Rhizobacterial glutathione levels as affected by starvation and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, M

    1998-11-01

    The rhizosphere is a continuously fluctuating environment in which severe stresses are put on its inhabitants, and glutathione, a reducing tripeptide, and related compounds probably have important roles in cellular protection. In the present study the metabolism of glutathione was examined in rhizobacteria subjected to stress. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 5.014 and its mutant 5-2/4 were exposed to starvation, either by resuspension or exhaustion, and to cadmium. Glutathione levels, cell protein, and viable count were determined and compared in different conditions. Both starvation and cadmium exposure decreased the amount of glutathione in the cell. No changes of the glutathione concentration in the medium were observed with or without the presence of rhizobacteria, indicating that there was no transport over the cell membrane. The glutathione levels within the rhizobacteria may give valuable information on how different stresses affect the bacteria. In this study, the involvement of glutathione in the increased stress resistance earlier observed in nutrient-starved P. fluorescens was not supported. The concentration of bacterial glutathione is suggested as a possible marker for rhizosphere competence, which, however, needs to be further evaluated with several strains of rhizobacteria.

  13. Impact of overland traffic on heavy metal levels in highway dust and soils of Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Onay, Turgut T; Copty, Nadim K

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of overland traffic on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in urban soils (Istanbul, Turkey). Road dust, surface, and subsurface soil samples were collected from a total of 41 locations along highways with dense traffic and secondary roads with lower traffic and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations. Statistical evaluation of the heavy metal concentrations observed along highways and along the secondary roads showed that the data were bimodally distributed. The maximum observed Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations were 1,573, 522 and 136 mg/kg, respectively, in surface soils along highways and 99.3, 156, and 38.1 mg/kg along secondary roads. Correlation analysis of the metal concentrations in road dust, surface and 20-cm depth soils suggests the presence of a common pollution source. However, metal concentrations in the deeper soils were substantially lower than those observed at the surface, indicating low mobility of heavy metals, especially for Pb and Zn. A modified kriging approach that honors the bimodality of the data was used to estimate the spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of metals, and to identify hotspots. Results indicate that despite the presence of some industrial zones within the study area, traffic is the main heavy metal pollution source.

  14. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, R.A., E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Sepulveda, R. [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Kunzendorf, P., E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Ernst, H., E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Creutzenberg, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Phillips, J.I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg South Africa and Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  15. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Seryak, Liesel M; Brody, Julia G

    2008-01-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  16. Experiences from Occupational Exposure Limits Set on Aerosols Containing Allergenic Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Larsen, Søren T; Hansen, Jitka S.; Lars K Poulsen

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) together with determined airborne exposures are used in risk assessment based managements of occupational exposures to prevent occupational diseases. In most countries, OELs have only been set for few protein-containing aerosols causing IgE-mediated allergies. They comprise aerosols of flour dust, grain dust, wood dust, natural rubber latex, and the subtilisins, which are proteolytic enzymes. These aerosols show dose-dependent effects and levels have been e...

  17. New insight into the levels, distribution and health risk diagnosis of indoor and outdoor dust-bound FRs in colder, rural and industrial zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ Pakistan.

  18. [The analyses on dust pollution of one underground iron mine from 1991 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Hou-qin; Xu, Yao-meng; Ji, Xiao-ming; Hou, Zhi-guo; Wang, Sha-sha; Yu, Guo-hua; Ye, Hai-bin; Chen, En-ming; Wang, Mei-lin; Ni, Chun-hui

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this work was to give the evidence of reasonable and feasible dust control measures which will be taken in the future by analyzing the trend of dust concentration from 1991 to 2010 and identifying working faces with the severe dust contamination in one underground iron mine. The data was from routine monitoring between the years 1991 and 2010, which enclosed the total dust concentrations and silica contents. China National Standard of Occupational exposure limits for hazardous agents in the workplace used to judge whether the dust concentration exceeded the National Standard. The general trend of total dust concentration from 1991 to 2010 was decreased, especially maximum and average levels. The highest exceeding rate was 43.16% in 1993 and the best years were 2009 and 2010, but the exceeding rates were still over 30%. The dust exposure levels varied with different work faces. The mining and supporting were the most severe dust pollution faces which the highest ultra exceeding rates were 51.61% and 51.48% and the maximum exceeding times were 64.6 and 16.4 respectively. The next was constructing face with 40.23% exceeding rate and 24.6 times more than standard. The trend of total dust concentration from 1991 to 2010 was decreased, but the dust exceeding rate was still high. The strong measures should be taken to control the dust pollution in this iron mine, especially mining and supporting faces.

  19. Respirable silica dust exposure amongst foundry workers in Gauteng, South Africa: A task-based risk assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, NN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Centre for Mining Innovation’s Laboratory SANAS accreditation (ISO 17025) for both x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis methods. The overall TWA mean and median respirable silica dust concentration was 0.184 mg/m³ and 0.167 mg...

