WorldWideScience

Sample records for dust charging properties

  1. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  2. Photoelectric Charging of Dust in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickafoose, A. A.; Robertson, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Horanyi, M.

    1999-09-01

    Illumination of surfaces in space by solar ultraviolet light produces photoelectrons which form a plasma sheath near the surface. Dust particles on the surface can acquire a charge and be transported horizontally and vertically by electric fields within the sheath. On the moon, suspended dust grains have been observed on multiple occasions, and there is evidence for horizontal lunar dust transport. Photoelectron production and dust particle charging are also expected to be significant near the surface of Mars. Understanding the photoelectric charging properties of dust can help explain the observed dynamics of lunar dust and help predict the behavior of dust on surfaces of planetary satellites, asteroids, planetary ring particles, and planetesimals. In addition, any human or spacecraft activity on planetary bodies is affected by dust dynamics near the surface. We have examined the photoelectric charging of dust dropped through UV illumination and dust dropped past a UV illuminated surface having a photoelectron sheath. Experiments are performed in vacuum with illumination from a 1 kW Hg-Xe arc lamp. The lamp produces a spectrum down to ~ 200 nm ( ~ 6.2 eV), and the photoemitter is a 12 cm diameter zirconium plate. Dust dropped through UV illumination loses electrons due to photoemission, while dust dropped past an illuminated surface gains electrons from the photoelectron sheath. Initial results are consistent with expected charge calculated from the work function of the materials, the energy of incoming photons, and the capacitance of the grains. Photoelectric charging experiments have been done for several different kinds of dust 90-106 mu m in diameter. We will present the results of these experiments and compare the charging properties of zinc, copper, graphite, Martian regolith simulant (JSC Mars-1), lunar regolith simulant (JSC-1), and lunar soil from an Apollo 17 sample. This research is supported by NASA.

  3. Atmospheric dust charging, vertical profiles and optical properties measured in the Arabian Peninsula during the DREAME campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Sabbah, I.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Al-Abbadi, N.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    Polarimetric observations of atmospheric Saharan dust over the Canary Islands have provided strong evidence for the presence of vertically aligned particles. The alignment was thought to be due to the electric field present because of dust charging. It was concluded that the charging and consequent partial alignment could be a common feature of atmospheric mineral dust layers, influencing the optical properties of dust layers and possibly also dust transport (Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 6161, 2007). We show preliminary results from the DREAME campaign, aimed at investigating these phenomena. DREAME used simultaneous and collocated measurements from specially developed aerosol radiosondes, and ground-based sun photometers and electric field meters. The radiosondes provided vertical profiles of dust size distribution and electric charge density, in addition to standard meteorological parameters (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS3.16). The electric field was measured in Kuwait between late April and November 2009, and at Solar Village (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) between May and June 2009. The measurements were supplemented by satellite retrievals of aerosol properties. Similar measurements but without electric field meters were carried out on Cape Verde Islands in August 2009 (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7). The electric field measured on the ground in Kuwait showed strong variability, particularly in the presence of atmospheric dust, when polarity reversals from the normal positive potential gradient (PG) clear-sky pattern were frequently observed. In the absence of clouds the negative PG excursions were often down to -800 V/m and reached -1300 V/m. The PG was strongly correlated with the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the sun photometer: the correlation coefficient was about -0.51 at visible and near infra-red wavelengths and a few percent less in the UV. Slightly lower correlation was present for satellite AOT: -0.4 for MODIS AOT at 550 nm, and -0.3 for OMI AOT at 483.5 nm

  4. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Akimkin, V. V.; Caselli, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  5. Imaging Charged Dust in Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments with dust grains are described in this talk, which will include numerous images and videos from the experiments. In all the experiments, grains are immersed in plasma, and they are electrically charged. In the first experiment, grains are synthesized under conditions that simulate the outflow of carbon stars. These grains are grown in the gas phase with a carbon vapor. They grow by homogeneous nucleation, accretion, and coagulation. After growth, they are collected and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. These images reveal the grain morphology. In the second experiment, the structure and dynamics of the liquid or solid-phase centers of a star is simulated in the laboratory using charged grains (precision micron-size spheres) as proxies for protons. These grains are imaged by video microscopy, revealing how they self-organize, arranging themselves spatially in a crystalline-like lattice due to mutual Coulomb repulsion. Video microscopy allows tracking the motion of the microspheres and calculating their velocities. This measurement allows the experimenter to detect waves corresponding to random thermal motion, and from the properties of these waves one can measure the grain's charge. In the third experiment, sound waves in a cloud of charged dust are observed using high-speed video cameras. The compression and rarefaction of the dust-grain number density are easily observed in the video. Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  6. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  7. Effect of dust charge variation on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛具奎; 郎和

    2003-01-01

    The effect of dust charge variation on the dust-acoustic solitary structures is investigated in a warm magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma consisting of a negatively and variably charged extremely massive dust fluid and ions of two different temperatures. It is shown that the dust charge variation as well as the presence of a second component of ions would modify the properties of the dust-acoustic solitary structures and may excite both dust-acoustic solitary holes (soliton waves with a density dip) and positive solitons (soliton waves with a density hump).

  8. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  9. Dust Charging in Electronegative SiH4 Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ping; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the dust charging in electronegative silane (SiH4) plasmas, taking into account the effects of UV photodetachment. It is found that UV photodetachment could significantly lower the dust negative charge and even makes dust grains be positively charged under some special conditions. In addition, the other parameters, involving the negative ion and dust number densities, electron temperature and dust radius, have great effects upon the dust charging.

  10. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  11. Electrostatic Charging of Lunar Dust by UV Photoelectric Emissions and Solar Wind Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James f.; LeClair, Andre C.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of dust in the lunar environment with its high adhesive characteristics has been recognized to be a major safety issue that must be addressed in view of its hazardous effects on robotic and human exploration of the Moon. The reported observations of a horizon glow and streamers at the lunar terminator during the Apollo missions are attributed to the sunlight scattered by the levitated lunar dust. The lunar surface and the dust grains are predominantly charged positively by the incident UV solar radiation on the dayside and negatively by the solar wind electrons on the night-side. The charged dust grains are levitated and transported over long distances by the established electric fields. A quantitative understanding of the lunar dust phenomena requires development of global dust distribution models, based on an accurate knowledge of lunar dust charging properties. Currently available data of lunar dust charging is based on bulk materials, although it is well recognized that measurements on individual dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the bulk measurements. In this paper we present laboratory measurements of charging properties of Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains by UV photoelectric emissions and by electron impact. These measurements indicate substantial differences of both qualitative and quantitative nature between dust charging properties of individual micron/submicron sized dust grains and of bulk materials. In addition, there are no viable theoretical models available as yet for calculation of dust charging properties of individual dust grains for both photoelectric emissions and electron impact. It is thus of paramount importance to conduct comprehensive measurements for charging properties of individual dust grains in order to develop realistic models of dust processes in the lunar atmosphere, and address the hazardous issues of dust on lunar robotic and human missions.

  12. Charging and Growth of Fractal Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Lorin S

    2007-01-01

    The structure and evolution of aggregate grains formed within a plasma environment are dependent upon the charge acquired by the micron-sized dust grains during the coagulation process. The manner in which the charge is arranged on developing irregular structures can affect the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during collisions, which in turn influences the coagulation rate and size evolution of the dust within the plasma cloud. This paper presents preliminary models for the charge and size evolution of fractal aggregates immersed in a plasma environment calculated using a modification to the orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory. Primary electron and ion currents incident on points on the aggregate surface are determined using a line-of-sight (LOS) approximation: only those electron or ion trajectories which are not blocked by another grain within the aggregate contribute to the charging current. Using a self-consistent iterative approach, the equilibrium charge and dipole moment are calculated for the d...

  13. Complex role of secondary electron emissions in dust grain charging in space environments: measurements on Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James; Leclair, Andre C.

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, by electron/ion collisions, and sec-ondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstel-lar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynam-ical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of 0.2 to 13 µm diam-eters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong parti-cle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  14. Linear and nonlinear excitations in complex plasmas with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and dust size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ping; Xue Ju-Kui; Li Yan-Long

    2011-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear excitation in dusty plasmas have been investigated including the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and Gaussian size distribution dust particles.A linear dispersion relation and a Korteweg-de VriesBurgers equation governing the dust acoustic shock waves are obtained.The relevance of the instability of wave and the wave evolution to the dust size distribution and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation is illustrated both analytically and numerically.The numerical results show that the Gaussian size distribution of dust particles and the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong common influence on the propagation of both linear and nonlinear excitations.

  15. Propagation of dust-acoustic waves in weakly ionized plasmas with dust-charge fluctuation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Mondal

    2004-11-01

    For an unmagnetized partially ionized dusty plasma containing electrons, singly charged positive ions, micron-sized massive negatively charged dust grains and a fraction of neutral atoms, dispersion relations for both the dust-ion-acoustic and the dust-acoustic waves have been derived, incorporating dust charge fluctuation. The dispersion relations, under various conditions, have been exhaustively analysed. The explicit expressions for the growth rates have also been derived.

  16. Dust Charging in the Sheath of an Electronegative Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正汹; 王文春; 刘悦; 刘金远; 王晓钢

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the dust charging in the sheath of an electronegative plasma, by using a single dust grain model based on a previous sheath structure [Chin. Phys. Lett 20 (2003) 1537] in which cold positive ions and hot negative ions have been assumed. It is found that dust grains are first charged negatively at the sheath edge and then begin to be charged positively in the sheath. Moreover, both the temperature ratio of electrons to negative ions and the density ratio of negative ions to positive ions have effects on the neutral point of the dust charge.

  17. Effect of dust charge variation on dust—acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized two—ion—temperature dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XueJu-Kui; LangHe

    2003-01-01

    The effect of dust charge variation on the dust-acoustic solitary structures is investigated in a warm magnetized two-ion-temperature dusty plasma consisting of a negatively and variably charged extremely massive dust fluid and ions of two different temperatures. It is shown that the dust charge variation as well as the presence of a second component of ions would modify the properties of the dust-acoustic solitary structures and may exite both dust-acoustic solitary holes (soliton waves with a density dip) and positive solitons (soliton waves with a density hump).

  18. Jeans instability of a dusty plasma with dust charge variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi Pajouh, H., E-mail: hakimi@alzahra.ac.ir; Afshari, N. [Faculty of Physics, Alzahra University, P. O. Box 19938-93973, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The effect of the dust charge variations on the stability of a self-gravitating dusty plasma has been theoretically investigated. The dispersion relation for the dust-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating dusty plasma is obtained. It is shown that the dust charge variations have significant effects. It increases the growth rate of instability and the instability cutoff wavenumbers. It is found that by increasing the value of the ions temperature and the absolute value of the equilibrium dust charge, the cutoff wavenumber decreases and the stability region is extended.

  19. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, Alexander, E-mail: piel@physik.uni-kiel.de; Schmidt, Christian [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed.

  20. Charging of Fractal Dust Agglomerates in a Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, L S

    2007-01-01

    The charge on micron-sized dust grains plays a crucial role in the structure and evolution of forming aggregates within the dust population during the coagulation process. The manner in which the charge is arranged on developing irregular structures can affect the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during collisions, which in turn influences the coagulation rate and size evolution of the dust cloud. Preliminary models for the charge evolution on fractal aggregates immersed in a plasma environment calculated using a modification to the orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory are presented in this paper. The model calculates currents to each point on the aggregate surface using a line-of-sight (LOS) approximation: only those electron or ion trajectories which are not blocked by another grain within the aggregate contribute to the charging current. Both the total charge and the dipole moment are calculated for the dust aggregate. While most coagulation theories assume that it is difficult for like-charged grains...

  1. Planetary Magnetosphere Probed by Charged Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ and remote sensing observations combined with theoretical and numerical modeling greatly advanced our understanding planetary magnetospheres. Dust is an integral component of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres where it can act as a source/sink of plasma particles (dust particles are an effective source for plasma species like O2, OH, etc. through sputtering of ice particles, for example); its distribution is shaped by electrodynamic forces coupled radiation pressure, plasma, and neutral drag, for example. The complex interaction can lead to unusual dust dynamics, including the transport, capture, and ejection of dust grains. The study of the temporal and spatial evolution of fine dust within or outside the magnetosphere thus provides a unique way to combine data from a large number of observations: plasma, plasma wave, dust, and magnetic field measurements. The dust detectors on board the Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts lead to major discoveries, including the jovian dust stream originating from Io or the in-situ sampling and analysis of the plumes of Enceladus. Recent advancement in dust detector technology enables accurate measurement of the dust trajectory and elemental composition that can greatly enhance the understanding of dust magnetorspheric interaction and indentify the source of the dust with high precision. The capabilities of a modern dust detector thus can provide support for the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  2. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasma with variable dust charge

    CERN Document Server

    Forozani, Gh

    2011-01-01

    In this article we are going to consider dust acoustic wave in dusty plasma whose constituents are inertial negative charged dust particles, Boltzmann distributed electrons and non-thermal distributed ions with variable dust charge. Using reductive perturbation method, we have obtained Korteweg-de Veries (kdv) and modified kdv(mkdv) equations. A Sagdeev potential for the system and stability conditions for solitonic solution are also derived.

  3. Dust ion-acoustic shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation in a superthermal dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinejad, H., E-mail: alinejad@nit.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, 51664, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tribeche, M. [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences – Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Mohammadi, M.A. [Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, 51664, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-14

    The nonlinear propagation of dust ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves is studied in a charge varying dusty plasma with electrons having kappa velocity distribution. We use hot ions with equilibrium streaming speed and a fast superthermal electron charging current derived from orbit limited motion (OLM) theory. It is found that the presence of superthermal electrons does not only significantly modify the basic properties of shock waves, but also causes the existence of shock profile with only positive potential in such plasma with parameter ranges corresponding to Saturn's rings. It is also shown that the strength and steepness of the shock waves decrease with increase of the size of dust grains and ion temperature. -- Highlights: ► The presence of superthermal electrons causes the existence of shock waves with only positive potential. ► The strength and steepness of the shock waves decrease with increase of the size of dust grains and ion temperature. ► As the electrons evolve toward their thermodynamic equilibrium, the shock structures are found with smaller amplitude.

  4. Coherent structures in presence of dust charge fluctuations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kakati; K S Goswami

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in a dusty plasma in presence of dust charge fluctuations. Using the typical plasma parameters the potential of the nonlinear coherent structures is derived.

  5. Measurement of net electric charge and dipole moment of dust aggregates in a complex plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefi, Razieh; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the agglomeration of dust particles in complex plasmas requires a knowledge of the basic properties such as the net electrostatic charge and dipole moment of the dust. In this study, dust aggregates are formed from gold coated mono-disperse spherical melamine-formaldehyde monomers in a radio-frequency (rf) argon discharge plasma. The behavior of observed dust aggregates is analyzed both by studying the particle trajectories and by employing computer models examining 3D structures of aggregates and their interactions and rotations as induced by torques arising from their dipole moments. These allow the basic characteristics of the dust aggregates, such as the electrostatic charge and dipole moment, to be determined. It is shown that the experimental results support the predicted values from computer models for aggregates in these environments.

  6. Measurement of net electric charge and dipole moment of dust aggregates in a complex plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Razieh; Davis, Allen B; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the agglomeration of dust particles in complex plasmas requires knowledge of basic properties such as the net electrostatic charge and dipole moment of the dust. In this study, dust aggregates are formed from gold-coated mono-disperse spherical melamine-formaldehyde monomers in a radiofrequency (rf) argon discharge plasma. The behavior of observed dust aggregates is analyzed both by studying the particle trajectories and by employing computer models examining three-dimensional structures of aggregates and their interactions and rotations as induced by torques arising from their dipole moments. These allow the basic characteristics of the dust aggregates, such as the electrostatic charge and dipole moment, as well as the external electric field, to be determined. It is shown that the experimental results support the predicted values from computer models for aggregates in these environments.

  7. Abnormal Kinetic Energy of Charged Dust Particles in Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, G.; Stegailov, V.; Timofeev, A.

    A mechanism of the increase of the average kinetic energy of charged dust particles in gas discharge plasmas is suggested. Particle charge fluctuation is the reason for the appearance of forced resonance, which heals vertical oscillations. The energy transfer from vertical oscillations to the

  8. Abnormal Kinetic Energy of Charged Dust Particles in Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norman, G.; Stegailov, V.; Timofeev, A.

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism of the increase of the average kinetic energy of charged dust particles in gas discharge plasmas is suggested. Particle charge fluctuation is the reason for the appearance of forced resonance, which heals vertical oscillations. The energy transfer from vertical oscillations to the horizo

  9. Role of nonthermal electrons on dust ion acoustic double layer with variable dust charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Prathana; Gogoi, Deepshikha; Das, Nilakshi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of nonthermal electron may play an important role in the formation of nonlinear structures in plasma. On the other hand, fluctuation of dust charge is an important and unique feature of complex plasma and it gives rise to a dissipative effect in the system leading to the formation of nonlinear structures due to the balance between nonlinearity and dissipation. In this paper, the propagation of nonlinear dust ion acoustic (DIA) wave in unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of ions, nonthermal electrons and dust grains with variable negative charge has been investigated using the Sagdeev potential method. The existence domain of rarefactive double layer (DL) in the DIA wave has been investigated for the range of plasma parameters. The real potential has been obtained by numerically solving the Poisson equation and dust charging equation. It is observed that the presence of nonthermal electrons strengthens the DIA DL.

  10. Transport of charged dust grains into the galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Khoperskov, S A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a 3D dynamical model of dust outflows from galactic discs. The outflows are initiated by multiple SN explosions in a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM) with a gravitationally stratified density distribution. Dust grains are treated as particles in cells interacting collisionally with gas, and forced by stellar radiation of the disc and Lorenz force. We show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in accelerating the charged dust grains and expelling them out of the disc: in 10--20~Myr they can be elevated at distances up to 10~kpc above the galactic plane. The dust-to-gas ratio in the outflowing medium varies in the range $5 \\cdot 10^{-4} - 5 \\cdot 10^{-2}$ along the vertical stream. Overall the dust mass loss rate depends on the parameters of ISM and may reach up to $3\\times 10^{-2}$~\\Msun~yr$^{-1}$

  11. Acceleration of Small Dust Grains due to Charge Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2011-01-01

    We consider the acceleration of very small dust grains including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) arising from the electrostatic interactions of dust grains that have charge fluctuates in time due to charging events. We simulate the charge fluctuations of very small grains due to their sticking collisions with electrons and ions in plasma and the emission of photoelectrons by UV photons using Monte Carlo method. We identify the acceleration induced by the charge fluctuations as the dominant acceleration mechanism of very small grains in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We show that this acceleration mechanism is more efficient for environments with low ionization, where the charge fluctuations are slow but have a large amplitude. We also discuss the implications of the present mechanism for grain coagulation and shattering in the diffuse ISM, molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  12. Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Gupta; S Sarkar; M Khan; Samiran Ghosh

    2003-12-01

    In a dusty plasma, the non-adiabaticity of the charge variation on a dust grain surface results in an anomalous dissipation. Analytical investigation shows that this results in a small but finite amplitude dust acoustic (DA) wave propagation which is described by the Korteweg–de Vries–Burger equation. Results of the numerical investigation of the propagation of large-amplitude dust acoustic stationary shock wave are presented here using the complete set of non-linear dust fluid equations coupled with the dust charging equation and Poisson equation. The DA waves are of compressional type showing considerable increase of dust density, which is of significant importance in astrophysical context as it leads to enhanced gravitational attraction considered as a viable process for star formation. The DA shock transition to its far downstream amplitude is oscillatory in nature due to dust charge fluctuations, the oscillation amplitude and shock width depending on the ratio pd/ch and other plasma parameters.

  13. Charge of dust particles in a particle chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefi, Razieh; Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    Charged dust particles form structures which are extended in the vertical direction in the electrode sheath of a rf discharge when confined within a glass box. The charge on each particle as a function of height varies due to the changing plasma conditions and the wakefield of upstream particles. Here an analysis of the equilibrium state of chains of varying number of particles is analyzed to determine the charge on each particle within a vertically extended chain as well as the magnitude of the positive wakefield charge.

  14. Dust particle charge distribution in a stratified glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhinin, Gennady I [Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Fedoseev, Alexander V [Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, Tlekkabul S [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, Karlygash N [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Amangaliyeva, Rauan Zh [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)

    2007-12-21

    The influence of a highly pronounced non-equilibrium characteristic of the electron energy distribution function in a stratified dc glow discharge on the process of dust particle charging in a complex plasma is taken into account for the first time. The calculated particle charge spatial distribution is essentially non-homogeneous and it can explain the vortex motion of particles at the periphery of a dusty cloud obtained in experiments.

  15. Effect of adiabatic variation of dust charges on dust acoustic solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wen-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dust charging and the influence of its adiabatic variation on dust acoustic waves is investigated. By employing the reductive perturbation technique we derived a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation for small amplitude dust acoustic waves. We have analytically verified that there are only rarefactive solitary waves for this system. The instability region for one-dimensional solitary wave under transverse perturbations has also been obtained. The obliquely propagating solitary waves to the z-direction for the ZK equation are given in this paper as well.

  16. Dust-Acoustic Waves in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas Containing Variable-Charge Impurities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; HE Kai-Fen; M. Y. Yu

    2000-01-01

    A relatively self-consistent theory of dust-acoustic waves in the strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing variable charge impurities is given. Relevant physical processes such as dust elastic relaxation and dust charge relaxation are taken into account. It is shown that the negative dispersion of dust-acoustic waves due to the strong correlation of dusts is enhanced in the presence of dust-neutral collisions.

  17. The Dust & Gas Properties of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, K; Mentuch, E; Bendo, G; Dariush, A; Parkin, T; Pohlen, M; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Madden, S; Page, M J; Spinoglio,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the dust and gas properties of the nearby, barred galaxy M83, which is part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey. Using images from the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, we examine the dust temperature and dust mass surface density distribution. We find that the nuclear, bar and spiral arm regions exhibit higher dust temperatures and masses compared to interarm regions. However, the distribution of dust temperature and mass are not spatially coincident. Assuming a trailing spiral structure, the dust temperature peaks in the spiral arms lie ahead of the dust surface density peaks. The dust mass surface density correlates well with the distribution of molecular gas as traced by CO (J=3-2) images (JCMT) and the star formation rate as traced by H?2 with a correction for obscured star formation using 24 micron emission. Using HI images from THINGS to trace the atomic gas component, we make total gas mass surface density maps and calculate the gas-to-dust ratio. We find a mean gas-to-dust ratio of 84 \\...

  18. On the signature of positively charged dust particles on plasma irregularities in the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    Recent rocket payloads have studied the properties of aerosol particles within the ambient plasma environment in the polar mesopause region and measured the signature of the positively charged particles with number densities of (2000 cm-3) for particles of 0.5-1 nm in radius. The measurement of significant numbers of positively charged aerosol particles is unexpected from the standard theory of aerosol charging in plasma. Nucleation on the cluster ions is one of the most probable hypotheses for the positive charge on the smallest particles. This work attempts to study the correlation and anti-correlation of fluctuations in the electron and ion densities in the background plasma by adopting the proposed hypothesis of positive dust particle formation. The utility being that it may provide a test for determining the presence of positive dust particles. The results of the model described show good agreement with observed rocket data. As an application, the model is also applied to investigate the electron irregularity behavior during radiowave heating assuming the presence of positive dust particles. It is shown that the positive dust produces important changes in the behavior during Polar Mesospheric Summer Echo PMSE heating experiments that can be described by the fluctuation correlation and anti-correlation properties.

  19. Dust acoustic and drift waves in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma with dust charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, U.; Haque, Q.; Imtiaz, N.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    > ) on the wave dispersion and instability are presented. It is found that the presence of the non-thermal electron and ion populations reduce the growth rate of the instability which arises due to the dust charging effect. In addition, the nonlinear vortex solutions are also obtained. For illustration, the results are analysed by using the dusty plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  20. Charge and Levitation of Grains in Plasma Sheath with Dust Thermic Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    By taking into account thermic emission current from hot dust surface, the problem involved in dust charging and levitation of dust grains in plasma sheath has been researched. The results are compared to that without including thermal emission current while the system parameters are same. It is found that the thermal emission current has played a significant role on modifying the dust charging and balance levitations. Both of the charging numbers of dust and the dust radius in balance are dramatically reduced. The stability of dust levitation is also analyzed and discussed.

  1. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Skrabalova, Lenka; Sigurdardottir, Gudmunda; Branis, Martin; Hladil, Jindrich; Chadimova, Leona; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Menar, Sibylle von Lowis of; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric Dust Measurements (ADMI 2013) of one of the most active dust sources in Iceland (Mælifellsandur) were conducted during season with high precipitation on August 8th-18th, 2013. We measured mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), particle size distributions in size range 0.3-10μm and number concentrations during rather small dust event. Dust samples of the event were analyzed (morpho-textural observations, optical and scanning-electron microscopy). Two TSI 8520 DustTrak Aerosol Monitors (light-scattering laser photometers that measure aerosol mass concentrations in range 0.001 to 100 mg/m3) and one TSI Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) 3330 (optical scattering from single particle up to 16 different channels - 0.3 to 10 μm - measuring particle size distribution) were used. We measured a dust event which occurred during wet and low wind/windless conditions as result of surface heating in August 2013. Maximum particle number concentration (PM~0.3-10 µm) reached 149954 particles cm-3 min-1 while mass concentration (PM1.5-5 µm in diameter. Close-to-ultrafine particle size distributions showed a significant increase in number with the severity of the dust event. Number concentrations were well correlated with mass concentrations. The mineralogy and geochemical compositions showed that glaciogenic dust contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles and 80 % of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals. Wet dust particles were mobilized within < 4 hours. Here we introduced a comprehensive study on physical properties of the Icelandic dust aerosol and the first scientific study of particle size distributions in an Icelandic dust event including findings on initiation of dust suspension.

  2. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  3. Nonextensive dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Mustapha; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    Our recent analysis on nonlinear nonextensive dust-acoustic waves (DA) [Amour and Tribeche in Phys. Plasmas 17:063702, 2010] is extended to include self-consistent nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation. The appropriate nonextensive electron charging current is rederived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Our results reveal that the amplitude, strength and nature of the nonlinear DA waves (solitons and shocks) are extremely sensitive to the degree of ion nonextensivity. Stronger is the electron correlation, more important is the charge variation induced nonlinear wave damping. The anomalous dissipation effects may prevail over that dispersion as the electrons evolve far away from their Maxwellian equilibrium. Our investigation may be of wide relevance to astronomers and space scientists working on interstellar dusty plasmas where nonthermal distributions are turning out to be a very common and characteristic feature.

  4. Irregularity excitation associated with charged dust cloud boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2012-02-01

    Irregularity generation associated with dust cloud expansion through a background plasma along a magnetic field is investigated. Because of the dust charging process, a boundary layer is produced, separating the dusty plasma generated and the background plasma. It is observed that under appropriate conditions, localized plasma irregularities may be generated in this boundary layer. Theoretical and computational models are used to study the evolution of relevant plasma instabilities thought to play a dominant role in irregularity production. An electron flow develops along the boundary layer of the dust cloud, and plasma irregularities are generated in response to this flow. Several aspects of the cloud's structure (thickness of the boundary layer, average particle size and density, collisional processes, and cloud expansion speed) and the ambient plasma are varied to determine the effect of these quantities on the resulting irregularities. The relevance of these results to past experimental observations in space and the laboratory for applications to the expansion of naturally or artificially created dust clouds is discussed.

  5. Charged dust and shock phenomena in the Solar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Popel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on shock phenomena in dusty plasmas of the Solar System are reviewed. The problems of dust ion acoustic bow shock in interaction of the solar wind with dusty cometary coma and formation of transient atmospheres of atmosphereless cosmic bodies such as Moon, Mercury, asteroids and comets are considered. The latter assumes the evolution of meteoroid impact plumes and production of charged dust grains due to the condensation of both the plume substance and the vapor thrown from the crater and the surrounding regolith layer. Physical phenomena occurring during large meteoroid impacts can be modeled with the aid of active rocket experiments, which involve the release of some gaseous substance in near-Earth space. New vistas in investigation of shock processes in natural dusty plasmas are determined.

  6. Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely-used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important ...

  7. Harrison transformation of hyperelliptic solutions and charged dust disks

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, C

    2002-01-01

    We use a Harrison transformation on solutions to the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations to generate solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The case of hyperelliptic solutions to the Ernst equation is studied in detail. Analytic expressions for the metric and the multipole moments are obtained. As an example we consider the transformation of a family of counter-rotating dust disks. The resulting solutions can be interpreted as disks with currents and matter with a purely azimuthal pressure or as two streams of freely moving charged particles. We discuss interesting limiting cases as the extreme limit where the charge becomes identical to the mass, and the ultrarelativistic limit where the central redshift diverges.

  8. A note on dust grain charging in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Central to the study of dust-plasma interactions in the solar system is the electrostatic charging of dust grains. While previous calculations have generally assumed that the distributions of electrons and ions in the plasma are Maxwellian, most space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian tails and can often be fit by a generalized Lorentzian (kappa) distribution. Here we use such a distribution to reevaluate the grain potential, under the condition that the dominant currents to the grain are due to electron and ion collection, as is the case in certain regions of space. The magnitude of the grain potential is found to be larger than that in a Maxwellian plasma as long as the electrons are described by a kappa distribution: this enhancement increased with ion mass and decreasing electron kappa. The modification of the grain potential in generalized Lorentzian plasmas has implications for both the physics (e.g., grain growth and disruption) and the dynamics of dust in space plasmas. These are also briefly discussed.

  9. Influence of solar wind ions on photoemission charging of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouzak, Libor; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2016-04-01

    The lunar surface covered by a layer of dust grains is exposed to solar wind particles and photons coming from the Sun on the sunlit side. Solar wind ions cause sputtering of dust grains or can be implanted into grains. We suppose that as a consequence of ion implantation, an additional energy is transferred to grains, more valence band electrons are excited, and the photoelectron yield is increased. An increase of the photoelectron current causes the enhanced density of electrons that form a sheet above the illuminated lunar surface. Thus, an influence of solar wind ions on the Debye length and photoelectron sheet formation is expected. We present laboratory estimations of work functions and photoelectron yields of a single micron-sized silica grain before and after ion implantation. The silica grain used as a lunar simulant is caught in the electrodynamic trap. Grain's specific charge is evaluated by an analysis of the grain motion within the trap, while its work function is determined from observations of a time evolution of the charge-to-mass ratio when the grain is irradiated by photons of different emission lines. By comparison of the photoelectron current (from grain) with photon flux (from UV source), we establish the photoelectron yield of the trapped object. The influence of ion implantation is thoroughly analyzed and discussed.

  10. Evaluation of the electrical properties of dust storms by multi-parameter observations and theoretical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2017-03-01

    Dusty phenomena, such as wind-blown sand, dust devils, and dust storms, play key roles in Earth's climate and geological processes. Dust electrification considerably affects the lifting and transport of dust particles. However, the electrical properties of dust storms remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted multi-parameter measurements and theoretical calculations to investigate the electrical properties of dust storms and their application to dust storm prediction. The results show that the vertical electric field (E-field) decreases first, then increases, and finally decreases with the height above the ground, reversing its direction at two heights, ∼ 8- 12 and ∼ 24 m. This suggests that the charge polarity of dust particles changes from negative to positive and back to negative again as the height increases. By carefully analyzing the E-field and dust concentration data, we further found that there is a significant positive linear relationship between the measured E-field intensity and dust concentration at the given ambient conditions. In addition, measurements and calculations demonstrate that a substantial enhancement in the vertical E-field can be observed several hours before the arrival of the external-source dust storms, indicating that the E-field can be used to provide an early warning of external-source dust storms.

  11. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  12. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz

    2009-09-15

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  13. Attraction of positively charged dust grains in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2006-10-01

    In two recent papers, Delzanno et al. [1-2] have pointed out that an electron emitting dust grain immersed in a plasma can sustain profiles of the shielding potential having an attractive potential well. The existence of attractive potential wells around dust grains in a plasma is of considerable interest as it provides an alternative mechanism for the attraction of the grains. Moreover, this mechanism can play an important role in astrophysical scenarios, for example in star forming regions where a substantial UV field is responsible for grain photoemission. We have therefore developed a three-dimensional PIC code with the aim of studying the collapse of a system of grains undergoing gravitational and electrostatic forces (the latter modeled via the potential well discovered in Refs. [1,2]). We will show how the attractive potential well can indeed lead to the collapse of the system, at rates which can be higher with respect to the pure gravitational analogue. Further on, a pure monotonic Debye-Huckel electrostatic potential can impede the collapse, depending on the charge to mass ratio of the grains. These results are in agreement with the predictions of the linear theory we have recently developed [3]. [1] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004). [2] G. L. Delzanno, A. Bruno, G. Sorasio, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062102 (2005). [3] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 175005 (2005).

  14. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  15. Effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma with negative equilibrium dust charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Subrata; Ghosh, Uttam; Sarkar, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves in a complex plasma where equilibrium dust charge is negative. The primary electrons, secondary electrons, and ions are Boltzmann distributed, and only dust grains are inertial. Electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions have been neglected with the assumption that electron and ion mean free paths are very large compared to the plasma Debye length. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dust charge variations have been separately taken into account. In the case of adiabatic dust charge variation, nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves is governed by the KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, whereas for nonadiabatic dust charge variation, it is governed by the KdV-Burger equation. The solution of the KdV equation gives a dust acoustic soliton, whose amplitude and width depend on the secondary electron yield. Similarly, the KdV-Burger equation provides a dust acoustic shock wave. This dust acoustic shock wave may be monotonic or oscillatory in nature depending on the fact that whether it is dissipation dominated or dispersion dominated. Our analysis shows that secondary electron emission increases nonadiabaticity induced dissipation and consequently increases the monotonicity of the dust acoustic shock wave. Such a dust acoustic shock wave may accelerate charge particles and cause bremsstrahlung radiation in space plasmas whose physical process may be affected by secondary electron emission from dust grains. The effect of the secondary electron emission on the stability of the equilibrium points of the KdV-Burger equation has also been investigated. This equation has two equilibrium points. The trivial equilibrium point with zero potential is a saddle and hence unstable in nature. The nontrivial equilibrium point with constant nonzero potential is a stable node up to a critical value of the wave velocity and a stable focus above it. This critical

  16. Effect of dust size distribution and dust charge fluctuation on dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a multi-ion dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WANG HONGYAN; ZHANG KAIBIAO

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dust size distribution and dust charge fluctuation of dust grains on the small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust ion-acoustic shock waves, in an unmagnetized multi-ion dusty plasma which contains negative ions, positive ions and electrons, are studied in this paper. A Burgers equation and its stationary solutions are obtained by using the reductive perturbation method. The analytical and numerical results show that the height with polynomial dust size distribution is larger than that of the monosized dusty plasmas with the same dustgrains, but the thickness in the case of different dust grains is smaller than that of the monosized dusty plasmas. Furthermore, the moving speed of the shock waves also depend on different dust size distributions.

  17. Small-amplitude shock waves and double layers in dusty plasmas with opposite polarity charged dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, M.; Ema, S. A.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are massive, micron-sized, positive and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with q (nonextensive) distributed electrons and ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed in order to derive two types of nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and modified Gardner equation (Gardner equation with dissipative term). They are also numerically analyzed to investigate the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of shock waves and double layers. It has been observed that the effects of nonextensivity, opposite polarity charged dust grains, and different dusty plasma parameters have significantly modified the fundamental properties of shock waves and double layers. The results of this investigation may be used for researches of the nonlinear wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas.

  18. Stochastic Theory of Dust-Grain Charging in Low-Pressure Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, S N; Cabarrocas, P Roca i

    2013-01-01

    Charging of dust grains in low-pressure plasmas is reviewed critically. A theory based on the Fokker-Planck equation and orbital motion limited approximation is proposed. The theory predicts that dust grains can acquire a positive charge in low-pressure electropositive plasmas having a sufficiently high plasma potential, in agreement with experimental observations. It is also shown that variations in the plasma potential (electron temperature) can lead to spatial regions in which grains have opposite charges.

  19. Electrostatic shock waves in a nonthermal dusty plasma with oppositely charged dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. Mobarak; Nahar, L.; Alam, M. S.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of dust acoustic shock waves (DASHWs) have been carried out in electron-depleted magnetized dusty plasmas (consisting of mobile positively charged as well as negatively charged dust particles, and nonextensive q-distributed ions). The both positively and negatively charged dust kinematic viscosities are taken into account to derive the Burgers equation. It is observed that the viscous force (acting on both polarity charged dust particles) is the dissipitive source and responsible for the formation of DASHWs. It is seen that the electron-depleted magnetized plasma supports both (positive and negative) polarity shock structures. It is also seen that the basic features (i.e., amplitude, width, polarity, phase speed, etc.) of DASHWs are modified by the effects of ion nonextensivity, coefficient of viscosity, oblique angle, negative-to-positive dust mass ratio, ratio of the number of electrons on a negatively charged dust-to-the number of protons on a positively charged dust, and the ratio of the ion number density-to-the negative dust number density. The results of our present investigation may be useful to study the various space and laboratory plasmas, where dissipation due to kinematic viscosity can not be neglected.

  20. Dust charge fluctuation effects on Langmuir waves with kappa distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Rouhani, M. R.; Hakimi Pajouh, H.

    2016-03-01

    Using a kinetic description, dust charge fluctuations due to the inelastic collisions between dust particles and plasma particles are studied in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. Most astrophysical and space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian high energy tail. Therefore, a kappa distribution for electrons in the equilibrium is assumed. The dispersion relation and damping rates for Langmuir waves are obtained. Considering the dust charge fluctuations increases the damping rate of Langmuir waves. It is shown that the damping rate of Langmuir waves depends on the spectral index and the dust density parameter.

  1. 24 CFR 206.205 - Property charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property charges. 206.205 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities § 206.205 Property charges. (a) General. The mortgagor shall pay all property charges consisting of taxes, ground rents, flood and hazard...

  2. Stability Dust-Ion-Acoustic Wave in Dusty Plasmas With Stream -Influence of Charge Fluctuation of Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Atamaniuk, B; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zuchowski, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    There is a quickly increasing wealth of experimental data on so-called dusty plasmas i. e. ionized gases or usual plasmas that contain micron sized charged particles. Interest in these structures is driven both by their importance in many astrophysical as well as commercial situations. Among them are linear and nonlinear wave phenomena. We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on stability of the ion-acoustic waves when the stream of particles is present. It is assumed that all grains of dust have equal masses but charges are not constant in time-they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations of the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the...

  3. Attraction of likely charged nano-sized grains in dust-electron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, Vladimir I., E-mail: eksvar@ukr.net [Physical-Chemical Institute for Environmental and Human Protection, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    Dust-electron plasma, which contains only the dust grains and electrons, emitted by them, is studied. Assumption of almost uniform spatial electrons distribution, which deviates from the uniformity only near the dust grains, leads to the grain charge division into two parts: first part is the individual for each grain “visible” charge and the second part is the common charge of the neutralized background. The visible grain charge can be both negative and positive, while the total grain charge is only positive. The attraction of likely charged grains is possible, because the grain interaction is determined by the visible charges. The equilibrium state between attraction and repulsion of grains is demonstrated.

  4. Charge Fluctuation of Dust Grain and Its Impact on Dusty-Acoustic Wave Damping

    CERN Document Server

    Atamaniuk, B

    2007-01-01

    We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on damping of the dust-ion-acoustic waves. It is assumed that all grains have equal masses but charges are not constant in time - they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations in the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the wave mode. In the case considered here, when the temperature of electrons is much greater than the temperature of the ions and the temperature of electrons is not great enough for further ionization of the ions, we show that attenuation of the acoustic wave depends only on one phenomenological coefficient

  5. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  6. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, M.; Rapp, M.; Hartquist, T. W.; Havnes, O.

    2012-03-01

    We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE) dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  7. Collisionless damping of dust-acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Plasma Physics Group (PPG), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    The charge variation induced nonlinear dust-acoustic wave damping in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions is considered. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation the coefficients of which depend sensitively on the nonextensive parameter q. The damping term, solely due to the dust charge variation, is affected by the ion nonextensivity. For the sake of completeness, the possible effects of nonextensivity and collisionless damping on weakly nonlinear wave packets described by the dK-dV equation are succinctly outlined by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation with a complex nonlinear coefficient.

  8. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly magnetized plasma with variably charged dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh Bal; M Bose

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated analytically the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of an electromagnetic wave in non-dissipative weakly magnetized plasma in the presence of dust particles with variable charge.