  20. Novel approach for suppressing cutting dust using foam on a fully mechanized face with hard parting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hetang; Wang, Deming; Wang, Qingguo; Jia, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The cutting dust created by the shearer drum is the main source of dust on a fully mechanized coal face. However, overexposure to respirable dust may cause pneumoconiosis in coal workers, while coal dust may lead to serious explosions. The fully mechanized face known as II1051 Face, found at the Zhuxianzhuang Coal Mine located in east China, generates dust by way of the drum on a high-power shear. The coal seam involves hard rock parting so there is a high concentration of cutting dust when the shearer is working. Thus, we developed a new foam dust suppression method with an air self-suction system based on an analysis of the dust generation characteristics that suppressed the shearer cutting dust level. The new foam system was evaluated in a field test where the dust concentration was measured at two points. The results showed that the foam reduced the cutting dust concentration significantly. The respirable dust exposure levels were reduced from 378.4 mg/m(3)to 53.5 mg/m(3)and the visibility was enhanced dramatically. Thus, we conclude that our new foam system is highly efficient at capturing cutting dust, and it has a much lower water consumption. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: Contact angle of cutting dust sample, migration trajectory of cutting dust, technological process for suppressing shearer cutting dust using foam, the layout of the foam dust suppression system on coal face, real object of the air self-suction type foam generator, the special foam nozzle used for shearers, relevant experimental results of the air self-suction foam system.].

  1. Profiles of noise exposure levels in South African mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available of personal noise exposure that could be accessed from the public domain and by the industry stakeholders be a priority. The inclusion of audiometric results in such a database would improve the prevention of NIHL and enable the monitoring of progress... in sand and gravel operators. /Mining Engineering/. 2008 Mar:50-57. 7. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) /Federal Register, 1999, ?Health Standards for Occupational Noise Exposure: Final Rule?/. Department of Labor, 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57...

  2. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2014-01-01

    -term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal...... and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00h, the following day at awakening, and 30min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level...... observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure...

  3. Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

    2005-10-01

    Ceiling or attic dusts provide an indirect measure of air pollution integrated over varying time periods. We undertook an investigation into the particle-size distributions and sources and exposure pathways of metals in ceiling dusts from 38 houses in the city of Sydney, Australia. The houses ranged in age from 4 to 106 years and were grouped into three settings: industrial, semi-industrial, and non-industrial. The main roof types were terracotta tile (n=23), cement tile (n=8), and corrugated iron (n=4), with two slate and one asbestos. Soils and rocks from the Sydney area were also analyzed to provide "background" values and allow the estimation of enrichment factors. The bulk of the dusts contained particles derived from soil of crustal origin and organic plant material, with an anthropogenic component estimated at up to 25%. Particle sizes from selected dust samples showed a bimodal distribution, and the volumes of fine dusts were 50% terracotta tile, cement, and iron, median regression analyses showed that there were no significant effects with respect to age. Median regression analyses for terracotta tile, cement tile, and corrugated iron roofs showed a "roof" effect for Cu and V. Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas.

  4. The discrepancy between maximum in vitro exposure levels and realistic conservative exposure levels of mobile phones operating at 900/1800 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gernot; Kuster, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare realistic maximum electromagnetic exposure of human tissues generated by mobile phones with electromagnetic exposures applied during in vitro experiments to assess potentially adverse effects of electromagnetic exposure in the radiofrequency range. We reviewed 80 in vitro studies published between 2002 and present that concern possible adverse effects of exposure to mobile phones operating in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands. We found that the highest exposure level averaged over the cell medium that includes evaluated cells (monolayer or suspension) used in 51 of the 80 studies corresponds to 2 W/kg or less, a level below the limit defined for the general public. That does not take into account any exposure non-uniformity. For comparison, we estimated, by numerical means using dipoles and a commercial mobile phone model, the maximum conservative exposure of superficial tissues from sources operated in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands. The analysis demonstrated that exposure of skin, blood, and muscle tissues may well exceed 40 W/kg at the cell level. Consequently, in vitro studies reporting minimal or no effects in response to maximum exposure of 2 W/kg or less averaged over the cell media, which includes the cells, may be of only limited value for analyzing risk from realistic mobile phone exposure. We, therefore, recommend future in vitro experiments use specific absorption rate levels that reflect maximum exposures and that additional temperature control groups be included to account for sample heating.

  5. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry: A baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurssen, E. van; Pronk, A.; Spaan, S.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Meijster, T.

    2014-01-01

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. Tis article describes a baseline exposure study that

  6. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry : A baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deurssen, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka; Spaan, Suzanne; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Meijster, Tim

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. Tis article describes a baseline exposure study that

  7. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry: A baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurssen, E. van; Pronk, A.; Spaan, S.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.; Meijster, T.

    2014-01-01

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. Tis article describes a baseline exposure study that

  8. Health effects of wood dust--relevance for an occupational standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, L W

    1982-09-01

    Wood dust is coming under increasing scrutiny as an industrial exposure posing greater risk than that of a nuisance dust. In light of this increased interest, this paper will review key reports of wood dust-related health effects, and will summarize the available information which relates exposure levels to effects. Numerous case reports exist of skin reactions and obstructive-pattern respiratory changes of either a hypersensitivity or irritant nature for various woods. Reports have also been published of apparently non-allergic obstructive respiratory effects including lung function test reductions and reduction of mucociliary clearance. Wood dust exposure also appears to be linked to the occurrence of adenocarcinoma of the nasal sinuses. Occasional reports link wood dust to other types of cancer, but these relationships are much less consistent than the association with nasal cancer. Various standards have been proposed for wood dust. Most are lower than the nuisance dust standard currently applicable in the U.S. This review of several key papers on wood dust permits some association of exposure data and effects, particularly with suppressed mucociliary clearance, from which it may be suggested from the available evidence that a standard of 2 mg/m3 total suspended wood dust, not differentiated by type of wood, would protect against observed effects except for extreme allergic hypersensitivity.

  9. [Antinuclear antibodies as early diagnostic criteria of developing collagen disease in quartz dust exposure--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, J; Conrad, K; Frank, K H; Ziegler, H; Harzbecker, K; Ullmann, L; Lüthke, K

    1990-03-01

    One and a half years antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) against Scl-70 and U1-RNP were found in the serum of a quartz dust exposed worker before the clinical manifestation of the progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Only a discrete lung fibrosis and an enlargement of the heart was seen at the time of the first autoantibody detection. Because workers with an intensive and long-lasting quartz dust exposition take a high risk to develop PSS a sensitive ANA-screening is indicated at minimum suspicion of chronic collagen disease. The detection of a high ANA-titer in a clinical healthy person may give a hint for the possible future development of such a disease and requires the observation of the clinical course and the paraclinical and immunological parameters. A lung fibrosis and/or an enlargement of the heart in X-ray photographs would indicate visceral early manifestations of the PSS before skin symptoms appear.

  10. Effects of a brief low-level exposure to the particulate fraction of diesel exhaust on pulmonary function of conscious sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, W.M. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL); Kim, C.S.; Januszkiewicz, A.J.; Welker, M.; Mingle, M.A.; Schreck, R.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of an acute low-level exposure to diesel exhaust particulate material on pulmonary function in conscious sheep. This was accomplished by measuring pulmonary mechanics, airway reactivity to increasing doses of aerosolized carbachol, and tracheal mucous velocity both prior to and immediately after exposure to the diesel exhaust particulates. The diesel exhaust particulate material was aerosolized by a fluidized-bed dust generator. The mass concentration of the dust ranged between 400 to 500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ and a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2.8 ..mu..m. The sheep breathed the diesel exhaust particulates for 30 min by means of a Plexiglas helmet. The particulates caused no material alteration in pulmonary resistance, airway reactivity to aerosolized carbachol, or static lung compliance when compared to pre-exposure values. Tracheal mucous velocity was likewise unaffected. In conscious sheep under the present exposure conditions, the diesel exhaust material administered as a respirable aerosol does not materially affect the function of the large airways, the elastic properties of the lung, nor tracheal mucous transport.

  11. Health risk assessment of exposure to the Middle-Eastern Dust storms in the Iranian megacity of Kermanshah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, G; Daryanoosh, S M; Godini, H; Hopke, P K; Sicard, P; De Marco, A; Rad, H D; Harbizadeh, A; Jahedi, F; Mohammadi, M J; Savari, J; Sadeghi, S; Kaabi, Z; Omidi Khaniabadi, Y

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the effects of particulate matter (PM), equal or less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), from the Middle-Eastern Dust events on public health in the megacity of Kermanshah (Iran). This study used epidemiological modeling and monitored ambient air quality data to estimate the potential PM10 impacts on public health. The AirQ2.2.3 model was used to calculate mortality and morbidity attributed to PM10 as representative of dust events. Using Visual Basic for Applications, the programming language of Excel software, hourly PM10 concentrations obtained from the local agency were processed to prepare input files for the AirQ2.2.3 model. Using baseline incidence, defined by the World Health Organization, the number of estimated excess cases for respiratory mortality, hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for respiratory diseases, and for cardiovascular diseases were 37, 39, 476, and 184 persons, respectively, from 21st March, 2014 to 20th March, 2015. Furthermore, 92% of mortality and morbidity cases occurred in days with PM10 concentrations lower than 150 μg/m(3). The highest percentage of person-days occurred for daily concentrations range of 100-109 μg/m(3), causing the maximum health end-points among the citizens of Kermanshah. Calculating the number of cumulative excess cases for mortality or morbidity attributed to PM10 provides a good tool for decision and policy-makers in the field of health care to compensate their shortcomings particularly at hospital and healthcare centers for combating dust storms. To diminish these effects, several immediate actions should be managed in the governmental scale to control dust such as spreading mulch and planting new species that are compatible to arid area. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  12. [Evaluation of long-term occupational exposure to dust and its effect on health during production of ceramic tiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielec, L; Izycki, J; Woźniak, H

    1992-01-01

    A medical examination has been carried out of 500 workers (290 men and 210 women) of a ceramic plates plant. Also, the measurements of dust concentrations were made at some standard work places . In the materials used for manufacturing the plates crystalline phases and the content of free crystalline silica were determined using the X-ray diffraction method. In the animal experiments the fibrogenic activity of all materials used in the plant was examined and compared to the fibrogenic activity of standard quartz. As a result of the medical examination 64 cases of pneumoconiosis were diagnosed (13% of the subjects). The incidence rate of pneumoconiosis was similar for men and women. The radiological changes characteristic of pneumoconiosis took approximately 24 years of the workers tenure to develop. Type q changes were most frequent (69%), types p and r were observed in 14% of workers (mostly women). In 31% of workers tuberous changes of size B were observed. In 43.8% of the subjects restrictive disorders of ventilation were found. In 30% of workers chronic bronchitis was diagnosed. Dust concentrations at 11 work places were measured using the individual dosimetry method. Total dust concentrations ranged from 0.6 mg/m3 at the electricians posts to 60.1 mg/m3 at the workposts where the furnace truck restorers worked. Dust concentrations exceeded the MACs at 7 workposts. The respirable fraction concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 8.4 mg/m3. During the replacement of asbestos ropes and asbestos board used for insulating the furnace trucks mineral fibres (0.1-0.5 fibre/cm3) were found in the air. The following crystalline phases were determined in the materials: kaolinite, illite, quartz, orthoclase and microline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Possible health risks from low level exposure to beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, A W; Hilmas, D E; Furman, F J