  9. The Challenge of Incorporating Charged Dust in the Physics of Flowing Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y.; Lai, H.; Jian, L.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of two oppositely charged species with very different mass ratios leads to interesting physical processes and difficult numerical simulations. The reconnection problem is a classic example of this principle with a proton-electron mass ratio of 1836, but it is not the only example. Increasingly we are discovering situations in which heavy, electrically charged dust particles are major players in a plasma interaction. The mass of a 1mm dust particle is about 2000 proton masses and of a 10 mm dust particle about 2 million proton masses. One example comes from planetary magnetospheres. Charged dust pervades Enceladus' southern plume. The saturnian magnetospheric plasma flows through this dusty plume interacting with the charged dust and ionized plume gas. Multiple wakes are seen downstream. The flow is diverted in one direction. The field aligned-current systems are elsewhere. How can these two wake features be understood? Next we have an example from the solar wind. When asteroids collide in a disruptive collision, the solar wind strips the nano-scale charged dust from the debris forming a dusty plasma cloud that may be over 106km in extent and containing over 100 million kg of dust accelerated to the solar wind speed. How does this occur, especially as rapidly as it appears to happen? In this paper we illustrate a start on understanding these phenomena using multifluid MHD simulations but these simulations are only part of the answer to this complex problem that needs attention from a broader range of the community.

  10. Mechanical properties of dust collected by dust separators in iron ore sinter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-01-01

    The flow-related mechanical properties of dusts from the de-dusting systems of several sinter plants were investigated. The mass median diameters of the dusts were in the range from approximately 3 to 100 µm. Also, the bulk density of the dusts varied in a wide range (approximately 400 to 2300 kg/m³). A good correlation between the bulk density and the mass median diameter for most of the dusts was found. In contrast, the angles of repose did not vary very much, only for the coarsest dust a significantly lower value was measured. The angles of internal friction as well as the wall friction angles were lower for coarse dust and higher for fine dust. The shear tests showed that both angles depend considerably on the stress level. At low stress, the angles decreased significantly with increasing values of stress, whereas at higher stress, the dependence was small or even disappeared. The only exception to this behaviour was shown by the finest dust. The flowability decreased with the particle size. The flowability categories suggested by the three flowability indicators were passable only for the coarser dusts. For the finer dusts, the flowability was overestimated by all flowability indicators.

  11. Dust-lower-hybrid instability with fluctuating charge in quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M.; Ali, M.; Rasheed, A.; Zubia, K.; Salimullah, M.

    2015-03-01

    The instability of Dust-Lower-Hybrid (DLH) wave is examined in detail in the uniform dusty magnetoplasmas. The time dependent charging effects on dust particles around its equilibrium charge Qd0 are taken into account based on Orbit-Limited Probe theory. The quantum characteristics of the system like Bohm potential and Fermi degenerate pressure are dealt using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. The external magnetic field and size of the dust particles have new physical effects over the dissipative instability of DLH wave in the quantum plasma regime.

  12. The dust-acoustic mode in two-temperature electron plasmas with charging effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhong Xijuan; Chen Hui; Liu Nianhua; Liu Sanqiu

    2016-04-01

    Dust charging in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma with two-temperature electrons was investigated based on the orbital motion limited theory, where the two-temperature electrons and ions are modelled by the Maxwellian distributions. Then by taking into account the effects of two-temperature electron and the associated charging fluctuations, the dispersion peculiarities of dust-acoustic waves are studied based on dust fluid dynamics. The present results show that the effect will introduce a dissipation on the mode, and the dispersion and the dissipation depend on the temperature ratio and number density ratio of hot and cold electrons.

  13. Dust-lower-hybrid instability with fluctuating charge in quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ali, M. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, NUST, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Rasheed, A. [Department of Physics, GC University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Zubia, K. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salimullah, M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)

    2015-03-15

    The instability of Dust-Lower-Hybrid (DLH) wave is examined in detail in the uniform dusty magnetoplasmas. The time dependent charging effects on dust particles around its equilibrium charge Q{sub d0} are taken into account based on Orbit-Limited Probe theory. The quantum characteristics of the system like Bohm potential and Fermi degenerate pressure are dealt using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. The external magnetic field and size of the dust particles have new physical effects over the dissipative instability of DLH wave in the quantum plasma regime.

  14. Interaction of solitary waves in magnetized warm dusty plasmas with dust charging effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ju-Kui

    2006-01-01

    In consideration of adiabatic dust charge variation, the combined effect of the external magnetized field and the dust temperature on head-on collision of the three-dimensional dust acoustic solitary waves is investigated. By using the extended Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method, the phase shifts and the trajectories of two solitons after the collision are obtained. The effects of the magnitude and the obliqueness of the external magnetic field and the dust temperature on the solitary wave collisions are discussed in detail.

  15. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Batyr; Yang, Jinye

    2016-01-01

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust. We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron K{\\alpha} line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solution from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions.

  16. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...

  17. Ice nucleation properties of agricultural soil dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Isabelle; Funk, Roger; Busse, Jacqueline; Iturri, Antonela; Kirchen, Silke; Leue, Martin; Möhler, Ottmar; Schwartz, Thomas; Sierau, Berko; Toprak, Emre; Ulrich, Andreas; Hoose, Corinna; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil dust particles emitted from agricultural areas contain large amounts of organic material such as fungi, bacteria and plant debris. Being carrier for potentially highly ice-active biological particles, agricultural soil dusts are candidates for being very ice-active as well. In this work, we present ice nucleation experiments conducted in the AIDA cloud chamber. We investigated the ice nucleation efficiency of four types of soil dust from different regions of the world. Results are presented for the immersion freezing and the deposition nucleation mode: all soil dusts show higher ice nucleation efficiencies than desert dusts, especially at temperatures above 254 K. For one soil dust sample, the effect of heat treatments was investigated. Heat treatments did not affect the ice nucleation efficiency which presumably excludes primary biological particles as the only source of the increased ice nucleation efficiency. Therefore, organo-mineral complexes or organic compounds may contribute substantially to the high ice nucleation activity of agricultural soil dusts.

  18. Changes of Dust Grain Properties Under Particle Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlů, J.; Richterová, I.; Fujita, D.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.

    2008-09-01

    The dust in space environments is exposed to particle bombardment. Under an impact of ions, electrons, and photons, the charge of a particular grain changes and, in some cases, the grain structure can be modified. The present study deals with spherical melamine formaldehyde resin grains that are frequently used in many dusty plasmas and microgravity experiments and it concentrates on the influence of the electron beam impact on a grain size. We have performed series of experiments based on the SEM technique. Our investigation has shown that the electron impact can cause a significant increase of the grain size. We discuss changes of material properties and consequences for its applications in laboratory and space experiments.

  19. Self-organization and oscillation of negatively charged dust particles in a 2-dimensional dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.L. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, F., E-mail: huangfeng@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: chenzy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Laser Propulsion & Application, Beijing 101416 (China); Liu, Y.H. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Yu, M.Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-02-22

    Negatively charged dust particles immersed in 2-dimensional dusty plasma system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the confinement potential and attraction interaction potential on dust particle self-organization are studied in detail and two typical dust particle distributions are obtained when the system reaches equilibrium. The average radial velocity (ARV), average radial force (ARF) and radial mean square displacement are employed to analyze the dust particles' dynamics. Both ARVs and ARFs exhibit oscillation behaviors when the simulation system reaches equilibrium state. The relationships between the oscillation and confinement potential and attraction potential are studied in this paper. The simulation results are qualitatively similar to experimental results. - Highlights: • Self-organization and oscillation of a 2-dimensional dusty plasma is investigated. • Effect of the confinement potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is given. • Effect of the attraction potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is studied.

  20. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Rahman; A A Mamun

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.

  1. Effect of trapped ions and nonequilibrium electron-energy distribution function on dust-particle charging in gas discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2009-03-01

    Dust-particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically. The dust-particle charge was found on the basis of a developed self-consistent model taking into account the nonequilibrium character of electron distribution function and the formation of an ionic coat composed of bound or trapped ions around the dust particle. The dust-particle charge, the radial distributions of electron density, free and trapped ions densities, and the distribution of electrostatic potential were found. It was shown that the non-Maxwellian electron distribution function and collisional flux of trapped ions both reduce the dust-particle charge in comparison with that received with the help of the conventional orbital motion limited (OML) model. However, in rare collisional regimes in plasma when the collisional flux is negligible, the formation of ionic coat around a particle leads to a shielding of the proper charge of a dust particle. In low-pressure experiments, it is only possible to detect the effective charge of a dust particle that is equal to the difference between the proper charge of the particle and the charge of trapped ions. The calculated effective dust particle charge is in fairly good agreement with the experimental measurements of dust-particle charge dependence on gas pressure.

  2. The Effect of the Charge Fluctuation of Dust Particles on Ion-acoustic Wave Excited Through Ioniza tion Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华建军; 刘金远; 马腾才

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the charge fluctuation of dust particles on ion acoustic wave (IAW) excited through ionization instability was investigated. The hydrodynamic equations and linear time-dependent perturbation theory served as the starting point of theory, by which the dispersion relation and growth rate of the IAW were given. By comparing the results with the case of constant dust charges, it was found that the charge fluctuation of dust particles reduces the instability of the wave mode.

  3. Characteristics of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma with effect of adiabatic and nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raicharan Denra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.

  4. Characteristics of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma with effect of adiabatic and nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denra, Raicharan; Paul, Samit; Sarkar, Susmita

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.

  5. Large amplitude solitary waves in ion-beam plasmas with charged dust impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A P

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of large amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves (SWs) in an ion-beam plasma with stationary charged dusts is investigated. For typical plasma parameters relevant for experiments [J. Plasma Phys. \\textbf{60}, 69 (1998)], when the beam speed is larger than the DIA speed ($v_{b0}\\gtrsim1.7c_s$), three stable waves, namely the "fast" and "slow" ion-beam modes and the plasma DIA wave are shown to exist. These modes can propagate as SWs in the beam plasmas. However, in the other regime ($c_s0)$ is found to be limited by a critical value which typically depends on $M$, $v_{b0}$ as well as the ion/beam temperature. The conditions for the existence of DIA solitons are obtained and their properties are analyzed numerically in terms of the system parameters. While the system supports both the compressive and rarefactive large amplitude SWs, the small amplitude solitons exist only of the compressive type. The theoretical results may be useful for observation of soliton excitations in l...

  6. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  7. Influence of dust charge fluctuation and polarization force on radiative condensation instability of magnetized gravitating dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, R.P., E-mail: prajapati_iter@yahoo.co.in; Bhakta, S.

    2015-10-30

    The influence of dust charge fluctuation, thermal speed and polarization force due to massive charged dust grains is studied on the radiative condensation instability (RCI) of magnetized self-gravitating astrophysical dusty (complex) plasma. The dynamics of the charged dust and inertialess electrons are considered while the Boltzmann distributed ions are assumed to be thermal. The dusty fluid model is formulated and the general dispersion relations are derived analytically using the plane wave solutions under the long wavelength limits in both the presence and the absence of dust charge fluctuations. The combined effects of polarization force, dust thermal speed, dust charge fluctuation and dust cyclotron frequency are observed on the low frequency wave modes and radiative modified Jeans Instability. The classical criterion of RCI is also derived which remains unaffected due to the presence of these parameters. Numerical calculations have been performed to calculate the growth rate of the system and plotted graphically. We find that dust charge fluctuation, radiative cooling and polarization force have destabilizing while dust thermal speed and dust cyclotron frequency have stabilizing influence on the growth rate of Jeans instability. The results have been applied to understand the radiative cooling process in dusty molecular cloud when both the dust charging and polarization force are dominant. - Highlights: • We study combined influence of dust charge fluctuation and polarization force on RCI of dusty plasma. • The modified dispersion characteristics and conditions of Jeans and radiative instabilities are obtained. • In the photo-association region various parameters are numerically estimated. • The dust charge fluctuation, radiative cooling and polarization force have destabilizing influence on the growth rate.

  8. Simulation of Dust Charging and Shielding in the Presence of a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, Chris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2006-10-01

    We explore the charging of a dust particle immersed in a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. The dust particle charges due to the flowing electrons and ions within the plasma and is allowed to emit electrons via thermionic emission and photoemission. Several parameters are obtained and compared with basic simulations without the magnetic field using the 2-D, 3-V DEMOCRITUS code developed at LANL. Next we look at the effect of this dust particle charging in the presence of another dust particle. Delzanno, et al. [1] showed that for a thermionically emitting particle immersed in a plasma, an attractive potential well can form. This leads to the attraction of particles with like charges, such as another dust grain. We explore the attractive forces between two particles as a function of their separation. If the attractive potential well is deep enough, the two particles will combine, thereby creating macro-particles. We study this in an astrophysical sense, looking at this phenomenon as a possible source of galactic formation. [1] G.L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, and M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004)

  9. UV extinction properties of carina nebular dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Derck

    1993-01-01

    I have performed an analysis of the UV extinction by dust along the line of sight to the young open cluster Tr 16. The observed curves are parameterized in order to extract quantitative information about the structure of the curves. Furthermore, by constructing differential extinction curves, obtained by differencing curves for stars which lie within a few arc seconds of each other on the sky, I was able to obtain a curve which is free of the effects of foreground extinction, and represents the extinction by the dust in the Tr 16 molecular cloud. I then show that this curve is nearly identical to one due to dust in the Orion molecular cloud. This result shows that dust in the Carina arm exhibits the same behavior as that in the local arm.

  10. Charge Balance in the Mesosphere with Meteoric Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S. H.; Asmus, H.; Dickson, S.; Friedrich, M.; Megner, L. S.

    2013-12-01

    An aerosol particle charging model developed initially for noctilucent cloud particles has been extended in several steps in order to better explain data for charged meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) returned by the nighttime and daytime CHAMPS rockets launched from the Andøya rocket Range, Norway, in October 2011. Addition of photodetachment to the model shows that this process reduces the number density of positively charged MSPs as well as the number density of negatively charged MSPs as a consequence of the photodetached electrons neutralizing the positively charged MSPs. In addition, the model shows that the ionization rate can be deduced from the electron number density and the electron-ion recombination rate only at the highest altitudes as a consequence of recombination of electrons on the MSPs at lower altitudes. The differences between the daytime and nighttime data place constraints on the photodetachment rate. A further extension of the model to include the formation of negative ions and their destruction by atomic oxygen helps explain the ledge seen in the number density of the lightest negatively charged particles. MSP particle densities from the CARMA/CHEM2D model are in better agreement with rocket data for assumed values of the meteor input flux that are at the low end of the generally accepted range.

  11. Simulation of the electrostatic charging of Philae on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and of its interaction with the dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L. G.; Sarrailh, P.; Matéo-Vélez, J.-C.; Forest, J.; Jeanty-Ruard, B.; Cipriani, F.

    2015-12-01

    ROSETTA's probe Philae landed on a dust covered soil. This dust may be ejected from the ground through many mechanisms (other than spacecraft landing) : micro-meteorite impacts, electrostatic charging and soil outgassing. In any cases, the dust grains charge electrostatically in the ambient plasma and this charge impacts the dust interaction with the spacecraft, which is itself differentially charged due to its partial exposure to the solar UV light. Using the DUST addition to the Spacecraft-Plasma Interaction Software (SPIS) routinely used to compute the charge state of the spacecraft surfaces, we simulate the electrostatic charging of Philae as well as its dust environment. SPIS-DUST allows one to compute the electrostatic charging of the dust grains on the ground and in the plasma, and to model their ejection and their recollection by the probe. We simulated one cometary day of the Philae environment at different distances from the sun to observe the variation of the dust collection with Philae's local time.

  12. Charged cosmological dust solutions of the coupled Einstein and Maxwell equations

    CERN Document Server

    Spruck, Joel

    2010-01-01

    It is well known through the work of Majumdar, Papapetrou, Hartle, and Hawking that the coupled Einstein and Maxwell equations admit a static multiple blackhole solution representing a balanced equilibrium state of finitely many point charges. This is a result of the exact cancellation of gravitational attraction and electric repulsion under an explicit condition on the mass and charge ratio. The resulting system of particles, known as an extremely charged dust, gives rise to examples of spacetimes with naked singularities. In this paper, we consider the continuous limit of the Majumdar--Papapetrou--Hartle--Hawking solution modeling a space occupied by an extended distribution of extremely charged dust. We show that for a given smooth distribution of matter of finite ADM mass there is a continuous family of smooth solutions realizing asymptotically flat space metrics.

  13. Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

  14. Influence of charging process and size distribution of dust grain on the electric conductivity of dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Jizheng; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Ma Shengqian; Hong Xueren; Sun Jianan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-08-15

    The effects of dust size distribution and charging process of dust grains on the complex electric conductivity of dusty plasmas have been investigated in the present paper. Comparisons are made between real dusty plasma in which there are many different dust grain species and the mono-sized dusty plasma (MDP) in which there is only one kind of dust grain whose size is the average dust size. In some cases the complex electric conductivity of real dusty plasma is larger than that of MDP, while in other cases it is smaller than that of MDP, it depends on the dust size distribution function.

  15. A Comparison of the Mineral Dust Absorptive Properties between Two Asian Dust Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiquan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust events are generated by deep convection from strong low pressure systems that form over mineral dust source regions. This study compares the mineral dust optical properties of two strong Asian dust events from the winter (December 2007 and spring (March 2010 seasons using AERONET retrieved parameters from three sites along the dust event path: SACOL (dust source region, Xianghe (downwind mixed aerosol region, and Taihu (downwind pollution region. The parameters include: aerosol effective radius, optical depth (t, absorptive optical depth (tabs, their respective wavelength dependences or Angstrom exponents (a and aabs, and the spectral single scattering albedo (wo(λ. The a440–870 values in both cases do not exceed 0.62 indicating coarse mode particle dominance at all three sites. The winter case is shown to have carbonaceous influences at all three sites as given by aabs440–870 between 1.3 and 1.8 with strong spectral tabs absorption. The spring case is more dust dominant with aabs440–870 of 1.7–2.5 (noting that the largest value occurred at Taihu with strong tabs absorption primarily in the visible wavelengths. Comparison studies between the observed and theoretically calculated wo(λ for the winter and spring cases have shown an excellent agreement except for the winter case at Taihu due to pollution influences. The comparison studies also suggest that wo(λ is more sensitive to particle absorptive properties rather than particle size. The sharp increase in the aerosol radiative effect (ARE during the dust events with AREBOA > ARETOA suggests a stronger aerosol cooling effect at the surface than at the TOA.

  16. Dust Properties in HII Regions in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Relano, M; Lisenfeld, U; Verley, S; Hermelo, I; Boquien, M; Albrecht, M; Kramer, C; Braine, J; Perez-Montero, E; De Looze, I; Xilouris, M; Kovacs, A; Staguhn, J

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the IR emission into star formation rate can be strongly dependent on the physical properties of the dust, which are affected by the environmental conditions where the dust is embedded. We study here the dust properties of a set of HII regions in the Local Group Galaxy M33 presenting different spatial configurations between the stars, gas and dust to understand the dust evolution under different environments. We model the SED of each region using the DustEM tool and obtain the mass relative to hydrogen for Very Small Grains (YVSG), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (YPAH) and Big Grains (YBG). The relative mass of the VSGs (YVSG/YTOT) is a factor of 1.7 higher for HII regions classified as filled and mixed than for regions presenting a shell structure. The enhancement of VSGs within NGC 604 and NGC 595 is correlated to expansive gas structures with velocities greater than 50 km/s. The gas-to-dust ratio derived for the HII regions in our sample exhibits two regimes related to the HI-H2 transit...

  17. Dust properties in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the ratio of total-to-selective extinction RV in dust in the interstellar medium differs in the Galactic bulge from its value in the local neighborhood. Aims: We attempt to test this suggestion. Methods: The mid-infrared hydrogen lines in 16 Galactic bulge PNe mea

  18. Connecting The Interstellar Gas And Dust Properties Of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    The properties of interstellar gas and dust in distant galaxies are fundamental parameters in constraining galaxy evolution models. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous background quasars, provide invaluable tools to directly study gas and dust in distant normal galaxies. Recent studies of QASs have found interesting trends in both gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. Our Spitzer spectroscopic studies also indicate that silicate dust grains are present in QASs, and in fact, at a level higher than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Moreover, the silicate dust grains in these distant galaxies may be substantially more crystalline than those in the Milky Way interstellar medium. We now propose a comprehensive study of the gas and dust properties of all QASs with strong Ly-alpha and/or metal absorption lines that have adequate archival IR data to probe the study of dust. Our analysis will include data primarily from the NASA-supported Spitzer, Herschel, HST, and Keck Observatory archives, along with a small amount of VLT/SDSS archival data. Our specific goals are as follows: (1) We will measure a large range of metal absorption lines in high-resolution quasar spectra from Keck, HST, and VLT archives to uniformly determine the metallicity, dust depletions, ionization, and star formation rates in the foreground QASs. In particular, we will study the variations in these quantities with gas velocity, using Voigt profile fitting techniques to determine the velocity structure. This analysis will also allow us to quantify the kinematics of the absorbing gas. (2) We will use archival Spitzer IRS quasar spectra to search for and measure the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features for a much larger sample of QASs than previously studied. (3) We will fit the observed silicate absorption features in the Spitzer archival

  19. Stable motions of charged dust grains subject to solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the mean interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting-Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semi-major axis on secular time scales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semi-major axis.

  20. Charge of interstellar dust in dense molecular clouds: Effect of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, Alexei; Galli, Daniele; Caselli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The local cosmic-ray (CR) spectra are calculated for typical characteristic regions of a cold dense molecular cloud, to investigate two so far neglected mechanisms of dust charging: collection of suprathermal CR electrons and protons by grains, and photoelectric emission from grains due to the UV radiation generated by CRs. The two mechanisms add to the conventional charging by ambient plasma, produced in the cloud by CRs. We show that the CR-induced photoemission can dramatically modify the charge distribution function for submicron grains. We demonstrate the importance of the obtained results for dust coagulation: While the charging by ambient plasma alone leads to a strong Coulomb repulsion between grains and inhibits their further coagulation, the combination with the photoemission provides optimum conditions for the growth of large dust aggregates in a certain region of the cloud, corresponding to the densities $n(\\mathrm{H_2})$ between $\\sim10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $\\sim10^6$ cm$^{-3}$. The charging effect o...

  1. Comparison of dust charging between Orbital-Motion-Limited theory and Particle-In-Cell simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Delzanno, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    The Orbital-Motion-Limited (OML) theory has been modified to predict the dust charge and the results were contrasted with the Whipple approximation [Tang and Delzanno, Phys. Plasmas 21, 123708 (2014)]. To further establish its regime of applicability, in this paper the OML predictions (for a non-electron-emitting, spherical dust grain at rest in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma) are compared with Particle-In-Cell simulations that retain the absorption radius effect. It is found that for large dust grain radius $r_d$ relative to the plasma Debye length $\\lambda_D$, the revised OML theory remains a very good approximation as, for the parameters considered ($r_d/\\lambda_D\\le10$, equal electron and ion temperatures), it yields the dust charge to within $20\\%$ accuracy. This is a substantial improvement over the Whipple approximation. The dust collected currents and energy fluxes, which remain the same in the revised and standard OML theories, are accurate to within $15-30\\%$.

  2. Dust dynamics and evolution in expanding HII regions. I. Radiative drift of neutral and charged grains

    CERN Document Server

    Akimkin, V V; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya N; Wiebe, D S

    2015-01-01

    We consider dust drift under the influence of stellar radiation pressure during the pressure-driven expansion of an HII region using the chemo-dynamical model MARION. Dust size distribution is represented by four dust types: conventional polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), very small grains (VSGs), big grains (BGs) and also intermediate-sized grains (ISGs), which are larger than VSGs and smaller than BGs. The dust is assumed to move at terminal velocity determined locally from the balance between the radiation pressure and gas drag. As Coulomb drag is an important contribution to the overall gas drag, we evaluate a grain charge evolution within the HII region for each dust type. BGs are effectively swept out of the HII region. The spatial distribution of ISGs within the HII region has a double peak structure, with a smaller inner peak and a higher outer peak. PAHs and VSGs are mostly coupled to the gas. The mean charge of PAHs is close to zero, so they can become neutral from time to time because of char...

  3. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  4. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  5. Effects of nonthermal distribution of electrons and polarity of net dust-charge number density on nonplanar dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A A; Shukla, P K

    2009-09-01

    Effects of the nonthermal distribution of electrons as well as the polarity of the net dust-charge number density on nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that the basic features of the DIASWs are significantly modified by the effects of nonthermal electron distribution, polarity of net dust-charge number density, and nonplanar geometry. The implications of our results in some space and laboratory dusty plasma environments are briefly discussed.

  6. Origin of Interplanetary Dust through Optical Properties of Zodiacal Light

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hongu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the origin of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) through the optical properties, albedo and spectral gradient, of zodiacal light. The optical properties were compared with those of potential parent bodies in the solar system, which include D-type (as analogue of cometary nuclei), C-type, S-type, X-type, and B-type asteroids. We applied Bayesian inference on the mixture model made from the distribution of these sources, and found that >90% of the interplanetary dust particles originate from comets (or its spectral analogues, D-type asteroids). Although some classes of asteroids (C-type and X-type) may make a moderate contribution, ordinary chondrite-like particles from S-type asteroids occupy a negligible fraction of the interplanetary dust cloud complex. The overall optical properties of the zodiacal light were similar to those of chondritic porous IDPs, supporting the dominance of cometary particles in zodiacal cloud.

  7. Inferring the interplanetary dust properties from remote observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lasue, Jeremie; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Since in situ studies and interplanetary dust collections only provide a spatially limited amount of information about the interplanetary dust properties, it is of major importance to complete these studies with properties inferred from remote observations of light scattered and emitted, with interpretation through simulations. Physical properties of the interplanetary dust in the near-ecliptic symmetry surface, such as the local polarization, temperature and composition, together with their heliocentric variations, may be derived from scattered and emitted light observations, giving clues to the respective contribution of the particles sources. A model of light scattering by a cloud of solid particles constituted by spheroidal grains and aggregates thereof is used to interpret the local light scattering data. Equilibrium temperature of the same particles allows us to interpret the temperature heliocentric variations. A good fit of the local polarization phase curve, $P_{\\alpha}$, near 1.5~AU from the Sun is ...

  8. Radial distribution of stars, gas and dust in SINGS galaxies. II. Derived dust properties

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Mateos, J C; Boissier, S; Zamorano, J; Dale, D A; Pérez-González, P G; Gallego, J; Madore, B F; Bendo, G; Thornley, M D; Draine, B T; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Kennicutt, R C; 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/1965

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radial distribution of dust properties in the SINGS sample, performed on a set of UV, IR and HI surface brightness profiles, combined with published molecular gas profiles and metallicity gradients. The internal extinction, derived from the TIR-to-FUV luminosity ratio, decreases with radius, and is larger in Sb-Sbc galaxies. The TIR-to-FUV ratio correlates with the UV spectral slope beta, following a sequence shifted to redder UV colors with respect to that of starbursts. The star formation history (SFH) is identified as the main driver of this departure. We have also derived radial profiles of the total dust mass surface density, the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, the fraction of the dust mass heated by very intense starlight and the intensity of the radiation field heating the grains. The dust profiles are exponential, their radial scale-length being constant from Sb to Sd galaxies (only ~10% larger than the stellar scale-length). Many S0/a-Sab galaxies ...

  9. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  10. Modelling the dust emission from dense interstellar clouds: disentangling the effects of radiative transfer and dust properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ysard, N.; Juvela, M.; Demyk, K.; Guillet, V.; Abergel, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Malinen, J.; Mény, C.; Montier, L.; Paradis, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; L. Verstraete

    2012-01-01

    With Planck and Herschel, we now have the spectral coverage and angular resolution required to observe dense and cold molecular clouds. As these clouds are optically thick at short wavelength but optically thin at long wavelength, it is tricky to conclude anything about dust properties without a proper treatment of the radiative transfer (RT). Our aim is to disentangle the effects of RT and of dust properties on the variations in the dust emission to provide observers with keys to analyse the...

  11. Dust properties of the cometary globule Barnard 207 (LDN 1489)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togi, Aditya; Witt, Adolf N.; John, Demi St.

    2017-09-01

    Barnard 207 (B207, LDN 1489, LBN 777), also known as the Vulture Head nebula, is a cometary globule in the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus molecular cloud region. B207 is known to host a Class I protostar, IRAS 04016+2610, located at a projected distance of 8400 au from the dense core centre. Using imaging and photometry over a wide wavelength range, from UV to sub-mm, we study the physical properties of B207 and the dust grains contained within. The core density, temperature, and mass are typical of other globules found in the Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM). The increase in the dust albedo with increasing optical wavelengths, along with the detection of coreshine in the near infrared, indicates the presence of larger dust grains in B207. The measured optical, near-, mid- and far-infrared intensities are in agreement with the CMM+AMM and CMM+AMMI dust grain type of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), suggesting mantle formation on the dust grains throughout the globule. We investigate the possibility of turbulence being responsible for diffusing dust grains from the central core to external outer layers of B207. However, in situ formation of large dust grains cannot be excluded. The reduced images (FITS file) in UV and optical bands are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A99

  12. Optical Properties of Complex Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, A C; Niklasson, G A; Pustovit, V N

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in space may appear as clusters of individual grains. The morphology of these clusters could be of a fractal or more compact nature. To investigate how the cluster morphology influences the calculated extinction of different clusters in the wavelength range 0.1 - 100 micron, we have preformed extinction calculations of three-dimensional clusters consisting of identical touching spherical particles arranged in three different geometries: prefractal, simple cubic and face-centered cubic. In our calculations we find that the extinction of prefractal and compact clusters are of the same order of magnitude. For the calculations, we have performed an in-depth comparison of the theoretical predictions of extinction coefficients of multi-sphere clusters derived by rigorous solutions, on the one hand, and popular discrete-dipole approximations, on the other. This comparison is essential if one is to assess the degree of reliability of model calculations made with the discrete-dipole approximations, whic...

  13. Formation and properties of astrophysical carbonaceous dust

    CERN Document Server

    Mauney, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of grain nucleation suffers from both theoretical and predictive deficiencies. We strive to alleviate these deficiencies in our understanding of dust formation and growth by utilizing an atomistic model of nucleation. Carbon cluster geometries are determined with a set of global minimization algorithms. Using density functional theory, the binding energies of carbon clusters from $n=2$ to $n=99$ are then calculated. These energies are used to calculate the critical size and nucleation rate of carbon clusters. We find that the critical cluster size is largely determined by the changes in geometry of the clusters. Clusters with size $n=27$ and $n=8$, roughly corresponding to the transition from ring-to-fullerene geometry and chain-to-ring geometry respectively, are the critical sizes across the range of temperature and saturation where nucleation is significant. In contrast to the classical theory, nucleation is enhanced at low-temperatures, and suppressed at high temperatures. These result...

  14. Secondary electron emission from a charged spherical dust particle due to electron incidence according to OML model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y., E-mail: tomita@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Huang, Z.H.; Pan, Y.D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Yan, L.W. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Effect of secondary electron emission (SEE) current to dust charging and influence to forces on a dust particle are studied according to the orbital motion limited (OML) model. As higher electron temperature increases the SEE current, the negative dust charge decreases. As a result, the ion friction force on the dust particle decreases. The critical electron temperatures without the dust charge are 75.1, 70.3 and 55.9 eV for graphite and are 31.3, 30.4 and 27.1 eV for tungsten to the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub e} = 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0, respectively. At the critical electron temperature, there is no ion scattering force but the ion absorption force remains finite.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of the Neutral Gas, Ions, and Charged Dust in Europa's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenishev, V.; Borovikov, D.; Rubin, M.; Jia, X.; Combi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Europa has been a subject of active research during the last few decades both through in-situ and remote sensing observations as well as theoretical considerations. Linking the magnetosphere and the moon's surface and interior, Europa's exosphere has become one of the primary objects of study in the field. Understanding the physical processes occurring in the exosphere and its chemical composition is required for the understanding of the interaction between Europa and Jupiter. Europa's surface-bound exosphere originates mostly from ion sputtering of the water ice surface. Minor neutral species and ions of exospheric origin are produced via photolytic and electron impact reactions. The interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere and Europa affects the exospheric population of both neutrals and ions via source and loss processes. Moreover, the Lorentz force causes the newly created exospheric ions to move preferably aligned with the magnetic field lines. Contrary to the ions, heavier and slow-moving charged dust grains are mostly affected by gravity and the electric field component of the Lorentz force. As a result, escaping dust forms a narrow tail aligned in the direction of the convection electric field. Here we present results of a kinetic model of the neutral species (H2O, OH, O2, O, and H), ions (O+, O2+, H+, H2+, H2O+, and OH+), and neutral and charged dust in Europa's exosphere. In our model H2O and O2 are produced via sputtering and other exospheric neutral and ions species are produced via photolytic and electron impact reactions. For the charged dust we compute the equilibrium grain charge by balancing the electron and ion collecting currents according to the local plasma flow conditions at the grain's location. For the tracking of the ions, charged dust, and the calculation of the grains' charge we use plasma density and velocity, and the magnetic field derived from our multi-fluid MHD model of Europa

  16. Nonlinear pulsational eigenmodes of a planar collisional dust molecular cloud with grain-charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Borah, B.

    2013-09-01

    We try to present a theoretical evolutionary model leading to the excitations of nonlinear pulsational eigenmodes in a planar (1D) collisional dust molecular cloud (DMC) on the Jeans scale. The basis of the adopted model is the Jeans assumption of self-gravitating homogeneous uniform medium for simplification. It is a self-gravitating multi-fluid consisting of the Boltzmann distributed warm electrons and ions, and the inertial cold dust grains with partial ionization. Dust-charge fluctuations, convections and all the possible collisions are included. The grain-charge behaves as a dynamical variable owing mainly to the attachment of the electrons and ions to the grain-surfaces randomly. The adopted technique is centered around a mathematical model based on new solitary spectral patterns within the hydrodynamic framework. The collective dynamics of the patterns is governed by driven Korteweg-de Vries ( d-KdV) and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations obtained by a standard multiscale analysis. Then, simplified analytical and numerical solutions are presented. The grain-charge fluctuation and collision processes play a key role in the DMC stability. The sensitive dependence of the eigenmode amplitudes on diverse relevant plasma parameters is discussed. The significance of the main results in astrophysical, laboratory and space environments are concisely summarized.

  17. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University undergraduate research experience.

  18. Dust Continuum Observations of Protostars: Constraining Properties with Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella S R

    2012-01-01

    The properties of unresolved protostars and their local environment (e.g., disk, envelope and outflow characteristics) are frequently inferred from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) through comparison with idealized model SEDs. However, if it is not possible to image a source and its environment directly, it is difficult to constrain and evaluate the accuracy of these derived properties. In this proceeding, I present a brief overview of the reliability of SED modeling by analyzing dust continuum synthetic observations of realistic simulations.

  19. Kadomstev–Petviashvili (KP) equation in warm dusty plasma with variable dust charge, two-temperature ion and nonthermal electron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamid Reza Pakzad

    2010-04-01

    In this work, the propagation of nonlinear waves in warm dusty plasmas with variable dust charge, two-temperature ion and nonthermal electron is studied. By using the reductive perturbation theory, the Kadomstev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived. The energy of the soliton and the linear dispersion relation are obtained. The effects of variable dust charge on the energy of soliton and the angular frequency of linear wave are also discussed.

  20. The dust properties of the Beta Pictoris disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augereau, J.-C.

    2014-09-01

    The dust grains in orbit around Beta Pictoris are an essential source of information about its planetary system. Their spatial distribution and properties tell us about the dynamics and composition of their parent, km-sized bodies, and how they interact with the planet(s). Since its discovery, thirty years ago, the Beta Pictoris disk has been intensively observed with a wealth of technics that probed the dust grains at different spatial scales and different wavelengths: broad-band photometry, (infrared) spectroscopy, scattered light and thermal emission direct imaging, polarimetry, optical and millimeter interferometry... In this talk, I will try to take stock of the knowledge accumulated over the last thirty years on dust in the planetary system of Beta Pictoris. Specific emphasis will be placed on the numerous remaining uncertainties.

  1. Dust optical properties retrieved from ground-based polarimetric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Goloub, Philippe; Blarel, Luc; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Podvin, Thierry; Jankowiak, Isabelle

    2007-03-20

    We have systematically processed one year of sunphotometer measurements (recorded at five AERONET/PHOTONS sites in Africa) in order to assess mineral dust optical properties with the use of a new polarimetry-based algorithm. We consider the Cimel CE318 polarized sunphotometer version to obtain single-scattering albedo, scattering phase matrix elements F(11) and F(12) for dust aerosols selected with Angström exponents ranging from -0.05 to 0.25. Retrieved F(11) and F(12) differ significantly from those of spherical particles. The degree of linear polarization -F(12)/F(11) for single scattering of atmospheric total column dust aerosols in the case of unpolarized incident light is systematically retrieved for the first time to our knowledge from sunphotometer measurements and shows consistency with previous laboratory characterizations of nonspherical particles.

  2. Dust properties inside molecular clouds from coreshine modeling and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lefèvre, Charlène; Juvela, Mika; Paladini, Roberta; Lallement, Rosine; Marshall, D J; Andersen, Morten; Bacmann, Aurore; Mcgee, Peregrine M; Montier, Ludovic; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Pelkonen, V -M; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Steinacker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Context. Using observations to deduce dust properties, grain size distribution, and physical conditions in molecular clouds is a highly degenerate problem. Aims. The coreshine phenomenon, a scattering process at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m that dominates absorption, has revealed its ability to explore the densest parts of clouds. We want to use this effect to constrain the dust parameters. The goal is to investigate to what extent grain growth (at constant dust mass) inside molecular clouds is able to explain the coreshine observations. We aim to find dust models that can explain a sample of Spitzer coreshine data. We also look at the consistency with near-infrared data we obtained for a few clouds. Methods. We selected four regions with a very high occurrence of coreshine cases: Taurus-Perseus, Cepheus, Chameleon and L183/L134. We built a grid of dust models and investigated the key parameters to reproduce the general trend of surface bright- nesses and intensity ratios of both coreshine and near-infrared observation...

  3. Effects of Adiabatic Dust Charge Fluctuation and Particles Collisions on Dust-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Three-Dimensional Magnetized Dusty Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-Hong; WEI Nan-Xia

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account the combined effects of the external magnetic field, adiabatic dust charge fluctuation and collisions occurring between the charged dust gains and neutral gas particles (dust-neutral collisions), the dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-dimensional uniform dusty plasmas are investigated analytically. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation governing the dust-acoustic solitary waves is obtained. The present analytical results show that only rarefactive solitary waves exist in this system. It is also found that the effects of the wave vector along the z-direction, dust charge variation, collisional frequency, the plasma density, and temperature ratio can significantly influence the characteristics of low-frequency wave modes. Moreover, for the collisional dusty plasmas, there is a certain critical value μc of the plasma density ratio #, if μ < μc, the width of the waves increases with μ, otherwise the width of waves decreases with μ.

  4. Neutron yield when fast deuterium ions collide with strongly charged tritium-saturated dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishev, Yu. S., E-mail: akishev@triniti.ru; Karal’nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Starostin, A. N.; Trushkin, N. I.; Filippov, A. V. [State Research Center of Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The ultrahigh charging of dust particles in a plasma under exposure to an electron beam with an energy up to 25 keV and the formation of a flux of fast ions coming from the plasma and accelerating in the strong field of negatively charged particles are considered. Particles containing tritium or deuterium atoms are considered as targets. The calculated rates of thermonuclear fusion reactions in strongly charged particles under exposure to accelerated plasma ions are presented. The neutron generation rate in reactions with accelerated deuterium and tritium ions has been calculated for these targets. The neutron yield has been calculated when varying the plasma-forming gas pressure, the plasma density, the target diameter, and the beam electron current density. Deuterium and tritium-containing particles are shown to be the most promising plasmaforming gas–target material pair for the creation of a compact gas-discharge neutron source based on the ultrahigh charging of dust particles by beam electrons with an energy up to 25 keV.

  5. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  6. Multiwavelength optical properties of compact dust aggregates in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; Woitke, P; Dominik, C; Ménard, F

    2015-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks micron-size dust grains coagulate to form larger structures with complex shapes and compositions. The coagulation process changes the absorption and scattering properties of particles in the disk in significant ways. To properly interpret observations of protoplanetary disks and to place these observations in the context of the first steps of planet formation, it is crucial to understand the optical properties of these complex structures. We derive the optical properties of dust aggregates using detailed computations of aggregate structures and compare these computa- tionally demanding results with approximate methods that are cheaper to compute in practice. In this way we wish to understand the merits and problems of approximate methods and define the context in which they can or cannot be used to analyze observations of objects where significant grain growth is taking place. For the detailed computations we used the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), a method able to compute the in...

  7. Influence of superthermal plasma particles on the Jeans instability in self-gravitating dusty plasmas with dust charge variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi Pajouh, H., E-mail: hakimi@alzahra.ac.ir; Afshari, N.

    2016-11-25

    Highlights: • The current of superthermal electrons and ions on the dust surface is calculated. • Increase in the superthermal particles number increases growth rate of instability. • Increase in the superthermal particles number decreases DA waves frequency. • By decreasing κ, the ratio of electric to self-gravitational force is decreased. • Dust charge variations decreases the ratio of electric to self-gravitational force. - Abstract: A theoretical analysis of the dust acoustic waves in the self-gravitating dusty plasmas is presented within the consideration of the superthermal electrons, ions and dust charge variations. For this purpose, the current of electrons and ions to the dust surface is calculated, and then the dispersion relation for the dust acoustic waves is obtained. It is shown that by increasing the number of superthermal particles, the growth rate of the instability increases, the dust acoustic waves frequency decreases, and the instability region is extended to the smaller wavelengths. Moreover, it is found that the ratio of the electric force to the self-gravitational force is decreased in the presence of the superthermal particles, and dust charge variations.