    1996-07-17

    The first case of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) was diagnosed in a machinist in 1984. Rocky Flats, located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex. Research and development operations using beryllium began at Rocky Flats in 1953, and beryllium production operations began in 1957. Exposures could have occurred during foundry operations, casting, shearing, rolling, cutting, welding, machining, sanding, polishing, assembly, and chemical analysis operations. The Beryllium Health Surveillance Program (BHSP) was established in June 1991 at Rocky Flats to provide health surveillance for beryllium exposed employees using the Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (LPT) to identify sensitized individuals. Of the 29 cases of CBD and 76 cases of beryllium sensitization identified since 1991, several cases appear to have had only minimal opportunistic exposures to beryllium, since they were employed in administrative functions rather than primary beryllium operations. In conjunction with other health surveillance programs, a questionnaire and interview are administered to obtain detailed work and health histories. These histories, along with other data, are utilized to estimate the extent of an individual's exposure. Additional surveillance is in progress to attempt to characterize the possible risks from intermittent or brief exposures to beryllium in the workplace.

  14. Variability of exposure and estimation of cumulative exposure in a manually operated coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuya, S.H.D.; Bratveit, M.; Mwaiselage, J.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Center for International Health

    2006-10-15

    This study aims at estimating variability in exposure to respirable dust and assessing whether the a priori grouping by job team is appropriate for an exposure-response study on respiratory effects among workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania. Furthermore, estimated exposure levels were used to calculate cumulative exposure. Full-shift personal respirable dust samples (n = 204) were collected from 141 randomly chosen workers at underground and surface work sites. The geometric mean exposure for respirable dust varied from 0.07 mg m{sup -3} for office workers to 1.96 mg m{sup -3} for the development team. The analogous range of respirable quartz exposure was 0.006-0.073 mg m{sup -3}. Variance components were estimated using random effect models. For most job teams the within-worker variance component was considerably higher than the between-worker variance component. For respirable dust the estimated attenuation of the linear exposure-response relationship was low (5.9%) when grouping by job team. Grouping by job team was considered appropriate for studying the association between current dust exposure and respiratory effects. Based on the estimated worker-specific mean exposure in the job teams, the arithmetic mean cumulative exposure for the 299 workers who participated in the epidemiological part of the study was 38.1 mg. yr m{sup -3} for respirable dust and 2.0 mg. yr m{sup -3} for quartz.

  15. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Seryak, Liesel M; Brody, Julia G

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population. PMID:18201376

  16. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  17. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  18. Dust Environment Modelling of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Jessica; Gruen, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Dust is an important constituent in cometary comae; its analysis is one of the major objectives of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (C-G). Several instruments aboard Rosetta are dedicated to studying various aspects of dust in the cometary coma, all of which require a certain level of exposure to dust to achieve their goals. At the same time, impacts of dust particles can constitute a hazard to the spacecraft. To conciliate the demands of dust collection instruments and spacecraft safety, it is desirable to assess the dust environment in the coma even before the arrival of Rosetta. We describe the present status of modelling the dust coma of 67P/C-G and predict the speed and flux of dust in the coma, the dust fluence on a spacecraft along sample trajectories, and the radiation environment in the coma. The model will need to be refined when more details of the coma are revealed by observations. An overview of astronomical observations of 67P/C-G is given and model parameters are derived...

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chen, Heng-Chun; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Huang, Li-Ru; Chien, Po-Shan; Wang, Jing-Ya

    2012-02-01

    A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (μg/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.

  20. Mapping of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in outdoor environment and comparing with reference levels for general public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz, Mustafa; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Kurt, M Bahattin; Celik, A Recai

    2016-11-02

    In this study, radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels were measured on the main streets in the city center of Diyarbakır, Turkey. Measured electric field levels were plotted on satellite imagery of Diyarbakır and were compared with exposure guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Exposure measurements were performed in dense urban, urban and suburban areas each day for 7 consecutive days. The measurement system consisted of high precision and portable spectrum analyzer, three-axis electric field antenna, connection cable and a laptop which was used to record the measurement samples as a data logger. The highest exposure levels were detected for two places, which are called Diclekent and Batıkent. It was observed that the highest instantaneous electric field strength value for Batıkent was 7.18 V/m and for Diclekent was 5.81 V/m. It was statistically determined that the main contributor band to the total exposure levels was Universal Mobile Telecommunications System band. Finally, it was concluded that all measured exposure levels were lower than the reference levels recommended by ICNIRP for general public health.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.64.

  1. Nanogold – Biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood–brain and blood–placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4:545–556

  2. Exchange Rate Exposure: A f irm and Industry Level Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik Cukur

    2010-01-01

    Exchange rate exposure has become one of the most important subjects in international finance area after collapsing fixed exchange rate system. Several studies have been devoted to explore the relationship between exchange rate changes and the value of the firm. This study aims to investigate this relationship in the Istanbul Stock Exchange Market. The results of univariate model and multivariate models indicate that 30 % of the firms are affected negatively against exchange rate changes. The...