  8. Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanya Burman; A Roy Chowdhury; S N Paul

    2001-06-01

    Propagation of both low and high frequency waves in a plasma consisting of electrons, ions, positrons and charged dust particles have been theoretically studied. The characteristics of dust acoustic wave propagating through the plasma has been analysed and the dispersion relation deduced is a generalization of that obtained by previous authors. It is found that nonlinear localization of high frequency electromagnetic field in such a plasma generates magnetic field. This magnetic field is seen to depend on the temperatures of electrons and positrons and also on their equilibrium density ratio. It is suggested that the present model would be applicable to find the magnetic field generation in space plasma.

  9. Solar wind plasma profiles during interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs): Consistent with charged-dust pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-06-01

    The solar wind contains many magnetic structures, and most of them have identifiable correlated changes in the flowing plasma. However, the very characteristic rise and fall of the magnetic field in an interplanetary field enhancement has no clear solar wind counterpart. It appears to be a pure magnetic ``barrier'' that transfers solar wind momentum to charged dust produced in collisions of interplanetary bodies in the size range of tens to hundreds of meters. This transfer lifts the fine scale dust out of the Sun's gravitational well. We demonstrate the lack of field-plasma correlation with several examples from spacecraft records as well as show an ensemble average velocity profile during IFEs which is consistent with our IFE formation hypothesis.

  10. Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashviliequation for dust acoustic waves with dust size distribution and two-charges-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Annou; S Bahamida; R Annou

    2011-03-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas with negative as well as positive ions and the combined effects of bounded spherical geometry and the transverse perturbation and the size distribution of dust grains are studied. Using the perturbation method, a spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation that describes the dust acoustic waves is deduced.

  11. Gyromagnetic factor of rotating disks of electrically charged dust in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu Pynn, Yu-Chun; Macedo, Rodrigo Panosso; Breithaupt, Martin; Palenta, Stefan; Meinel, Reinhard

    2016-11-01

    We calculated the dimensionless gyromagnetic ratio ("g -factor") of self-gravitating, uniformly rotating disks of dust with a constant specific charge ɛ . These disk solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations depend on ɛ and a "relativity parameter" γ (0 <γ ≤1 ) up to a scaling parameter. Accordingly, the g -factor is a function g =g (γ ,ɛ ). The Newtonian limit is characterized by γ ≪1 , whereas γ →1 leads to a black-hole limit. The g -factor, for all ɛ , approaches the values g =1 as γ →0 and g =2 as γ →1 .

  12. Gyromagnetic factor of rotating disks of electrically charged dust in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pynn, Yu-Chun; Breithaupt, Martin; Palenta, Stefan; Meinel, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    We calculated the dimensionless gyromagnetic ratio ("$g$-factor") of self-gravitating, uniformly rotating disks of dust with a constant specific charge $\\epsilon$. These disk solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations depend on $\\epsilon$ and a "relativity parameter" $\\gamma$ ($0<\\gamma\\le 1$) up to a scaling parameter. Accordingly, the $g$-factor is a function $g=g(\\gamma,\\epsilon)$. The Newtonian limit is characterized by $\\gamma \\ll 1$, whereas $\\gamma\\to 1$ leads to a black-hole limit. The $g$-factor, for all $\\epsilon$, approaches the values $g=1$ as $\\gamma\\to 0$ and $g=2$ as $\\gamma\\to 1$.

  13. Electromagnetic wave attenuation due to the charged particles in dust&sand (DUSA) storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, X. Q.; Xie, L.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we calculated the attenuation of the electromagnetic waves (EMWs) propagating through the dust&sand (DUSA) storms using the predicting model based on Mie theory, in which the charges carried on the DUSA particles, the ambient relative humidity (RH) and the particle size distribution are considered simultaneously. It can be found that the charges carried on the DUSA particles and the RH can change the value of the absorption and scattering efficiency, but they can't change the domain attenuation mechanism caused by the DUSA storms in the EMWs frequency regions (3 GHz, 4 GHz), (8 GHz, 40 GHz) and (75 GHz, 100 GHz). Whatever the DUSA storms are formed by equal-size particles or the mixed-size particles, the charge carried on the particle surface and the RH have a significant impact on the attenuation caused by the DUSA storms, and the change ratio of the attenuation caused by the charge or RH depends on the particle size. By the comparison of the calculated attenuation with the measured one, we found that the charges carried on the particles and the RH will be important factors to affect the attenuation of the EMWs.

  14. High sensitivity of Indian summer monsoon to Middle East dust absorptive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qinjian; Yang, Zong-Liang; Wei, Jiangfeng

    2016-07-01

    The absorptive properties of dust aerosols largely determine the magnitude of their radiative impacts on the climate system. Currently, climate models use globally constant values of dust imaginary refractive index (IRI), a parameter describing the dust absorption efficiency of solar radiation, although it is highly variable. Here we show with model experiments that the dust-induced Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall differences (with dust minus without dust) change from -9% to 23% of long-term climatology as the dust IRI is changed from zero to the highest values used in the current literature. A comparison of the model results with surface observations, satellite retrievals, and reanalysis data sets indicates that the dust IRI values used in most current climate models are too low, tending to significantly underestimate dust radiative impacts on the ISM system. This study highlights the necessity for developing a parameterization of dust IRI for climate studies.

  15. Time evolution of nonplanar dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with superthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Sciences- Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, U.S.T.H.B, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Sahu, Biswajit [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata-700126 (India)

    2015-12-15

    A theoretical study on the nonlinear propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASW) is carried out in a dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and charge fluctuating stationary dust particles. Using the reductive perturbation theory, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived. It is shown that the propagation characteristics of the cylindrical and spherical DIA solitary waves significantly differ from those of their one-dimensional counterpart.

  16. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  17. Some Properties of Dust Outside the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    The joint use of accurate near- and mid-infrared photometry from the 2MASS and WISE catalogues has allowed the variations of the extinction law and the dust grain size distribution in high Galactic latitudes (|b|>50) at distances up to 3 kpc from the Galactic midplane to be analyzed. The modified method of extrapolation of the extinction law applied to clump giants has turned out to be efficient for separating the spatial variations of the sample composition, metallicity, reddening, and properties of the medium. The detected spatial variations of the coefficients E(H-W1)/E(H-Ks), E(H-W2)/E(H-Ks), and E(H-W3)/E(H-Ks) are similar for all high latitudes and depend only on the distance from the Galactic midplane. The ratio of short-wavelength extinction to long-wavelength one everywhere outside the Galactic disk has been found to be smaller than that in the disk and, accordingly, the mean dust grain size is larger, while the grain size distribution in the range 0.5-11 microns is shifted toward coarse dust. Specif...

  18. Electromagnetic properties of viscous charged fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Davide; Zaanen, Jan; Valentinis, Davide; van der Marel, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    We provide a general theoretical framework to describe the electromagnetic properties of viscous charged fluids, consisting, for example, of electrons in certain solids or plasmas. We confirm that finite viscosity leads to multiple modes of evanescent electromagnetic waves at a given frequency, one of which is characterized by a negative index of refraction, as previously discussed in a simplified model by one of the authors. In particular, we explain how optical spectroscopy can be used to probe the viscosity. We concentrate on the impact of this on the coefficients of refraction and reflection at the sample-vacuum interface. Analytical expressions are obtained relating the viscosity parameter to the reflection and transmission coefficients of light. We demonstrate that finite viscosity has the effect to decrease the reflectivity of a metallic surface, while the electromagnetic field penetrates more deeply. While on a phenomenological level there are similarities to the anomalous skin effect, the model presented here requires no particular assumptions regarding the corpuscular nature of the charge liquid. A striking consequence of the branching phenomenon into two degenerate modes is the occurrence in a half-infinite sample of oscillations of the electromagnetic field intensity as a function of distance from the interface.

  19. Collision rate coefficient for charged dust grains in the presence of linear shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Hogan, Christopher J.

    2017-09-01

    Like and oppositely charged particles or dust grains in linear shear flows are often driven to collide with one another by fluid and/or electrostatic forces, which can strongly influence particle-size distribution evolution. In gaseous media, collisions in shear are further complicated because particle inertia can influence differential motion. Expressions for the collision rate coefficient have not been developed previously which simultaneously account for the influences of linear shear, particle inertia, and electrostatic interactions. Here, we determine the collision rate coefficient accounting for the aforementioned effects by determining the collision area, i.e., the area of the plane perpendicular to the shear flow defining the relative initial locations of particles which will collide with one another. Integration of the particle flux over this area yields the collision rate. Collision rate calculations are parametrized as an enhancement factor, i.e., the ratio of the collision rate considering potential interactions and inertia to the traditional collision rate considering laminar shear only. For particles of constant surface charge density, the enhancement factor is found dependent only on the Stokes number (quantifying particle inertia), the electrostatic energy to shear energy ratio, and the ratio of colliding particle radii. Enhancement factors are determined for Stokes numbers in the 0-10 range and energy ratios up to 5. Calculations show that the influences of both electrostatic interactions and inertia are significant; for inertialess (St =0 ) equal-sized and oppositely charged particles, we find that even at energy ratios as low as 0.2, enhancement factors are in excess of 2. For the same situation but like-charged particles, enhancement factors fall below 0.5. Increasing the Stokes number acts to mitigate the influence of electrostatic potentials for both like and oppositely charged particles; i.e., inertia reduces the enhancement factor for

  20. Dust in the Solar System - Properties and Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    include both amorphous and crystalline silicates. The organic matter in these samples also exhibits highly anomalous H, C, and N isotopic compositions that are consistent with formation in low temperature environments at the outermost regions of the solar nebula or presolar cold molecular cloud. The scientific frontiers for these samples include working toward a better understanding of the origins of the solar system amorphous and crystalline grains in IDPs and the very challenging task of determining the chemical composition of sub-micron organic grains. Laboratory studies of ancient and present-day dust in the Solar System thus reveal in exquisite detail the chemistry, mineralogy and isotopic properties of materials that derive from a range of astrophysical environments. These studies are an important complement to astronomical observations that help to place the laboratory observations into broader context.

  1. Dust properties of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Márquez, J.; Burgarella, D.; Heinis, S.; Buat, V.; Lo Faro, B.; Béthermin, M.; López-Fortín, C. E.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lemaux, B. C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rodighiero, G.; Salvato, M.; Scott, D.; Taniguchi, Y.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Since the mid-1990s, the sample of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) has been growing thanks to the increasing sensitivities in the optical and in near-infrared telescopes for objects at z> 2.5. However, the dust properties of the LBGs are poorly known because the samples are small and/or biased against far-infrared (far-IR) or submillimeter (submm) observations. Aims: This work explores from a statistical point of view the far-IR and submm properties of a large sample of LBGs at z ~ 3 that cannot be individually detected from current far-IR observations. Methods: We select a sample of 22, 000 LBGs at 2.5 luminosity (LFUV), UV continuum slope (βUV), and stellar mass (M∗) to better sample their variety. We stack in PACS (100 and 160 μm) images from PACS Evolution Probe survey (PEP), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 μm) images from the Herschel Multi-tied Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) programs, and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions. Results: We obtain the full infrared spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of LFUV, βUV, and M∗. The average IRX (or dust attenuation) is roughly constant over the LFUV range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with βUV, AFUV = (3.15 ± 0.12) + (1.47 ± 0.14) βUV, and stellar mass, log (IRX) = (0.84 ± 0.11)log (M∗/ 1010.35) + 1.17 ± 0.05. We investigate using a statistically controlled stacking analysis as a function of (M∗, βUV), the dispersion of the IRX-βUV and IRX-M∗ plane. On the one hand, the dust attenuation shows a departure of up to 2.8 mag above the mean IRX-βUV relation when log (M∗ [ M⊙ ]) increases from 9.75 to 11.5 in the same βUV bin. This strongly suggests that M∗ plays an important role in shaping the IRX-βUV plane. On the other hand

  2. Numerical determination of the material properties of porous dust cakes

    CERN Document Server

    Paszun, D

    2008-01-01

    The formation of planetesimals requires the growth of dust particles through collisions. Micron-sized particles must grow by many orders of magnitude in mass. In order to understand and model the processes during this growth, the mechanical properties, and the interaction cross sections of aggregates with surrounding gas must be well understood. Recent advances in experimental (laboratory) studies now provide the background for pushing numerical aggregate models onto a new level. We present the calibration of a previously tested model of aggregate dynamics. We use plastic deformation of surface asperities as the physical model to bring critical velocities for sticking into accordance with experimental results. The modified code is then used to compute compression strength and the velocity of sound in the aggregate at different densities. We compare these predictions with experimental results and conclude that the new code is capable of studying the properties of small aggregates.

  3. Database of optical properties of cosmic dust analogues (DOP)

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyin, V N; Babenko, V A; Beletsky, S A; Henning, T; Jäger, C; Khlebtsov, N G; Litvinov, P V; Mutschke, H; Tishkovets, V P; Waters, L B F M; Henning, Th.

    2003-01-01

    We present a database containing information on different aspects of calculation and usage of the optical properties of small non-spherical particles -- cosmic dust analogues. The main parts of the DOP are a review of available methods of the light scattering theory, collection of light scattering codes, special computational tools, a graphic library of the optical properties (efficiencies, albedo, asymmetry factors, etc.), a database of the optical constants for astronomy, a bibliographic database of light scattering works, and links to related Internet resources. The general purpose of the DOP having the address http://www.astro.spbu.ru/DOP is twofold -- to help scientists to apply the light scattering theory in astronomy and to give students and beginners a possibility quickly to get necessary knowledge on the subject.

  4. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas with dust size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Kai-Biao [Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves which are described with a Kortweg-de vries (KdV) equation by using the reductive perturbation method, are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively-charged dust particles of different sizes and masses. The effects of the power-law distribution of dust and other plasma parameters on the dust-acoustic solitary waves are studied. Numerical results show that the dust size distribution has a significant influence on the propagation properties of dust-acoustic solitons. The amplitudes of solitary waves in the case of a power-law distribution is observed to be smaller, but the soliton velocity and width are observed to be larger, than those of mono-sized dust grains with an average dust size. Our results indicate that only compressed solitary waves exist in dusty plasma with different dust species. The relevance of the present investigation to interstellar clouds is discussed.

  5. Net charge affects morphology and visual properties of ovalbumin aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Broersen, K.; Barneveld, P.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J.de; Visschers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ovalbumin net charge on aggregate morphology and visual properties was investigated using chromatography, electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and turbidity measurements. A range of differently charged ovalbumin variants (net charge ranging from -1 to -26 at pH 7) was produced using c

  6. Properties of Dust Grains Probed with Extinction Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    Modern data of the extinction curve from ultraviolet to near infrared are revisited to study the property of dust grains in the Milky Way (MW) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We confirmed that the graphite-silicate mixture of grains yields the observed extinction curve with the simple power-law distribution of the grain size but with a cutoff at some maximal size: the parameters are tightly constrained to be $q = 3.5 \\pm 0.2$ for the size distribution $a^{-q}$ and the maximum radius $a_{max} = 0.24 \\pm 0.05$ um, for both MW and SMC. The abundance of grains, and hence the elemental abundance, is constrained from the reddening versus hydrogen column density, E(B-V)/N_H. If we take the solar elemental abundance as a standard for the MW, >56 % of carbon should be in graphite dust, while it is <40 % in the SMC. This disparity and the relative abundance explain the difference of the two curves. We find that 50-60 % of carbon may not necessarily be in graphite but in the amorphous or the glassy phase, or up...

  7. Dust properties along anomalous extinction sightlines. II. Studying extinction curves with dust models

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzei, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The large majority of extinction sight lines in our Galaxy obey a simple relation depending on one parameter, the total-to-selective extinction coefficient, Rv. Different values of Rv are able to match the whole extinction curve through different environments so characterizing normal extinction curves. In this paper more than sixty curves with large ultraviolet deviations from their best-fit one parameter curve are analyzed. These curves are fitted with dust models to shed light into the properties of the grains, the processes affecting them, and their relations with the environmental characteristics. The extinction curve models are reckoned by following recent prescriptions on grain size distributions able to describe one parameter curves for Rv values from 3.1 to 5.5. Such models, here extended down to Rv=2.0, allow us to compare the resulting properties of our deviating curves with the same as normal curves in a self-consistent framework, and thus to recover the relative trends overcoming the modeling unce...

  8. Effect of self-gravitation and dust-charge fluctuations on the shielding and energy loss of N×M projectiles in a collisional dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, M. Adnan; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2007-03-01

    A simple derivation of the electrostatic potential and energy loss of N×M test charge projectiles traveling through dusty plasma has been presented. The effect of dust-charge fluctuations, dust neutral collisions, and self-gravitation on the shielded potential and energy loss of charge projectiles has been investigated both analytically as well as numerically. An interference contribution of these projectiles to the shielded potential and energy loss has been observed, which depends upon their relative orientation and separation distance. A comparison has been made for correlated and uncorrelated motion of the two projectiles. The amplitude of the shielded potential is enhanced with the increase of dust Jeans frequency for separation less than the effective Debye length. The dust-charge fluctuations produce a potential well for a slow charge relaxation rate and energy is gained, not lost, by the test charge projectiles. However, a fast charge relaxation rate with a fixed value of Jeans frequency enhances the energy loss. The dust neutral collisions are also found to enhance the energy loss for the test charge velocities greater than the dust acoustic speeds. The present investigation might be useful to explain the coagulation of dust particles such as those in molecular clouds, the interstellar medium, comet tails, planetary rings, etc.

  9. Opto-electronic properties of charged conjugated molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fratiloiu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide fundamental insight into the nature and opto-electronic properties of charge carriers on conjugated oligomers and polymers. Electronic structure, optical absorption properties and distribution of charge carriers along the chains of different conjugated materials

  10. Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Distant Galaxies Probed by Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2015-01-01

    Dust grains are a fundamental component of the interstellar medium, and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, including star formation, and the heating, cooling and ionization of interstellar material. Using the absorption features produced by dust in the spectra of luminous background quasars, it is possible to study the properties of extragalactic interstellar dust grains. We will present results from an ongoing program utilizing existing Spitzer Space Telescope infrared quasar spectra to probe silicate dust grain properties in z<1.4 quasar absorption systems. In combination with complementary ground-based data on associated gas-phase metal absorption lines, we explore connections between the interstellar dust and gas in the quasar absorption systems. Our project yields clear detections of the 10 micron silicate dust absorption feature in the studied systems, as well as detections of the 18 micron silicate dust absorption feature in sources with adequate spectral coverage. Based on measured variations in the breath, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 micron absorption features, there appear to be differences in the silicate dust grain properties from system-to-system. We also show indications of trends between the gas-phase metal properties, such as metallicity and gas velocity spread, with the silicate dust grain absorption properties. Support for this work is provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech and through NASA grant NNX14AG74G, and from National Science Foundation grants AST-0908890 and AST-1108830 to the University of South Carolina.

  11. Size distribution and optical properties of African mineral dust after intercontinental transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, Cyrielle; Formenti, Paola; Desboeufs, Karine; Chevaillier, Servanne; Triquet, Sylvain; Maillé, Michel; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Laurent, Benoit; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Vallejo, Pamela; Quiñones, Mariana; Gutierrez-Molina, Ian E.; Cassola, Federico; Prati, Paolo; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John

    2016-06-01

    The transatlantic transport of mineral dust from Africa is a persistent atmospheric phenomenon, clue for understanding the impacts of dust at the global scale. As part of the DUST Aging and Transport from Africa to the Caribbean (Dust-ATTACk) intensive field campaign, the size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust were measured in June-July 2012 on the east coast of Puerto Rico, more than 5000 km from the west coast of Africa. During the recorded dust events, the PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter) concentrations increased from 20 to 70 µg m-3. Remote sensing observations and modeling analysis were used to identify the main source regions, which were found in the Western Sahara, Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, and Mali. The microphysical and optical properties of the dust plumes were almost independent of origin. The size distribution of mineral dust after long-range transport may have modal diameters similar to those on the eastern side of the Atlantic short time after emission, possibly depending on height of transport. Additional submicron particles of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols (likely from regional marine traffic activities) can be mixed within the dust plumes, without affecting in a significant way the PM10 absorption properties of dust observed in Puerto Rico. The Dust-ATTACk experimental data set may be useful for modeling the direct radiative effect of dust. For accurate representation of dust optical properties over the Atlantic remote marine region, we recommend mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and single-scattering albedo values in the range 1.1-1.5 m2 g-1 and 0.97-0.98, respectively, for visible wavelengths.

  12. Three-dimensional kinetic modeling of the neutral and charged dust in the coma of Rosetta’s target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Borovikov, Dmitry; Combi, Michael R.; Fougere, Nicolas; Huang, Zhenguang; Bieler, Andre; Hansen, Kenneth; Toth, Gabor; Jia, Xianzhe; Shou, Yinsi; Gombosi, Tamas; Rubin, Martin; Rotundi, Alessandra; Della Corte, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    Rosetta is the first mission that escorts a comet along its way through the Solar System for an extended amount of time. As a result, the target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, is an object of great scientific interest.Dust ejected from the nucleus is entrained into the coma by the escaping gas. Interacting with the ambient plasma the dust particles are charged by the electron and ion collection currents. The photo and secondary emission currents can also change the particle charge. The resulting Lorentz force together with the gas drag, gravity, and radiation pressure define the dust particle trajectories.At altitudes comparable to those of the Rosetta trajectory, direction of a dust particle velocity can be significantly different from that in the innermost vicinity of the coma near the nucleus. At such altitudes the angular distribution of the dust grains velocity has a pronounced tail-like structure. This is consistent with Rosetta’s GIADA dust observations showing dust grains moving in the anti-sunward direction.Here, we present results of our model study of the neutral and charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, combining the University of Michigan AMPS kinetic particle model and the BATSRUS MHD model. Trajectories of dust particles within the observable size range of Rosetta’s GIADA dust instrument have been calculated accounting for the radiation pressure, gas drag, the nucleus gravity, the Lorentz force, and the effect of the nucleus rotation. The dust grain electric charge is calculated by balancing the collection currents at the grain’s location. We present angular velocity distribution maps of these charged dust grains for a few locations representative of Rosetta's trajectory around the comet.This work was supported by US Rosetta project contracts JPL-1266313 and JPL-1266314 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX14AG84G

  13. Solitary waves in a dusty plasma with charge fluctuation and dust size distribution and vortex like ion distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, K. [Department of Physics, J.C.C. College, Kolkata 700 033 (India); Mishra, Amar P. [High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Roy Chowdhury, A. [High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-07-15

    A modified KdV equation is derived for the propagation of non-linear waves in a dusty plasma, containing N different dust grains with a size distribution and charge fluctuation with electrons in the background. The ions are assumed to obey a vortex like distribution due to their non-isothermal nature. The standard distribution for the dust size is a power law. The variation of the soliton width is studied with respect to normalized size of the dust grains. A numerical solution of the equation is done by considering the soliton solution of the modified KdV as the initial pulse. It shows considerable broadening of the pulse variation of width with {beta} {sub 1} is shown.

  14. Extinction and dust properties in a clumpy medium

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, P.; Siebenmorgen, R.

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) The dust content of the universe is primarily explored via its interaction with stellar photons, producing interstellar extinction. However, owing to the physical extension of the observing beam, observations may detect scattered photons, resulting in a change in the observed (or effective) extinction, depending on the spatial distribution of the dust and the resolution of the instrument. We investigate the influence of clumpy dust distributions on effective extinction toward embed...

  15. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Denjean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, time of tranport (1–5 days and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried higher concentration of pollution particles at intermediate altitude (1–3 km than at elevated altitude (> 3 km, resulting in scattering Angstrom exponent up to 2.2 within the intermediate altitude. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate light absorption of the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00 ± 0.04. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assimilated to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations

  16. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denjean, C.; Cassola, F.; Mazzino, A.; Triquet, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Grand, N.; Bourrianne, T.; Momboisse, G.; Sellegri, K.; Schwarzenbock, A.; Freney, E.; Mallet, M.; Formenti, P.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June-July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of transport (1-5 days) and height of transport were sampled. Mineral dust were transported above the marine boundary layer, which conversely was dominated by pollution and marine aerosols. The dust vertical structure was extremely variable and characterized by either a single layer or a more complex and stratified structure with layers originating from different source regions. Mixing of mineral dust with pollution particles was observed depending on the height of transport of the dust layers. Dust layers carried a higher concentration of pollution particles below 3 km above sea level (a.s.l.) than above 3 km a.s.l., resulting in a scattering Ångström exponent up to 2.2 below 3 km a.s.l. However, the optical properties of the dust plumes remained practically unchanged with respect to values previously measured over source regions, regardless of the altitude. Moderate absorption of light by the dust plumes was observed with values of aerosol single scattering albedo at 530 nm ranging from 0.90 to 1.00. Concurrent calculations from the aerosol chemical composition revealed a negligible contribution of pollution particles to the absorption properties of the dust plumes that was due to a low contribution of refractory black carbon in regards to the fraction of dust and sulfate particles. This suggests that, even in the presence of moderate pollution, likely a persistent feature in the Mediterranean, the optical properties of the dust plumes could be assumed similar to those of native dust in radiative transfer simulations, modelling studies and satellite retrievals

  17. Thermodynamical and dynamical properties of charged BTZ black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Bin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Cheng-Yong [Peking University, Center for High-Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Kord Zangeneh, Mahdi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM)-Maragha, P. O. Box: 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the spacetime properties of BTZ black holes in the presence of the Maxwell field and Born-Infeld field and find rich properties in the spacetime structures when the model parameters are varied. Employing Landau-Lifshitz theory, we examine the thermodynamical phase transition in the charged BTZ black holes. We further study the dynamical perturbation in the background of the charged BTZ black holes and find different properties in the dynamics when the thermodynamical phase transition occurs. (orig.)

  18. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  19. Mixing weight determination for retrieving optical properties of polluted dust with MODIS and AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Hsu, N. Christina; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Liu, Gin-Rong; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an approach in determining effective mixing weight of soot aggregates from dust-soot aerosols is proposed to improve the accuracy of retrieving properties of polluted dusts by means of satellite remote sensing. Based on a pre-computed database containing several variables (such as wavelength, refractive index, soot mixing weight, surface reflectivity, observation geometries and aerosol optical depth (AOD)), the fan-shaped look-up tables can be drawn out accordingly for determining the mixing weights, AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA) of polluted dusts simultaneously with auxiliary regional dust properties and surface reflectivity. To validate the performance of the approach in this study, 6 cases study of polluted dusts (dust-soot aerosols) in Lower Egypt and Israel were examined with the ground-based measurements through AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The results show that the mean absolute differences could be reduced from 32.95% to 6.56% in AOD and from 2.67% to 0.83% in SSA retrievals for MODIS aerosol products when referenced to AERONET measurements, demonstrating the soundness of the proposed approach under different levels of dust loading, mixing weight and surface reflectivity. Furthermore, the developed algorithm is capable of providing the spatial distribution of the mixing weights and removing the requirement to assume that the dust plume properties are uniform. The case study further shows the spatially variant dust-soot mixing weight would improve the retrieval accuracy in AODmixture and SSAmixture about 10.0% and 1.4% respectively.

  20. Dissipative dust-acoustic shock waves in a varying charge electronegative magnetized dusty plasma with trapped electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, Mustapha [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-08-15

    The combined effects of an oblique magnetic field and electron trapping on dissipative dust-acoustic waves are examined in varying charge electronegative dusty plasmas with application to the Halley Comet plasma (∼10{sup 4} km from the nucleus). A weakly nonlinear analysis is carried out to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger-like equation. Making use of the equilibrium current balance equation, the physically admissible values of the electron trapping parameter are first constrained. We then show that the Burger dissipative term is solely due to the dust charge variation process. It is found that an increase of the magnetic field obliqueness or a decrease of its magnitude renders the shock structure more dispersive.

  1. Aerosol Properties Changes of Northeast Asia due to a Severe Dust Storm in April 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Wang, Shupeng; Yu, Tao; Gu, Xingfa; Zhang, Xingying; Wang, Weihe; Ren, Suling

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on analyzing the aerosol properties changes due to the dust storm named as "China's Great Wall of Dust" oriented from Taklimakan desert in April, 2014. Dust identification IDDI (Infrared Difference Dust Index) images from FY-2E and true color composite images from FY-3C MERSI (Medium Resolution Spectral Imager) show the breakout and transport of the dust storm.From 4-day forward air mass trajectories, the dusty air masses were mostly transported within the lower boundary layer(data records at surface stations suggest that anticyclonic circulation occupying southern Xinjiang basin and cyclonic circulation maintaining in Mongolia formed the typical Synoptic condition which leaded to the strong dust storm. Aerosol Index (AI) results of TOU (Total Ozone Unit) aboard FY-3B are first developed and used in studying the affected areas due to the dust storm. The retrieved aerosol indexes show sensitivity to the dust particles. The dust affected areas agree with the synoptic meteorological condition analysis, which prove the synoptic meteorological condition is the main reason for the break out and transport of the dust storm. Anomalies of the average MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) distributions over Northeast Asia during the dust storm to the average of that in April between 2010-2014 show high aerosol loading due to the dust storm. Compared with the 5-year average AOD in April, aerosol loading during this dust storm was much higher, with AOD values at 550nm up to 2.9 observed over the northwest China.The dust storm also brought different change in the aerosol microphysical properties between Beijing and Dalanzadgad. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals demonstrate that large amount of coarse particles were transported to Dalanzadgad by the dust storm, resulting in an obvious increase in the peak of coarse mode particles volume. The coarse dust particles increased the effective radius of the

  2. MISR Decadal Observations of Mineral Dust: Property Characterization and Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Garay, Michael J.; Sokolik, Irina; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lyapustin, A.; Diner, David J.; Lee, Jae N.; Torres, Omar; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Sabbah, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provides a unique, independent source of data for studying dust emission and transport. MISR's multiple view angles allow the retrieval of aerosol properties over bright surfaces, and such retrievals have been shown to be sensitive to the non-sphericity of dust aerosols over both land and water. MISR stereographic views of thick aerosol plumes allow height and instantaneous wind derivations at spatial resolutions of better than 1.1 km horizontally and 200m vertically. We will discuss the radiometric and stereo-retrieval capabilities of MISR specifically for dust, and demonstrate the use of MISR data in conjunction with other available satellite observations for dust property characterization and climate studies.First, we will discuss MISR non-spherical (dust) fraction product over the global oceans. We will show that over the Atlantic Ocean, changes in the MISR-derived non-spherical AOD fraction illustrate the evolution of dust during transport. Next, we will present a MISR satellite perspective on dust climatology in major dust source regions with a particular emphasis on the West Africa and Middle East and discuss MISR's unique strengths as well as current product biases. Finally, we will discuss MISR dust plume product and climatological applications.

  3. Magnetic properties of street dust and topsoil in Beijing and its environmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan; ZHANG ShiHong

    2008-01-01

    Environmental magnetic measurements were carried out on the samples of street dust and topsoil, which were collected along the roadway in the urban and suburb of Beijing, including magnetic sus-ceptibility (χ), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) of all samples and temperature-dependence of magnetic susceptibilities and magnetic hysteresis pa-rameters of representative samples. Obvious differences exist between the samples of street dust and those of topsoil. Compared with topsoil samples, the concentration of magnetic particles and high-coercivity components in street dust samples are higher, and the magnetic grains are coarser. Both dust and topsoil samples are dominated by ferrimagnetic minerals, and iron particles are only detected in some dust samples. These results suggest that street dust samples reflect the characteris-tic of particles produced by industrial and traffic activities, and the magnetic property of topsoil sam-ples represents the characteristic of particles from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The dis-tribution of magnetic parameters is influenced by the environment where the samples are collected, like industry, traffic density and other rOad conditions. Hard isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM) may be used as an indicator of particles produced by traffic activity. Dust storm samples collected on 17 and 18 April, 2006 have different magnetic properties from street dust and natural particles, like loess and paleosol, which indicate that the dust storm might be mixed with anthropogenic particulates during transport and falling.

  4. A new method to generate dust with astrophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J F; van Breugel, W; Bringa, E M; Graham, G A; Remington, B A; Taylor, E A; Tielens, A G

    2010-04-21

    In interstellar and interplanetary space, the size distribution and composition of dust grains play an important role. For example, dust grains determine optical and ultraviolet extinction levels in astronomical observations, dominate the cooling rate of our Galaxy, and sets the thermal balance and radiative cooling rates in molecular clouds, which are the birth place of stars. Dust grains are also a source of damage and failure to space hardware and thus present a hazard to space flight. To model the size distribution and composition of dust grains, and their effect in the above scenarios, it is vital to understand the mechanism of dust-shock interaction. We demonstrate a new experiment which employs a laser to subject dust grains to pressure spikes similar to those of colliding astrophysical dust, and which accelerates the grains to astrophysical velocities. The new method generates much larger data sets than earlier methods; we show how large quantities (thousands) of grains are accelerated at once, rather than accelerating individual grains, as is the case of earlier methods using electric fields.

  5. Study of the Effects of the Electric Field on Charging Measurements on Individual Micron-size Dust Grains by Secondary Electron Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankosic, D.; Abbas, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The dust charging by electron impact is an important dust charging process in Astrophysical, Planetary, and the Lunar environments. Low energy electrons are reflected or stick to the grains charging the dust grains negatively. At sufficiently high energies electrons penetrate the grain leading to excitation and emission of electrons referred to as secondary electron emission (SEE). Available theoretical models for the calculation of SEE yield applicable for neutral, planar or bulk surfaces are generally based on Sternglass Equation. However, viable models for charging of individual dust grains do not exist at the present time. Therefore, the SEE yields have to be obtained by some experimental methods at the present time. We have conducted experimental studies on charging of individual micron size dust grains in simulated space environments using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) facility at NASA-MSFC. The results of our extensive laboratory study of charging of individual micron-size dust grains by low energy electron impact indicate that the SEE by electron impact is a very complex process expected to be substantially different from the bulk materials. It was found that the incident electrons may lead to positive or negative charging of dust grains depending upon the grain size, surface potential, electron energy, electron flux, grain composition, and configuration. In this paper we give a more elaborate discussion about the possible effects of the AC field in the EDB on dust charging measurements by comparing the secondary electron emission time-period (tau (sub em) (s/e)) with the time-period (tau (sub ac) (ms)) of the AC field cycle in the EDB that we have briefly addressed in our previous publication.

  6. Extinction and dust properties in a clumpy medium

    CERN Document Server

    Scicluna, P

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) The dust content of the universe is primarily explored via its interaction with stellar photons, producing interstellar extinction. However, owing to the physical extension of the observing beam, observations may detect scattered photons, resulting in a change in the observed (or effective) extinction, depending on the spatial distribution of the dust and the resolution of the instrument. We investigate the influence of clumpy dust distributions on effective extinction toward embedded sources and those in the diffuse ISM. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer to examine effective extinction for various geometries. By varying the number, optical depth and volume-filling factor of clumps in models of spherical shells and the diffuse ISM, we explore the evolution of extinction. Depending on the number of scattering events in the beam, the extinction curve steepens in homogeneous media and flattens in clumpy media. As a result, clumpy dust distributions can to reproduce extinction curves with arbitrary...

  7. Mineralogical properties and internal structures of individual fine particles of Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Park, Mi Yeon; Kandler, Konrad; Nousiainen, Timo; Kemppinen, Osku

    2016-10-01

    Mineral dust interacts with incoming/outgoing radiation, gases, other aerosols, and clouds. The assessment of its optical and chemical impacts requires knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of bulk dust and single particles. Despite the existence of a large body of data from field measurements and laboratory analyses, the internal properties of single dust particles have not been defined precisely. Here, we report on the mineralogical organization and internal structures of individual fine ( common particle type was clay-rich agglomerate, dominated by illite-smectite series clay minerals with subordinate kaolinite. Submicron grains of iron (hydr)oxides (goethite and hematite) were commonly dispersed through the clay-rich particles. The median total volume of the iron (hydr)oxide grains included in the dust particles was estimated to be about 1.5 % vol. The average iron content of clay minerals, assuming 14 wt % H2O, was determined to be 5.0 wt %. Coarse mineral cores, several micrometers in size, were coated with thin layers of clay-rich agglomerate. Overall, the dust particles were roughly ellipsoidal, with an average axial ratio of 1.4 : 1.0 : 0.5. The mineralogical and structural properties of single Saharan dust particles provide a basis for the modeling of dust radiative properties. Major iron-bearing minerals, such as illite-smectite series clay minerals and iron (hydr)oxides, were commonly submicron- to nano-sized, possibly enhancing their biogeochemical availability to remote marine ecosystems lacking micronutrients.

  8. Modelling and Observation of Mineral Dust Optical Properties over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilinski, Michał T.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Zawadzka, Olga; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Kumala, Wojciech; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemysław; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zagajewski, Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on Saharan dust transport to Central Europe/Poland; we compare properties of atmospheric Saharan dust using data from NAAPS, MACC, AERONET as well as observations obtained during HyMountEcos campaign in June 2012. Ten years of dust climatology shows that long-range transport of Saharan dust to Central Europe is mostly during spring and summer. HYSPLIT back-trajectories indicate airmass transport mainly in November, but it does not agree with modeled maxima of dust optical depth. NAAPS model shows maximum of dust optical depth ( 0.04-0.05, 550 nm) in April-May, but the MACC modeled peak is broader ( 0.04). During occurrence of mineral dust over Central-Europe for 14% (NAAPS) / 12% (MACC) of days dust optical depths are above 0.05 and during 4% (NAAPS) / 2.5% (MACC) of days dust optical depths exceed 0.1. The HyMountEcos campaign took place in June-July 2012 in the mountainous region of Karkonosze. The analysis includes remote sensing data from lidars, sun-photometers, and numerical simulations from NAAPS, MACC, DREAM8b models. Comparison of simulations with observations demonstrates the ability of models to reasonably reproduce aerosol vertical distributions and their temporal variability. However, significant differences between simulated and measured AODs were found. The best agreement was achieved for MACC model.

  9. Modelling and Observation of Mineral Dust Optical Properties over Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilinski Michał T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Saharan dust transport to Central Europe/Poland; we compare properties of atmospheric Saharan dust using data from NAAPS, MACC, AERONET as well as observations obtained during HyMountEcos campaign in June 2012. Ten years of dust climatology shows that long-range transport of Saharan dust to Central Europe is mostly during spring and summer. HYSPLIT back-trajectories indicate airmass transport mainly in November, but it does not agree with modeled maxima of dust optical depth. NAAPS model shows maximum of dust optical depth (~0.04-0.05, 550 nm in April-May, but the MACC modeled peak is broader (~0.04. During occurrence of mineral dust over Central-Europe for 14% (NAAPS / 12% (MACC of days dust optical depths are above 0.05 and during 4% (NAAPS / 2.5% (MACC of days dust optical depths exceed 0.1. The HyMountEcos campaign took place in June-July 2012 in the mountainous region of Karkonosze. The analysis includes remote sensing data from lidars, sun-photometers, and numerical simulations from NAAPS, MACC, DREAM8b models. Comparison of simulations with observations demonstrates the ability of models to reasonably reproduce aerosol vertical distributions and their temporal variability. However, significant differences between simulated and measured AODs were found. The best agreement was achieved for MACC model.

  10. Ice Nucleating Particle Properties in the Saharan Air Layer Close to the Dust Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boose, Y.; Garcia, I. M.; Rodríguez, S.; Linke, C.; Schnaiter, M.; Nickovic, S.; Lohmann, U.; Kanji, Z. A.; Sierau, B.

    2015-12-01

    In August 2013 and 2014 measurements of ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations, aerosol particle size distributions, chemistry and fluorescence were conducted at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory located at 2373 m asl on Tenerife, west off the African shore. During summer, the observatory is frequently within the Saharan Air Layer and thus often exposed to dust. Absolute INP concentrations and activated fractions at T=-40 to -15°C and RHi=100-150 % were measured. In this study, we discuss the in-situ measured INP properties with respect to changes in the chemical composition, the biological content, the source regions as well as transport pathways and thus aging processes of the dust aerosol. For the first time, ice crystal residues were also analyzed with regard to biological content by means of their autofluorescence signal close to a major dust source region. Airborne dust samples were collected with a cyclone for additional offline analysis in the laboratory under similar conditions as in the field. Both, in-situ and offline dust samples were chemically characterized using single-particle mass spectrometry. The DREAM8 dust model extended with dust mineral fractions was run to simulate meteorological and dust aerosol conditions for ice nucleation. Results show that the background aerosol at Izaña was dominated by carbonaceous particles, which were hardly ice-active under the investigated conditions. When Saharan dust was present, INP concentrations increased by up to two orders of magnitude even at water subsaturated conditions at T≤-25°C. Differences in the ice-activated fraction were found between different dust periods which seem to be linked to variations in the aerosol chemical composition (dust mixed with changing fractions of sea salt and differences in the dust aerosol itself). Furthermore, two biomass burning events in 2014 were identified which led to very low INP concentrations under the investigated temperature and relative humidity

  11. Effect of ion radiative cooling on Jeans instability of partially ionized dusty plasma with dust charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of ion radiative cooling on the gravitational instability of dusty plasma is studied, incorporating dust charge fluctuation with dust-neutral, neutral-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. The basic equations are linearized using normal mode analysis to obtain a general dispersion relation. The general dispersion relation is analytically and numerically discussed to explain the role of ion radiative cooling in the structure formation through gravitational instability. The Jeans collapse criteria are found to be modified due to ion and electron radiative cooling, dust charge fluctuations, and collisions effects. It is determined from the analytical and numerical calculations that the support of radiative cooling of ions drives thermal fluctuations and gives instability to the system. The electron cooling effect remains dominating over ion cooling effect, and thus, it enhances the collapse more efficiently than ion cooling effect. Although the radiative cooling is slow, it may precede the collapse in molecular cloud, which further leads to the structure formation. The present work is relevance for the structure formation in the molecular cloud.

  12. Investigation of the selected properties of dusts from the reclamation of spent sands with bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the selected properties of dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite as well as dusts from the dedusting system of sand processing plant are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were performed with regard to determination conditions allowing to pelletise dusts in the bowl granulator. The verified methods of testing physical and chemical dust properties such as: specific density, bulk density of loosely put materials and apparent density of compacted materials together with their corresponding porosity, ignition losses and pH values, were applied. Granular composition of dusts generated during abrasion of spent binding materials in mechanical dry reclamation processes of spent sands with bentonite and coal dusts were performed by the laser diffraction analysis, allowing to broaden the measuring range of particle diameters. The optimal wetting agent content (in this case water at which the dust-water mixture obtains the best strength properties – after compacting by means of the standard moulder’s rammer – was determined.

  13. Charged dust grain dynamics subject to solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the interplanetary magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lhotka, Christoph; Narita, Yasuhito

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the un-averaged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z-component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semi-major axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting-Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semi-major axis on secular time scales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces unde...

  14. Biological residues define the ice nucleation properties of soil dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil dust is a major driver of ice nucleation in clouds leading to precipitation. It consists largely of mineral particles with a small fraction of organic matter constituted mainly of remains of micro-organisms that participated in degrading plant debris before their own decay. Some micro-organisms have been shown to be much better ice nuclei than the most efficient soil mineral. Yet, current aerosol schemes in global climate models do not consider a difference between soil dust and mineral dust in terms of ice nucleation activity. Here, we show that particles from the clay and silt size fraction of four different soils naturally associated with 0.7 to 11.8 % organic carbon (w/w can have up to four orders of magnitude more ice nuclei per unit mass active in the immersion freezing mode at −12 °C than montmorillonite, the most efficient pure clay mineral. Most of this activity was lost after heat treatment. Removal of biological residues reduced ice nucleation activity to, or below that of montmorillonite. Desert soils, inherently low in organic content, are a large natural source of dust in the atmosphere. In contrast, agricultural land use is concentrated on fertile soils with much larger organic matter contents than found in deserts. It is currently estimated that the contribution of agricultural soils to the global dust burden is less than 20 %. Yet, these disturbed soils can contribute ice nuclei to the atmosphere of a very different and much more potent kind than mineral dusts.

  15. Magnetic and optical properties of airborne dust and settling rates at the Phoenix landing site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drube, Line; Leer, Kristoffer; Walter, Goetz

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Properties Experiment (referred to as iSweep or Caltarget) onboard the Phoenix lander was executed in the arctic region of Mars during the mission's 152 sols lifetime. The iSweep experiment involved periodic multispectral imaging of a series of permanent ring magnets. It was designed...... on the precursor Sweep Magnet Experiment onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers near Mars' equator, and also this dust is found to be brighter than both surface soil near the lander and soil in the region surrounding the lander. As most other dust and soils on Mars, the Phoenix dust lacks strong spectral signatures...

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in magnetic properties of street dust in Lanzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guan; XIA DunSheng; LIU XiuMing; CHEN FaHu; YU Ye; YANG LiPing; CHEN JianHui; ZHOU AiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental problems are of increasing concern. Lanzhou is a large industrial city in North-west China. Street dust samples representing different temporal and spatial scales were collected for magnetic properties study. Magnetic measurements indicate a high concentration of magnetic minerals in Lanzhou street dust, dominated by pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite. The concentration of magnetic materials is distinctly high in winter and spring, low in autumn. Similarly, higher concentra-tions associated with heavy industry, concentrated residential development, and vehicular traffic sug-gest mixed contributions of magnetic material from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Xif and SOFT% are effective magnetic parameters that denote seasonal differences among magnetic proper-ties in street dust, convenient and economical methods for monitoring street dust pollution.

  17. Basic properties of sintering dust from iron and steel plant and potassium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guang; Guo, Zhancheng

    2013-06-01

    With the production of crude steel, China produces several million tons of sintering dusts which contain a great deal of valuable metals such as, K, Na, Zn, Pb. If discharged directly without adequate treatment, these elements can lead to adverse effects on the environment. Therefore, it is very necessary to determine how to separate these elements from the dust before discharge. Several physical and chemical detection methods were used to study the basic properties of sintering dust. At the same time, preliminary experiments on the recovery of the potassium resources from the sintering dust were carried out. The mean particle size of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust determined by a laser granulometer was 41.468 microm. Multi-point BET and single-point BET analysis showed that the surface area of the ESP dust was 2.697 m2/g. XRD measurements detected the following phases in the ESP dust: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, KCl and NaCl, and Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and SiO2 in the water-washed dust. SEM-EDS results proved that in the ESP dust, K mostly existed in the form of KCl particles without being coated. Leaching experiments showed that the KCl in the ESP dust could be separated and recovered by water leaching and fractional crystallization. Through the recovery experiments, the yield of K-Na vaporized crystalline salt was 18.56%, in which the mass fractions of KCl, NaCl, CaSO4 and K2SO4 were about 61.03%, 13.58%, 14.03% and 9.97%, respectively. This process is technically viable and considerable in economic benefit. There was almost no secondary pollution produced in the whole recovery process.

  18. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trayford, James W.; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-10-01

    The Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A discrepancy in the f250/f350 versus f350/f500 submm colour-colour relation implies that part of the simulated dust is insufficiently heated, likely because of limitations in our sub-grid model for star-forming regions. We also investigate the effect of adjusting the metal-to-dust ratio and the covering factor of the photodissociation regions surrounding the star-forming cores. We are able to constrain the important dust-related parameters in our method, informing the calculation of dust attenuation for EAGLE galaxies in the UV and optical domain.

  19. Spatially resolved stellar, dust and gas properties of the post-interacting Whirlpool Galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Foyle, Kelly; Bendo, George; Koda, Jin; Baes, Marten; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure; Cooray, Asantha; Eales, Steve; Galametz, Maud; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Parkin, Tara; Roussel, Hélène; Sauvage, Marc; Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Matthew W L

    2012-01-01

    Using infrared imaging from the Herschel Space Observatory, observed as part of the VNGS, we investigate the spatially resolved dust properties of the interacting Whirlpool galaxy system (NGC 5194 and NGC 5195), on physical scales of 1 kpc. Spectral energy distribution modelling of the new infrared images in combination with archival optical, near- through mid-infrared images confirms that both galaxies underwent a burst of star formation ~370-480 Myr ago and provides spatially resolved maps of the stellar and dust mass surface densities. The resulting average dust-to-stellar mass ratios are comparable to other spiral and spheroidal galaxies studied with Herschel, with NGC 5194 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -2.5+/-0.2 and NGC 5195 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -3.5+/-0.3. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constant across NGC 5194 suggesting the stellar and dust components are coupled. In contrast, the mass ratio increases with radius in NGC 5195 with decreasing stellar mass density. Archival mass surface density maps of ...

  20. The physical and compositional properties of dust: what do we really know?

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ant

    2014-01-01

    Many things in current interstellar dust studies are taken as well understood givens by much of the community. For example, it is widely held that interstellar dust is made up of only three components, i.e., astronomical silicates, graphite and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and that our understanding of these is now complete and sufficient enough to interpret astronomical observations of dust in galaxies. To zeroth order this is a reasonable approximation. However, while these three pillars of dust modelling have been useful in advancing our understanding over the last few decades, it is now apparent that they are insufficient to explain the observed evolution of the dust properties from one region to another. Thus, it is time to abandon the three pillars approach and to seek more physically-realistic interstellar dust analogues. The analy- sis of the pre-solar grains extracted from meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and from the Stardust mission, and the interpretation of x-ray scattering and abso...

  1. Dust optical properties over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula derived from the AERONET dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET. We select the data with (a large aerosol optical depth (AOD ≥ 0.4 at 440 nm and (b small Ångström exponent (Åext ≤ 0.2 for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.946 ± 0.005, 0.752 ± 0.014, 1.498 ± 0.032, and 0.0025 ± 0.0036 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the previously studies using remote sensing techniques. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  2. The effect of dust lifting process on the electrical properties of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Molinaro, Roberto; Ionut Popa, Ciprian; Molfese, Cesare; Cozzolino, Fabio; Marty, Laurent; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Di Achille, Gaetano; Silvestro, Simone; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    Airborne dust and aerosol particles affect climate by absorbing and scattering thermal and solar radiation and acting as condensation nuclei for the formation of clouds. So, they strongly influence the atmospheric thermal structure, balance and circulation. On Earth and Mars, this 'climate forcing' is one of the most uncertain processes in climate change predictions. Wind-driven blowing of sand and dust is also responsible for shaping planetary surfaces through the formation of sand dunes and ripples, the erosion of rocks, and the creation and transport of soil particles. These processes are not confined to Earth, but occur also on Mars, Venus and Titan. It is clear that the knowledge of the atmospheric dust properties and the mechanisms of dust settling and raising into the atmosphere are important to understand planetary climate and surface evolution. On Mars the physical processes responsible for dust injection into the atmosphere are still poorly understood, but they likely involve saltation as on Earth. Saltation is a process where large sand grains are forced by the wind to move in ballistic trajectories on the soil surface. During these hops they hit dust particles, that are well bound to the soil due to interparticle cohesive forces, thus transferring to them the momentum necessary to be entrained into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been shown that this process is also responsible to generate strong electric fields in the atmosphere up to 100-150 kV/m. This enhanced electric force acts as a feedback in the dust lifting process, lowering the threshold of the wind friction velocity u* necessary to initiate sand saltation. It is an important aspect of dust lifting process that need to be well characterized and modeled. Even if literature reports several measurements of E-fields in dust devils events, very few reports deal with atmospheric electric properties during dust storms or isolated gusts. We present here preliminary results of an intense field test

  3. Probing Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Quasar Absorption Systems at Redshifts z<1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, M.; Kulkarni, V. P.; York, D. G.; Welty, D. E.; Vladilo, G.; Som, D.

    Absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars whose sightlines serendipitously pass through foreground galaxies provide a valuable tool to simultaneously probe the dust and gas compositions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. In particular, the damped and sub-damped Lyman- α (DLA/sub-DLA) absorbers trace gas-rich galaxies, independent of the intrinsic luminosities or star-formation rates of the associated galaxy stellar populations. The first evidence of silicate dust in a quasar absorption system was provided through our detection of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the z=0.52 DLA absorber toward the quasar AO 0235+164. We present results from 2 follow-up programs using archival Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectra to study the interstellar silicate dust grain properties in a total of 13 quasar absorption systems at 0.1 < z < 1.4. We find clear detections of the 10 µ m silicate feature in the quasar absorption systems studied. In addition, we also detect the 18 µ m silicate feature in the sources with adequate spectral coverage. We find variations in the breadth, peak wavelength, and substructure of the 10 µ m interstellar silicate absorption features among the absorbers. This suggests that the silicate dust grain properties in these distant galaxies may differ relative to one another, and relative to those in the Milky Way. We also find suggestions in several sources, based on comparisons with laboratory-derived profiles from the literature, that the silicate dust grains may be significantly more crystalline than those in the amorphous Milky Way ISM. This is particularly evident in the z=0.89 absorber toward the quasar PKS 1830-211, where substructure near 10 µ m is consistent with a crystalline olivine composition. If confirmed, these grain property variations may have implications for both dust and galaxy evolution over the past 9 Gyrs, and for the commonly-made assumption that highredshift dust is similar to local dust. We also discuss

  4. Linking dust emission to fundamental properties in galaxies: The low-metallicity picture

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy-Ruyer, A; Galliano, F; Lebouteiller, V; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cormier, D; Cooray, A; Cortese, L; De Looze, I; Doublier-Pritchard, V; Galametz, M; Jones, A P; Karczewski, O Ł; Lu, N; Spinoglio, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we aim at providing a consistent analysis of the dust properties from metal-poor to metal-rich environments by linking them to fundamental galactic parameters. We consider two samples of galaxies: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS) and KINGFISH, totalling 109 galaxies, spanning almost 2 dex in metallicity. We collect infrared (IR) to submillimetre (submm) data for both samples and present the complete data set for the DGS sample. We model the observed spectral energy distributions (SED) with a physically-motivated dust model to access the dust properties. Using a different SED model (modified blackbody), dust composition (amorphous carbon), or wavelength coverage at submm wavelengths results in differences in the dust mass estimate of a factor two to three, showing that this parameter is subject to non-negligible systematic modelling uncertainties. For eight galaxies in our sample, we find a rather small excess at 500 microns (< 1.5 sigma). We find that the dust SED of low-metallicity galaxies is ...

  5. Optical properties of amorphous alumina dust in the envelopes around O-rich AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Kyung-Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigate optical properties of amorphous alumina (Al_2O_3) dust grains in the envelopes around O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars considering the laboratory measured optical data. We derive the optical constants of amorphous alumina in a wide wavelength range that satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation and reproduce the laboratory measured data. Using the amorphous alumina and silicate dust, we compare the radiative transfer model results with the observed spectral energy distributions. Comparing the theoretical models with the observations on various IR two-color diagrams for a large sample O-rich AGB stars, we find that the amorphous alumina dust (about 10-40 %) mixed with amorphous silicate can reproduce much more observed points for the O-rich AGB stars with thin dust envelopes.

  6. Optical Properties of Amorphous Alumina Dust in the Envelopes around O-Rich AGB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kyung-Won

    2016-08-01

    We investigate optical properties of amorphous alumina (Al_2O_3) dust grains in the envelopes around O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using laboratory measured optical data. We derive the optical constants of amorphous alumina over a wide wavelength range that satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation and reproduce the laboratory data. Using the amorphous alumina and silicate dust, we compare the radiative transfer model results with the observed spectral energy distributions. Comparing the theoretical models with observations on various IR two-color diagrams for a large sample of O-rich AGB stars, we find that the amorphous alumina dust (about 10-40%) mixed with amorphous silicate better models the observed points for the O-rich AGB stars with thin dust envelopes.

  7. Effect of charge on the mechanical properties of surfactant bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Nagao, Michihiro

    2016-11-23

    Charge effects on the mechanical properties of surfactant bilayers have been measured, for a system with a low ionic strength, using small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin echo spectroscopy. We report that, not only does increasing the surface charge density lead to greater structural ordering and a stiffening of the membrane, which is consistent with classical theory of charge effects on membranes, but also that the relaxation rate of the membrane thickness fluctuations decreases without affecting the fluctuation amplitude. From the relaxation rate we demonstrate, using recent theory, that the viscosity of the surfactant membrane is increased with surface charge density, which suggests that the amount of charge controls the diffusion behavior of inclusions inside the membrane. The present results confirm that the thickness fluctuation relaxation rate and amplitude are tuned independently since the membrane viscosity is only influencing the relaxation rate. This work demonstrates that charge stabilization of lamellar bilayers is not merely affected by intermembrane interactions and structural ordering but that intramembrane dynamics also have a significant contribution.

  8. Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

  9. Constraining dust extinction properties via the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.; Gieren, W.

    2016-10-01

    Near-infrared color-excess and extinction ratios are essential for establishing the cosmic distance scale and probing the Galaxy, particularly when analyzing targets attenuated by significant dust. A robust determination of those ratios followed from leveraging new infrared observations from the VVV survey, wherein numerous bulge RR Lyrae and Type II Cepheids were discovered, in addition to BVJHKs(3.4 → 22) μm data for classical Cepheids and O stars occupying the broader Galaxy. The apparent optical color-excess ratios vary significantly with Galactic longitude (ℓ), whereas the near-infrared results are comparatively constant with ℓ and Galactocentric distance ( =1.28 ± 0.03}). The results derived imply that classical Cepheids and O stars display separate optical trends (RV,BV) with ℓ, which appear to disfavor theories advocating a strict and marked decrease in dust size with increasing Galactocentric distance. The classical Cepheid, Type II Cepheid, and RR Lyrae variables are characterized by ⟨AJ/E(J-Ks)⟩ = ⟨RJ,JKs⟩ = 1.49 ± 0.05 (⟨AKs/AJ⟩ = 0.33 ± 0.02), whereas the O stars are expectedly impacted by emission beyond 3.6 μm. The mean optical ratios characterizing classical Cepheids and O stars are approximately ⟨RV,BV⟩ 3.1 and ⟨RV,BV⟩ 3.3, respectively.

  10. Constraining Dust Extinction Properties via the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Majaess, D; Dekany, I; Minniti, D; Gieren, W

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared color-excess and extinction ratios are essential for establishing the cosmic distance scale and probing the Galaxy, particularly when analyzing targets attenuated by significant dust. A robust determination of those ratios followed from leveraging new infrared observations from the VVV survey, wherein numerous bulge RR Lyrae and Type II Cepheids were discovered, in addition to $BVJHK_{s}(3.4\\rightarrow22)\\mu m$ data for classical Cepheids and O-stars occupying the broader Galaxy. The apparent optical color-excess ratios vary significantly with Galactic longitude ($\\ell$), whereas the near-infrared results are comparatively constant with $\\ell$ and Galactocentric distance ($\\langle E(J-\\overline{3.5\\mu m})/E(J-K_s) \\rangle =1.28\\pm0.03$). The results derived imply that classical Cepheids and O-stars display separate optical trends ($R_{V,BV}$) with $\\ell$, which appear to disfavor theories advocating a strict and marked decrease in dust size with increasing Galactocentric distance. The classical ...

  11. Bistable Intrinsic Charge Fluctuations of a Dust Grain Subject to Secondary Electron Emission in a Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shotorban, Babak

    2015-01-01

    A master equation was formulated to study intrinsic charge fluctuations of a grain in a plasma as ions and primary electrons are attached to the grain through collisional collection, and secondary electrons are emitted from the grain. Two different plasmas with Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions were considered. The fluctuations could be bistable in either plasma when the secondary electron emission is present, as two stable macrostates, associated with two stable roots of the charge net current, may exist. Metastablity of fluctuations, manifested by the passage of the grain charge between two macrostates, was shown to be possible.

  12. Bistable intrinsic charge fluctuations of a dust grain subject to secondary electron emission in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2015-10-01

    A master equation was formulated to study intrinsic charge fluctuations of a grain in a plasma as ions and primary electrons are attached to the grain through collisional collection, and secondary electrons are emitted from the grain. Two different plasmas with Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions were considered. The fluctuations could be bistable in either plasma when the secondary electron emission is present, as two stable macrostates, associated with two stable roots of the charge net current, may exist. Metastablity of fluctuations, manifested by the passage of the grain charge between two macrostates, was shown to be possible.

  13. Charge Properties and Clay Mineral Composition of Tianbao Mountains Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJI-ZHENG; LIXUE-YUAN; 等

    1992-01-01

    The clay mineral association,oxides of clay fraction and surface charge properties of 7 soils,which are developed from granite,located at different altitudesof the Tianbao Mountains were studied.Results indicate that with the increase in altitude,1) the weathering process and desilicification of soil clay minerals became weaker,whereas the leaching depotassication and the formation process of hydroxy-aluminum interlayer got stronger;2)the contents of amorphous and complex aluminum and iron,and the activity of aluminum and iron oxides for soil clay fraction increased;and 3) the amount of variable negarive charge,anion exchange capacity and the values of PZC and PZNC also increased.The activity of aluminum and iron oxides,the accumulation of aluminum,and surface charge characteristics and their relation to clay oxides of the vertical zone soils were observed and recorded.

  14. Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver: DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N, Rekha T.; Rajkumar, Beulah J. M., E-mail: beulah-rajkumar@yahoo.co.in [PG & Research Department of Physics, Lady Doak College, Madurai 625002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver is investigated using DFT methods. Optimized geometry of pentacene after adsorption on silver indicates distortion in hexagonal structure of the ring close to the silver cluster and deviations in co-planarity of carbon atoms due to the variations in bond angles and dihedral angles. Theoretically simulated absorption spectrum has a symmetric surface plasmon resonance peak around 486nm corresponding to the transfer of charge from HOMO-2 to LUMO. Theoretical SERS confirms the process of adsorption, tilted orientation of pentacene on silver surface and the charge transfers reported. Localization of electron density arising from redistribution of electrostatic potential together with a reduced bandgap of pentacene after adsorption on silver suggests its utility in the design of electro active organic semiconducting devices.

  15. Ultrahigh charging of dust grains by the beam−plasma method for creating a compact neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishev, Yu. S., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Karal’nik, V. B.; Petryakov, A. V.; Starostin, A. N.; Trushkin, N. I.; Filippov, A. V. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Generation of high-voltage high-current electron beams in a low-pressure (P = 0.1–1 Torr) gas discharge is studied experimentally as a function of the discharge voltage and the sort and pressure of the plasma-forming gas. The density of the plasma formed by a high-current electron beam is measured. Experiments on ultrahigh charging of targets exposed to a pulsed electron beam with an energy of up to 25 keV, an electron current density of higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2}, a pulse duration of up to 1 μs, and a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz are described. A numerical model of ultrahigh charging of dust grains exposed to a high-energy electron beam is developed. The formation of high-energy positive ions in the field of negatively charged plane and spherical targets is calculated. The calculations performed for a pulse-periodic mode demonstrate the possibility of achieving neutron yields of higher than 10{sup 6} s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} in the case of a plane target and about 10{sup 9} s{sup –1} in the case of 10{sup 3} spherical targets, each with a radius of 250 μm.

  16. Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: Charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: arozhkov@gmail.co [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412, Moscow (Russian Federation); Giavaras, G. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bliokh, Yury P. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Freilikher, Valentin [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This brief review discusses electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene-based structures. These allow controlling the confinement and transport of charge and spin; thus, they are of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for applications. The graphene-related topics covered here are: edges, nanoribbons, quantum dots, pn-junctions, pnp-structures, and quantum barriers and waveguides. This review is partly intended as a short introduction to graphene mesoscopics.

  17. Synthesis and properties of differently charged chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David

    2013-02-14

    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters containing N-sulfopropyl groups in the acridinium ring are highly sensitive, hydrophilic labels that are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. At physiological pH, N-sulfopropyl acridinium esters exist as water adducts that are commonly referred to as pseudobases. Pseudobase formation, which results from addition of water to the zwitterionic N-sulfopropyl acridinium ring, neutralizes the positive charge on the acridinium nitrogen and imparts a net negative charge to the label due to the sulfonate moiety. As a consequence, N-sulfopropyl acridinium ester conjugates of small molecule haptens as well as large molecules such as proteins gain negative charges at neutral pH. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and properties of two new hydrophilic acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels where the net charge in the labels was altered. In one label, the structure of the hydrophilic N-alkyl group attached to the acridinium ring was changed so that the pseudobase of the label contains no net charge. In the second acridinium ester, two additional negative charges in the form of sulfopropyl groups were added to the acridinium ring to make this label's pseudobase strongly anionic. Chemiluminescence measurements of these labels, as well as their conjugates of an antibody with a neutral pI, indicate that acridinium ester charge while having a modest effect on emission kinetics has little influence on light output. However, our results demonstrate that acridinium ester charge can affect protein pI, apparent chemiluminescence stability and non-specific binding of protein conjugates to microparticles. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of acridinium ester charge in order to optimize reagent stability and performance in immunoassays. In the current study, we observed that

  18. Stability analysis of non-thermal complex astrofluids in the presence of polarized dust-charge fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P.; Das, P.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    The panoptic influence of plasma q-nonextensivity and dust-charge fluctuations on the gravito-electro-magnetic stability behaviour of a realistic non-thermal complex astroplasma model configuration with infinite geometrical extension is reconnoitered. It includes active viscoelasticity and dust polarization force-field effects in quasi-neutral hydrostatic equilibrium on the astrophysical fluid scales of space and time. The nontrivial linear model is simplified with the Jeans homogenization assumption (Jeans swindle, no zeroth-order force-field). It analytically and logically enables us to relax from the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities and of associated intrinsic complications. The role of boundary effects on the dynamical stability is assumed to be insignificant. We apply a standard technique of the Fourier formulaic plane-wave analysis over the basic cloud-structuring equations in a closed integrated form. It reduces the model Fourier algebraic equations decoupling into a unique form of cubic dispersion relation having mixed variable coefficients, which, indeed, explicitly, evolve on the diverse model plasma parameters. It is interestingly seen that the polarization and nonextensive effects directly play destabilizing roles. In contrast, the viscoelasticity and magnetic field create stabilizing effects on the instability. The pragmatic significance and applicability in the context of astro-cosmo-galactic environments are briefly indicated aboard analytic facts and introspective faults.

  19. Far-infrared and dust properties of present-day galaxies in the EAGLE simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Peter; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE cosmological simulations reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function and many galaxy properties. In this work, we study the dust-related properties of present-day EAGLE galaxies through mock observations in the far-infrared and submm wavelength ranges obtained with the 3D dust radiative transfer code SKIRT. To prepare an EAGLE galaxy for radiative transfer processing, we derive a diffuse dust distribution from the gas particles and we re-sample the star-forming gas particles and the youngest star particles into star-forming regions that are assigned dedicated emission templates. We select a set of redshift-zero EAGLE galaxies that matches the K-band luminosity distribution of the galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample of about 300 normal galaxies in the Local Universe. We find overall agreement of the EAGLE dust scaling relations with those observed in the HRS, such as the dust-to-stellar mass ratio versus stellar mass and versus NUV-r colour relations. A di...

  20. The Impacts of Optical Properties on Radiative Forcing Due to Dust Aerosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; SHI Guangyu; LI Shuyan; LI Wei; WANG Biao; HUANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    There are large uncertainties in the quantitative assessment of radiative effects due to atmospheric dust aerosol. The optical properties contribute much to those uncertainties. The authors perform several sensitivity experiments to estimate the impacts of optical characteristics on regional radiative forcing in this paper. The experiments involve in refractive indices, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and optical depth. An updated dataset of refractive indices representing East Asian dust and the one recommended by the World Meteorology Organization (WMO) are contrastively analyzed and used. A radiative transfer code for solar and thermal infrared radiation with detailed aerosol parameterization is employed. The strongest emphasis is on the refractive indices since other optical parameters strongly depend on it, and the authors found a strong sensitivity of radiative forcing on refractive indices. Studies show stronger scattering, weaker absorption and forward scattering of the East Asian dust particles at solar wavelengths, which leads to higher negative forcing, lower positive forcing and bigger net forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) than that of the WMO dust model. It is also found that the TOA forcings resulting from these two dust models have opposite signs in certain regions, which implies the importance of accurate measurements of optical properties in the quantitative estimation of radiative forcing.

  1. Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dissipative plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, B. S.; Yu, M. Y.

    2000-12-01

    The theory of dust acoustic waves is revisited in the frame of the generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic theory for highly correlated dusts. Physical processes relevant to many experiments on dusts in plasmas, such as ionization and recombination, dust-charge variation, elastic electron and ion collisions with neutral and charged dust particles, as well as relaxation due to strong dust coupling, are taken into account. These processes can be on similar time scales and are thus important for the conservation of particles and momenta in a self-consistent description of the system. It is shown that the dispersion properties of the dust acoustic waves are determined by a sensitive balance of the effects of strong dust coupling and collisional relaxation. The predictions of the present theory applicable to typical parameters in laboratory strongly coupled dusty plasmas are given and compared with the experiment results. Some possible implications and discrepanies between theory and experiment are also discussed.

  2. Constraining dust properties in Circumstellar Envelopes of C-stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud: optical constants and grain size of Carbon dust

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Ambra; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Aringer, Bernhard; Girardi, Léo; Pastorelli, Giada; Bressan, Alessandro; Bladh, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach aimed at constraining the typical size and optical properties of carbon dust grains in Circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of carbon-rich stars (C-stars) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To achieve this goal, we apply our recent dust growth description, coupled with a radiative transfer code to the CSEs of C-stars evolving along the TP-AGB, for which we compute spectra and colors. Then we compare our modeled colors in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) bands with the observed ones, testing different assumptions in our dust scheme and employing several data sets of optical constants for carbon dust available in the literature. Different assumptions adopted in our dust scheme change the typical size of the carbon grains produced. We constrain carbon dust properties by selecting the combination of grain size and optical constants which best reproduces several colors in the NIR and MIR at the same time. The different choices of optical properties and grain size lead to differences i...

  3. Physicochemical properties of the zinc-containing dusts of electric furnace steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, V. P.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Petrakova, N. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.; Leont'ev, L. I.

    2013-07-01

    The properties of the dusts of electric-arc melting in the Severstal' metallurgical works are studied by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. The elemental compositions of dust particles of various sizes are determined, and the complex structural composition of iron-containing oxide phases is revealed. It is shown that, in these systems, the carbon reduction of zinc from zincite is possible in the solid state in the temperature range 600-1000°C. In this case, zinc passes into a gaseous phase and iron oxides are reduced to form metallic iron.

  4. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, P. F.; Hahn, T.; Salvan, G.; Knupfer, M.; Zhu, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of

  5. Lost in Jupiter's Shadow: Can Resonant Charge Variations Explain Dust Grain Sizes in the Main Ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Hamilton, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    Interplanetary impacts onto the tiny moons Metis and Adrastea replenish Jupiter's main ring with dusty ejecta of all sizes. The equilibrium size distribution present in the rings at a given time is a function of production and loss mechanisms, both of which may be vary with particle size. Loss mechanisms include collisions and dynamical processes. Here we explore some of the latter. Grains tend to pick up negative electric charges due to motion through Jupiter's plasma environment, and positive charges from the photoelectric effect of sunlight. The periodic interruption of sunlight in Jupiter's shadow causes the equilibrium electric charge, and hence the Lorentz force, to resonate with the Kepler orbital frequency. The eccentricity increases for grains moving radially inwards during the shadow transit, and decreases when grains move outward in the shadow, hence the azimuthal location of pericenter is important. For smaller grains, the eccentricity increases monotonically until they collide with Jupiter. For much larger grains, precession due to both the Lorentz force and planetary oblateness causes the eccentricity to oscillate periodically. We explore the shadow instability in the main ring for a variety of uniform plasma density models, comparing numerical data with a semi-analytic approximation. We find that the effect of the shadow dwindles in importance for plasma that is either too sparse or too dense. In sparse plasma, the charging timescale slows, limiting the change in electric potential from sunlight to shadow. In dense plasma, charging currents from the plasma overwhelm the photoelectric effect in sunlight, also resulting in a small change in electric potential. Between these two regimes, the shadow resonance efficiently removes grains up to a particular size threshold in the main ring. This size-dependent loss mechanism may contribute to the observed flattening in the size distribution index for smaller grains.

  6. Laboratory measurements of light scattering properties of a carbonaceous interstellar dust analogue (soot particles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Ankur; Choudhury, Amarjyoti; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Kashyap Boruah, Goutam

    2012-07-01

    Dust particles are present everywhere in the solar system, cometary comae and tail, interstellar dust clouds, asteroidal atmospheres and aerosols of other planetary atmospheres. The in situ sampling of the cometary dust composition conducted by CIDA (Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer) and observed interstellar extinction and polarization revealed the presence of amorphous carbon, graphite, silicate, graphite, carbonates, metal oxide grains, ice particles and nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium. These particles act as the heterogeneous media to scatter solar or steller light. Observations and simulations of the light scattered by dust particles in cometary comae, interplanetary space and planetary regolith (or analogous terrestrial dust aggregates) is necessary to deduce the physical properties of their constituent particles and may lead to a better understanding of the formation of solar system. Notably the measurement of the volume scattering function (VSF) and degree of linear polarization (DLP) can be used to estimate parameters like size, porosity and roughness of the dust particles. In this contribution we report the design and fabrication of a laser based laboratory light scattering instrument that uses an array of 16 static Si photodetectors and can be operated at three different incident wavelengths (543.5 nm, 594.5 nm and 632.8 nm). The accuracy and the reliability of the setup were verified by conducting light scattering measurements on spherical water droplets and comparing the results with theoretical Mie calculations. The results of the measurements of the VSF and DLP of carbonaceous soot particles (agglomerates) that were sprayed in front of the laser beam by using an aerosol sprayer are presented. The experimental results were further analyzed by comparing with theoretically generated T-matrix and DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) plots with estimated parameters to yield more fruitful conclusions. Significant variations of the light

  7. Variations of the dust properties of M82 with galactocentric distance

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, S; Yershov, V

    2015-01-01

    We use near ultraviolet and optical photometry to investigate the dust properties in the nearby starburst galaxy M82. By combining imaging from the Swift/UVOT instrument and optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we derive the extinction curve parameterized by the standard Rv factor, and the strength of the NUV 2175 A feature - quantified by a parameter B -- out to projected galactocentric distances of 4 kpc. Our analysis is robust against possible degeneracies from the properties of the underlying stellar populations. Both B and Rv correlate with galactocentric distance, revealing a systematic trend of the dust properties. Our results confirm previous findings that dust in M82 is better fit by a Milky Way standard extinction curve (Hutton et al.), in contrast to a Calzetti law. We find a strong correlation between Rv and B, towards a stronger NUV bump in regions with higher Rv, possibly reflecting a distribution with larger dust grain sizes. The data we use were taken before SN2014J, and therefore c...

  8. Variation in dust properties in a dense filament of the Taurus molecular complex (L1506)

    CERN Document Server

    Ysard, Nathalie; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Pagani, Laurent; Konyves, Vera; Spencer, Locke; White, Glenn; Zavagno, Annie

    2013-01-01

    We observed the L1506 filament, which is located in the Taurus molecular complex, with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. Our aim is to prove the variation in grain properties along the entire length of the filament. In particular, we want to determine above which gas density this variation arises and what changes in the grain optical properties/size distribution are required. We use the 3D radiative transfer code CRT, coupled to the dust emission and extinction code DustEM, to model the emission and extinction of the dense filament. We test a range of optical properties and size distributions for the grains: dust of the diffuse interstellar medium (interstellar PAHs and amorphous carbons and silicates) and both compact and fluffy aggregates. We find that the grain opacity has to increase across the filament to fit simultaneously the near-IR extinction and Herschel emission profiles of L1506. We interpret this change to be a consequence of the coagulation of dust grains to form fluffy aggregates. Grains...

  9. How Does Metallicity Affect the Gas and Dust Properties of Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Madden, Suzanne C; Remy-Ruyer, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal-poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies

  10. Improvement Of Sub-Grade Soil Properties Using Admixture Quarry Dust And Woven Geo-Textile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Priya Vasudha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The important factor for design and construction of pavement is the behavior of underlying sub-grade. Large deformations in the sub-grade will lead to a continuous deterioration of the paved surface. As the sub-grade soil is too weak to bear the load engineering solutions such as geo reinforcement using geo-synthetics are additives which are earlier used in sub-grade improvement and such experimental study is carried by pervious authors. This paper deals with the sub-grade improvement using geo-textile as a reinforcement sheet and quarry dust as admixtures. In order to increase the strength of the sub-grade the quarry dust is varied with different percentages i.e. 0 5 10 15 20 and 25. In this study Proctors compaction tests and CBR soaked and unsoaked tests are conducted on locally available soil with reinforced material and with admixture. For this study it is identified that the engineering properties of the soil is improved in all conditions. The soil with quarry dust at optimum value is 20 has CBR soaked value is obtained 6.83 and unsoaked value is obtained 7.02 is increased when compared with conventionally soil. The soil quarry dust at optimum value is at 20 and Geo-textile has CBR soaked value is 6.59 and unsoaked value is 8.95 is increased when compared with conventionally soil and soil with quarry dust.

  11. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsakis, T; Appleton, P N; Diaz-Santos, T; Floc'h, E Le; da Cunha, E; Alatalo, K; Cluver, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a Herschel far-IR and sub-mm study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson Compact Groups. Fitting their UV to sub-mm spectral energy distributions with the model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we accurately estimate the dust masses, luminosities and temperatures of the individual galaxies. We find that nearly half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, those with more than 25% of early-type members and redder UV-optical colours, have also significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and the field. Examining their dust-to-gas mass ratios we conclude that dust was stripped out of these systems as a result of the gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions, experienced due to previous encounters with other group members. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), in dynamically "old" groups, display dust properties similar to those of the UV-optical red late-type galaxies. Given th...

  12. Nuclear graphite wear properties and estimation of graphite dust production in HTR-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwluo@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoxin; Shi, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Suyuan

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Graphite dust. • The wear properties of graphite. • Pebble bed. • High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. • Fuel element. - Abstract: The issue of the graphite dust has been a research focus for the safety of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), especially for the pebble bed reactors. Most of the graphite dust is produced from the wear of fuel elements during cycling of fuel elements. However, due to the complexity of the motion of the fuel elements in the pebble bed, there is no systematic method developed to predict the amount the graphite dust in a pebble bed reactor. In this paper, the study of the flow of the fuel elements in the pebble bed was carried out. Both theoretical calculation and numerical analysis by Discrete Element Method (DEM) software PFC3D were conducted to obtain the normal forces and sliding distances of the fuel elements in pebble bed. The wearing theory was then integrated with PFC3D to estimate the amount of the graphite dust in a pebble bed reactor, 10 MW High Temperature gas-cooled test Reactor (HTR-10).

  13. GRB afterglows: Dust extinction properties from the low to high redshift universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2016-11-01

    Long-duration Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are excellent probes to study dust extinction due to their occurrence in star-forming regions and having simple synchrotron emission spectra. Inclusion of spectroscopic data to the GRB X-ray to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) could better define the continuum and confirm extinction feature. A preliminary SED analysis of GRB afterglows targeted with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph finds that all the 60% of extinguished bursts fit-well with featureless extinction curves. The longer wavelength coverage from ultraviolet to the near-infrared of X-Shooter helps to derive individual extinction curves and determine the total-to-selective extinction, RV precisely, suggesting extinction curves steeper (with a mean of RV = 2.66 ± 0.10) than the Small Magellanic Cloud. Moreover, addition of more data to the study of dust-to-metals ratios in GRB afterglows, quasar absorbers, and multiply lensed galaxies still shows the dust-to-metals ratios close to the Galactic value (with a mean value of log - 21.2cm-2mag-1), hinting short time delay between metals and dust formation. Such studies demonstrate the strength of using GRB afterglows to study dust origin and its properties the from low to high redshift Universe.

  14. Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rover: Cleaning events, spectral properties, and aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Sullivan, Robert; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Goetz, Walter; Madsen, Morten B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger.

  15. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  16. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  17. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  18. Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; A. Veira; Mund, S.; Esselborn, M.; Kiemle, C.; B. Weinzierl; T. Hamburger; Ehret, G.; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in 2008, the mixing of the urban pollution plume of Dakar (Senegal) with mineral dust was studied in detail using the German research aircraft Falcon which was equipped with a nadir-looking high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and extensive aerosol in situ instrumentation. The mineral dust layer as well as the urban pollution plume were probed remotely by the HSRL and in situ. Back trajectory analyses were used to attribute aero...

  19. Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): Impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; A. Veira; Mund, S.; Esselborn, M.; Kiemle, C.; B. Weinzierl; T. Hamburger; Ehret, G.; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in 2008, the mixing of the urban pollution plume of Dakar (Senegal) with mineral dust was studied in detail using the German research aircraft Falcon which was equipped with a nadir-looking high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and extensive aerosol in situ instrumentation. The mineral dust layer as well as the urban pollution plume were probed remotely by the HSRL and in situ. Back trajectory analyses were used to at...

  20. Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Formenti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of recently acquired knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of mineral dust from Africa and Asia based on data and discussion during the Third International Dust Workshop, held in Leipzig (Germany in September 2008. Various regional experiments have been conducted in the last few years, mostly close to source regions or after short-range transport. Significant progress has been made in characterising the mineralogy of iron and the description of particle shape close to source regions. We consider that future research should focus on the evolution of dust properties during transport. In particular, the prediction of the characteristics of the size distribution of mineral dust at emission and their dynamics evolution during transport should be considered as a high-priority. The presence of large airborne particles above 20 μm in diameter, suggested by various studies, has limited implication for radiation, but should be important for deposition-based studies such as those on ocean productivity. Modelling the uplifting and transport of such large particles will represent a new serious challenge for transport models. A critical assessment and standardisation of the experimental and analytical methods is recommended.