  3. Effective dust control systems on concrete dowel drilling machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echt, Alan S; Sanderson, Wayne T; Mead, Kenneth R; Feng, H Amy; Farwick, Daniel R; Farwick, Dawn Ramsey

    2016-09-01

    Rotary-type percussion dowel drilling machines, which drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement, have been documented to produce respirable crystalline silica concentrations above recommended exposure criteria. This places operators at potential risk for developing health effects from exposure. United States manufacturers of these machines offer optional dust control systems. The effectiveness of the dust control systems to reduce respirable dust concentrations on two types of drilling machines was evaluated under controlled conditions with the machines operating inside large tent structures in an effort to eliminate secondary exposure sources not related to the dowel-drilling operation. Area air samples were collected at breathing zone height at three locations around each machine. Through equal numbers of sampling rounds with the control systems randomly selected to be on or off, the control systems were found to significantly reduce respirable dust concentrations from a geometric mean of 54 mg per cubic meter to 3.0 mg per cubic meter on one machine and 57 mg per cubic meter to 5.3 mg per cubic meter on the other machine. This research shows that the dust control systems can dramatically reduce respirable dust concentrations by over 90% under controlled conditions. However, these systems need to be evaluated under actual work conditions to determine their effectiveness in reducing worker exposures to crystalline silica below hazardous levels.

  4. Ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlien-Søborg, Mai C; Schmedes, Astrid S; Stokholm, Z A

    2016-01-01

    workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers......-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial...

  5. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.

    2003-07-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE: GUIDELINE EXPOSURE LEVELS, EVIDENCE OF HEALTH EFFECTS AND RESEARCH NEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. The US EPA, therefore, set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 m...

  7. The levels of kerosene components in biological samples after repeated dermal exposure to kerosene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Junko; Hieda, Yoko; Tsujino, Yoshio; Xue, Yuying; Takayama, Koji; Kimura, Kojiro; Dekio, Satoshi

    2004-04-01

    The current study was experimentally investigated using rats whether or not kerosene components are accumulated from daily repeated dermal exposure. Rats received daily 1h-exposure to kerosene for 5 days (5K), daily 1h-exposure for 4 days and left for 1 day (4KL), a single 1h-exposure (1K), a single 1h-exposure and left for 1 day (1KL), or a single 1h-exposure, sacrificed and left dead for 1 day (1KLD). Kerosene components, trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) in blood and tissues were determined by GC-MS. In blood, almost the same concentrations of TMBs were detected in the rats sacrificed immediately after exposure (5K, 1K and 1KLD), and only trace levels were detected in the rats sacrificed 1 day after exposure (4 and 1KL). Almost the same levels of AHCs in blood were detected among groups except for the rats sacrificed 1 day after a single exposure (1KL), in which AHCs were slightly lower. These results suggest that (1) AHCs tend to be accumulated from daily exposure, while TMBs do not, (2) the proportions of detected kerosene components in blood can be an indicator of whether the last exposure occurred just before death or not, (3) the kerosene levels last at least 1 day without blood circulation.

  8. Continuous respirable mine dust monitor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, B.K.; Williams, K.L.; Stein, S.W. [and others

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published the Report of the Coal Mine Respirable Dust Task Group, Review of the Program to Control Respirable Coal Mine Dust in the United States. As one of its recommendations, the report called for the accelerated development of two mine dust monitors: (1) a fixed-site monitor capable of providing continuous information on dust levels to the miner, mine operator, and to MSHA, if necessary, and (2) a personal sampling device capable of providing both a short-term personal exposure measurement as well as a full-shift measurement. In response to this recommendation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated the development of a fixed-site machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor. The technology chosen for monitor development is the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co., Inc. tapered element oscillating microbalance. Laboratory and in-mine tests have indicated that, with modification, this sensor can meet the humidity and vibration requirements for underground coal mine use. The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center (DOE-PRC) is continuing that effort by developing prototypes of a continuous dust monitor based on this technology. These prototypes are being evaluated in underground coal mines as they become available. This effort, conducted as a joint venture with MSHA, is nearing completion with every promise of success.

  9. Increased ventilation rate as way to reduce the exposure to house dust mites and improve the health of asthmatic children - an intervention design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    International field studies have documented that indoor air quality is unsatisfactory in many buildings. The overall hypothesis of this project is that improving the indoor environment in dwellings can improve health and reduce suffering from indoor related diseases such as allergy and asthma...... that have shown a marked increase in incidence all around the world during last decades. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of increased ventilation and expected lower exposure to house dust mites on symptoms and medication intake among asthmatic children. This will be done by installing...... balanced mechanical ventilation systems in 80 single-family houses. Half of the houses will be equipped with an effective ventilation system increasing air change rates from normal to approximately 3 h-1. A fake ventilation system will be installed in the other half of the houses. Primary subjects...

  10. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  11. Towards a street-level pollen concentration and exposure forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; Krol, Maarten; van Vliet, Arnold; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pollen are an increasing source of nuisance for people in industrialised countries and are associated with significant cost of medication and sick leave. Citizen pollen warnings are often based on emission mapping based on local temperature sum approaches or on long-range atmospheric model approaches. In practise, locally observed pollen may originate from both local sources (plants in streets and gardens) and from long-range transport. We argue that making this distinction is relevant because the diurnal and spatial variation in pollen concentrations is much larger for pollen from local sources than for pollen from long-range transport due to boundary layer processes. This may have an important impact on exposure of citizens to pollen and on mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the partitioning of pollen into local and long-range origin categories. Our objective is to study how the concentrations of pollen from different sources vary temporally and spatially, and how the source region influences exposure and mitigation strategies. We built a Hay Fever Forecast system (HFF) based on WRF-chem, Allergieradar.nl, and geo-statistical downscaling techniques. HFF distinguishes between local (individual trees) and regional sources (based on tree distribution maps). We show first results on how the diurnal variation of pollen concentrations depends on source proximity. Ultimately, we will compare the model with local pollen counts, patient nuisance scores and medicine use.