  1. Probing Interstellar Silicate Dust Grain Properties in Quasar Absorption Systems at Redshifts z<1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Monique C; York, Donald G; Welty, Daniel E; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam

    2014-01-01

    Absorption lines in the spectra of distant quasars whose sightlines pass through foreground galaxies provide a valuable tool to probe the dust and gas compositions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. The first evidence of silicate dust in a quasar absorption system (QAS) was provided through our detection of the 10 micron silicate feature in the z=0.52 absorber toward the quasar AO 0235+164. We present results from 2 follow-up programs using archival Spitzer Space Telescope infrared spectra to study the interstellar silicate dust grain properties in a total of 13 QASs at 0.1dust grain properties in these distant galaxies may differ relat...

  2. Microplate Ames MPF™ test use in assessment of mutagenic properties of dust pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly industrialized Upper Silesia Region is particularly polluted by both anthropogenic and natural airborne particulate matters, which may lead to negative health effects in human. Materials and methods: The aim of the study was to assess the mutagenic properties of dust extracts which were collected in six cities in the Silesian Voivodeship. Dust samples were collected on glass fiber filters by the aspirator with air flow ca. 1 m3/min. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. The extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The mutagenic properties were assessed using microplate Ames assay MPFTM with the use of bacteria Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100. Results: In microplate Ames assay MPFTM there was observed a linear dose-response relationship in both metabolic variants of TA98 strain. Similar relationship was observed for TA100 strain with metabolic activation (S9. Mutagenic activity (AM of 100% extracts for TA98 strain in both metabolic variants (S9 exceeded 2, what indicate highly mutagenic effects of dust extracts. There was no mutagenic activity observed in the assay with TA100 (S9, AM 1. In the variant with exogenous metabolic activation (S9 in TA100 strain AM values ranged from AM1,160,15 to AM9,671,02. Mutagenic activity varied between different cities. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that microplate Ames assay MPFTM is fast and complex method of assessing the mutagenic properties of dust pollution, which exert toxic effect on organisms. The use of microplate Ames assay MPFTM together with chemical analyses of air dust pollution may evaluate the level of exposure in the environment and enable to perform health risk assessment in populations exposed to mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic substances.

  3. Interplanetary Charged Dust Magnetic Clouds Striking the Magnetosphere: Coordinated Space-based and Ground-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Chi, Peter; Lai, Hairong

    In general, asteroids, meteoroids and dust do not interact with the plasma structures in the solar system, but after a collision between fast moving bodies the debris cloud contains nanoscale dust particles that are charged and behave like heavy ions. Dusty magnetic clouds are then accelerated to the solar wind speed. While they pose no threat to spacecraft because of the particle size, the coherency imposed by the magnetization of the cloud allows the cloud to interact with the Earth’s magnetosphere as well as the plasma in the immediate vicinity of the cloud. We call these clouds Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs). These IFEs are a unique class of interplanetary field structures that feature cusp-shaped increases and decreases in the interplanetary magnetic field and a thin current sheet. The occurrence of IFEs is attributed to the interaction between the solar wind and dust particles produced in inter-bolide collisions. Previous spacecraft observations have confirmed that IFEs move with the solar wind. When IFEs strike the magnetosphere, they may distort the magnetosphere in several possible ways, such as producing a small indentation, a large scale compression, or a glancing blow. In any event if the IFE is slowed by the magnetosphere, the compression of the Earth’s field should be seen in the ground-based magnetic records that are continuously recorded. Thus it is important to understand the magnetospheric response to IFE arrival. In this study, we investigate the IFE structure observed by spacecraft upstream of the magnetosphere and the induced magnetic field perturbations observed by networks of ground magnetometers, including the THEMIS, CARISMA, McMAC arrays in North America and the IMAGE array in Europe. We find that, in a well-observed IFE event on December 24, 2006, all ground magnetometer stations observed an impulse at approximately 1217 UT when the IFE was expected to arrive at the Earth’s magnetopause. These ground stations spread across

  4. Technical Note: Optical properties of desert dust with non-spherical particles: data incorporated to OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koepke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral desert dust particles in general are no spheres and assuming spherical particles, instead of more realistic shapes, has significant effects on modeled optical dust properties and so on the belonging remote sensing procedures for desert dust and the derived radiative forcing. Thus in a new version of the data base OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds; Hess et al., 1998, the optical properties of the mineral particles are modeled describing the particles as spheroids with size dependent aspect ratio distributions, but with the size distributions and the spectral refractive indices not changed against the previous version of OPAC. The spheroid assumption strongly improves the scattering functions, but pays regard to the limited knowledge on particle shapes in an actual case. The relative deviations of the phase functions of non-spherical mineral particles from those of spherical particles are up to +60% at scattering angles of about 130° and up to −60% in the backscatter region, but the deviations are generally small for optical properties that are independent of the scattering angle. The improved version of OPAC (4.0 is freely available under http://www.rascin.net/

  5. Properties of CFTs dual to charged BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad, E-mail: debu@imsc.res.i [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Sarkar, Swarnendu, E-mail: ssarkar@physics.du.ac.i [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sathiapalan, B., E-mail: bala@imsc.res.i [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Shankar, R., E-mail: shankar@imsc.res.i [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India); Sircar, Nilanjan, E-mail: nilanjan@imsc.res.i [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2010-11-11

    We study properties of strongly coupled CFT's with non-zero background electric charge in 1+1 dimensions by studying the dual gravity theory-which is a charged BTZ black hole. Correlators of operators dual to scalars, gauge fields and fermions are studied at both T=0 and T{ne}0. In the T=0 case we are also able to compare with analytical results based on AdS{sub 2} and find reasonable agreement. In particular the correlation between log periodicity and the presence of finite spectral density of gapless modes is seen. The real part of the conductivity (given by the current-current correlator) also vanishes as {omega}{yields}0 as expected. The fermion Green's function shows quasiparticle peaks with approximately linear dispersion but the detailed structure is neither Fermi liquid nor Luttinger liquid and bears some similarity to a 'Fermi-Luttinger' liquid. This is expected since there is a background charge and the theory is not Lorentz or scale invariant. A boundary action that produces the observed non-Luttinger liquid like behavior (k-independent non-analyticity at {omega}=0) in the Green's function is discussed.

  6. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A.S.; Wallace, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 m in diameter) was found to produce several problems with astronaut s suits and helmets, mechanical seals and equipment, and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent of the lunar module from the lunar surface to rendezvous with the command module, much of the major portions of the contaminating soil and dust began to float, irritating the astronaut s eyes and being inhaled into their lungs. Our goal has been to understand some of the properties of lunar dust that could lead to possible hazards for humans. Due to the lack of an atmosphere, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. In order to understand the possible toxic effects of the reactive dust, it is necessary to reactivate the dust, as samples returned during the Apollo missions were exposed to the atmosphere of the Earth. We have used grinding and UV exposure to mimic some of the processes occurring on the Moon. The level of activation has been monitored using two methods: fluorescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). These techniques allow the monitoring of hydroxyl radical production in solution. We have found that grinding of lunar dust produces 2-3 times the concentration of hydroxyl radicals as lunar simulant and 10 times that of quartz. Exposure

  7. Properties of interstellar wind leading to shape morphology of the dust surrounding HD 61005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pástor, P.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: A structure formed by dust particles ejected from the debris ring around HD 61005 is observed in the scattered light. The main aim here is to constrain interstellar wind parameters that lead to shape morphology in the vicinity of HD 61005 using currently available observational data for the debris ring. Methods: Equation of motion of 2 × 105 dust particles ejected from the debris ring under the action of the electromagnetic radiation, stellar wind, and interstellar wind is solved. A two-dimensional (2D) grid is placed in a given direction for accumulation of the light scattered on the dust particles in order to determine the shape morphology. The interaction of the interstellar wind and the stellar wind is considered. Results: Groups of unknown properties of the interstellar wind that create the observed morphology are determined. A relation between number densities of gas components in the interstellar wind and its relative velocity is found. Variations of the shape morphology caused by the interaction with the interstellar clouds of various temperatures are studied. When the interstellar wind velocity is tilted from debris ring axis a simple relation between the properties of the interstellar wind and an angle between the line of sight and the interstellar wind velocity exists. Dust particles that are most significantly influenced by stellar radiation move on the boundary of observed structure. Conclusions: Observed structure at HD 61005 can be explained as a result of dust particles moving under the action of the interstellar wind. Required number densities or velocities of the interstellar wind are much higher than that of the interstellar wind entering the solar system.

  8. Properties of Interstellar Dust in the MBM 18-19 Cloud Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, V. H.; Larson, K. A.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies of the interactions of starlight with materials present in the interstellar medium reveal much about the properties of interstellar dust grains - the main source of scattering and absorption of starlight. Here, we present a study of dust in lines of sight that pass through the interstellar cloud complex MBM 18-19. Data for 238 stars were collected from the SIMBAD Astronomical Database, the OASIS archive of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), and the recently released database from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) for infrared luminosity data. Comparisons of infrared colors have shown evidence for at least 20 newly forming star systems, or Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Through examination of the amount of reddening due to interstellar dust, we determined that the distance to the cloud is 80 ± 20 parsecs. A useful indicator of interstellar dust grain properties is the ratio (RV) of total extinction of visible light to the reddening in each line of sight. Large values of RV signify large dust grains in a particular line of sight, and larger grains are usually found deep within the cloud where total extinction is large. In our study, we find only slight evidence for a systematic increase in RV with increasing extinction. We have also studied other methods of determining RV, with the limited results. From the data, we have produced detailed maps of extinction and RV in the region of the MBM 18-19 cloud complex. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (NSF)- Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU)- site award to the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) under Grant No. DMR-0243640

  9. Material simulation of charge carrier transport properties of polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unge, Mikael; Christen, Thomas; Törnkvist, Christer; ABB Corporate Research Team

    To understand electron and hole transport in solid material requires to know its electronic properties, i.e. the density of states (DOS) and whether the states are spatially localized or delocalized. The states closest to the band edges may be localized, states further away can be delocalized. This transition from localized to delocalized states determines the mobility edge, above the mobility edge the mobility is expected to be high. A real polymer is never perfect; it contains a number of oxidative states, bonding defects and molecular impurities. These imperfections yield electronic states that can appear in the band gap of the polymer, traps. Traps can be shallow, i.e. close to the band edges, from these states the charge carrier easily can jump to a state in the band edge or another shallow state. Other traps can be deep, in these states it is likely that the charge carrier remains and become immobile. All these properties related to the electronic structure of the polymer, including its defects, affects the conductivity of the polymer. Linear scaling Density Functional Theory has been applied to calculate electronic structure of amorphous polyethylene. In particular DOS, trap levels and mobility edges are studied.

  10. Properties and alignment of interstellar dust grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with anomalous polarization curves

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2015-01-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratio ($R_{V}<2$) and wavelength of maximum polarization ($\\lambda_{max}<0.4\\mu m$) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use inversion technique to infer best-fit grain size distribution and alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SNe 1986G, 2006X, 2008fp, and 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of $R_{V}$, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius $a< 0.1\\mu m$ is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to observed extinction and polarization data is unsuccessful if the entire data is attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 200...

  11. Major Merger Galaxy Pairs at z=0: Dust Properties and Companion Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, Donovan L; Xu, C Kevin; Jarrett, Thomas H; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily; Jacques, Allison

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by K_s magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) is used to fit dust models to the 2MASS, WISE and Herschel flux density measurements and derive the parameters describing the PAH contribution, interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/mo...

  12. Aerosols properties during dust-storm episodes over Jaipur, Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payra, Swagata; Verma, Sunita; Prakash, Divya; Kumar, Pramod; Soni, Manish; Holben, Brent

    2013-05-01

    Continuous routine aerosol measurements have been carried out at Jaipur (Rajasthan, Northwestern India) since April 2009 with a CIMEL sun photometer integrated in the global Aerosols Robotic Network (AERONET) program. The present study investigates the aerosol properties during dust storm episodes over Jaipur, Northwestern India. A series of high dust storms were identified as indicated by high values of aerosols optical thickness (AOT) with a significant drop in angstrom exponent values (nearly zero and negative). Consequently, a progressive increase in Single Scattering Albedo (SSA440 nm = 0.89, SSA675 nm = 0.95, SSA870 nm = 0.97, SSA1020 nm = 0.976) suggests more scattering nature of regional aerosols associated with abundant dust loading. Trajectories back in time showed that the air collected in Jaipur during dust period originated from desert regions in the western part of India. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the mean AOT derived from satellite data and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis helped to understand the source region of these particles.

  13. The properties of diffuse interstellar dust clouds as determined from GALEX and infrared (IRAS, Herschel) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.

    2017-03-01

    Dust grain properties are known to vary in the interstellar medium depending on the density, the ultraviolet radiation field and the local abundances of metal elements. Though there are plenty of studies addressing the atomic and molecular gas component or the infrared radiation of dust grains, there are very few studies that address the spatial distribution of small large grains and large molecules such as the Polyaromathic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).In this work, we make use of the GALEX survey of the Galaxy to identify the absorption produced in the GALEX far UV (write in the spectral range) and new UV (write in the spectral range) by well know infrared cirrus and compare the absorption produced in the UV by the thin cirrus with the infrared dust emissivity in various bands; (describe the IRAS bands used and whether there is any Herschel band in this study). As the spatial resolution of GALEX images is significantly larger than that of IRAS images data handling has required mosaicking and and rescaling GALEX data as well as transforming the images form equinox 1950 to equinox 2000. We describe in this work the computational procedures used to generate the ultraviolet and infrared maps. Also we present our first results that show there is an anticorrelation between UV and infrared (IR) emission, as other wise expected. The largest concentrations of dust grains radiate IR photons and absorb UV photons.

  14. On the properties of dust and gas in the environs of V838 Monocerotis

    CERN Document Server

    Exter, K M; Swinyard, B M; Matsuura, M; Mayer, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L

    2016-01-01

    Herschel FIR imaging and spectroscopy were taken at several epochs to probe the central point source and the extended environment of V838 Mon. PACS and SPIRE maps were used to obtain photometry of the near and far dust around V838 Mon. Fitting reveals 0.5-0.6 solar masses of ~19K dust in the environs (~2.7pc) surrounding the star. The surface-integrated infrared flux (signifying the thermal light echo) and derived dust properties do not vary significantly between the epochs. We also fit the SED of the point source. As the peak of the SED lies outside the Herschel spectral range, it is only by incorporating data from other observatories and epochs that we can perform useful fitting; with this we explicitly assume no evolution of the point source between the epochs. We find warm dust with a temperature of ~300K distributed over a radius of 150-200AU. PACS and SPIRE spectra were also used to detect emission lines from the extended environment around the star. We fit the far-infrared lines of CO arising from the ...

  15. Constraints on the radial distribution of the dust properties in the CQ Tau protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Trotta, F; Natta, A; Isella, A; Ricci, L

    2013-01-01

    Grain growth in protoplanetary disks is the first step towards the formation of the rocky cores of planets. Models predict that grains grow, migrate, and fragment in the disk and predict varying dust properties as a function of radius, age, and physical properties. High-angular resolution observations at more than one (sub-)mm wavelength are the essential tool for constraining grain growth and migration on the disk midplane. We developed a procedure to analyze self-consistently multi wavelength (sub-)mm continuum interferometric observations of protoplanetary disks to constrain the radial distribution of dust properties. We apply this technique to existing multi frequency continuum mm observations of the disk around CQ Tau, a A8 pre-main sequence star with a well-studied disk. We demonstrate that our models can be used to simultaneously constrain the disk and dust structure. In CQ Tau, the best-fitting model has a radial dependence of the maximum grain size, which decreases from a few cm in the inner disk (&l...

  16. Constraining dust properties in circumstellar envelopes of C-stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud: optical constants and grain size of carbon dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Aringer, Bernhard; Girardi, Léo; Pastorelli, Giada; Bressan, Alessandro; Bladh, Sara

    2016-10-01

    We present a new approach aimed at constraining the typical size and optical properties of carbon dust grains in circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of carbon-rich stars (C-stars) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To achieve this goal, we apply our recent dust growth description, coupled with a radiative transfer code to the CSEs of C-stars evolving along the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch, for which we compute spectra and colours. Then, we compare our modelled colours in the near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) bands with the observed ones, testing different assumptions in our dust scheme and employing several data sets of optical constants for carbon dust available in the literature. Different assumptions adopted in our dust scheme change the typical size of the carbon grains produced. We constrain carbon dust properties by selecting the combination of grain size and optical constants which best reproduce several colours in the NIR and MIR at the same time. The different choices of optical properties and grain size lead to differences in the NIR and MIR colours greater than 2 mag in some cases. We conclude that the complete set of observed NIR and MIR colours are best reproduced by small grains, with sizes between ˜0.035 and ˜0.12 μm, rather than by large grains between ˜0.2 and 0.7 μm. The inability of large grains to reproduce NIR and MIR colours seems independent of the adopted optical data set. We also find a possible trend of the grain size with mass-loss and/or carbon excess in the CSEs of these stars.

  17. The dust properties and physical conditions of the interstellar medium in the LMC massive star forming complex N11

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Albrecht, M; Galliano, F; Cormier, D; Lebouteiller, V; Lee, M Y; Madden, S C; Bolatto, A; Bot, C; Hughes, A; Israel, F; Meixner, M; Oliviera, J M; Paradis, D; Pellegrini, E; Roman-Duval, J; Rubio, M; Sewiło, M; Fukui, Y; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T

    2015-01-01

    We combine Spitzer and Herschel data of the star-forming region N11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud to produce detailed maps of the dust properties in the complex and study their variations with the ISM conditions. We also compare APEX/LABOCA 870um observations with our model predictions in order to decompose the 870um emission into dust and non-dust (free-free emission and CO(3-2) line) contributions. We find that in N11, the 870um can be fully accounted for by these 3 components. The dust surface density map of N11 is combined with HI and CO observations to study local variations in the gas-to-dust mass ratios. Our analysis leads to values lower than those expected from the LMC low-metallicity as well as to a decrease of the gas-to-dust mass ratio with the dust surface density. We explore potential hypotheses that could explain the low observed gas-to-dust mass ratios (variations in the XCO factor, presence of CO-dark gas or of optically thick HI or variations in the dust abundance in the dense regions). We f...

  18. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Ritz, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar dust can jeopardize exploration activities due to its ability to cling to most surfaces. In this paper, we report on our measurements of the electrostatic properties of the lunar soil simulants. Methods have been developed to measure the volume resistivity, dielectric constant, chargeability, and charge decay of lunar soil. While the first two parameters have been measured in the past [Olhoeft 1974], the last two have never been measured directly on the lunar regolith or on any of the Apollo samples. Measurements of the electrical properties of the lunar samples are being performed in an attempt to answer important problems that must be solved for the development of an effective dust mitigation technology, namely, how much charge can accumulate on the dust and how long does the charge remain on surfaces. The measurements will help develop coatings that are compatible with the intrinsic electrostatic properties of the lunar regolith.

  19. Interstellar Dust Properties of M51 from AKARI Mid-infrared Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Fumi; Wada, Takehiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-11-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 μm), S11 (11 μm), L15 (15 μm), and L24 (24 μm), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to their spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions are defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image and we measure the arm/interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which we interpret as meaning that among the four AKARI MIR bands, the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components. On the other hand, the L24 image, with the highest contrast, traces warmer dust heated by star forming activity. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e., color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and traces the global spiral arm pattern well while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at individual H II regions. This result indicates that the ionization state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is related to the spiral structure. Comparison with observational data and dust models also supports the importance of the variation in the PAH ionization state within the M51a disk. However, the mechanism driving this variation is not yet clear from the currently available datasets. Another suggestion from the comparison with the models is that the PAH fraction in the total dust mass is higher than previously estimated.

  20. A temporal study of oxygen-rich pulsating variable AGB star, T Cep: Investigation on dust formation and dust properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niyogi, Suklima Guha; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Pulsation is believed to be the leading cause of dusty mass loss from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. We present a temporal study of T Cep, a long-period Mira variable, using seven ISO SWS spectra, covering a 16-month period over a single pulsation cycle. The observed spectral dust features change over the pulsation cycle of this Mira. In general, the overall apparent changes in spectral features can be attributed to changes in the dust temperature, resulting from the intrinsic pulsation cycle of the central star. However, not all feature changes are so easily explained. Based on direct comparison with laboratory spectra of several potential minerals, the dust is best explained by crystalline iron-rich silicates. These findings contradict the currently favored dust formation hypotheses.

  1. Thiolate versus Selenolate: Structure, Stability, and Charge Transfer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Jakub; Wächter, Tobias; Silies, Laura; Kind, Martin; Noworolska, Agnieszka; Blobner, Florian; Gnatek, Dominika; Rysz, Jakub; Bolte, Michael; Feulner, Peter; Terfort, Andreas; Cyganik, Piotr; Zharnikov, Michael

    2015-04-28

    Selenolate is considered as an alternative to thiolate to serve as a headgroup mediating the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metal substrates. There are, however, ongoing vivid discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of these anchor groups, regarding, in particular, the energetics of the headgroup-substrate interface and their efficiency in terms of charge transport/transfer. Here we introduce a well-defined model system of 6-cyanonaphthalene-2-thiolate and -selenolate SAMs on Au(111) to resolve these controversies. The exact structural arrangements in both types of SAMs are somewhat different, suggesting a better SAM-building ability in the case of selenolates. At the same time, both types of SAMs have similar packing densities and molecular orientations. This permitted reliable competitive exchange and ion-beam-induced desorption experiments which provided unequivocal evidence for a stronger bonding of selenolates to the substrate as compared to the thiolates. Regardless of this difference, the dynamic charge transfer properties of the thiolate- and selenolate-based adsorbates were found to be nearly identical, as determined by the core-hole-clock approach, which is explained by a redistribution of electron density along the molecular framework, compensating the difference in the substrate-headgroup bond strength.

  2. Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippat, Claire; Bennett, Deborah H; Krakowiak, Paula; Rose, Melissa; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-06-26

    Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that influence thyroid hormones and sex steroids, both critical for brain development. We studied phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to the risks of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay (DD). Participants were a subset of children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) case-control study. ASD and DD cases were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services system or referrals; general population controls were randomly sampled from state birth files and frequency-matched on age, sex, and broad geographic region to ASD cases. All children (50 ASD, 27 DD, 68 typically developing (TD)) were assessed with Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. We measured 5 phthalates in dust collected in the child's home using a high volume small surface sampler. None of the phthalates measured in dust was associated with ASD. After adjustment, we observed greater di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) concentrations in indoor dust from homes of DD children: Odds ratios (OR) were 2.10 (95% confidence interval (CI); 1.10; 4.09) and 1.40 (95% CI; 0.97; 2.04) for a one-unit increase in the ln-transformed DEHP and BBzP concentrations, respectively. Among TD children, VABS communication, daily living, and adaptive composite standard scores were lower, in association with increased diethyl phthalate (DEP) concentrations in dust. Participants with higher dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentrations in house dust also trended toward reduced performance on these subscales. Among ASD and DD boys, higher indoor dust concentrations of DEP and DBP were associated with greater hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention. House dust levels of phthalates were not associated with ASD. The inability to distinguish past from recent exposures in house dust and the fact

  3. Insights into the content and spatial distribution of dust from the integrated spectral properties of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Wandelt, Benjamin; Wild, Vivienne

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a new approach to investigate the content and spatial distribution of dust in structurally unresolved star-forming galaxies from the observed dependence of integrated spectral properties on galaxy inclination. We develop an innovative combination of generic models of radiative transfer (RT) in dusty media with a prescription for the spectral evolution of galaxies, via the association of different geometric components of galaxies with stars in different age ranges. We show that a wide range of RT models all predict a quasi-universal relation between slope of the attenuation curve at any wavelength and V-band attenuation optical depth in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), at all galaxy inclinations. This relation predicts steeper (shallower) dust attenuation curves than both the Calzetti and MW curves at small (large) attenuation optical depths, which implies that geometry and orientation effects have a stronger influence on the shape of the attenuation curve than changes in the optica...

  4. Magnetically Aligned HI and Dust: New insights into the physical properties of the diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan E.; Peek, Joshua E. G.; Hill, J. Colin; Putman, Mary; Schudel, Lowell E.

    2015-08-01

    Sensitive, high resolution observations of Galactic HI reveal an intricate network of slender linear features, much as sensitive surveys of dust in Galactic molecular clouds reveal ubiquitous filamentary structure. Across the high Galactic latitude sky, diffuse HI structures are aligned with the interstellar magnetic field, as revealed by background starlight polarization (Clark, Peek, Putman 2014). We present the discovery that the orientation of HI structures traces the Planck 353 GHz polarization angle measurements with extraordinary accuracy. We explore the physical properties of the HI structures, and the physical mechanisms responsible for their alignment, by examining the HI structures across a range of densities and environments. We discuss the insights that may be gained from a deeper understanding of the interplay between gas, dust, and magnetic fields in the ISM.

  5. Properties of a local dust storm on Mars' Atlantis Chaos by means of radiative transfer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Fabrizio; Altieri, Francesca; Geminale, Anna; Bellucci, Giancarlo; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Carrozzo, Giacomo; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Grassi, Davide

    2017-04-01

    In this study we present the analysis of the dust properties in a local storm imaged in the Atlantis Chaos region on Mars by the OMEGA spectrometer (Bibring et al., 2004) on March 2nd 2005 (ORB1441_5). By means of an inverse radiative transfer code we study the dust properties across the region and try to infer the connection be-tween the local storm dynamics and the orography. OMEGA is a visible and near-IR mapping spectrometer, operating in the spectral range 0.38-5.1 μm with three separate channels with different spectral resolution. The instrument's IFOV is 1.2 mrad. To analyze the storm properties we have used the inverse radiative transfer model MITRA (Oliva et al., 2016; Sindoni et al., 2013) to retrieve the effective radius reff, the optical depth at 880 nm τ880 and the top pressure tp of the dust layer. We used the Mars Climate Database (MCD, Forget et al., 1999) to obtain the atmospheric properties of the studied region to be used as input in our model. Moreover we used the optical constants from Wolff et al. (2009) to describe the dust composition. The properties from the surface have been obtained by ap-plying the SAS method (Geminale et al., 2015) to observations of the same region relatively clear from dust. All retrievals have been performed in the spectral range 500 ÷ 2500 nm. Here we describe the result from our analysis carried out on selected regions of the storm and characterized by a different optical depth of the dust. Aknowledgements: This study has been performed within the UPWARDS project and funded in the context of the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme (H2020-Compet-08-2014), grant agreement UPWARDS-633127. References: Bibring, J-P. et al., 2004. OMEGA: Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité. Mars Express: the scientific payload, Ed. by Andrew Wilson, scientific coordination: Agustin Chicarro. ESA SP-1240, Noordwijk, Netherlands: ESA Publications Division, ISBN 92-9092-556-6, 2004, p. 37 - 49. Forget

  6. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Doan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (˜ 6.4 eV, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700 °K. The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of μ ∝ (T/T0−α with α = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ħω = 192 meV (or 1546 cm-1, which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  7. Surface Properties Associated With Dust Storm Plume's Point-Source Locations In The Border Region Of The US And Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, M. P.; DuBois, D. W.; Flores, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Dust storms in the border region of the Southwest US and Northern Mexico are a serious problem for air quality (PM10 exceedances), health (Valley Fever is pandemic in the region) and transportation (road closures and deadly traffic accidents). In order to better understand the phenomena, we are attempting to identify critical characteristics of dust storm sources so that, possibly, one can perform more accurate predictions of events and, thus, mitigate some of the deleterious effects. Besides the emission mechanisms for dust storm production that are tied to atmospheric dynamics, one must know those locations whose source characteristics can be tied to dust production and, therefore, identify locations where a dust storm is eminent under favorable atmospheric dynamics. During the past 13 years, we have observed, on satellite imagery, more than 500 dust events in the region and are in the process of identifying the source regions for the dust plumes that make up an event. Where satellite imagery exists with high spatial resolution (less than or equal to 250m), dust 'plumes' appear to be made up of individual and merged plumes that are emitted from a 'point source' (smaller than the resolution of the imagery). In particular, we have observed events from the ASTER sensor whose spatial resolution is 15m as well as Landsat whose spatial resolution is 30m. Tying these source locations to surface properties such as NDVI, albedo, and soil properties (percent sand, silt, clay, and gravel; soil moisture; etc.) will identify regions with enhanced capability to produce a dust storm. This, along with atmospheric dynamics, will allow the forecast of dust events. The analysis of 10 events from the period 2004-2013, for which we have identified 1124 individual plumes, will be presented.

  8. Mixing of mineral dust with urban pollution aerosol over Dakar (Senegal): impact on dust physico-chemical and radiative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Mund, S.; Esselborn, M.; Kiemle, C.; Weinzierl, B.; Hamburger, T.; Ehret, G. (Institut fur Physik der Atmosphaere, Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany)), e-mail: andreas.petzold@dlr.de; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K. (Institut fur Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    In the framework of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in 2008, the mixing of the urban pollution plume of Dakar (Senegal) with mineral dust was studied in detail using the German research aircraft Falcon which was equipped with a nadir-looking high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and extensive aerosol in situ instrumentation. The mineral dust layer as well as the urban pollution plume were probed remotely by the HSRL and in situ. Back trajectory analyses were used to attribute aerosol samples to source regions.We found that the emission from the region of Dakar increased the aerosol optical depth (532 nm) from approximately 0.30 over sea and over land east of Dakar to 0.35 in the city outflow. In the urban area, local black carbon (BC) emissions, or soot respectively, contributed more than 75% to aerosol absorption at 530 nm. In the dust layer, the single-scattering albedo at 530 nm was 0.96 - 0.99, whereas we found a value of 0.908 +- 0.018 for the aerosol dominated by urban pollution. After 6 h of transport over the North Atlantic, the externally mixed mode of secondary aerosol particles had almost completely vanished, whereas the BC agglomerates (soot) were still externally mixed with mineral dust particles

  9. Ice nucleation of bare and sulfuric acid-coated mineral dust particles and implication for cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; Sanders, Cassandra; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-01

    Ice nucleation properties of atmospherically relevant dust minerals coated with soluble materials are not yet well understood. We determined ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid-coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35°C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw; 75 to 110%) for five different mineral dust types: (1) Arizona test dust, (2) illite, (3) montmorillonite, (4) K-feldspar, and (5) quartz. The particles were dry dispersed and size selected at 200 nm, and we determined the fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw. Under water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability. Under water-supersaturated conditions, however, we did not observe a significant coating effect (i.e., the bare and coated dust particles had nearly similar nucleating properties). X-ray diffraction patterns of the coated particles indicated that acid treatment altered the crystalline nature of the surface and caused structural disorder; thus, we concluded that the lack of such structured order reduced the ice nucleation efficiency of the coated particles in deposition ice nucleation mode. In addition, our single column model results show that coated particles significantly modify cloud properties such as ice crystal number concentration and ice water content compared to bare particles in water-subsaturated conditions. However, in water-supersaturated conditions, cloud properties differ only at warmer temperatures. These modeling results imply that future aged dust particle simulations should implement coating parameterizations to accurately predict cloud properties.

  10. Interstellar dust properties of M51 from AKARI mid-infrared images

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 um), S11 (11 um), L15 (15 um), and L24 (24 um), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to its spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions being defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image, we measure the arm-to-interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which is interpreted as that among the four AKARI MIR bands the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components, while the L24 image with the highest contrast traces warmer dust heated by star forming activities. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e. color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and well traces the global spiral arm pattern while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at i...

  11. Large-scale variations of the dust optical properties in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Cambresy, L; Beichman, C A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the dust optical properties at large scale, for the whole galactic anticenter hemisphere. We used the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog to obtain the total reddening on each galaxy line of sight and we compared this value to the IRAS 100 microns surface brightness converted to extinction by Schlegel et al (1998). We performed a careful examination and correction of the possible systematic effects resulting from foreground star contamination, redshift contribution and galaxy selection bias. We also evaluated the contribution of dust temperature variations and interstellar clumpiness to our method. The correlation of the near-infrared extinction to the far-infrared optical depth shows a discrepancy for visual extinction greater than 1 mag with a ratio A_V(FIR) / A_V(gal) = 1.31 +- 0.06. We attribute this result to the presence of fluffy/composite grains characterized by an enhanced far--infrared emissivity. Our analysis, applied to half of the sky, provides new insights on the dust grains ...

  12. The effect of mineralogy, texture and mechanical properties of anti-skid and asphalt aggregates on urban dust

    OpenAIRE

    RÀisÀnen, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Tervahattu, H.

    2003-01-01

    In northern latitudes mineral dust is formed when cars use studded tyres and roads are sanded to obtain more traction on the icy surfaces. Anti-skid and asphalt aggregates with different textural, mineralogical and mechanical properties were tested with an indoor road simulator fitted with studded and friction tyres. The particle size distribution and proportions of dust from pavement and anti-skid aggregate were analyzed using SEM-EDX. The wear on the road pavement...

  13. Properties of dust in the Galactic center region probed by AKARI far-infrared spectral mapping - detection of a dust feature

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, H; Onaka, T; Kawada, M; Murakami, N; Nakagawa, T; Okada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interstellar dust in the Galactic center region toward the Arches and Quintuplet clusters. With the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor, we performed the far-infrared (60 - 140 cm^-1) spectral mapping of an area of about 10' x 10' which includes the two clusters to obtain a low-resolution (R = 1.2 cm^-1) spectrum at every spatial bin of 30" x 30". We derive the spatial variations of dust continuum emission at different wavenumbers, which are compared with those of the [O III] 88 micron (113 cm^-1) emission and the OH 119 micron (84 cm^-1) absorption. The spectral fitting shows that two dust modified blackbody components with temperatures of ~20 K and ~50 K can reproduce most of the continuum spectra. For some spectra, however, we find that there exists a significant excess on top of a modified blackbody continuum around 80 - 90 cm^-1 (110 - 130 microns). The warmer dust component is spatially correlated well with the [O III] emission and hence lik...

  14. Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project. I. Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submm Excess Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Karl D; Bot, Caroline; Meixner, Margaret; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bolatto, Alberto; Boyer, Martha L; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Hughes, Annie; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P; Jameson, Katie; Kawamura, Akiko; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne C; Matsuura, Mikako; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, K; Onishi, Toshikazu; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Paradis, Deborah; Rubio, Monica; Sandstrom, Karin; Sauvage, Marc; Seale, Jonathan; Sewilo, Marta; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Skibba, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micron. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power- law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submm excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations < 200 micron. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 micron submm excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our the fitting results shows that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available e...

  15. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  16. Chemical composition and surface charge properties of montmorillonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-wen; HU Min; HU Yue-hua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the cell parameter and chemical composition on the surface charge properties of five kinds of different colour montmorillonites were studied. The results indicate that the surface isoelectric point(IEP) of the montmorillonite shows positive correlation with the mass fractions of Fe2O3 and K20, but it has little relation to the mass fractions of other chemical compositions. At around pH=6.8, the surface zeta potential of the montmorillonite shows the negative relationship with the mass fractions of Fe2O3 and MgO, but it does not linearly correlate to the mass fractions of other chemical compositions. Cell parameter(b0) of the montmofillonite expresses negative linear relationship with mass fractions of K2O and Na2O, so does c0sinβ with mass fractions of SiO2 and Fe2O3. And there is no specific relationship between bo and IEP of different montmori Uonites, but there is positive correlation between c0sinβ and IEP of different montmorillonite samples.

  17. Retrieving microphysical properties of dust-like particles using ellipsoids: the case of refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppinen, O.; Nousiainen, T.; Merikallio, S.; Räisänen, P.

    2015-10-01

    Distributions of ellipsoids are often used to simulate the optical properties of non-ellipsoidal atmospheric particles, such as dust. In this work, the applicability of ellipsoids for retrieving the refractive index of dust-like target model particles from scattering data is investigated. This is a pure modeling study, in which stereogrammetrically retrieved model dust shapes are used as targets. The primary objective is to study whether the refractive index of these target particles can be inverted from their scattering matrices using ellipsoidal model particles. To achieve this, first scattering matrices for the target model particles with known refractive indices are computed. First, a non-negative least squares fitting is performed, individually for each scattering matrix element, for 46 differently shaped ellipsoids by using different assumed refractive indices. Then, the fitting error is evaluated to establish whether the ellipsoid ensemble best matches the target scattering matrix elements when the correct refractive index is assumed. Second, we test whether the ellipsoids best match the target data with the correct refractive index, when a predefined (uniform) shape distribution for ellipsoids is assumed, instead of optimizing the shape distribution separately for each tested refractive index. The results show not only that for both of these approaches using ellipsoids with the true refractive index produces good results but also that for each scattering matrix element even better results are acquired by using wrong refractive indices. In addition, the best agreement is obtained for different scattering matrix elements using different refractive indices. The findings imply that retrieval of refractive index of non-ellipsoidal particles whose single-scattering properties have been modeled with ellipsoids may not be reliable. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter between the best

  18. On the properties of dust and gas in the environs of V838 Monocerotis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exter, K. M.; Cox, N. L. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Matsuura, M.; Mayer, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Aims: We aim to probe the close and distant circumstellar environments of the stellar outburst object V838 Mon. Methods: Herschel far-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were taken at several epochs to probe the central point source and the extended environment of V838 Mon. PACS and SPIRE maps were used to obtain photometry of the dust immediately around V838 Mon, and in the surrounding infrared-bright region. These maps were fitted in 1d and 2d to measure the temperature, mass, and β of the two dust sources. PACS and SPIRE spectra were used to detect emission lines from the extended atmosphere of the star, which were then modelled to study the physical conditions in the emitting material. HIFI spectra were taken to measure the kinematics of the extended atmosphere but unfortunately yielded no detections. Results: Fitting of the far-infrared imaging of V838 Mon reveals 0.5-0.6 M⊙ of ≈19 K dust in the environs (≈2.7 pc) surrounding V838 Mon. The surface-integrated infrared flux (signifying the thermal light echo), and derived dust properties do not vary significantly between the different epochs. We measured the photometry of the point source. As the peak of the SED (Spectral Energy Distribution) lies outside the Herschel spectral range, it is only by incorporating data from other observatories and previous epochs that we can usefully fit the SED; with this we explicitly assume no evolution of the point source between the epochs. We find that warm dust with a temperature 300 K distributed over a radius of 150-200 AU. We fit the far-infrared lines of CO arising from the point source, from an extended environment around V838 Mon. Assuming a model of a spherical shell for this gas, we find that the CO appears to arise from two temperature zones: a cold zone (Tkin ≈ 18 K) that could be associated with the ISM or possibly with a cold layer in the outermost part of the shell, and a warm (Tkin ≈ 400 K) zone that is associated with the extended environment of V838

  19. Vertical profiles, optical and microphysical properties of Saharan dust layers determined by a ship-borne lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Immler

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A unique data set of ship-borne lidar measurements of Saharan dust layers above the Atlantic ocean has been collected aboard the research vessel Polarstern with a mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL during the LIMPIDO-campaign in June 2000. Extended Saharan dust layers have been observed in the region between 8.5° N and 34° N in an altitude range between 2 and 6 km. The continental, North African origin of the probed air masses is confirmed by 8-day backward trajectories. The Saharan dust is characterized by an optical depth in the range of 0.1 and 0.3, a depolarization around 10\\% and high lidar ratios of 45 sr at 532 nm and 75 sr at 355 nm. The backscattering by the dust particles at the UV-wavelength is relatively weak, resulting in a negative color index. From the measured optical properties the effective radius and the refractive index of the dust particles are derived using a new approach based on Mie Theory and non-spherical scattering calculations. The low backscatter coefficient observed at 355 nm is due to significant absorption which increases with decreasing wavelength. This finding agrees very well with results from satellite and sun photometer measurements. The effective radii decrease from about 3 mm base to 0.6 mm at the top of the dust plumes. The non-spherical shapes of the dust particles are responsible for the high values of the lidar ratios.

  20. Vertical profiles, optical and microphysical properties of Saharan dust layers determined by a ship-borne lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Immler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique data set of ship-borne lidar measurements of Saharan dust layers above the Atlantic ocean has been collected aboard the research vessel Polarstern with a mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL during the LIMPIDO-campaign in June 2000. Extended Saharan dust layers have been observed in the region between 8.5º N and 34º N in an altitude range between 2 and 6 km. The continental, North African origin of the probed air masses is confirmed by 8-day backward trajectories. The Saharan dust is characterized by an optical depth in the range of 0.1 and 0.3, a depolarization around 10% and high lidar ratios of 45 sr at 532 nm and 75 sr at 355 nm. The backscattering by the dust particles at the UV-wavelength is relatively weak, resulting in a negative color index. From the measured optical properties the effective radius and the refractive index of the dust particles are derived using a new approach based on Mie Theory and non-spherical scattering calculations. The low backscatter coefficient observed at 355 nm is due to significant absorption which increases with decreasing wavelength. This finding agrees very well with results from satellite and sun photometer measurements. The effective radii decrease from about 3 mm at the base to 0.6 mm at the top of the dust plumes. The non-spherical shapes of the dust particles are responsible for the high values of the lidar ratios.