  12. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  13. The Relations between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure and 1-OHP Levels as a Biomarker of the Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöslová, Zuzana; Drímal, Marek; Balog, Karol; Koppová, Kvetoslava; Dubajová, Jarmila

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of various organic materials. Their ubiquity in the environment leads to measurable levels of exposure. However, the exposure varies strongly between different regions in Europe. Some PAHs with four or more rings are suspected to be human carcinogens. Therefore, the occupational and/or environmental exposure to PAHs may cause a significant health risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate current levels of PAH exposure in defined groups of workers. The industrial sites selected in this survey involved PAHs originating from coal tar pitch, carbon black, bitumen, and rubber fumes. Based on the historical data, the sites were expected to exhibit quantifiable levels of exposure to PAHs. The total study population consisted of 139 persons: 108 workers (85 males and 23 females) workers were occupationally exposed in aluminium production, the production of graphite electrodes, road construction, or the rubber forming industry and 31 control individuals in two groups. The highest concentrations – 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) levels (sum of 16 components according to the EPA list), as expected, were found in the aluminium production plant (55.15 µg.m(−3)) and production of graphite electrodes (54.25 µg.m(−3)). The lowest concentrations were found in personal air samples of road construction workers (1.93 µg.m(−3)). The concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene as a pyrene metabolite (1-OHP) in the urine of the exposed group of workers were found in levels 0.74 µmol.mol(−1) creatinine before the exposure and 2.27 µmol.mol(−1) creatinine after the exposure (arithmetic mean values). 1-OHP concentrations in post-shift urine samples were highly correlated with the total airborne PAHs concentrations and pyrene concentrations in air. The correlation coefficients (rS) between 1-OHP concentration and pyrene or total PAHs in air were 0.710 and 0.752 (p PAHs and pyrene on

  14. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  15. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  16. High-level expression and purification of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tuo; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Dou, Xia; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.

  17. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  18. Human brain mercury levels related to exposure to amalgam fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, E; Aksoy, A; Turla, A; Karaarslan, E S; Karaarslan, B; Aydın, A; Eken, A

    2014-08-01

    The safety of dental amalgam as the primary material in dental restoration treatments has been debated since its introduction. It is widely accepted that amalgam restorations continuously release elemental mercury (Hg) vapor, which is inhaled and absorbed by the body and distributed to tissues, including the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of amalgam fillings is correlated with brain Hg level. The Hg levels in the parietal lobes of the brains of 32 cadavers were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrometer with the mercury hydride system. A total of 32 brain samples were tested; of these, 10 were from cadavers with amalgam fillings, while 22 of them were amalgam free. Hg was detected in 60.0% (6 of 10) of the samples in the amalgam group and in 36.3% (8 of 22) in the amalgam-free group. The average Hg level of the amalgam group was 0.97 ± 0.83 µg/g (minimum: 0.3 µg/g and maximum: 2.34 µg/g), and in the amalgam-free group, it was 1.06 ± 0.57 µg/g (minimum: 0.17 µg/g and maximum: 1.76 µg/g). The results of the present study showed no correlation between the presence of amalgam fillings and brain Hg level.

  19. Concentrations, cumulative exposure and critical levels of ozone in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Aherne, J.; Farrell, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3) and exceedance of critical levels to vegetation have been investigated and mapped for Ireland. Hourly ozone concentration data (1995–1997) at 7 seven monitoring stations and the CORINE landcover database, supported by a Geographical Information System, were

  20. Comparing South African occupational exposure limits for pesticides, metals, dusts and fibres with those of developed countries / Jason Peter Viljoen

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Jason Peter

    2014-01-01

    The ever-changing industrial processes which are becoming more globalised as well as the merging of markets in different economies, led to an increased focus on the health and safety of workers in the industries and the mining sector over the past decades. Occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been used for more than half a century as a risk management tool for the prevention of work-related illnesses which may arise from the exposure to a wide variety of hazardous chemical substances in t...

  1. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  2. Combined basal cell carcinoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the scrotum in a patient with occupational exposure to coal tar and dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izikson, L.; Vanderpool, J.; Brodsky, G.; Mihm, M.C.; Zembowicz, A. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (US). Massachusetts General Hospital

    2004-09-01

    The patient was a 77-year-old male former smoker, with history of several basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in sun-protected areas around the waistline, who presented with another small ulceration on the anterior right upper scrotum near the base of the penis. BCC was suspected clinically and the lesion was treated with cryosurgery. The tumor recurred, became raised, and began to bleed. An excisional biopsy was performed. It showed nodular BCC surrounded by a cellular proliferation of round histiocytic cells with convoluted, lobulated and reniform nuclei and abundant cytoplasm . The patient had no history of exposure to ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive medications, prior lymphoma or other malignancy. However, he spent 4 years on a ship loading coal into the furnace of a steam engine, during which he slept in adjacent quarters that were covered with coal dust. Additionally, he had a several-year history of occupational skin exposure to machine oil, oil refinery waste, sulfur waste, hydraulic fluid, and asbestos. He also reported a history of nude sunbathing. The scrotal lesion was re-excised and the patient remains disease-free more than 1 year after the diagnosis.