  1. A comprehensive characterisation of Asian dust storm particles: chemical composition, reactivity to SO2, and hygroscopic property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. He

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust comprises of a significant fraction of the globe's aerosol loading. Yet it remains the largest uncertainty in future climate predictions due to the complexity in its components and physico-chemical properties. Multi-analysis methods, including SEM-EDX, FTIR, BET, TPD/mass, and Knudsen cell/mass, were used in the present study to characterise Asian dust storm particles. The morphology, element fraction, source distribution, true uptake coefficient of SO2 and hygroscopic behaviour were studied. The major components of Asian dust storm particles were found to consist of aluminosilicate, SiO2, and CaCO3, which were coated with organic compounds and inorganic nitrate. The dust storm particles have a low reactivity to SO2 (true uptake coefficient of 5.767×10−6 which limits the conversion of SO2 to sulfate during a dust storm period. The low reactivity also demonstrated that the heterogeneous reaction of SO2, in both dry and humid air conditions, had little effect on the hygroscopic behaviour of the dust particles. These results indicate that the impact of dust storms on atmospheric SO2 removal should not be overestimated.

  2. Properties of extragalactic dust inferred from linear polarimetry of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F; Cox, N L J; Baade, D; Clocchiatti, A; Hoeflich, P; Maund, J R; Reilly, E; Spyromilio, J; Wang, L; Wheeler, J C; Zelaya, P

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is twofold: i. investigate the properties of extragalactic dust and compare them to what is seen in the Galaxy; ii. address in an independent way the problem of the anomalous extinction curves reported for reddened Type Ia Supernovae (SN) in connection to the environments in which they explode. Methods: The properties of the dust are derived from the wavelength dependence of the continuum polarization observed in four reddened Type Ia SN: 1986G, 2006X, 2008fp and 2014J. [...] Results: All four objects are characterized by exceptionally low total-to-selective absorption ratios (R_V) and display an anomalous interstellar polarization law, characterized by very blue polarization peaks. In all cases the polarization position angle is well aligned with the local spiral structure. While SN1986G is compatible with the most extreme cases of interstellar polarization known in the Galaxy, SN2006X, 2008fp and 2014J show unprecedented behaviors. The observed deviations do not appear to be conn...

  3. Cosmic dust optical properties: Numerical simulations and future laboratory measurements in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lasue, Jeremie

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of particle aggregation and resulting aggregates under microgravity conditions leads to better insights on the formation of the early Solar System planetesimals. Simulating such conditions is the main objective of Interactions in Cosmic and Atmospheric Particle System (ICAPS), a multi-users facility currently under phase B at ESA for the International Space Station. First results of light scattering simulations by core-mantle aggregates of grains with organics and icy mantles are presented to show the evolution of polarization with aggregation. The Light Scattering Unit is both a polarization diagnostic tool for ICAPS, and an experiment that will allow the interpretation of the available light scattering dust observations in terms of physical properties of the scattering media. This presentation updates the current approach of the calibration procedures and the innovative experimental setup (providing a phase angle exploration from about 2{\\deg} to 175{\\deg} together with a wavele...

  4. The influence of anthropogenic pure iron on magnetic properties of indoor dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata; Teisseyre-Jeleńska, Maria

    2015-04-01

    In our earlier work Górka-Kostrubiec et al., (2014) we presented the consistent study of magnetic properties of indoor dust involved about 200 apartments in various locations in Warsaw (Poland), which were affected by various sources of external pollution. Detailed measurements of magnetic properties of dust revealed linear relation between the magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of toxic metals and trace elements expressed by the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI). The data was divided into two sets which differ in the slope of each branch. Although them both showing linear relation of PLI(χ). The aim of the present study is to find the differences in the magnetic mineralogy, structure and grain size between dust samples belonging to the 1st and 2nd sets revealing the relation of PLI versus χ. For this purpose, the dust samples representing the maximum, middle and low values of PLI on both branches were selected. For these samples the temperature-dependent magnetic parameter M(T) and the hysteresis loops were examined. The curves of M (T) showed two magnetic phases - magnetite and pure Fe in variable proportions. For samples belonging to the first branch the contribution of pure Fe to magnetic fraction calculated from the decrease of magnetization on the M (T) curves was in the range from 29% to 38%. The higher contribution, more than 74% was observed for the second branch. The heating up to 800oC caused the chemical changes in the magnetic mineralogy, which are demonstrated as an increase in magnetization at room temperature after cooling. The samples from the 1st branch showed higher changes than the samples for the 2nd one. This result indicates that different types of chemical reactions occur during heating in both groups. In order to observe changes in the structure of mineralogy and grain size the hysteresis loops for the samples before and after heating to 800° C were determined. Very narrow loops (with low values of Hc and Mrs) were

  5. Study of Dust Characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin by Measurement of Physical, Chemical, Morphological, and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A.; Gaur, A.; Bhattu, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, A. K.; Dalai, R.; Paul, D.; Gupta, T.; Tripathi, S. N.; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, S.; Welton, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    A campaign mode study is conducted at Kanpur (26.52N, 80.23E), India, to characterize the physical, optical, chemical, and morphological properties of dust over the Indo-Gangetic basin. The major objectives are to measure the aforementioned properties of mineral dust, change in its properties due to transport and mixing with pollution, and identify proxies based on chemical analysis. The measurement site is within the campus of Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A variety of in-situ, remote sensing, and analytical instruments are employed to measure all aspects of dust properties. The campaign duration was April to July 2011, a period characterized by heavy dust storms and onset of Monsoon. AERONET observed AOD varied from 0.2 to 1.4, and Angstrom Exponent varied between 0.06 and 1.2. Based on PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, BC mass and CO concentration, the aerosol types are classified among Dust, Polluted Dust, Burning, and Continental. The categories are selected considering the prevalent aerosol climatology in the region during this period. For most of the days, the inferred aerosol type is consistent with CALIPSO Feature Mask data. Measured aerosol size distributions show bimodal distribution for burning generated aerosols, and trimodal distribution for Dust and Polluted Dust. HYSPLIT calculated 10-day backtrajectories show air masses mainly coming across the desert regions of North West India for dust dominated days, and from Nepal on days associated with burning events. As seen in the aerosol extinction profiles measured by MPLNET, particles reached up to a height of ~5 km during dusty days. SEM images of 17 samples collected for each PM category distinctly show a variety of particle shapes such as rhombic, platelets or sheet, and parallelepiped. The images clearly show presence of clay, minerals (dominant kaolinite and illite), carbonates, bioaerosols, and particles rich in C, O, Si, Ca and Cu. Elemental analysis of 11 blanks and 17 aerosol

  6. Dust grains in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko – link with surface properties and cometary activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Ivanovski, Stavro; Zakharov, Vladimir; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; rotundi, alessandra; della corte, vincenzo; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; colangeli, luigi; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Érard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cedric; VIRTIS, GIADA

    2016-10-01

    The imaging spectrometer VIRTIS and the dust analyzer GIADA, onboard Rosetta, made an extensive observation of the dust particles in the coma of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From the analysis of GIADA data, two different kind of particles have been revealed, compact and fluffy with different compositions and dynamical properties. Compact particles are characterized by densities of about 103 kg/m3, while fluffy particles have an almost fractal nature, with densities less than 1 kg/m3.In this work we present the initial results of a model linking the dust flux distribution, as obtained from a theoretical thermal nucleus model, with a model describing the dynamics of aspherical grains in the coma. The results are discussed in the context of the latest observations from VIRTIS and GIADA instruments.The 2D nucleus thermal model, when applied to the real shape of the comet, provides the size distribution and physical properties of the emitted grains at different times and location on the surface. The thermal model can simulate grains of various size distribution, composition and physical properties. This information is used as an input for the dust dynamical model that follows the emitted particles in the coma. The main source of heating is the solar illumination. In the dust dynamical model, the grain trajectory of emitted particles remains in a plane perpendicular to the rotational axis and the direction of illumination is taken to be in the same plane (i.e. does not cause transversal forces). The dust particles are assumed to be isothermal convex bodies and temperature changes only induce modest changes in the aerodynamic force (twice higher temperature changes aerodynamic force less than ~30%). This study reviews the theoretical values at which temperature difference starts to play a role on the dynamics. We discuss to what extent the particle's temperature affects the terminal velocities of the dust grains in the 67P coma in dependence on their mass and

  7. Dust properties across the CO snowline in the HD 163296 disk from ALMA and VLA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, G; Testi, L; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L; Isella, A; Natta, A; Ortolani, S; Hennings, Th; Corder, S; Linz, H; Andrews, S; Wilner, D; Ricci, L; Carpenter, J; Sargent, A; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Dullemond, C; Greaves, J; Lazio, J; Deller, A; Kwon, W

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of planet formation it is crucial to investigate the properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks around young stars, where the initial conditions for the growth of planets are set. Our goal is to study grain growth in the disk of the young, intermediate mass star HD163296 where dust processing has already been observed, and to look for evidence of growth by ice condensation across the CO snowline, already identified in this disk with ALMA. Under the hypothesis of optically thin emission we compare images at different wavelengths from ALMA and VLA to measure the opacity spectral index across the disk and thus the maximum grain size. We also use a Bayesian tool based on a two-layer disk model to fit the observations and constrain the dust surface density. The measurements of the opacity spectral index indicate the presence of large grains and pebbles ($\\geq$1 cm) in the inner regions of the disk (inside $\\sim$50 AU) and smaller grains, consistent with ISM sizes, in the outer ...

  8. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples.

  9. Study of physical and sound absorbing property of epoxy blended coir dust biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.; Mishra, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Reinforcement biocomposite has gained more attention recently due to its low cost, abundantly availability, low density, specific properties, easy method of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable in nature. As a waste product of coconut fruit, the coconut coir dust (CCD) obtained from the coconut husk. The biocomposite material prepared from the CCD modified with the proper blended solution with the help of ultrasonic technique. The study of adiabatic compressibility of acetone / water (70/30) worth its blending property for bleaching of CCD. The biocomposite material of CCD was prepared with epoxy resin. The different physical properties such as sound absorption coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity were measured. The morphological study of biocomposite and measurement of sound absorption coefficient shows good evidence of sound absorbing characteristics of biocomposite of CCD. The sound absorption property of composite material shows a significant result where as the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity executes a weak result. Thus biocomposite of CCD can acts as a good sound absorber and band conductor of heat and electric current.

  10. A multiwavelength study of the Stingray Nebula; properties of the nebula, central star, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Tajitsu, Akito; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2016-07-01

    We performed a detail chemical abundance analysis and photo-ionization modeling of the Stingray Nebula (Hen3-1357, Parthasarathy et al. 1993[1]) to more characterize this PN. We calculated nine elemental abundances using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is supported by the detection of the broad amorphous silicate features at 9 and 18 μm By photo-ionization modeling, we investigated properties of the central star and derived the gas and dust masses. The nebular elemental abundances, the core-mass of the central star, and the gas mass are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.5 M ⊙ stars with the Z = 0.008.

  11. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J.; Madhavan, Vinod E.; Abdallah, Amir A.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed.

  12. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J; Madhavan, Vinod E; Abdallah, Amir A

    2016-08-16

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed.

  13. Structural and physical properties of the dust particles in Qatar and their influence on the PV panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, Brahim; Isaifan, Rima J.; Madhavan, Vinod E.; Abdallah, Amir A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive R&D has been conducted, both by industry and academia, to significantly raise the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The installation of PV systems aimed at optimizing solar energy yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location and installation design to maximize solar exposure. However, even when these characteristics have been addressed appropriately, there are other factors that adversely affect the performance of PV systems, namely the temperature-induced voltage decrease leading to a PV power loss, and the dust accumulation (soiling). The latter is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of PV installations especially in the Middle East region. In this paper we report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the desert-dust particles in the State of Qatar. The dust particles were collected directly from the PV panels installed in desert environment and characterized by different techniques, including scanning electron, optical and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive, UV-Vis, micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrating sample magnetometry analyses were also conducted to study the magnetic properties of the dust particles. The influence of the dust accumulation on the PV panel performance was also presented and discussed. PMID:27526667

  14. The Comparison of Physical Properties Derived from Gas and Dust in a Massive Star-Forming Region

    CERN Document Server

    Battersby, Cara; Dunham, Miranda; Ginsburg, Adam; Longmore, Steve; Darling, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between gas and dust in massive star-forming regions by comparing physical properties derived from each. We compare the temperatures and column densities in a massive star-forming Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC, G32.02+0.05), which shows a range of evolutionary states, from quiescent to active. The gas properties were derived using radiative transfer modeling of the (1,1), (2,2), and (4,4) transitions of NH3 on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), while the dust temperatures and column densities were calculated using cirrus-subtracted, modified blackbody fits to Herschel data. We compare the derived column densities to calculate an NH3 abundance, 4.6 x 10^-8. In the coldest star-forming region, we find that the measured dust temperatures are lower than the measured gas temperatures (mean and standard deviations T_dust ~ 11.6 +/- 0.2 K vs. T_gas ~ 15.2 +/- 1.5 K), which may indicate that the gas and dust are not well-coupled in the youngest regions (~0.5 Myr) or that these observat...

  15. Comparison of key absorption and optical properties between pure and transported anthropogenic dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-12-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD440 ≥ 0.4) and a low Ångström wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (α TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (α < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < α < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and mineral-transported (mineral-tran.) modes. Therefore, we are convinced that our results hold promise for updating and improving accuracies of Asian dust characteristics in present-day remote sensing applications and regional or global climate models.

  16. The properties of dimers confined between two charged plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlo, Marius M; Bohinc, Klemen; Lue, Leo

    2010-03-21

    We consider two like-charged planar surfaces immersed in solution of oppositely charged dimer counterions with a bond length l. To analyze this system, we extend and employ a self-consistent field theory that has been shown to be accurate from the weak to the intermediate through to the strong coupling regimes. In the limit of very short dimers, the results converge to the results for pointlike divalent ions. Near the surfaces, the dimers lie parallel to the charged plates. In the intermediate coupling regime, the dimers are aligned perpendicularly to the surface when they are a distance l from a surface. In the weak coupling regime, the interactions are only repulsive. At slightly higher couplings, there is a minimum in the variation of the free energy with distance at approximately the bond length of the dimers, which arises from bridging conformations of the dimers. In the intermediate coupling regime, an additional minimum in the free energy is observed at much smaller distances, which is due to the correlations between the dimers. For large dimer bond lengths, this minimum is metastable with respect to the previous minimum. However, as the bond length decreases, this minimum becomes the stable, while the minimum associated with the dimer bond length becomes metastable and eventually disappears. For shorter dimer bond length the attractive interaction is the result of correlations between counterions and charges on the surfaces. We find that dimers can mediate attractive interaction between like-charged surfaces in the intermediate coupling regime. The analysis of orientations confirms the bridging mechanism for sufficiently long dimers, whereas at high electrostatic couplings charge correlations contribute to the attraction.

  17. The Peculiar Electrical Properties of the 8-12th September, 2015 Massive Dust Outbreak Over the Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Katz, S.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.; Yaniv, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms over the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean region are common and occur several times a year, depending on synoptic systems and meteorological parameters. Such storms are often accompanied by large electrical charging, most likely due to triboelectric processes (Esposito et al., 2016). The effects of dust storms on atmospheric electricity parameters such as the fair weather electric field (Ez) and current density (Jz) are well documented, but have not been extensively studied for the Levant region. We report new measurements conducted during the massive dust outbreak that occurred over the region in September 08-12, 2015. That event was one of the strongest dust storms on record and engulfed the entire region for 5 consecutive days, from Iraq through Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Cyprus and Egypt. Ground-based measurements of Ez and Jz were conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and at Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E). The Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. During the dust outbreak very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at both stations, however remarkable differences were noted. While at the Mt. Hermon station we registered strong positive values of the electric field and current density, the values registered at WO were significantly smaller and more negative. The Mt. Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. In contrast, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1, while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m-2 .When compared with the February 2015 electrified dust storm reported by Yair et al. (2016), we note substantial differences in the electric parameters variability, amplitude and polarity. The possible reasons for these differences will be discussed.

  18. Retrieval of optical and physical properties of African dust from multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements during the SHADOW campaign in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskii, I.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Derimian, Y.; Augustin, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Tanre, D.; Korenskiy, M.; Whiteman, D. N.; Diallo, A.; Ndiaye, T.; Kolgotin, A.; Dubovik, O.

    2016-06-01

    West Africa and the adjacent oceanic regions are very important locations for studying dust properties and their influence on weather and climate. The SHADOW (study of SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) campaign is performing a multiscale and multilaboratory study of aerosol properties and dynamics using a set of in situ and remote sensing instruments at an observation site located at the IRD (Institute for Research and Development) in Mbour, Senegal (14° N, 17° W). In this paper, we present the results of lidar measurements performed during the first phase of SHADOW (study of SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) which occurred in March-April 2015. The multiwavelength Mie-Raman lidar acquired 3β + 2α + 1δ measurements during this period. This set of measurements has permitted particle-intensive properties, such as extinction and backscattering Ångström exponents (BAE) for 355/532 nm wavelengths' corresponding lidar ratios and depolarization ratio at 532 nm, to be determined. The mean values of dust lidar ratios during the observation period were about 53 sr at both 532 and 355 nm, which agrees with the values observed during the SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2 campaigns held in Morocco and Cabo Verde in 2006 and 2008. The mean value of the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm was 30 ± 4.5 %; however, during strong dust episodes this ratio increased to 35 ± 5 %, which is also in agreement with the results of the SAMUM campaigns. The backscattering Ångström exponent during the dust episodes decreased to ˜ -0.7, while the extinction Ångström exponent, though negative, was greater than -0.2. Low values of BAE can likely be explained by an increase in the imaginary part of the dust refractive index at 355 nm compared to 532 nm. The dust extinction and backscattering coefficients at multiple wavelengths were inverted to the particle microphysics using the regularization algorithm and the model of randomly oriented spheroids. The analysis performed has demonstrated that the

  19. Polluted Dust Classification and Its Optical Properties Analysis Using CALIPSO Data and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Yang, P.; Holz, R.; Vaughan, M. A.; Hu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In CALIPSO Level 2 aerosol data, dust particles are classified into two subtypes, namely, pure dust and polluted dust based on lidar backscatter, depolarization ratio and surface types. In this research, the polluted dust subtype is found to have two distinct modes in terms of integrated depolarization ratio (IDR) and integrated total color ratio (ICR). Dust with smaller IDR and ICR occurs mainly over areas with strong smoke emissions such as industrial cities. This kind of polluted dust originating from East Asia is also found over the Pacific Ocean. In contrast, the other type originating from the Saharan desert with larger IDR and ICR occurs mainly over the Atlantic Ocean. The disparities of IDR and ICR may result from different pollutants. The polluted dust with smaller ICR and IDR should have stronger absorption of light and may contain black carbon. Other chemical compounds such as sea salts may account for polluted dust with larger ICR and IDR. To further separate the types of polluted dust, cluster analysis is applied to determine the centroid of each type in terms of IDR and ICR. Furthermore, scattering models of dust mixed with various pollutants are constructed to be included in a CALIPSO simulator. The simulated IDR and ICR values are compared with data to retrieve the chemical compositions of polluted dust. The difference of polluted dust over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean provides new evidence about long-range transport of Asian dust to North America. The distribution of dust polluted by black carbon is determined, which can improve knowledge about the effect of black carbon on the earth's radiation budget.

  20. Self-excited dust-acoustic waves in an electron-depleted nanodusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadsen, Benjamin, E-mail: tadsen@physik.uni-kiel.de; Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    A dust density wave field is observed in a cloud of nanodust particles confined in a radio frequency plasma. Simultaneous measurements of the dust properties, grain size and density, as well as the wave parameters, frequency and wave number, allow for an estimate of the ion density, ion drift velocity, and the dust charge using a hybrid model for the wave dispersion. It appears that the charge on the dust grains in the cloud is drastically reduced to tens of elementary charges compared with isolated dust particles in a plasma. The charge is much higher at the cloud's periphery, i.e., towards the void in the plasma center and also towards the outer edge of the cloud.

  1. Imaginary refractive index and other microphysical properties of volcanic ash, Sarahan dust, and other mineral aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Lima, A.; Martins, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Artaxo, P.; Todd, M.; Ben Ami, Y.; Dolgos, G.; Espinosa, R.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol properties are essential to support remote sensing measurements, atmospheric circulation and climate models. This research aims to improve the understanding of the optical and microphysical properties of different types of aerosols particles. Samples of volcanic ash, Saharan dust and other mineral aerosols particles were analyzed by different techniques. Ground samples were sieved down to 45um, de-agglomerated and resuspended in the laboratory using a Fluidized Bed Aerosol Generator (FBAG). Particles were collected on Nuclepore filters into PM10, PM2.5, or PM1.0. and analyzed by different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for determination of size distribution and shape, spectral reflectance for determination of the optical absorption properties as a function of the wavelength, material density, and X-Ray fluorescence for the elemental composition. The spectral imaginary part of refractive index from the UV to the short wave infrared (SWIR) wavelength was derived empirically from the measurements of the spectral mass absorption coefficient, size distribution and density of the material. Some selected samples were also analyzed with the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) instrument for the characterization of the aerosol polarized phase function. This work compares results of the spectral refractive index of different materials obtained by our methodology with those available in the literature. In some cases there are significant differences both in magnitude and spectral dependence of the imaginary refractive index. These differences are evaluated and discussed in this work.

  2. Nearly a Decade of CALIPSO Observations of Asian and Saharan Dust Properties near Source and Transport Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. H.; Tackett, J. L.; Liu, Z.; Vaughan, M. A.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Yu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The lidar on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, makes robust measurements of dust and has generated a length of record that is significant both seasonally and inter-annually. We exploit this record to determine a multi-year climatology of the properties of Asian and Saharan dust, in particular seasonal optical depths, layer frequencies, and layer heights of dust gridded in accordance with the Level 3 data products protocol between 2006 and 2015. The data are screened using standard CALIPSO quality assurance flags, cloud aerosol discrimination (CAD) scores, overlying features and layer properties. To evaluate the effects of transport on small-scale phenomena such as morphology, vertical extent and size of the dust layers, we compare probability distribution functions of the layer integrated volume depolarization ratios, geometric depths and integrated attenuated color ratios near the source to the same distributions in the far field or transport region. CALIPSO is collaboration between NASA and Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), was launched in April 2006 to provide vertically resolved measurements of cloud and aerosol distributions. The primary instrument on the CALIPSO satellite is the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), a near-nadir viewing two-wavelength polarization-sensitive instrument. The unique nature of CALIOP measurements make it quite challenging to validate backscatter profiles, aerosol type, and cloud phase, all of which are used to retrieve extinction and optical depth. To evaluate the uncertainty in the lidar ratios, we compare the values computed from dust layers overlying opaque water clouds, considered nominal, with the constant lidar ratio value used in the CALIOP algorithms for dust. We also explore the effects of noise on the CALIOP retrievals at daytime by comparing the distributions of the properties at daytime to the nighttime distributions.

  3. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  4. Classification of aerosol radiative properties during African desert dust intrusions over southeastern Spain by sector origins and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-03-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the dependence of columnar aerosol optical and microphysical properties on source region and transport pathways during desert dust intrusions over Granada (Spain) from January 2005 to December 2010. Columnar aerosol properties have been derived from a non-spherical inversion code using the solar extinction measurements and sky radiances in the principal plane. Two classification methods of the African air masses ending at the study location were used by means of the HYSPLIT back-trajectories analysis. The first one, based on desert dust origin sources, discriminated the optical properties only for sector B (corresponding to western Sahara, northwest Mauritania and southwest Algeria). The particles present marked absorbing properties (low value of single scattering albedo at all wavelengths) during the desert dust events when the air masses were transported from sector A (north Morocco, northwest Algeria). This result may be related to the mixing of desert dust with anthropogenic pollutants from North African industrial areas in addition to the mixing with local anthropogenic aerosol and pollutants transported from European and Mediterranean areas. The second classification method was based on a statistics technique called cluster classification which allows grouping the air masses back trajectories with similar speed and direction of the trajectory. This method showed slight differences in the optical properties between the several transport pathways of air masses. High values of the aerosol optical depth and low mean values of the Angström parameter were associated with longer transport pathways over desert dust sources and slowly moving air masses. Both classification methods showed that the fine mode was mixed with coarse mode, being the fine mode fraction smaller than 55%.

  5. PROPERTIES AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DUST EMISSION IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Sonneborn, George; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roellig, Thomas L., E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent infrared (IR) observations of freshly formed dust in supernova remnants have yielded significantly lower dust masses than predicted by theoretical models and measured from high-redshift observations. The Crab Nebula's pulsar wind is thought to be sweeping up freshly formed supernova (SN) dust along with the ejected gas. The evidence for this dust was found in the form of an IR excess in the integrated spectrum of the Crab and in extinction against the synchrotron nebula that revealed the presence of dust in the filament cores. We present the first spatially resolved emission spectra of dust in the Crab Nebula acquired with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IR spectra are dominated by synchrotron emission and show forbidden line emission from S, Si, Ne, Ar, O, Fe, and Ni. We derived a synchrotron spectral map from the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m images, and subtracted this contribution from our data to produce a map of the residual continuum emission from dust. The dust emission appears to be concentrated along the ejecta filaments and is well described by an amorphous carbon or silicate grain compositions. We find a dust temperature of 55 {+-} 4 K for silicates and 60 {+-} 7 K for carbon grains. The total estimated dust mass is (1.2-12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }, well below the theoretical dust yield predicted for a core-collapse supernova. Our grain heating model implies that the dust grain radii are relatively small, unlike what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP SN.

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Asian Dust on the Coast of the Japan Sea (Tango peninsula) during Springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, S.; Ito, K.; Ma, C. J.; Yamasaki, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S.; Mizohata, A.

    2002-12-01

    Asian mineral dust derives from deserts in western and north central China and East Asia is also a major source for anthropogenic aerosols such as soot or sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. The natural mineral dusts could provide reaction sites for many heterogeneous reactions involving acidic gases and carry anthropogenic substances far distance from their sources. Therefore, aerosols over East Asia are complex mixtures of soil dust, marine aerosols and anthropogenic particles from various sources. To demonstrate the diversity of physical and chemical properties of Asian dust in the spring, we have carried out an intensive, ground-based physical and chemical characterization of the background and continentally polluted aerosols. The springtime of 2002 was characterized by several strong dust events and three intensive measurements were performed during the period March 18 to May 30, 2002. The measurement site is located on the coast of the Japan Sea (Tango Peninsula, Kyoto Prefecture). Tango was chosen as an observation site, since it is relatively unpolluted and can therefore serve as a background site for studies of the direct impact of the mainland Asian outflow on the western Pacific area. For measurements of aerosol mass-size distributions we used 12-stage low-pressure impactors, which were subsequently analyzed for elemental and ionic concentrations by PIXE and ion-chromatography, respectively. Two-stage filterpacks were used to sample coarse and fine particles separately with a 12 hours sampling time. The impactor stages were also analyzed by a thermal-optical method for mass-size distributions of elemental and organic carbons. SR x-ray microbeam analysis was applied to characterize a variety of trace elements in individual dust particles and trace element such as Cr or Mn was detected in a single mineral dust.

  7. Composition of dust deposited to snow cover in the Wasatch Range (Utah, USA): Controls on radiative properties of snow cover and comparison to some dust-source sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bryant, Ann C.; Skiles, S. McKenzie; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Flagg, Cody B.; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.; Breit, George N.; Ketterer, Michael; Fernandez, Daniel; Miller, Mark E.; Painter, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Dust layers deposited to snow cover of the Wasatch Range (northern Utah) in 2009 and 2010 provide rare samples to determine the relations between their compositions and radiative properties. These studies are required to comprehend and model how such dust-on-snow (DOS) layers affect rates of snow melt through changes in the albedo of snow surfaces. We evaluated several constituents as potential contributors to the absorption of solar radiation indicated by values of absolute reflectance determined from bi-conical reflectance spectroscopy. Ferric oxide minerals and carbonaceous matter appear to be the primary influences on lowering snow-cover albedo. Techniques of reflectance and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as rock magnetism provide information about the types, amounts, and grain sizes of ferric oxide minerals. Relatively high amounts of ferric oxide, indicated by hard isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM), are associated with relatively low average reflectance (hematite and goethite, representing about 35% of the total Fe-bearing phases. Nevertheless, goethite (α-FeOOH) is the dominant ferric oxide found by reflectance spectroscopy and thus appears to be the main iron oxide control on absorption of solar radiation. At least some goethite occurs as nano-phase grain coatings less than about 50 nm thick. Relatively high amounts of organic carbon, indicating as much as about 10% organic matter, are also associated with lower reflectance values. The organic matter, although not fully characterized by type, correlates strongly with metals (e.g., Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mo, Zn) derived from distal urban and industrial settings, probably including mining and smelting sites. This relation suggests anthropogenic sources for at least some of the carbonaceous matter, such as emissions from transportation and industrial activities. The composition of the DOS samples can be compared with sediments in a likely dust-source setting at the Milford Flat Fire (MFF) area about 225

  8. Composition of dust deposited to snow cover in the Wasatch Range (Utah, USA): Controls on radiative properties of snow cover and comparison to some dust-source sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bryant, Ann C.; Skiles, S. McKenzie; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Flagg, Cody B.; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma; Breit, George; Ketterer, Michael; Fernandez, Daniel; Miller, Mark E.; Painter, Thomas H.

    2014-12-01

    Dust layers deposited to snow cover of the Wasatch Range (northern Utah) in 2009 and 2010 provide rare samples to determine the relations between their compositions and radiative properties. These studies are required to comprehend and model how such dust-on-snow (DOS) layers affect rates of snow melt through changes in the albedo of snow surfaces. We evaluated several constituents as potential contributors to the absorption of solar radiation indicated by values of absolute reflectance determined from bi-conical reflectance spectroscopy. Ferric oxide minerals and carbonaceous matter appear to be the primary influences on lowering snow-cover albedo. Techniques of reflectance and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as rock magnetism provide information about the types, amounts, and grain sizes of ferric oxide minerals. Relatively high amounts of ferric oxide, indicated by hard isothermal remanent magnetization (HIRM), are associated with relatively low average reflectance (iron oxide control on absorption of solar radiation. At least some goethite occurs as nano-phase grain coatings less than about 50 nm thick. Relatively high amounts of organic carbon, indicating as much as about 10% organic matter, are also associated with lower reflectance values. The organic matter, although not fully characterized by type, correlates strongly with metals (e.g., Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mo, Zn) derived from distal urban and industrial settings, probably including mining and smelting sites. This relation suggests anthropogenic sources for at least some of the carbonaceous matter, such as emissions from transportation and industrial activities. The composition of the DOS samples can be compared with sediments in a likely dust-source setting at the Milford Flat Fire (MFF) area about 225 km southwest of Salt Lake City. The MFF area represents geologically and physiographically similar and widespread dust sources west-southwest of the Wasatch Range and heavily populated Wasatch Front. The DOS

  9. A Comparison of the Physical and Optical Properties of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants and Mineral Dust over Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 浦伟; 史晋森; 闭建荣; 周天; 张雪荣; 任勇

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of mineral dust and its mixing with anthropogenic air pollutants aff ect both regional and global climates. Our fi eldwork in late spring 2007 (April 25–June 15) measured the physical and optical properties of dust storms mixed with local air pollutants at a rural site about 48 km southeast of central Lanzhou. Levels of air pollutants and aerosol optical properties were observed during the experiment, with concentrations of NOx (6.8 ± 3.3 ppb, average ± standard deviation), CO (694 ± 486 ppb), SO2 (6.2 ± 10 ppb), O3 (50.7 ± 13.1 ppb), and PM10 (172 ± 180 µg m−3), and aerosol scattering coeffi cient (164 ± 89 Mm−1; 1 Mm = 106 m) and absorption coeffi cient (11.7 ± 6.6 Mm−1), all much lower than the values observed during air pollution episodes in urban areas. During a major dust storm, the mass concentration of PM10 reached 4072 µg m−3, approximately 21-fold higher than in non-dust storm periods. The mixing ratios of trace gases declined noticeably after a cold front passed through. The observed CO/SO2 and CO/NOx ratios during air pollution episodes were 4.2–18.3 and 13.7–80.5, respectively, compared with the corresponding ratios of 38.1–255.7 and 18.0–245.9 during non-pollution periods. Our investigations suggest that dust storms have a signifi cant infl uence on air quality in areas far from their source, and this large-scale transport of dust and air pollutants produces major uncertainties in the quantifi cation of the global eff ects of emissions over Northwest China.

  10. Properties and Spatial Distribution of Dust Emission in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, G.; Temim, T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R.; Gehrz, R.; Slane, P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature and quantity of dust produced in supernovae (SNe) is still poorly understood. Recent IR observations of freshly-formed dust in supernova remnants (SNRs) have yielded significantly lower dust masses than predicted by theoretical models and observations high-redshift galaxies. The Crab Nebula's pulsar wind is thought to be sweeping up freshly-formed SN dust along with the SN ejecta. The evidence for this dust was found in the form of an IR bump in the integrated spectrum of the Crab and in extinction against the synchrotron nebula that revealed the presence of dust in the filament cores. We present the first spatially-resolved emission spectra of dust in the Crab Nebula acquired with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IR spectra are dominated by synchrotron emission and show forbidden line emission from both sides of the expanding nebula, including emission from [S III], [Si II], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Ne V], [Ar III], [Ar V], [Fe II], and [Ni II]. We extrapolated a synchrotron spectral data cube from the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron images, and subtracted this contribution from our 15-40 micron spectral data to produce a map of the residual continuum emission from dust. The emission appears to be concentrated along the ejecta filaments and is well described by astronomical silicates at an average temperature of 65 K. The estimated mass of dust in the Crab Nebula is 0.008 solar masses.

  11. Multiwavelength Study to Reveal Dust Properties and Cloud 3D Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Laurent; Lefevre, C.

    2017-06-01

    The study of low-mass prestellar cores is a difficult task which needs to gather several tools, dust and gas observations, radiative transfer modelling. No single tracer can reveal the physical characteristics of these cores. We show that based on observations of N2H+, and dust from 1 µm to 1 mm, one can hope today to have a faithful 3D description of a dark cloud and its prestellar core. Dust being ill-defined, only the combination of absorption, scattering and emission measurements and modelling can alleviate the degeneracy between temperature, density and emissivity of the dust.

  12. Charge-order driven multiferroic and magneto-dielectric properties of rare earth manganates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Claudy Rayan Serrao; Jyoti Ranjan Sahu; Anirban Ghosh

    2010-04-01

    Charge-order driven magnetic ferroelectricity is shown to occur in several rare earth manganates of the general formula, Ln1–AMnO3 (Ln = rare earth, A = alkaline earth). Charge-ordered manganates exhibit dielectric constant anomalies around the charge-ordering or the antiferromagnetic transition temperature. Magnetic fields have a marked effect on the dielectric properties of these compounds, indicating the presence of coupling between the magnetic and electrical order parameters. Magneto-dielectric properties are retained in small particles of the manganates. The observation of magneto-ferroelectricity in these manganates is in accordance with theoretical predictions.

  13. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Bristow, Charlie S.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth's most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002-0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM bioavailability to marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Probing changes of dust properties along a chain of solar-type prestellar and protostellar cores in Taurus with NIKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, A.; Palmeirim, P.; André, Ph.; Adam, R.; Ade, P.; Bacmann, A.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Didelon, P.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Könyves, V.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maury, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Motte, F.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Peretto, N.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Rigby, A.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Roy, A.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-08-01

    The characterization of dust properties in the interstellar medium is key for understanding the physics and chemistry of star formation. Mass estimates are crucial to determine gravitational collapse conditions for the birth of new stellar objects in molecular clouds. However, most of these estimates rely on dust models that need further observational constraints to capture the relevant parameter variations depending on the local environment: from clouds to prestellar and protostellar cores. We present results of a new study of dust emissivity changes based on millimeter continuum data obtained with the NIKA camera at the IRAM-30 m telescope. Observing dust emission at 1.15 mm and 2 mm allows us to constrain the dust emissivity index, β, in the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust spectral energy distribution far from its peak emission, where the contribution of other parameters (i.e. dust temperature) is more important. Focusing on the Taurus molecular cloud, one of the most famous low-mass star-forming regions in the Gould Belt, we analyze the emission properties of several distinct objects in the B213 filament. This subparsec-sized region is of particular interest since it is characterized by a collection ofevolutionary stages of early star formation: three prestellar cores, two Class 0/I protostellar cores and one Class II object. We are therefore able to compare dust properties among a sequence of sources that likely derive from the same parent filament. By means of the ratio of the two NIKA channel maps, we show that in the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation, βRJ varies among the objects: it decreases from prestellar cores (βRJ 2) to protostellar cores (βRJ 1) and the Class II object (βRJ 0). For one prestellar and two protostellar cores, we produce a robust study using available Herschel data to constrain the dust temperature of the sources. By using the Abel transform inversion technique we derive accurate radial temperature profiles that allow us to obtain

  15. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  16. Experimental investigation on the infrared refraction and extinction properties of rock dust in tunneling face of coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-12-10

    Comprehensive experimental research on the fundamental optical properties of dust pollution in a coal mine is presented. Rock dust generated in a tunneling roadway was sampled and the spectral complex refractive index within an infrared range of 2.5-25 μm was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement and Kramers-Kronig relation. Experimental results were validated to be consistent with equivalent optical constants simulated by effective medium theory based on component analysis of x-ray fluorescence, which illustrates that the top three mineral components are SiO2 (62.06%), Al2O3 (21.26%), and Fe2O3 (4.27%). The complex refractive index and the spatial distribution tested by a filter dust and particle size analyzer were involved in the simulation of extinction properties of rock dust along the tunneling roadway solved by the discrete ordinates method and Mie scattering model. The compared results illustrate that transmission is obviously enhanced with the increase of height from the floor but weakened with increasing horizontal distance from the air duct.

  17. Regular and quasi black hole solutions for spherically symmetric charged dust distributions in Einstein-Maxwell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, D; Narancic, Z; Horvat, Dubravko; Ilijic, Sasa; Narancic, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Spherically symmetric distributions of electrically counterpoised dust (ECD) are used to construct solutions to Einstein-Maxwell equations in Majumdar-Papapetrou formalism. Unexpected bifurcating behavior of regular and singular solutions with regard to source strength is found for localized, as well as for the delta-function ECD distributions. Unified treatment of general ECD distributions is accomplished and it is shown that for certain source strengths one class of regular solutions approaches Minkowski spacetime, while the other comes arbitrarily close to black hole solutions.

  18. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yoshida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the role of mineral dust aerosols in the earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction, are poorly understood because ground observations are limited to several locations and the satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength. We develop a method in this paper to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0 and optical depth (τa, with daily 1 degree latitude and 1 degree longitude resolution, using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We confirm that the uncertainties in our estimation of ω0 and τa are suitably minor and that the characteristic spatial distributions estimated over the Sahara and Asia are significant. The results for the Sahara indicate good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance and between ω0 and τa. Therefore, ω0 is determined mainly by the mineral composition of surface dust and/or the optical depth of airborne dust in the Sahara. On the other hand, the relationships between ω0, τa, and the surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the values of ω0 are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are thought to be transported, as reported in previous studies. Because the coal-burning and carbonaceous

  19. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature nonthermal ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhi-Jian Zhou; Hong-Yan Wang; Kai-Biao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    By using reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust-acoustic waves are examined. It is found that two-temperature nonthermal ions affect the basic properties of the dust-acoustic solitary waves. It is also observed that only compressive solitary waves exist in this system.

  20. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses.

  1. Properties of Newly Formed Dust Grains in The Luminous Type IIn Supernova 2010jl

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K; Sahu, D K; Minowa, Y; Motohara, K; Ueno, I; Folatelli, G; Pyo, T -S; Kitagawa, Y; Kawabata, K S; Anupama, G C; Kozasa, T; Moriya, T J; Yamanaka, M; Nomoto, K; Bersten, M; Quimby, R; Iye, M

    2013-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the Universe. Our knowledge on their importance to dust production is, however, limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 2010jl around one and half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ~1,350 - 1,450K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ~(7.5 - 8.5) x 10^{-4} Msun. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate on the typical size of the newly formed dust grains...

  2. Characterization of Saharan dust properties transported towards Europe in the frame of the FENNEC project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnas, F.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Royer, P.; Sodemman, H.; Derimian, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the FENNEC experiment (6 to 30 June 2011) an effort has been dedicated to characterize Saharan dust plumes transported towards southern Europe. Hence, a multi instrumented field campaign has been conducted. Ground based nitrogen Raman LIDAR (GBNRL) has been deployed in southern Spain close to Marbella, simultaneously with airborne lidar (AL) performing measurements over both the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the western Africa (from 2 to 23 June). The GBNRL was equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels to perform continuous measurements of the dust aerosols trapped in the troposphere. It was developed by LSCE with the support of the LEOSPHERE Company. The French FALCON 20 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE (Service des Avions Francais Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) carried the AL Leandre Nouvelle Generation (LNG) as well as a dropsonde releasing system and radiometers. A major, one week long, dust event has been sampled over Spain from 25 June to 1 July with high optical depth (>0.5 at 355nm) and particular depolarization ratios (15 to 25%). Backtrajectory studies suggest that the dust particles observed were from dust uplifts that occurred in Southern Morocco and Northern Mauritania. The event has been also documented 3 days before by the AL flying over Mauritania. AERONET sunphotometer measurements of aerosol properties, along the dust plume transport path appear to be coherent with both the lidar and the backtrajectory analysis. These analysis exhibit a likely major contribution from the Western Sahara sources to the Southern Europe. Such a contribution may impact the visibility and then the airtrafic, modify the tropospheric chemistry, and add nutrients to both the Mediterranean Sea and the continental surfaces. It can also affect the health of European populations. We will present strategy of the experiment and the case study built from measurements performed at the end of June.