  3. Evaluation of exposure risk in the weaving process of MWCNT-coated yarn with real-time particle concentration measurements and characterization of dust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Mitsutoshi; Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Shinohara, Yasushi; Kubota, Hisayo; Tsuruoka, Shuji; Koda, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    Various applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been developed. One of these applications is an efficient sheet heating element that is woven from MWCNT-coated yarn. In this research, we assessed the exposure to MWCNT and/or the probability of particle release from broken MWCNT-coated yarn during the weaving process. This was accomplished using particle concentrations, microscopic observation, and carbon analysis. In the weaving process, neither an increase in the number of particles nor a difference in particle-size distribution was observed. In the scanning electron micrographic observation, nanosize MWCNT particles were not detected, but there were micron-size particles containing MWCNT as fragments of the yarn. Carbon analysis showed the concentration of micron-size particles containing MWCNT did not exceed 0.0053 mg-C/m(3) around the loom. This value was much lower than the respirable dust mass concentration. Most of micron-size particles seemed to originate from polyester yarn without MWCNT coating. It is recommended that workers use conventional (even not specialized for nanoparticles) personal protective equipment such as respirators and gloves to prevent exposure to respirable-size MWCNT-containing particles. The probability of MWCNT fall-off from the MWCNT-coated yarn was not detected by transmission electron microscopic observation of MWCNT-coated yarn before or after the weaving process.

  4. Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: how mere exposure influences level of construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether frequency of exposure influences level of construal. Using subliminal presentation, participants were exposed to neutral, unknown letters 0, 5, 15, or 40 times, and a typical mere exposure effect was found on evaluation. However, we hypothesized and showed in

  5. Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: how mere exposure influences level of construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examine whether frequency of exposure influences level of construal. Using subliminal presentation, participants were exposed to neutral, unknown letters 0, 5, 15, or 40 times, and a typical mere exposure effect was found on evaluation. However, we hypothesized and showed in Experime

  6. Low level exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of an SOP for analysis of albumin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Kant, S. de; Hulst, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The need for retrospective detection procedures for exposure to low levels of chemical warfare agents has been urgently illustrated by the conflicts in the Gulf Area. Furthermore, in the case of a terrorist attack with CWA, rapid and reliable diagnosis of the exposure is essential. The present resea

  7. Urban dust settled at different sides and levels of a High Building next to a major road in Budapest: Integrated Magnetic, Mineralogical and Geochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, E.; Sipos, P.; Németh, T.; Kovács Kis, V.; May, Z.

    2012-04-01

    We collected urban dust during two years, on seasonal basis, in 8 standard sampling pots with continuous supply of distilled water, placed at 2, 9, 21 and 33 m, on the front and back sides, respectively, on a 40 m high building. After the vacuum filtering and air-drying of the samples, magnetic measurements, mineralogical and geochemical analysis were carried out on them as well as on car exhaust filters. Then remarkably similar magnetic properties of the settled dust and the exhaust filters suggested that the anthropogenic contribution to the dust is traffic induced. The traffic induced pollution is best reflected in the apparent susceptibilities of the samples, which show a strong seasonal dependence. The settled dust has the highest values of apparent susceptibilities, the highest amounts of dust and the highest concentrations of Pb during summer. The bulk mineral composition of the dust also depends on the season, since the dust becomes enriched in dolomite, coming from a hill behind the building during spring and even more in summer. The most important metal bearing phases identified mineralogically are magnetite and clay minerals. The metals showing significant enrichment compared to background values are Pb, Zn and Cu. Most of the Pb is found in magnetite, while Zn is distributed between magnetite and clay minerals. Concerning vertical variations, they are most pronounced during summer. The amounts of dust, apparent susceptibilities and concentration of Pb all have maximum values at 9 m, on both sides of the building. The concentration of Pb at 9 m and higher exceeds the threshold limit by 8-35 times during summer. The shielding effect of the building from the traffic induced pollution is seen only at the lowest level in every season. When trying to account for the observed pattern of the distribution of the pollution, we compared it with the predictions of an air flow model published for high buildings with similar morphology and wind conditions and found

  8. Inflammation but no DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in mice exposed to airborne dust from a biofuel plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Nordly, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    . The levels of DNA strand breaks in broncheoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from the mice exposed to dust did not differ from those in the control samples. Conclusions The results indicate that the instillation of dust from a biofuel plant, at doses corresponding to 2 weeks of exposure to human endotoxins...... not been studied in detail. This study investigated whether exposure to dust from biofuel plants induces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage and inflammation in exposed mice. Methods DNA damage and inflammation were evaluated in mice exposed through the intratracheal installation of airborne dust collected...... at a biofuel plant at the straw storage hall and in the boiler room. The mice were given either a single dose of dust (18 or 54 mu g) or four doses of 54 mu g on each of four consecutive days. Control mice were exposed to a 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Results In the mice exposed to 4 x 54 mu g of dust...