  3. PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kozasa, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Iye, M., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ∼1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ∼(7.5-8.5) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (∼< 0.1 μm, and most likely ∼< 0.01 μm). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ∼10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ∼> 3 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ∼> 0.02 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

  4. Dust grains in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - link with surface properties and cometary activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capria, M. T.; Ivanovski, S.; Zakharov, W.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Rotundi, A.; Della Corte, V.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Colangeli, L.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.

    2016-11-01

    The imaging spectrometer VIRTIS and the dust analyzer GIADA, onboard Rosetta, made an extensive observation of the dust particles in the coma of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. From the analysis of GIADA data, two different kind of particles have been revealed, compact and fluffy with different compositions and dynamical properties. Compact particles are characterized by densities of about 10E3 kg/m3, while fluffy particles have an almost fractal nature, with densities less than 1 kg/m3. In this work we present the initial results of a model linking the dust flux distribution, as obtained from a theoretical thermal nucleus model, with a model describing the dynamics of aspherical grains in the coma. The results are discussed in the context of the latest observations from VIRTIS and GIADA instruments. The 2D nucleus thermal model, when applied to the real shape of the comet, provides the size distribution and physical properties of the emitted grains at different times and location on the surface. The thermal model can simulate grains of various size distribution, composition and physical properties. This information is used as an input for the dust dynamical model that follows the emitted particles in the coma. The main source of heating is the solar illumination. In the dust dynamical model, the grain trajectory of emitted particles remains in a plane perpendicular to the rotational axis and the direction of illumination is taken to be in the same plane (i.e. does not cause transversal forces). The dust particles are assumed to be isothermal convex bodies and temperature changes only induce modest changes in the aerodynamic force (twice higher temperature changes aerodynamic force less than 30%). This study reviews the theoretical values at which temperature difference starts to play a role on the dynamics. We discuss to what extent the particle's temperature affects the terminal velocities of the dust grains in the 67P coma in dependence on their mass and

  5. Electric Properties of Obsidian: Evidence for Positive Hole Charge Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvik, R.; Freund, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    The blackness of obsidian is due to the presence of oxygen anions in the valence state 1-, creating broad energy levels at the upper edge of the valence band, which absorb visible light over a wide spectral range. These energy states are associated with defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice, well-known from "smoky quartz", where Al substituting for Si captures a defect electron in the oxygen anion sublattice for charge compensation [1]. Such defect electrons, also known as positive holes, are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity in igneous rocks when uniaxial stresses are applied, causing the break-up of pre-existing peroxy defects, Si-OO-Si [2]. Peroxy defects in obsidian cannot be so easily activated by mechanical stress because the glassy matrix will break before sufficiently high stress levels can be reached. If peroxy defects do exist, however, they can be studied by activating them thermally [3]. We describe experiments with rectangular slabs of obsidian with Au electrodes at both ends. Upon heating one end, we observe (i) a thermopotential and (ii) a thermocurrent developing at distinct temperatures around 250°C and 450°C, marking the 2-step break-up of peroxy bonds. [1] Schnadt, R., and Schneider, J.: The electronic structure of the trapped-hole center in smoky quartz, Zeitschrift Physik B Condensed Matter 11, 19-42, 1970. [2] Freund, F. T., Takeuchi, A., and Lau, B. W.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 389-396, 2006. [3] Freund, F., and Masuda, M. M.: Highly mobile oxygen hole-type charge carriers in fused silica, Journal Material Research, 8, 1619-1622, 1991.

  6. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene for Applications in Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jackman, R.B.; Muller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; de Oliveira, R.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.; van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-07-11

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2x2cm$^2$, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  7. Charge transfer properties through graphene for applications in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchino, S.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hall-Wilton, R. [ESS, European Spallation Source, Tunavägen 24, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Jackman, R.B. [London Centre for Nanotechnology and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Muller, H. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nguyen, T.T. [London Centre for Nanotechnology and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Oliveira, R. de; Oliveri, E. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, D. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ESS, European Spallation Source, Tunavägen 24, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Resnati, F., E-mail: filippo.resnati@cern.ch [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ESS, European Spallation Source, Tunavägen 24, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Smith, J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Stenis, M. van [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Thuiner, P. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); and others

    2016-07-11

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2×2 cm{sup 2}, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  8. Effects of particle shape, hematite content and semi-external mixing with carbonaceous components on the optical properties of accumulation mode mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing estimation of the polluted mineral dust is limited due to lack of morphological analysis, mixing state with the carbonaceous components and the hematite content in the pure dust. The accumulation mode mineral dust has been found to mix with anthropogenically produced black carbon, organic carbon and brown carbon during long range transport. The above features of the polluted dust are not well accounted in the optical models and lead the uncertainty in the numerical estimation of their radiative impact. The Semi-external mixing being a prominent mixing of dust and carbonaceous components has not been studied in details so for compared to core-shell, internal and external mixing studies. In present study, we consider the pure mineral dust composed of non-metallic components (such as Quartz, Feldspar, Mica and Calcite and metalic component like hematite (Fe2O3. The hematite percentage in the pure mineral dust governs its absorbance. Based on this hematite variation, the hematite fraction in pure mineral dust has been constrained between 0–8%. The morphological and mineralogical characterization of the polluted dust led to consider the three sphere, two sphere and two spheroid model shapes for polluted dust particle system. The pollution gives rise to various light absorbing aerosol components like black carbon, brown carbon and organic carbon (comprising of HUmic-Like Substances, HULIS in the atmosphere. The entire above discussed model shapes have been considered for the mineral dust getting polluted with (1 organic carbon (especially HULIS component (2 Brown carbon and (3 black carbon by making a semi-external mixture with pure mineral dust. The optical properties (like Single Scattering Albedo, SSA; Asymmetry parameter, g and Extinction efficiency, Qext of above model shapes for the polluted dust have been computed using Discrete Dipole Approximation, DDA code. For above

  9. Properties and Spatial Distribution of Dust Emission in the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G; Gehrz, Robert D; Slane, Patrick; Roellig, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Recent infrared (IR) observations of freshly-formed dust in supernova remnants (SNRs) have yielded significantly lower dust masses than predicted by theoretical models and measured from high redshift observations. The Crab Nebula's pulsar wind is thought to be sweeping up freshly-formed supernova (SN) dust along with the ejected gas. The evidence for this dust was found in the form of an IR excess in the integrated spectrum of the Crab and in extinction against the synchrotron nebula that revealed the presence of dust in the filament cores. We present the first spatially resolved emission spectra of dust in the Crab Nebula acquired with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IR spectra are dominated by synchrotron emission and show forbidden line emission from from S, Si, Ne, Ar, O, Fe, and Ni. We derived a synchrotron spectral map from the 3.6 and 4.5 microns images, and subtracted this contribution from our data to produce a map of the residual continuum emission from dust. The du...

  10. Determining properties of halo dust for the Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzato, Jacklyn M.; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The Herschel EDGE-on galaxy Survey (HEDGES) is studying the distribution of dust in the halos of nearby spiral galaxies. More specifically, its goals are to determine the physical characteristics of this dust, what relationship there might be between halo dust content and star formation activity, how halo dust might expose information about the far-infrared (FIR)-Radio correlation, and how the physical distribution of this dust might relate to that of other gas tracers. The work presented here aims to investigate the physical characteristics of this halo dust and how they change with height above and below the plane of the six galaxies in the HEDGES sample: NGC 0891, NGC 3628, NGC 4244, NGC 4517, NGC 4565 and NGC 4631. To achieve this goal, code has been written that, for each galaxy, can extract vertical profiles and photometric data from nine different bands (taken using the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope) in the FIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photometric data are then used to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) that is fit to dust models.

  11. Cumulative atomic multipole moments complement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate electrostatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.

  12. Electronic properties of the charge transfer material MnPc/F4TCNQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückerl, Florian; Mahns, Benjamin; Dodbiba, Eni; Nikolis, Vasileios; Herzig, Melanie; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin; Hahn, Torsten; Kortus, Jens

    2016-09-01

    We present electronic properties of a charge transfer material consisting of Manganese(ii)Phthalocyanine (MnPc) and 2,3,5,6-Tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), investigated by means of photoemission spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, as well as supporting density functional theory calculations. We report the successful formation of a bulk material characterized by a strong interaction of the molecular compounds which affects the optical properties significantly. Our investigations reveal a significant charge transfer, whereas the MnPc molecule is oxidized and F4TCNQ is reduced. The valence band data indicate a full charge transfer between the two partners. The electronic excitation spectrum reveals a relatively small energy gap of MnPc/F4TCNQ of about 0.7 eV, which is related to a charge transfer excitation.

  13. Instantaneous influence of dust storms on the optical scattering property of the ocean: a case study in the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuguo; Zhang, Tinglu; Chen, Wenzhong; Shi, Jinhui; Hu, Lianbo; Song, Qingjun

    2016-12-12

    Asian dust storms originating from arid or semi-arid regions of China or her adjacent regions have important impact on the atmosphere and water composition, and ecological environment of the Eastern China Seas. This research used data collected in the middle of the South Yellow Sea, China, during a dust storm event from 23 April to 24 April 2006 to analyze the instantaneous influence of dust storms on optical scattering properties, which are closely related to particle characteristics. The analysis results showed that the dust storm had a remarkable influence on the optical scattering property in the upper mixed layer of water, and dust particles drily deposited from the dust storm with an aerosol optical depth of nearly 2.5 into the water could induce a 0.14 m-1 change in the water optical scattering coefficient at 532 nm at the depth of 4 m. The duration of the instantaneous influence of the dust storm on the water optical scattering properties was short, and this influence disappeared rapidly within approximately 3 hours after the end of the dust storm.

  14. Adsorption properties of subtropical and tropical variable charge soils: Implications from climate change and biochar amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-Kou; Qafoku, Nikolla; Van Ranst, Eric; Li, Jiu-yu; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-25

    This review paper attempts to summarize the progress made in research efforts conducted over the last years to study the surface chemical properties of the tropical and subtropical soils, usually called variable charge soils, and the way they response to different management practices. The paper is composed of an introductory section that provides a brief discussion on the surface chemical properties of these soils, and five other review sections. The focus of these sections is on the evolution of surface chemical properties during the development of the variable charge properties (second section), interactions between oppositely charged particles and the resulting effects on the soil properties and especially on soil acidity (third section), the surface effects of low molecular weight organic acids sorbed to mineral surfaces and the chemical behavior of aluminum (fourth section), and the crop straw derived biochar induced changes of the surface chemical properties of these soils (fifth section). A discussion on the effect of climate change variables on the properties of the variable charge soils is included at the end of this review paper (sixth section).

  15. Effect of hydrogen charging on the mechanical properties of medium strength aluminium alloys 2091 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandopadhyay, A.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging in 3.5% NaCl solution altered the mechanical properties of 2091-T351 (Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Zr) determined by a slow (10(-3)/s) strain rate tensile testing technique. UTS and YS decreased in the caw of 2091-T351 and 2014-T6(Al-Cu-Mn-Si-Mg) with increase in charging current density...

  16. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  17. A search for precursors of Ultracompact HII Regions in a sample of luminous IRAS sources; 3, Circumstellar Dust Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Molinari, S; Cesaroni, R; Palla, Fabrizio; Molinari, Sergio; Brand, Jan; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Palla, Francesco

    2000-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope has been used to obtain submillimeter and millimeter continuum photometry of a sample of 30 IRAS sources previously studied in molecular lines and centimeter radio continuum. All the sources have IRAS colours typical of very young stellar objects (YSOs) and are associated with dense gas. In spite of their high luminosities (L>10000 solar units), only ten of these sources are also associated with a radio counterpart. In 17 cases we could identify a clear peak of millimeter emission associated with the IRAS source, while in 9 sources the millimeter emission was extended or faint and a clear peak could not be identified; upper limits were found in 4 cases only. Using simple greybody fitting model to the observed SED, we derive global properties of the circumstellar dust. The dust temperature varies from 24 K to 45 K, while the exponent of the dust emissivity vs frequency power-law spans a range 1.56dust; total circumstellar masses ran...

  18. The cosmic background: evolution of infrared galaxies and dust properties. A lecture dedicated to the memory of Mayo Greenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Puget, J L; Dole, H; Puget, Jean-Loup; Lagache, Guilaine; Dole, Herve

    2004-01-01

    In recent years it became clear that a population of galaxies radiating most of their power in the far-infrared contribute an important part of the whole star formation activity in the universe. These galaxies emit up to 99% of their energy output in the infrared by dust. The optical properties of dust in galaxies are thus very important to understand this population. Mayo Greenberg who has brought many of the ideas underlying our understanding of the physics of interstellar dust has been a pioneer in predicting the important role of organic solid material formed on dust grains in molecular clouds and of potential importance of transient heating of very small particles. It appeared with the ISO data on galaxies and even more today with the first Spitzer data that these mechanisms are important globally for the observations of infrared galaxies at significant redshifts. The understanding of their evolution is one of the keys to the understanding of galaxy built up and evolution.

  19. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Thuiner, P; Jackman, R.B.; Müller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.A.; van Stenis, M.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  20. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of transport (1–5 days) and height of transport were sampled. ...

  1. Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study presents in situ aircraft measurements of Saharan mineral dust transported over the western Mediterranean basin in June–July 2013 during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region) airborne campaign. Dust events differing in terms of source region (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco), time of tranport (1–5 days) and height of transport were sampl...

  2. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates II. Low Velocity Collision Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Langkowski, Doreen; Blum, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    For the investigation of collisions among protoplanetesimal dust aggregates, we performed microgravity experiments in which the impacts of high-porosity mm-sized dust aggregates into 2.5 cm-sized high-porosity dust aggregates can be studied. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized dust grains and were produced by random ballistic deposition with porosities between 85% and 93%. Impact velocities ranged from ~0.1 m/s to ~3 m/s and impact angles were almost randomly distributed. We also used "molded" target aggregates such that the radii of the local surface curvatures corresponded to the projectile radii. The experiments showed that impacts into the highest-porosity targets almost always led to sticking, whereas for the less porous dust aggregates, the collisions with intermediate velocities and high impact angles resulted in the bouncing of the projectile with a mass transfer from the target to the projectile aggregate. Sticking probabilities for the impacts into the "molded" target aggregates were c...

  3. Chemical properties and origin of dust aerosols in Beijing during springtime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjian Zhang; Zhiwei Han; Tiantao Cheng; Jun Tao

    2009-01-01

    Ground observation of dust aerosols was conducted in Beijing in the spring of 2005 in order to investigate the element composition and origin of mineral dust. Mass concentrations of most mineral elements of particles increased during dust events. Mineral elements were predominant in the sums of total element loadings in both dusty and non-dusty days. Mg, Si, Fe, Al or Ti can be used as an indicator of dust outflow; Cl can be viewed as an evidence of dust particles mixing with anthropogenic emissions. Mineral and pollutant elements showed a bimodal mass particle-size distribution (MSD) in non-dusty days, and a trimodal distribution in dusty days, but their peak concentrations fell in different size stages. Zn and S were mainly enriched in fine particles, whereas Cl was enriched in medium particles, but most mineral elements and Cu were enriched in coarse particles. Mineral elements were dominated by crustal material in dusty even non-dusty days, but pollutant elements were from non-crustal material including local and remote sources. Back trajectory analysis indicated that dust particles in Beijing mainly originated from the Gobi and desert regions of Mongolian and northern China.

  4. The influence of organic-containing soil dust on ice nucleation and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Matthias; Grini, Alf; Berntsen, Terje K.; Ekman, Annica

    2017-04-01

    Natural mineral dust from desert regions is known to be the most important contributor to atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) which induce heterogeneous ice nucleation in mixed-phase clouds. Its ability to nucleate ice effectively is shown by various laboratory (Hoose and Möhler 2012) and field results (DeMott et al. 2015) and its abundance in ice crystal residuals has also been shown (Cziczo et al. 2013). Thus it is an important player when representing mixed-phase clouds in climate models. MODIS satellite data indicate that 1 /4 of the global dust emission originates from semi-arid areas rather than from arid deserts (Ginoux et al. 2012). Here, organic components can mix with minerals within the soil and get into the atmosphere. These so-called 'soil dust' particles are ice-nucleating active at high sub-zero temperatures, i.e. at higher temperatures than pure desert dust (Steinke et al. 2016). In this study, soil dust is incorporated into the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM, Bentsen et al. 2013) and applied to a modified ice nucleation parameterization (Steinke et al. 2016). Its influence on the cloud ice phase is evaluated by comparing a control run, where only pure desert dust is considered, and a sensitivity experiment, where a fraction of the dust emissions are classified as soil dust. Both simulations are nudged to ERA-interim meteorology and they have the same loading of dust emissions. NorESM gives a lower annual soil dust emission flux compared to Ginoux et al. (2012), but the desert dust flux is similar to the MODIS-retrieved data. Although soil dust concentrations are much lower than desert dust, the NorESM simulations indicate that the annual INP concentrations from soil dust are on average lower by a just a factor of 4 than INP concentrations from pure desert dust. The highest soil dust INP concentrations occur at a lower height than for desert dust, i.e at warmer temperatures inside mixed-phase clouds. Furthermore, soil dust INP

  5. Balloon-borne and Raman lidar observations of Asian dust and cirrus cloud properties over Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Orikasa, Narihiro; Nagai, Tomohiro; Murakami, Masataka; Tajiri, Takuya; Saito, Atsushi; Yamashita, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    The vertical distributions of the microphysical and optical properties of tropospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud were measured using an instrumented balloon and a ground-based Raman lidar over Tsukuba, Japan (36°N, 140°E), during the Asian dust events on 9 and 21 May 2007 to investigate the influence of Asian mineral dust on ice cloud formation in the upper troposphere. The instrumented balloon measured the particle size distribution, ice crystal images, dew/frost point, relative humidity, and temperature. The Raman lidar measured the particle backscattering and extinction coefficients and the depolarization ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of the balloon measurements showed that supermicrometer (0.7 to 2.8 µm in optical-equivalent radius) dust particles and ice crystals (10 to 400 µm in maximum dimension) were present in the upper troposphere (8 to 12 km in altitude), with number concentrations varying from 5 × 10-3 to 0.6 cm-3 for dust and from 5 × 10-3 to 0.15 cm-3 for ice crystals. The Raman lidar measurement indicated that the particle depolarization ratios were 15 to 35% in the altitude range of 6 to 12 km, indicating the predominance of nonspherical particles in the region. The temperature ranged from -33 to -63°C, and the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), estimated from the total (vapor plus condensate) water content obtained with the Snow White hygrometer in the cloud, was 130% at maximum on 9 May, which was close to the activation point of Asian mineral dust as ice nuclei to form ice crystals.

  6. Dust and star-formation properties of a complete sample of local galaxies drawn from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Clemens, M S; De Zotti, G; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Bonavera, L; Cosco, G; Guarese, G; Boaretto, L; Salucci, P; Baccigalupi, C; Clements, D L; Danese, L; Lapi, A; Mandolesi, N; Partridge, R B; Perrotta, F; Serjeant, S; Scott, D; Toffolatti, L

    2013-01-01

    We combine Planck HFI data at 857, 545, 353 & 217GHz with data from WISE, Spitzer, IRAS & Herschel to investigate the properties of a flux limited sample of local star-forming galaxies. A 545GHz flux density limit was chosen so that the sample is 80% complete at this frequency, giving a sample of 234 local galaxies. We investigate the dust emission and star formation properties of the sample via various models & calculate the local dust mass function. Although 1-component modified black bodies fit the dust emission longward of 80um very well (median beta=1.83) the degeneracy between dust temp & beta also means that the SEDs are very well described by a dust emissivity index fixed at beta=2 and 10dust component is required to fit shorter wavelength data, & contributes ~1/3 of the total infrared emission, its mass is negligible. No evidence is found for a very cold (6-10 K) dust component. The temp of the cold dust component is strongly influenced by ...

  7. Dust acoustic solitary structures in a multi-fluid dusty plasma in the presence of kappa distributed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika; Kaur, Nimardeep

    2016-07-01

    Dusty plasma is a fully or partially ionized gas which contain micron or sub-micron sized dust particles. These dust particles can be positively or negatively charged, depending upon the mechanism of charging . Dusty plasma is often observed in most of the space and astrophysical plasma environments. Presence of these dust particles can modify the dispersion properties of waves in the plasma and can introduce several new wave modes, e.g., dust acoustic (DA) waves, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) waves, dust-acoustic shock waves etc. In this investigation we have studied the small amplitude dust acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma comprising of electrons, positively charged ions, negatively charged hot as well as cold dust. Electrons and ions are described by superthermal distribution which is more appropriate for modeling space and astrophysical plasmas. Kadomtsev- Petviashvili (KP) equation has been derived using reductive perturbation technique. Positive as well as negative potential structures are observed, depending upon some critical values of parameters. Amplitude and width of dust acoustic solitary waves are modified by varying these parameters such as superthermality of electrons and ions, direction of propagation of the wave, relative concentration of hot and cold dust particles etc. This study may be helpful in understanding the formation and dynamics of nonlinear structures in various space and astrophysical plasma environments such Saturn's F-rings.

  8. Spinning Dust Emission from Wobbling Grains: Important Physical Effects and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2012-01-01

    We review major progress on the modeling of electric dipole emission from rapidly spinning tiny dust grains, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We begin by summarizing the original model of spinning dust proposed by Draine and Lazarian and recent theoretical results improving the Draine and Lazarian model. The review is focused on important physical effects that were disregarded in earlier studies for the sake of simplicity and recently accounted for by us, including grain wobbling due to internal relaxation, impulsive excitation by single-ion collisions, the triaxiality of grain shape, charge fluctuations, and the turbulent nature of astrophysical environments. Implications of the spinning dust emission for constraining physical properties of tiny dust grains and environment conditions are discussed. We discuss the alignment of tiny dust grains and possibility of polarized spinning dust emission. Suggestions for constraining the alignment of tiny grains and polarization of spinning dust emiss...

  9. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator.

  10. Iron oxide minerals in dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Implications for radiative properties and Fe bioavailability of dust plumes from the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M; Reynolds, Richard; Goldstein, Harland; Beroquo, Thelma; Kokaly, Raymond; Bristow, Charlie S

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust can influence climate and biogeochemical cycles. An important component of mineral dust is ferric oxide minerals (hematite and goethite) which have been shown to influence strongly the optical properties of dust plumes and thus affect the radiative forcing of global dust. Here we report on the iron mineralogy of dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression (Chad, north-central Africa), which is estimated to be Earth’s most prolific dust producer and may be a key contributor to the global radiative budget of the atmosphere as well as to long-range nutrient transport to the Amazon Basin. By using a combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy, we document the abundance and relative amounts of goethite, hematite, and magnetite in dust-source samples from the Bodélé Depression. The partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for the radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals in mineral dust aerosols. The combination of methods shows (1) the dominance of goethite over hematite in the source sediments, (2) the abundance and occurrences of their nanosize components, and (3) the ubiquity of magnetite, albeit in small amounts. Dominant goethite and subordinate hematite together compose about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments from the Bodélé Depression and contribute strongly to diminution of reflectance in bulk samples. These observations imply that dust plumes from the Bodélé Depression that are derived from goethite-dominated sediments strongly absorb solar radiation. The presence of ubiquitous magnetite (0.002–0.57 wt%) is also noteworthy for its potentially higher solubility relative to ferric oxide and for its small sizes, including PM < 0.1 μm. For all examined samples, the average iron apportionment is estimated at about 33% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4% in magnetite, and 65

  11. Effect of Compaction Energy on Engineering Properties of Fly Ash –Granite Dust Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of compaction energy on engineering properties of an expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust have been discussed in this paper. Expansive soil stabilized with optimum percentage of fly ash-granite dust was compacted with five compaction energy levels. Maximum dry density and optimum moisture content corresponding to each energy level were determined. Based on these maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, samples were prepared for unconfined compressive strength, soaked California bearing ratio, hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure tests. From the test results it is found that increase in compaction energy increased the maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength, soaked California bearing ratio and swelling pressure, and decreased the optimum moisture content and hydraulic conductivity.

  12. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  13. Effect of hydrogen charging on the mechanical properties of medium strength aluminium alloys 2091 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandopadhyay, A.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cathodic hydrogen charging in 3.5% NaCl solution altered the mechanical properties of 2091-T351 (Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Zr) determined by a slow (10(-3)/s) strain rate tensile testing technique. UTS and YS decreased in the caw of 2091-T351 and 2014-T6(Al-Cu-Mn-Si-Mg) with increase in charging current density....... Elongation showed a decrease with increase in charging current density for both the alloys. However, elongation occurring throughout the gauge length in uncharged specimens changed over to localized deformation, thus increasing the reduction in area in charged specimens. A transition in fracture mode from...... surface (brittle) to the core (ductile) was observed. The presence of hydrogen increased the hardness, mostly indicative of solution strengthening and it decreased with depth confirming the existence of hydrogen concentration gradient. The effects were similar in 2014-T6, but to a slightly smaller extent....

  14. Influence of negative charge on the optical properties of a silver sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVAN M. NEDELJKOVIC

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of negative charge on the optical properties of a silver sol prepared using sodium borohydride as a reductant were studied. The oscillations in the position of the maximum and the intensity of the surface plasmon absorption band were obesrved. The observed effects were explained as a consequence of the fluctuation of the density of free electrons due to the alternate charging and discharging of the silver particles. The charging process involves electron injection from borohydride ions and intermediate species formed during the course of the metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of borohydride ions (BH3OH-, BH2(OH2 and BH(OH3- into the silver particles, while discharge of the silver sol, by reduction of water to hydrogen, limits the attainable negative charge on the particles.

  15. Surface charge properties of red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun-yu; HU Hui-ping; ZHANG Li-juan; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Acid/basic potentiometric titration can be used to quantify the red mud surface charge properties. The amount of surface active -OH groups and surface charge density on the red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite were evaluated from the acid/basic potentiometric titration data in 0.1 mol/L or 0.5 molL NaCI solution. The results show that the adsorption of sodium polyacrylate(SPA) on the red mud surface causes the increase of the surface active -OH groups, which makes the point of zero charge(PZC) shift to a lower pH value. However, the adsorption of polyacrylamide(PAM) causes little change. As the concentration of NaCl solution increases, the surface charge becomes more positive in acidic solution and more negative in alkaline solution, which can be attributed to the presence of a porous surface gel coating on the red mud particles.

  16. Dust Properties of C ii Detected z ˜ 5.5 Galaxies: New HST/WFC3 Near-IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, I.; Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Pavesi, R.; Riechers, D. A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Cooke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Casey, C. M.; Smolcic, V.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 10 [C ii]λ158 μm-detected galaxies at z ˜ 5.5 in COSMOS using new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging. Together with pre-existing 158 μm continuum and [C ii] line measurements by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we study their dust attenuation properties on the IRX-β diagram, which connects the total dust emission (\\propto {IRX}={log}({L}{FIR}/{L}1600)) to the line-of-sight dust column (∝ β). We find systematically bluer UV continuum spectral slopes (β) compared to previous low-resolution ground-based measurements, which relieves some of the tension between models of dust attenuation and observations at high redshifts. While most of the galaxies are consistent with local starburst or Small Magellanic Cloud-like dust properties, we find galaxies with low IRX values and a large range in β that cannot be explained by models of a uniform dust distribution well mixed with stars. A stacking analysis of Keck/DEIMOS optical spectra indicates that these galaxies are metal-poor with young stellar populations that could significantly alter their spatial dust distribution.

  17. Physical properties of fixed-charge layer double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, D. R.; Solin, S. A.; Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena

    2000-05-01

    The physical properties of a series of layer double hydroxides (LDH) of the form [(CO3)0.195(1-x)Cl0.39x(H2O)y]:[Zn0.61Al0.39(OH)2], 0layer water molecules form a hydration ring which defines the height of the solvated, nested Cl anion. The water molecules can tilt around their C2v axis such that the height of the solvated Cl ion is a function of the number of molecules forming the hydration ring. The composition dependence of the basal spacing, determined from x-ray-diffraction powder patterns measured as a function of humidity and temperature for these materials, is a function of both the Cl concentration (x) and the number of guest layer water molecules (y). Distinct basal spacing curves are observed for fully hydrated, partially hydrated, and dehydrated materials. At x=1 the Cl end-member material exhibits a change in stacking sequence from a 3R polytype to a 2H polytype upon dehydration. The dehydrated form of this material also exhibits a (3×3)R30° superlattice ordering of the Cl ions. Due to the nesting of the Cl ion and the active nature of the water molecules, the basal spacing vs x curve for the dehydrated materials is the only curve that can be fit by the discrete finite layer rigidity model. The interlayer rigidity parameter for LDH materials has been determined to be p=4.84+/-0.06 indicating that these materials are stiffer than class-II layered solids but not as stiff as class-III layered solids.

  18. Effects of particle optical properties on grain size measurements of aeolian dust deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Particle size data are holding crucial information on the sedimentary environment at the time the aeolian dust deposits were accumulated. Various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed from proper grain size distribution data. Laser diffraction methods provide much more accurate and reliable information on the major granulometric properties of wind-blown sediments compared to the sieve and pipette methods. The Fraunhofer and Mie scattering theories are generally used for laser diffraction grain size measurements. () The two different approaches need different 'background' information on the medium measured. During measurements following the Fraunhofer theory, the basic assumption is that parcticles are relatively large (over 25-30 µm) and opaque. The Mie theory could offer more accurate data on smaller fractions (clay and fine silt), assuming that a proper, a'priori knowledge on refraction and absorption indices exists, which is rarely the case for polymineral samples. This study is aimed at determining the effects of different optical parameters on grain size distributions (e.g. clay-content, median, mode). Multiple samples collected from Hungarian red clay and loess-paleosol records have been analysed using a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction particle sizer (with a Hydro LV unit). Additional grain size measurements have been made on a Fritsch Analysette 22 Microtec and a Horiba Partica La-950 v2 instrument to investigate possible effects of the used laser sources with different wavelengths. XRF and XRD measurements have also been undertaken to gain insight into the geochemical/mineralogical compositions of the samples studied. Major findings include that measurements using the Mie theory provide more accurate data on the grain size distribution of aeolian dust deposits, when we use a proper optical setting. Significant

  19. Cometary Evolution: Clues on Physical Properties from Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmeijer, Frans J. M.; Mackinnon, Ian D. R.

    1997-01-01

    The degree of diversity or similarity detected in comets depends primarily on the lifetimes of the individual cometary nuclei at the time of analysis. It is inherent in our understanding of cometary orbital dynamics and the seminal model of comet origins that cometary evolution is the natural order of events in our Solar System. Thus, predictions of cometary behaviour in terms of bulk physical, mineralogical or chemical parameters should contain an appreciation of temporal variation(s). Previously, Rietmeijer and Mackinnon [1987] developed mineralogical bases for the chemical evolution of cometary nuclei primarily with regard to the predominantly silicate fraction of comet nuclei. We suggested that alteration of solids in cometary nuclei should be expected and that indications of likely reactants and products can be derived from judicious comparison with terrestrial diagenetic environments which include hydrocryogenic and low-temperature aqueous alterations. In a further development of this concept, Rietmeijer [1988] provides indirect evidence for the formation of sulfides and oxides in comet nuclei. Furthermore, Rietmeijer [1988] noted that timescales for hydrocryogenic and low-temperature reactions involving liquid water are probably adequate for relatively mature comets, e.g. P/comet Halley. In this paper, we will address the evolution of comet nuclei physical parameters such as solid particle grain size, porosity and density. In natural environments, chemical evolution (e.g. mineral reactions) is often accompanied by changes in physical properties. These concurrent changes are well-documented in the terrestrial geological literature, especially in studies of sediment diagenesis and we suggest that similar basic principles apply within the upper few meters of active comet nuclei. The database for prediction of comet nuclei physical parameters is, in principle, the same as used for the proposition of chemical evolution. We use detailed mineralogical studies of

  20. Nature of the charged headgroup determines the fusogenic potential and membrane properties of lithocholic acid phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Priyanshu; Singh, Manish; Sreekanth, Vedagopuram; Bajaj, Avinash

    2014-08-07

    Phospholipids play a crucial role in many cellular processes ranging from selective membrane permeability, to membrane fission and fusion, to cellular signaling. Headgroups of phospholipids determine the membrane properties and fusogenicity of these lipids with target cell membranes. We studied the fusogenic and membrane properties of phospholipids possessing unnatural charged headgroups with model membranes using laurdan based membrane hydration studies, DPH based membrane fluidity, and differential scanning calorimetry. We unravel that fusogenicity, membrane hydration, and fluidity of membranes are strongly contingent on the nature of the phospholipid charged headgroup. Our studies unraveled that introduction of bulky headgroups like dimethylamino pyridine induces maximum membrane hydration and perturbations with high fusogenicity as compared to small headgroup based phospholipids. These phospholipids also have the capability of high retention in DPPC membranes. Hydration and fluidity of these phospholipid-doped DPPC membranes are contingent on the nature of the charged headgroup. This study would help in future design of phospholipid based nanomaterials for effective drug delivery.

  1. Theoretical study on charge injection and transport properties of six emitters with push-pull structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Liu, Xiaojun; Lou, Zhidong; Hou, Yanbing; Teng, Feng

    2014-08-01

    The charge injection and transport properties of six organic light-emitting molecules with push-pull structures were studied by theoretical calculations. The ground-state geometries for the neutral, cationic and anionic states were optimized using density functional theory. Subsequently, the ionization potentials and electron affinities were calculated. We computed the reorganization energies and the transfer integrals based on the Marcus electron transfer theory. It was found that in addition to being emitters the six compounds are multifunctional materials being capable of transport for both holes and electrons. Moreover, the double-branched compound DCDPC2 was found to have higher charge injection ability and better balanced charge transport properties than single-branched compounds.

  2. An atomic charge model for graphene oxide for exploring its bioadhesive properties in explicit water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, D; Dragneva, N; Floriano, W B; Mawhinney, R C; Fanchini, G; French, S; Rubel, O

    2014-07-28

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been shown to exhibit properties that are useful in applications such as biomedical imaging, biological sensors, and drug delivery. The binding properties of biomolecules at the surface of GO can provide insight into the potential biocompatibility of GO. Here we assess the intrinsic affinity of amino acids to GO by simulating their adsorption onto a GO surface. The simulation is done using Amber03 force-field molecular dynamics in explicit water. The emphasis is placed on developing an atomic charge model for GO. The adsorption energies are computed using atomic charges obtained from an ab initio electrostatic potential based method. The charges reported here are suitable for simulating peptide adsorption to GO.

  3. An In Vitro Investigation of Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophage Cytotoxicity Introduced by Fibrous and Grainy Mineral Dusts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Faqin; DENG Jianjun; WU Fengchun; PU Xiaoyong; John HUANG; FENG Qiming; HE Xiaochun

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the damage mechanism of mineral dusts on the pulmonary alveolar macrophage (AM), the changes in their death ratio, malandialdthyde (MDA) content and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured, and the technique of cell culture in vitro was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of six mineral dusts (twelve crystal habits)from twelve mineral deposits. The results show that wollastonite and clinoptilolite have no AM cytotoxicity, while other fibrous and grainy mineral dusts damage pulmonary AM in various degrees.The cytotoxicity of fibrous mineral dusts was greater than that of the grainy ones, and the cytotoxicity of dusts was positively correlated with the active OH- content in dusts, but not necessarily so with its SiO2 content. The high pH values produced by dust was unfavorable for the survival of cells and the dusts with low bio-resistance were safe for cells. The content of variable valence elements in dusts might influence their cytotoxicity and the surface charge of dusts was not a stable factor for their toxicity. It is demonstrated that the shape of mineral dusts was one of the factors affecting cytotoxicity, and that the cytotoxicity of mineral dusts depends mainly on their properties.

  4. Are High-redshift Galaxies Hot? Temperature of z > 5 Galaxies and Implications for Their Dust Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisst, Andreas L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik A.; Barišić, Ivana; Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Masters, Daniel C.

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have found a significant evolution and scatter in the relationship between the UV spectral slope (β UV) and the infrared excess (IRX; L IR/L UV) at z > 4, suggesting different dust properties of these galaxies. The total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity is key for this analysis, but it is poorly constrained in normal (main-sequence) star-forming z > 5 galaxies, where often only one single FIR point is available. To better inform estimates of the FIR luminosity, we construct a sample of local galaxies and three low-redshift analogues of z > 5 systems. The trends in this sample suggest that normal high-redshift galaxies have a warmer infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) compared to average z relation at z > 5. Despite this, some galaxies still fall below the minimum IRX‑β relation derived with standard dust cloud models. We propose that radiation pressure in these highly star-forming galaxies causes a spatial offset between dust clouds and young star-forming regions within the lifetime of O/B stars. These offsets change the radiation balance and create viewing-angle effects that can change UV colors at fixed IRX. We provide a modified model that can explain the location of these galaxies on the IRX‑β diagram.

  5. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    ), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  6. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  7. Properties of dust grains in planetary nebulae. I. The ionized region of NGC 6445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC; Beintema, DA; Martin, PG; Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    One of the factors influencing the spectral evolution of a planetary nebula is the fate of the dust grains that are emitting the infrared continuum. Several processes have been proposed that either destroy the grains or remove them from the ionized region. To test whether these processes are effecti

  8. Accounting for particle non-sphericity in modeling of mineral dust radiative properties in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.; Derimian, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spectral radiative parameters (extinction optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) of spheroids of mineral dust composed of quartz and clays have been simulated at wavelengths between 7.0 and 10.2 μm using a T-matrix code. In spectral intervals with high values of complex index of refraction and for large particles, the parameters cannot be fully calculated with the code. Practically, the calculations are stopped at a truncation radius over which the particles contribution cannot thus be taken into account. To deal with this issue, we have developed and applied an accurate corrective technique of T-matrix Size Truncation Compensation (TSTC). For a mineral dust described by its AERONET standard aspect ratio (AR) distribution, the full error margin when applying the TSTC is within 0.3% (or ±0.15%), whatever the radiative parameter and the wavelength considered, for quartz (the most difficult case). Large AR values limit also the possibilities of calculation with the code. The TSTC has been able to complete the calculations of the T-matrix code for a modified AERONET AR distribution with a maximum AR of 4.7 instead of 3 for the standard distribution. Comparison between the simulated properties of spheroids and of spheres of same volume confirms, in agreement with the literature, that significant differences are observed in the vicinity of the mineral resonant peaks (λ ca. 8.3-8.7 μm for quartz, ca. 9.3-9.5 μm for clays) and that they are due to absorption by the small particles. This is a favorable circumstance for the TSTC, which is concerned with the contribution of the largest particles. This technique of numerical calculation improves the accuracy of the simulated radiative parameters of mineral dust, which must lead to a progress in view of applications such as remote sensing or determination of energy balance of dust in the thermal infrared (TIR), incompletely investigated so far.

  9. Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Charged Magnetic Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Jonathan; Hyde, Truell

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between dust grains is an important process in fields as diverse as planetesimal formation or the plasma processing of silicon wafers into computer chips. This interaction depends in large part on the material properties of the grains, for example whether the grains are conducting, non-conducting, ferrous or non-ferrous. This work considers the effects that electrostatic and magnetic forces, alone or in combination, can have on the coagulation of dust in various environments. A numerical model is used to simulate the coagulation of charged, charged-magnetic and magnetic dust aggregates formed from ferrous material and the results are compared to each other as well as to those from uncharged, non-magnetic material. The interactions between extended dust aggregates are also examined, specifically looking at how the arrangement of charge over the aggregate surface or the inclusion of magnetic material produces dipole-dipole interactions. It will be shown that these dipole-dipole interactions can ...

  10. Influence of electrostatic charging on the magnetic and other physical properties of thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical, superconducting and optical properties of thin metal films can be influenced by electrostatic charging. In the same way attempts have been made to change the saturation magnetization of ferromagnetic films, which was measured, e.g., with the torque method. Using the film as one plate of a capacitor torque changes are measured for different voltages. The torque changes are assumed to be caused by magnetization changes due to an altered electron concentration of the metal. The contribution of one unit charge to the magnetic moment was estimated to ca. /sup 1///sub 2/ mu/sub B/.

  11. Charge transport and memristive properties of graphene quantum dots embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmin Obreja, Alexandru; Cristea, Dana; Radoi, Antonio; Gavrila, Raluca; Comanescu, Florin; Kusko, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.kusko@imt.ro [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Mihalache, Iuliana [National Institute for R and D in Microtechnologies, 72996, Bucharest (Romania); Physics Department, University Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-08-25

    We show that graphene quantum dots (GQD) embedded in a semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymeric matrix act as charge trapping nanomaterials. In plane current-voltage (I-V) measurements of thin films realized from this nanocomposite deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes revealed that the GQD enhanced dramatically the hole transport. I-V characteristics exhibited a strong nonlinear behavior and a pinched hysteresis loop, a signature of a memristive response. The transport properties of this nanocomposite were explained in terms of a trap controlled space charge limited current mechanism.