  9. Seasonal and occupational trends of five organophosphate pesticides in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marissa N; Workman, Tomomi; McDonald, Katie M; Vredevoogd, Melinda A; Vigoren, Eric M; Griffith, William C; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria D; Barr, Dana; Faustman, Elaine M

    2016-08-24

    Since 1998, the University of Washington's Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research has followed a community-based participatory research strategy in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State to assess pesticide exposure among families of Hispanic farmworkers. As a part of this longitudinal study, house dust samples were collected from both farmworker and non-farmworker households, across three agricultural seasons (thinning, harvest and non-spray). The household dust samples were analyzed for five organophosphate pesticides: azinphos-methyl, phosmet, malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Organophosphate pesticide levels in house dust were generally reflective of annual use rates and varied by occupational status and agricultural season. Overall, organophosphate pesticide concentrations were higher in the thinning and harvest seasons than in the non-spray season. Azinphos-methyl was found in the highest concentrations across all seasons and occupations. Farmworker house dust had between 5- and 9-fold higher concentrations of azinphos-methyl than non-farmworker house dust. Phosmet was found in 5-7-fold higher concentrations in farmworker house dust relative to non-farmworker house dust. Malathion and chlorpyriphos concentrations in farmworker house dust ranged between 1.8- and 9.8-fold higher than non-farmworker house dust. Diazinon showed a defined seasonal pattern that peaked in the harvest season and did not significantly differ between farmworker and non-farmworker house dust. The observed occupational differences in four out of five of the pesticide residues measured provides evidence supporting an occupational take home pathway, in which workers may bring pesticides home on their skin or clothing. Further, these results demonstrate the ability of dust samples to inform the episodic nature of organophosphate pesticide exposures and the need to collect multiple samples for complete characterization of exposure potential.Journal of Exposure Science

  10. Effects of the MAOA gene and levels of exposure to violence on antisocial outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Côté, Sylvana M; Vitaro, Frank; Hébert, Martine; Carbonneau, René; Lacourse, Éric; Turecki, Gustavo; Tremblay, Richard E

    .... Replication efforts have, however, yielded inconsistent results. To investigate whether the interaction between the MAOA gene and violence is present across the full distribution of violence or emerges at higher levels of exposure...

  11. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  12. Groundwater: Quality Levels and Human Exposure, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Adeyemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater serves as a source of freshwater for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes and it accounts for about 42%, 27% and 36% respectively. As it remains the only source of all-year-round supply of freshwater globally, it is of vital importance as regards water security, human survival and sustainable agriculture. The main goal of this study is to identify the main cause-effect relationship between human activities and the state of groundwater quality using a communication tool (the DPSIR Model; Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact and Response. A total of twenty-one samples were collected from ten peri-urban communities scattered across three conterminous Local Government Areas in Southwestern Nigeria. Each of the groundwater samples was tested for twelve parameters - total dissolved solids, pH, bicarbonate, chloride, lead, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate, magnesium and total suspended solids. The study revealed that the concentrations of DO and Pb were above threshold limits, while pH and N were just below the threshold and others elements were within acceptable limits based on Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality. The study revealed that groundwater quality levels from the sampled wells are under pressure leading to reduction in the amount of freshwater availability. This is a first-order setback in achieving access to freshwater as a sustainable development goal across Less Developed Communities (LDCs globally. To combat this threat, there is the need for an integrated approach in response towards groundwater conservation and sustainability by all stakeholders.

  13. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  14. Extremely low-level microwaves attenuate immune imbalance induced by inhalation exposure to low-level toluene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselova, Elena G; Glushkova, Olga V; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E

    2017-05-01

    To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8.15-18 GHz, 1μW/cm(2), 1 Hz swinging frequency) or combined action of these two factors. A single exposure to air-delivered low-level toluene induced activation of NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IFR-3, p38 MAPK and TLR4 pathways. Furthermore, air toluene induced the expression of Hsp72 and enhanced IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in blood plasma, which is indicative of a pro-inflammatory response. Exposure to MW alone also resulted in the enhancement of the plasma cytokine values (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and activation of the NF-κB, MAPK p38, and especially the TLR4 pathways in splenic lymphocytes. Paradoxically, pre-exposure to MW partially recovered or normalized the lymphocyte parameters in the toluene-exposed mice, while the p38 inhibitor XI additionally increased protective activity of microwaves by down regulating MAPKs (JNK and p38), IKK, as well as expression of TLR4 and Hsp90-α. The results suggest that exposure to low-intensity MW at specific conditions may recover immune parameters in mice undergoing inhalation exposure to low-level toluene via mechanisms involving cellular signaling.

  15. Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: from organ to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Kim; De Coster, Sam; De Galan, Sandra; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Colles, Ann; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).

  16. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Shanghai: implication for exposure route of higher brominated BDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengtao; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Guofa; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk has been widely used as a bioindicator to assess the extent of human exposure to PBDEs via various exposure routes. In this study, 48 breast milk samples were collected from primiparous women in Shanghai city, and 14 PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -196, -197, -203, -206, -207, -208, and -209) were quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization-mass spectrometry. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 8.6 ng/g lipid weight, and ranged from 1.8 to 26.7 ng/g lipid weight. These concentration levels were similar to those reported in Europe and Asia, but one order of magnitude lower than those in North America. The congener profiles in this study exhibited a specific pattern in human milk found worldwide, BDE-153 and BDE-28 accounted for a relatively higher proportion of lower brominated BDEs (from tri- to hepta-BDEs), whereas higher brominated BDEs (from octa- to deca-BDEs) contributed more than 70% of the total PBDEs. The Spearman's correlation coefficient among higher brominated BDEs showed a positive relationship, and concentration levels of higher brominated BDEs were statistically differe