  12. Investigation on the charge collection properties of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verzellesi, G; Nava, F; Canali, C

    2002-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical data on the charge collection properties of a 4H-SiC epitaxial Schottky diode exposed to 5.48- and 2.00-MeV alpha particles. Hundred percent Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) is, in particular, demonstrated for the 2.00-MeV alpha particles at reverse voltages higher than 40 V. By comparing measured CCE values with the outcomes of drift-diffusion simulations, a value of 500 ns is inferred for the hole lifetime within the lowly doped, active layer of virgin samples. The contributions of diffusion and funneling-assisted drift to CCE at low reverse voltages are pointed out.

  13. Properties and Harmfulness of Lunar Dust: A Review%月尘的性质及危害评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森森; 王世杰; 李雄耀; 李世杰; 唐红; 李阳; 于雯

    2013-01-01

    Lunar dust is the small particle widely distributed on the lunar surface, of which sizes range from 30 nm to 20 μm with the median diameter of 100-300 nm and more than 95% are less than 2μm. The grains have complex shapes and usually show glass beads, vesicular texture, and angular shards. High contents of agglutinate glass and npFe0 are the remarkable properties in mineral compositioa The glass content is usually more than 50 vol%, and it can reach 80% to 90% in <2. 5 μm part. Lunar dust is similar to lunar soil in elemental compositions, but it also shows different contents of SiO2 in different areas. The composition and geometrical characteristics of lunar dust lead to special electromagnetic properties and biological toxicity. These properties might cause the lunar dust adhered to spacecraft and inhaled by astronauts easily, and then damage the spacecraft and threaten the health of astronauts. So, it is necessary to study lunar dust further to facilitate lunar surface exploration, which also can better the understanding of the evolution of lunar surface materials and lunar atmosphere due to the fact that lunar dust has been formed during a long time space weathering and conserves important information of space weathering history in the composition and microstructure of lunar dust graia Currently, the properties of lunar dust grains in micro-morphology and chemical composition, electromagnetic properties and spectral characteristics, the feature and origin of npFe0 are still not clear, which challenges the understanding of the mechanism of lunar dust's adhesion, biological toxicity and space weathering. To meet the needs of lunar science and lunar exploration, studying the properties of lunar soil grains and process of space weathering by simulated experiments using lunar dust stimulants as a candidate might be an important trend in the coming decades.%月尘是广泛分布于月球表面的微小颗粒,大小约在30 nm~20μm之间,95%以上小于2

  14. Study of aerosol microphysical properties profiles retrieved from ground-based remote sensing and aircraft in-situ measurements during a Saharan dust event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Veselovskii, I.; Lyamani, H.; Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Titos, G.; Andrey, J.; Chaikovsky, A.; Dubovik, O.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present an analysis of mineral dust optical and microphysical properties obtained from different retrieval techniques applied to active and passive remote sensing measurements, including a comparison with simultaneous in-situ aircraft measurements. Data were collected in a field campaign performed during a mineral dust outbreak a Granada, Spain, experimental site (37.16° N, 3.61° W, 680 m a.s.l.) on the 27 June 2011. Column-integrated properties are provided by sun- and star-photometry which allows a continuous evaluation of the mineral dust optical properties during both day and night-time. Both the Linear Estimation and AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversion algorithms are applied for the retrieval of the column-integrated microphysical particle properties. In addition, vertically-resolved microphysical properties are obtained from a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system included in EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network), by using both LIRIC (Lidar Radiometer Inversion Code) algorithm during daytime and an algorithm applied to the Raman measurements based on the regularization technique during night-time. LIRIC retrievals reveal several dust layers between 3 and 5 km a.s.l. with volume concentrations of the coarse spheroid mode up to 60 μm3 cm-3. The combined use of the regularization and LIRIC methods reveals the night-to-day evolution of the vertical structure of the mineral dust microphysical properties and offers complementary information to that from column-integrated variables retrieved from passive remote sensing. Additionally, lidar depolarization profiles and LIRIC retrieved volume concentration are compared with aircraft in-situ measurements. This study presents for the first time a comparison of both volume concentration and dust particle polarization ratios measured with in-situ and remote sensing techniques. Results for the depolarization measurements in the dust layer indicate reasonable agreement within the

  15. The Dust Accelerator Facility at CCLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Collette, A.; Drake, K.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Leblanc, S.; Munsat, T.; Northway, P.; Robertson, S. H.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thomas, E.; Wagner, M.; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies

    2010-12-01

    At the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Science (CCLDAS) we are in the process of assembling a 3MV macroscopic (~1um) dust particle accelerator. The acceleration unit is being made by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). The accelerator consists of a pelletron generator and potential rings encased in an enclosure held at 6 atm of SF6. A pulsed dust source is used to inject particles into the accelerator. Here we describe advancements in dust accelerator technology at CCLDAS to allow more functionality and ease of use, focusing primarily on dust source control, and the capability to select a precise range in dust mass and velocity. Previously, the dust source was controlled by long plastic rods turning potentiometers inside the SF6 environment providing little to no feedback and repeatability. We describe a fiber optic control system that allows full control of the pulse characteristics being sent to the dust source using a LabVIEW control program to increase usability. An electrostatic Einzel lens is being designed using the ion-optics code SIMION to determine the properties of the electrodes needed for the optimum focusing of the dust beam. Our simulations studies indicate that the dust beam can be directed into a 0.5mm diameter spot. Our planned experiments require a high degree of control over particles size, speed, charge and other characteristics. In order to ensure that only particles of the desired characteristics are allowed to pass into the target chamber, two deflection plates are used to eliminate unwanted particles from the beam. Further simulations are being done to determine the possibility of bending the beamline to allow active selection of particles. The current design of the selection unit uses nuclear accelerator techniques to determine the velocity and charge of each particle and digital timing and logic to choose particles that will be allowed to pass. This requires a high signal to noise ratio due to the need for a well

  16. Density functional theory calculations of charge transport properties of ‘plate-like’ coronene topological structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZIRAN CHEN; ZHANRONG HE; YOUHUI XU; WENHAO YU

    2017-09-01

    Charge transport rate is one of the key parameters determining the performance of organic electronic devices. In this paper, we used density functional theory (DFT) at the M06-2X/6−31+G(d) level to compute the charge transport rates of nine coronene topological structures. The results show that the energy gap of these nine coronene derivatives is in the range 2.90–3.30 eV, falling into the organic semiconductor category. The size of the conjugate ring has a large influence on the charge transport properties. Incorporation of methyl groupson the rigid core of tetrabenzocoronene and hexabenzocoronene is more conducive to the hole transport of the molecule than incorporating methoxyl groups. The derivatisation of a ‘long plate-like’ coronene with methoxylgroups facilitates both hole and electron transport. This class of molecules can thus be used in the design of ambipolar transport semiconductor materials.

  17. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles in the Caribbean: Influence of African Dust and Soufriere Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Birriel, C. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric particles such as dust and volcanic ash have the potential of influencing the earth's radiative budget directly by scattering or absorbing solar radiation in the atmosphere and indirectly by affecting cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and, therefore, cloud albedo. The radiatively-important properties of atmospheric particles are determined at the most fundamental level by their chemical composition and size distributions; therefore, the importance of studying the chemical, physical, and optical aerosol properties. Over the summer months, the island of Puerto Rico receives African dust incursions that reduce visibility and have an impact on public health, ecosystem, and climate. Visibility is also negatively affected when the island receives south-east winds and the Soufriere volcano (Montserrat Island) has been active. Here we present preliminary results of measurements performed during 2006 and 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The cases investigated showed three possible types of air masses: clean (C), with African Dust (AD), and with volcanic ash (VA) from the Soufriere. We used a condensation particle counter to determine the particle number concentration, a sunphotometer (part of the AERONET) to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficients, and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for the absorption coefficients. The particle number concentrations were higher for AD and VA periods (up to about 700 cm-3 on average for both cases) in contrast to ~400 cm-3 for the C period. Volume size distributions showed bimodal distributions for the three cases with a greater influence of the coarse fraction for the C and VA periods and an increase in the fine particles for the AD period. The total scattering coefficient showed higher values for the AD (30 Mm-1) and the VA (26

  18. Optical Properties of Nonspherical Particles of Size Comparable to the Wavelength of Light: Application to Comet Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.; Hanner, Martha S.

    1999-03-01

    Scattering calculations for nonspherical particles have been carried out in order to explain observed optical properties of cometary dust. We focused on two optical properties of cometary dust sensitive to particle shape: negative linear polarization at phase angles ≤21° and the 11.2-μm silicate emission feature. The discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method was employed to compute the scattering matrix for nonspherical silicate and absorbing particles of size comparable to the wavelength. Silicate particles with a variety of shapes and size parameterXeq∼2.5, corresponding to a linear dimension of 0.5-1.0 μm, can produce negative linear polarization at small phase angles, whereas carbon particles produce a strong positive maximum of polarization near phase angles of 90°. Mixtures of silicate and carbonaceous material, on a scale small compared to the wavelength, eliminate the negative polarization in this size range; however, macroscopic mixtures of silicate and carbon could yield the observed negative linear polarization at low phase angles (≤21°) and a maximum positive polarization at phase angle of 90°. The position of the 11.2-μm thermal emission peak observed in comets, attributed to crystalline olivine, depends strongly on particle shape even for particles much smaller than the wavelength and can be matched with anisotropic Mg-rich olivine for our model tetrahedra or moderately elongated bricks. Spheres and extreme shapes, such as disks or needles, appear to be ruled out. Approximately 20% crystalline olivine and 80% disordered olivine reproduces the observed spectra of comets with comparable peaks at 10 and 11.2μm, e.g., P/Halley, Bradfield 1987 XXIX, Mueller, Levy 1990 XX, and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). This study is an essential first step toward realistic modeling of comet dust as aggregates composed of nonspherical monomers having dimensions comparable to the wavelength of incident radiation.

  19. [Properties and biological effect of dust of various artificial mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovskaja, L T; Werner, I; Kupina, L M; Loscilov, J A; Efremov, L D

    1990-09-01

    Developments and use of man-made mineral fibres are important for the progress in some technical fields. In the last years the number of man-made mineral fibres increased extraordinarily. For the medical evaluation it is necessary to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the man-made mineral fibre dust and its biological effects in animal experiments. The results of the investigations are described.

  20. Characterization of surface charge and mechanical properties of chitosan/alginate based biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra, E-mail: devendra@rci.rutgers.edu; Desai, Malav S.; Kulkarni, Namrata; Langrana, Noshir

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to examine mechanical properties and surface charge characteristics of chitosan/alginate-based films for biomedical applications. By varying the concentrations of chitosan and alginate, we have developed films with varying surface charge densities and mechanical characteristics. The surface charge densities of these films were determined by applying an analytical model on force curves derived from an atomic force microscope (AFM). The average surface charge densities of films containing 60% chitosan and 80% chitosan were found to be - 0.46 mC/m{sup 2} and - 0.32 mC/m{sup 2}, respectively. The surface charge density of 90% chitosan containing films was found to be neutral. The elastic moduli and the water content were found to be decreasing with increasing chitosan concentration. The films with 60%, 80% and 90% chitosan gained 93.5 {+-} 6.6%, 217.1 {+-} 22.1% and 396.8 {+-} 67.5% of their initial weight, respectively. Their elastic moduli were found to be 2.6 {+-} 0.14 MPa, 1.9 {+-} 0.27 MPa and 0.93 {+-} 0.12 MPa, respectively. The trend observed in the mechanical response of these films has been attributed to the combined effect of the concentration of polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) and the amount of water absorbed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments indicate the presence of higher alginate on the surface of the films compared to the bulk in all films. The presence of higher alginate on surface is consistent with negative surface charge densities of these films, determined from AFM experiments. Highlights: {yields} Chitosan/alginate based fibrous polyelectrolyte complex films were developed. {yields} The average surface charge density of the films was determined using AFM. {yields} Elastic modulus of the films increased with increase in PEC content. {yields} FTIR analysis indicated higher alginate content on surface compared to bulk.

  1. Characterization of the optical properties of hydrophobic coatings and realization of high performance AR coatings with dust- and water-repellent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynooghe, S.; Spinzig, S.; Fliedner, M.; Hsu, G. J.

    2008-09-01

    Hydrophobic coatings enable the manufacture of easy-to-clean surfaces having dust- and water-repellent properties. In this work, a hydrophobic coating is deposited as a top layer on an antireflective (AR) multilayer system comprising a MgF2 upper layer to produce low reflectance optical surfaces at a normal incident angle in the visible spectrum with dust- and water-repellent properties for applications in precision optics. We report on the preparation and characterization of the optical properties of hydrophobic coatings deposited using a vacuum evaporation process and a commercially available water repellent substance. By means of a grazing incidence X-ray reflectometer it is shown that the hydrophobic coating can be considered, from an optical point of view, as two adjacent thin layers having specific thicknesses and densities. In fact, the hydrophobic layer is one monolayer comprising molecular chains with anchoring groups responsible for the chemical bond with the substrate material and functional groups responsible for the water- and oil-repellent properties. Optical constants are determined using a spectroscopic ellipsometer and are taken into account in the final multilayer system design. High performance AR coatings having an average reflectance of 0.14% at 7° incident angle in the 400-680nm spectral range together with a pleasing purple-red reflex color are produced. Coated lenses exhibit an excellent abrasion resistance, environmental stability, resistance to cleaning agents, homogeneity and water repellence with contact angles against water higher than 110°.

  2. Untangling the nature of spatial variations of cold dust properties in star forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-München (Germany); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groves, Brent; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hunt, Leslie [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hinz, Joannah, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [MMT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We investigate the far-infrared (IR) dust emission for 20 local star forming galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-IR Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. We model the far-IR/submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) using images from Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We calculate the cold dust temperature (T{sub c} ) and emissivity (β) on a pixel by pixel basis (where each pixel ranges from 0.1 to 3 kpc{sup 2}) using a two-temperature modified blackbody fitting routine. Our fitting method allows us to investigate the resolved nature of temperature and emissivity variations by modeling from the galaxy centers to the outskirts (physical scales of ∼15-50 kpc, depending on the size of the galaxy). We fit each SED in two ways: (1) fit T{sub c} and β simultaneously, (2) hold β constant and fit T{sub c} . We compare T{sub c} and β with star formation rates (calculated from L{sub Hα} and L{sub 24μm}), the luminosity of the old stellar population (traced through L{sub 3.6μm}), and the dust mass surface density (traced by 500 μm luminosity, L{sub 500}). We find a significant trend between SFR/L{sub 500} and T{sub c} , implying that the flux of hard UV photons relative to the amount of dust is significantly contributing to the heating of the cold, or diffuse, dust component. We also see a trend between L{sub 3.6}/L{sub 500} and β, indicating that the old stellar population contributes to the heating at far-IR/submillimeter wavelengths. Finally, we find that when β is held constant, T{sub c} exhibits a strongly decreasing radial trend, illustrating that the shape of the far-IR SED is changing radially through a galaxy, thus confirming on a sample almost double in size the trends observed in Galametz et al.

  3. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, O V; Lazarenko, G Yu

    2016-01-01

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing th...

  4. Interplay of electronic and geometry shell effects in properties of neutral and charged Sr clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2007-01-01

    that the size evolution of structural and electronic properties of strontium clusters is governed by an interplay of the electronic and geometry shell closures. Influence of the electronic shell effects on structural rearrangements can lead to violation of the icosahedral growth motif of strontium clusters......The optimized structure and electronic properties of neutral, singly, and doubly charged strontium clusters have been investigated using ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory. We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral, singly, and doubly...... charged strontium clusters consisting of up to 14 atoms, average bonding distances, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, the gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and spectra of the density of electronic states (DOS). It is demonstrated...

  5. Top Quark Pair Properties - Spin Correlation, Charge Asymmetry, and Complex Final States - at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brost Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of top quark pair properties performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV. The latest measurements of spin correlation and charge asymmetry in tt¯$t\\overline t $ events, as well as measurements of the cross section for tt¯$t\\overline t $ production in association with vector bosons, are presented.

  6. The dust, nebular emission, and dependence on QSO radio properties of the associated Mg II absorption line systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Pushpa [CSIR Emeritus Scientist, IUCAA, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Daniel, Vanden Berk [Physics Department, St. Vincent College, Latrobe, PA 15650 (United States); Rahmani, Hadi [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); York, Donald G., E-mail: pushpakhare@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We studied dust reddening and [O II] emission in 1730 Mg II associated absorption systems (AAS; relative velocity with respect to QSOs, ≤3000 km s{sup –1}; in units of velocity of light, β, ≤0.01) with 0.4 ≤z {sub abs} ≤ 2 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, focusing on their dependence on the radio and other QSO properties. We used control samples, several with matching radio properties, to show that (1) AAS in radio-detected (RD) QSOs cause 2.6 ± 0.2 times higher dust extinction than those in radio-undetected (RUD) ones, which in turn cause 2.9 ± 0.7 times the dust extinction in the intervening systems; (2) AAS in core-dominated QSOs cause 2.0 ± 0.1 times higher dust extinction than those in lobe-dominated QSOs; (3) the occurrence of AAS is 2.1 ± 0.2 times more likely in RD QSOs than in RUD QSOs and 1.8 ± 0.1 time more likely in QSOs having black holes with masses larger than 1.23 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} than in those with lower-mass black holes; and (4) there is excess flux in [O II]λ3727 emission in the composite spectra of the AAS samples compared with those of the control samples, which is at the emission redshift. The presence of AAS enhances the O II emission from the active galactic nucleus and/or the host galaxy. This excess is similar for both RD and RUD samples and is 2.5 ± 0.4 times higher in lobe-dominated samples than in core-dominated samples. The excess depends on the black hole mass and Eddington ratio. All these point to the intrinsic nature of the AAS except for the systems with z {sub abs} > z {sub em}, which could be infalling galaxies.

  7. Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.

  8. Study on Ground Simulation Test System of Material Charging under Lunar Dust Environment%月尘环境材料带电地面模拟试验系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许滨; 原青云; 孙永卫; 吴勇

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of lunar dust and harm of lunar dust electro-statics to spacecraft’s activities,based on the fundamental principles of material charging under the lunar dust environment,and sets up a ground simulation system of charged materials in vacu-um environment.This system can be used to inspect the effects of simulated electrostatic lunar dust on lunar probes,to study the laws of effects of lunar dust on moon crafts as to its electrostat-ic electrification,adsorption,coupling and discharge.It is intended to meet the requirements of e-lectrostatic shielding technology for our country's lunar probe programs.%介绍月尘的特点及月尘静电对航天活动的危害,根据月尘环境下材料带电的原理,构建真空环境材料带电地面模拟试验系统。利用装置进行模拟静电月尘对探月航天器的作用,研究月尘静电对登月探测器的静电起电、吸附、耦合及放电效应影响规律,从而初步解决我国在探月工程上月球探测器对月球表面静电防护技术的需求。

  9. Magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of half-metallic ferromagnetic and charge ordered modified ferromagnetic manganite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2017-03-01

    In our present study, we address in detail magnetic and magneto-transport properties of well known half metallic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and charge order suppressed ferromagnetic La0.48Ca0.52MnO3 (LCMO) nanoparticles. The average particle size for LSMO and LCMO is ˜20 nm and ˜25 nm, respectively. With respect to their magnetic properties, both compounds exhibit ferromagnetic behavior, whereas they markedly differ in their magneto-transport characteristics. The magnetoresistive properties of LSMO nanoparticles indicate low field magnetoresistance and tendency for saturation at higher field values. In addition to the sharp low field magnetoresistance, we have achieved significantly large magnetoresistance at higher values of external magnetic field for the ferromagnetic LCMO nanoparticles. To address such anomalous behavior in these two different classes of ferromagnetic materials, we introduce the re-entrant core-shell type structure formation in charge ordered nanoparticles (LCMO) when charge ordering is completely suppressed.

  10. Optical and adhesive properties of dust deposits on solar mirrors and their effects on specular reflectivity and electrodynamic cleaning for mitigating energy-yield loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Malay; Yellowhair, Julius; Stark, Jeremy; Heiling, Calvin; Hudelson, John; Hao, Fang; Gibson, Hannah; Horenstein, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale solar plants are mostly installed in semi-arid and desert areas. In those areas, dust layer buildup on solar collectors becomes a major cause for energy yield loss. Development of transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) and their applications for self-cleaning operation of solar mirrors are presented with a primary focus on the removal dust particles smaller than 30 µm in diameter while maintaining specular reflection efficiency electric field charges the deposited particles, lifts them form the substrate by electrostatic forces and propels the dust layer off of the collector's surface by a traveling wave. The cleaning process takes less than 2 minutes; needs energy less than 1 Wh/m2 without requiring any water or manual labor. The reflection efficiency can be restored > 95% of the original clean-mirror efficiency. We briefly present (1) loss of specular reflection efficiency as a function of particle size distribution of deposited dust, and (2) the effects of the electrode design and materials used for minimizing initial loss of specular reflectivity in producing EDS-integrated solar mirrors. Optimization of EDS by using a figure of merit defined by the ratio of dust removal efficiency to the initial loss of specular reflection efficiency is discussed.

  11. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, O.V., E-mail: bov@tpu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kazinski, P.O., E-mail: kpo@phys.tsu.ru [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lazarenko, G.Yu., E-mail: lazarenko.georgijj@icloud.com [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing the initial energy of a charged particle, while the maximum value of this distribution remains the same at the fixed photon observation angle and entrance angle of a charged particle. The ultraviolet and infrared asymptotics of the total radiation are also described. - Highlights: • Properties of an electron radiation in a crossed electromagnetic field are studied. • Spectral angular distribution of the synchrotron entrance radiation is described. • Spectral angular distribution of the de-excited radiation is described. • De-excited radiation is almost completely circularly polarized. • Photon energy at the maximum of the de-excited radiation decreases with increasing the initial energy of an electron.

  12. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papayannis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong Saharan dust event occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E between 27 March and 3 April 2009. The BSC-DREAM8b model was used to forecast the dust event and to provide the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA 6-wavelength Raman lidar system only during the unclouded day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients properties of aerosols in the troposphere. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol dust microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index in different layers between 1.8 and 3.5 km a.s.l. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to infer an in situ aerosol composition consistent with the retrieved refractive index values. PM10 concentrations levels, PM10 composition results and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis results on sizes and mineralogy of particles from samples during the Saharan dust transport event were used to evaluate the retrieval.

  13. INFLUENCE OF ASIAN DUSTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS IN TAIWAN DISTRICT- USING THE PENGHU ISLANDS AS AN EXAMPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Shin Yuan; Cheng-Chung Sau; Ming-Chung Chen

    2004-01-01

    Using the Penghu Islands as an example, this study investigates the influence of Asian dusts on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Taiwan District in the year of 2002. An aerosol-sampling site was established at Xiaumen, the Penghu Islands, to collect sea level atmospheric aerosols for further analysis of their physicochemical properties. This study revealed that, during the sampling campaign, three Asian dust storms were transported from North China and Mongolia to the Penghu Islands. The mass concentrations of atmospheric aerosols, particularly PM2.5~10, were generally 2~3 times higher than the regular level. An increase of coarse particle mode in the size distribution of atmospheric aerosols further validated the invasion of Asian dusts. Moreover, the comparison of water-soluble ionic species, carbonaceous content, and metallic content of atmospheric aerosols indicated that Asian dusts could significantly influence the chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in Taiwan District. A significant increase of Cl-, Br-, Na+, K+, SO42-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration on coarse particle mode was observed. It suggested that not just natural soil dusts and oceanic spray, but also anthropogenic pollutants could accompany Asian dusts. Source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols indicated that the concentration (percentage) of aerosol particles contributed from soil dusts increased significantly from 20.98 μg·m-3 (29.2%) to 60.37 μg·m-3 (47.7%), and then decreased to the regular level of 22.44 μg·m-3 (28.2%).

  14. Oxygen vacancies enhance pseudocapacitive charge storage properties of MoO3-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Cook, John B.; Lin, Hao; Ko, Jesse S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Dunn, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The short charging times and high power capabilities associated with capacitive energy storage make this approach an attractive alternative to batteries. One limitation of electrochemical capacitors is their low energy density and for this reason, there is widespread interest in pseudocapacitive materials that use Faradaic reactions to store charge. One candidate pseudocapacitive material is orthorhombic MoO3 (α-MoO3), a layered compound with a high theoretical capacity for lithium (279 mA h g-1 or 1,005 C g-1). Here, we report on the properties of reduced α-MoO3-x(R-MoO3-x) and compare it with fully oxidized α-MoO3 (F-MoO3). The introduction of oxygen vacancies leads to a larger interlayer spacing that promotes faster charge storage kinetics and enables the α-MoO3 structure to be retained during the insertion and removal of Li ions. The higher specific capacity of the R-MoO3-x is attributed to the reversible formation of a significant amount of Mo4+ following lithiation. This study underscores the potential importance of incorporating oxygen vacancies into transition metal oxides as a strategy for increasing the charge storage kinetics of redox-active materials.

  15. Properties of ceramics prepared using dry discharged waste to energy bottom ash dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Vandeperre, Luc; Grimes, Sue; Themelis, Nicolas; Koralewska, Ralf; Cheeseman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The fine dust of incinerator bottom ash generated from dry discharge systems can be transformed into an inert material suitable for the production of hard, dense ceramics. Processing involves the addition of glass, ball milling and calcining to remove volatile components from the incinerator bottom ash. This transforms the major crystalline phases present in fine incinerator bottom ash dust from quartz (SiO(2)), calcite (CaCO(3)), gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), to the pyroxene group minerals diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), clinoenstatite (MgSi(2)O(6)), wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) together with some albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and andradite (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)). Processed powders show minimal leaching and can be pressed and sintered to form dense (>2.5 g cm(-3)), hard ceramics that exhibit low firing shrinkage (ceramic tiles that have potential for use in a range of industrial applications.

  16. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J; Palazzi, E; Savaglio, S; Gentile, G; Rasmussen, J; Baes, M; Basa, S; Bianchi, S; Berta, S; Burlon, D; Ceron, J M Castro; Covino, S; Cuby, J -G; D'Elia, V; Ferrero, P; Gotz, D; Hjorth, J; Koprowski, M P; Borgne, D Le; Floc'h, E Le; Malesani, D; Murphy, T; Pian, E; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sollerman, J; Tanvir, N R; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Watson, D; van der Werf, P; Vergani, S D; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a tool to study star formation in the Universe, so it is crucial to investigate whether their host galaxies and immediate environments are in any way special compared with other star-forming galaxies. Here we present spatially resolved maps of dust emission of the host galaxy of the closest known GRB 980425 at z=0.0085 using our new high-resolution observations from Herschel, APEX, ALMA and ATCA. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of the host and of the star-forming region displaying the Wolf-Rayet signatures in the spectrum (WR region), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence between the GRB rate and star-formation. The WR region contributes substantially to the host emission at the far-infrared,...

  17. Untangling the Nature of Spatial Variations of Cold Dust Properties in Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Kennicutt, Robert; Galametz, Maud; Gordon, Karl; Groves, Brent; Hunt, Leslie; Dale, Daniel; Hinz, Joannah; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the far-infrared (IR) dust emission for 20 local star forming galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-IR Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. We model the far-IR/submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) using images from Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory. We calculate the cold dust temperature (T(cold)) and emissivity (beta) on a pixel by pixel basis (where each pixel ranges from 0.1-3 kpc^2) using a two temperature modified blackbody fitting routine. Our fitting method allows us to investigate the resolved nature of temperature and emissivity variations by modeling from the galaxy centers to the outskirts (physical scales of ~15-50 kpc, depending on the size of the galaxy). We fit each SED in two ways: (1) fit T(cold) and beta simultaneously, (2) hold beta constant and fit T(cold). We compare T(cold) and beta with star formation rates (calculated from L(Halpha) and L(24)), the luminosity of the old stellar population (traced through L(3.6), and ...

  18. AGB stars in the SMC: evolution and dust properties based on Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Ventura, P; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; Rossi, C

    2015-01-01

    We study the population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by means of full evolutionary models of stars of mass 1Msun < M < 8Msun, evolved through the thermally pulsing phase. The models also account for dust production in the circumstellar envelope. We compare Spitzer infrared colours with results from theoretical modelling. We show that ~75% of the AGB population of the SMC is composed by scarcely obscured objects, mainly stars of mass M < 2.5Msun at various metallicity, formed between 700 Myr and 5 Gyr ago; ~ 70% of these sources are oxygen--rich stars, while ~ 30% are C-stars. The sample of the most obscured AGB stars, accounting for ~ 25% of the total sample, is composed almost entirely by carbon stars. The distribution in the colour-colour ([3.6]-[4.5], [5.8]-[8.0]) and colour-magnitude ([3.6]-[8.0], [8.0]) diagrams of these C-rich objects, with a large infrared emission, traces an obscuration sequence, according to the amount of carbonaceous dust in the...

  19. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thiem

    2017-02-01

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios (R V data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R V , a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ max ∼ 0.15 μm, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  20. Elastic Properties of Natural Sea Surface Films Incorporated with Solid Dust Particles: Model Baltic Sea Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating dust-originated solid particles at air-water interfaces will interact with one another and disturb the smoothness of such a composite surface affecting its dilational elasticity. To quantify the effect, surface pressure (Π versus film area (A isotherm, and stress-relaxation (Π-time measurements were performed for monoparticulate layers of the model hydrophobic material (of μm-diameter and differentiated hydrophobicity corresponding to the water contact angles (CA ranging from 60 to 140° deposited at surfaces of surfactant-containing original seawater and were studied with a Langmuir trough system. The composite surface dilational modulus predicted from the theoretical approach, in which natural dust load signatures (particle number flux, daily deposition rate, and diameter spectra originated from in situ field studies performed along Baltic Sea near-shore line stations, agreed well with the direct experimentally derived data. The presence of seawater surfactants affected wettability of the solid material which was evaluated with different CA techniques applicable to powdered samples. Surface energetics of the particle-subphase interactions was expressed in terms of the particle removal energy, contact cross-sectional areas, collapse energies, and so forth. The hydrophobic particles incorporation at a sea surface film structure increased the elasticity modulus by a factor K (1.29–1.58. The particle-covered seawater revealed a viscoelastic behavior with the characteristic relaxation times ranging from 2.6 to 68.5 sec.

  1. Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g−1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g−1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.

  2. Charge Variants of an Avastin Biosimilar Isolation, Characterization, In Vitro Properties and Pharmacokinetics in Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available The similarity between a proposed biosimilar product and the reference product can be affected by many factors. This study is designed to examine whether any subtle difference in the distribution of the charge variants of an Avastin biosimilar can affect its in vitro potency and in vivo PK. Here, the acidic, basic and main peak fractions of a biosimilar product were isolated using high-performance cation-exchange chromatography and were subjected to various studies to compare their in vitro properties and in vivo PK profile. A serial of analytical methods, including size exclusion chromatography (SEC, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE and cation-exchange chromatography (CEX-HPLC were also used to characterize the isolated charge variants. The kinetics constant was measured using a Biacore X100 system. The study indicates the biosimilar product has a high similarity with avastin in physicochemical properties. The potency in vitro and PK profile in rat of charge variants and biosimilar product are consistent with avastin.

  3. Pore structure and function of synthetic nanopores with fixed charges: tip shape and rectification properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez, Patricio [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Apel, Pavel Yu [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie street 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Cervera, Javier; Mafe, Salvador [Departament de Fisica de la Terra i Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)], E-mail: patraho@fis.upv.es

    2008-08-06

    We present a complete theoretical study of the relationship between the structure (tip shape and dimensions) and function (selectivity and rectification) of asymmetric nanopores on the basis of previous experimental studies. The theoretical model uses a continuum approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations. According to our results, the nanopore transport properties, such as current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, conductance, rectification ratio, and selectivity, are dictated mainly by the shape of the pore tip (we have distinguished bullet-like, conical, trumpet-like, and hybrid shapes) and the concentration of pore surface charges. As a consequence, the nanopore performance in practical applications will depend not only on the base and tip openings but also on the pore shape. In particular, we show that the pore opening dimensions estimated from the pore conductance can be very different, depending on the pore shape assumed. The results obtained can also be of practical relevance for the design of nanopores, nanopipettes, and nanoelectrodes, where the electrical interactions between the charges attached to the nanostructure and the mobile charges confined in the reduced volume of the inside solution dictate the device performance in practical applications. Because single tracks are the elementary building blocks for nanoporous membranes, the understanding and control of their individual properties should also be crucial in protein separation, water desalination, and bio-molecule detection using arrays of identical nanopores.

  4. Ice nucleation properties of mineral dust particles: determination of onset RHi, IN active fraction, nucleation time-lag, and the effect of active sites on contact angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dobbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed ice nucleation experimental set up was used to investigate the heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of three Saharan and one Spanish dust particle samples. It was observed that the spread in the onset relative humidities with respect to ice (RHi for Saharan dust particles varied from 104% to 110%, whereas for the Spanish dust from 106% to 110%. The elemental composition analysis shows a prominent Ca feature in the Spanish dust sample which could potentially explain the differences in nucleation threshold. Although the spread in the onset RHi for the three Saharan dust samples were in agreement, the active fractions and nucleation time-lags calculated at various temperature and RHi conditions were found to differ. This could be due to the subtle variation in the elemental composition of the dust samples, and surface irregularities like steps, cracks, cavities etc. A combination of classical nucleation theory and active site theory is used to understand the importance of these surface irregularities on the nucleability parameter, contact angle that is widely used in ice cloud modeling. These calculations show that the surface irregularities can reduce the contact angle by approximately 10 degrees.

  5. The dusty heart of nearby active galaxies -- I. From 3D clumpy torus models to physical properties of dust around AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Hoenig, S F

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) With the possibilities of high-spatial resolution imaging and spectroscopy as well as infrared (IR) interferometry, the dusty environments of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are now in reach of observations. In a series of papers, we aim for stepping towards characterizing physical properties of the dust torus by combining IR high-resolution observations with 3D radiative transfer models. In this first paper, we introduce an upgrade to our 3D radiative transfer model of clumpy dust tori. The models are presented as tools to translate classical and interferometric observations into characteristical parameters of the dust distribution. We compare model SEDs for different chemical and grain-size compositions of the dust and find that clouds with standard ISM dust and optical depth tau_V~50 appear in overall agreement with observed IR SEDs. By studying parameter dependencies, it is shown that type 1 AGN SEDs can be used to constrain the radial dust cloud distribution power-law index, a, as well as the mea...

  6. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  7. Dust properties and disk structure of evolved protoplanetary disks in Cep OB2: Grain growth, settling, gas and dust mass, and inside-out evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS spectra of 31 TTS and IRAM/1.3mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and the 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (~4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (~12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially-dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features require nevertheless the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distr...

  8. A theoretical method to compute sequence dependent configurational properties in charged polymers and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawle, Lucas; Ghosh, Kingshuk, E-mail: kghosh@du.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    A general formalism to compute configurational properties of proteins and other heteropolymers with an arbitrary sequence of charges and non-uniform excluded volume interaction is presented. A variational approach is utilized to predict average distance between any two monomers in the chain. The presented analytical model, for the first time, explicitly incorporates the role of sequence charge distribution to determine relative sizes between two sequences that vary not only in total charge composition but also in charge decoration (even when charge composition is fixed). Furthermore, the formalism is general enough to allow variation in excluded volume interactions between two monomers. Model predictions are benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo studies of Das and Pappu [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 13392 (2013)] for 30 different synthetic sequences of polyampholytes. These sequences possess an equal number of glutamic acid (E) and lysine (K) residues but differ in the patterning within the sequence. Without any fit parameter, the model captures the strong sequence dependence of the simulated values of the radius of gyration with a correlation coefficient of R{sup 2} = 0.9. The model is then applied to real proteins to compare the unfolded state dimensions of 540 orthologous pairs of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. The excluded volume parameters are assumed similar under denatured conditions, and only electrostatic effects encoded in the sequence are accounted for. With these assumptions, thermophilic proteins are found—with high statistical significance—to have more compact disordered ensemble compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The method presented here, due to its analytical nature, is capable of making such high throughput analysis of multiple proteins and will have broad applications in proteomic studies as well as in other heteropolymeric systems.

  9. Impact of speciation on the electron charge transfer properties of nanodiamond drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baichuan; Barnard, Amanda S.

    2016-07-01

    Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove useful in designing drug delivery systems where the release of (selected) drugs needs to be sensitive to specific conditions at the point of delivery.Unpassivated diamond nanoparticles (bucky-diamonds) exhibit a unique surface reconstruction involving graphitization of certain crystal facets, giving rise to hybrid core-shell particles containing both aromatic and aliphatic carbon. Considerable effort is directed toward eliminating the aromatic shell, but persistent graphitization of subsequent subsurface-layers makes perdurable purification a challenge. In this study we use some simple statistical methods, in combination with electronic structure simulations, to predict the impact of different fractions of aromatic and aliphatic carbon on the charge transfer properties of the ensembles of bucky-diamonds. By predicting quality factors for a variety of cases, we find that perfect purification is not necessary to preserve selectivity, and there is a clear motivation for purifying samples to improve the sensitivity of charge transfer reactions. This may prove

  10. Ice nuclei properties within a Saharan dust event at the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The new portable ice nucleation chamber (PINC developed by the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences of ETH Zurich was operated during two measurement campaigns at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch situated at 3580 m a.s.l, in March and June 2009. During this time of the year, a high probability of Saharan dust events (SDE at the Jungfraujoch has been observed. We used an impactor with a cutoff size of 1 μm aerodynamic diameter and operated the system at −31 °C and relative humidities of 127 % and 91 % with respect to ice and water, respectively. Investigation of the ambient number concentration of ice nuclei (IN in the deposition nucleation mode and during a SDE in the free troposphere is reported. The results discussed in this paper are the first continuous IN measurements over a period of several days at the Jungfraujoch. The average IN concentration found during the campaign in March was 8 particles per liter whereas during the campaign in June, the average number concentration was higher up to 14 particles per liter. Two SDEs were detected on 15 and 16 June 2009. Our measurements show that the SDEs had IN number concentration up to several hundreds per liter. We found the best correlation between the number concentration of the larger particle fraction measured by an optical particle counter and the IN number concentration during a Saharan dust event. This correlation factor is higher for particles larger than 0.5 μm meaning that a higher concentration of larger particles induced higher IN number concentration. No correlation could be found between the black carbon mass concentration and the variations in IN number concentration.

  11. Charge transport properties of metal/metal-phthalocyanine/n-Si structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal

    2010-12-16

    In present work the charge transport properties of metal/metal-phthalocyanine/n-Si structures with low (N{sub D} = 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), medium (N{sub D}=1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) and high (N{sub D}=2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) doped n-Si as injecting electrode and the effect of air exposure of the vacuum evaporated metal-phthalocyanine film in these structures is investigated. The results obtained through temperature dependent electrical characterizations of the structures suggest that in terms of dominant conduction mechanism in the corresponding devices Schottky-type conduction mechanism dominates the charge transport in low-bias region of these devices up to 0.8 V, 0.302 V and 0.15 V in case of low, medium and high doped n-Silicon devices. For higher voltages, in each case of devices, the space-charge-limited conduction, controlled by exponential trap distribution, is found to dominate the charge transport properties of the devices. The interface density of states at the CuPc/n-Si interface of the devices are found to be lower in case of lower work function difference at the CuPc/n-Si interface of the devices. The results also suggest that the work function difference at the CuPc/n-Si interface of these devices causes charge transfer at the interface and these phenomena results in formation of interface dipole. The width of the Schottky depletion region at the CuPc/n-Si interface of these devices is found to be higher with higher work function difference at the interface. The investigation of charge transport properties of Al/ZnPc/medium n-Si and Au/ZnPc/ medium n-Si devices suggest that the Schottky depletion region formed at the ZnPc/n-Si interface of these devices determines the charge transport in the low-bias region of both the devices. Therefore, the Schottky-type (injection limited) and the space-charge-limited (bulk limited) conduction are observed in the low and the high bias regions of these devices, respectively. The determined width of the

  12. Charge Transfer as a Probe for the Interfacial Properties of Quantum Dot-Ligand Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David Joseph

    This dissertation describes the study of charge transfer interactions between colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and molecular redox partners in the context of both fundamental investigations of charge recombination mechanisms in nanocrystal-molecule systems, and as a technique to probe the properties of the QD ligand shell. Charge separation in a system of CdS nanocrystals and organic hole acceptors results in the formation of a spin-correlated radical ion pair. Interrogating this photogenerated species with EPR and magnetic field effect transient absorption techniques reveals that the charge recombination dynamics of this donor-acceptor system are dictated by the radical pair intersystem crossing mechanism on the nanosecond timescale. These experiments also indicate that the photoinjected electron localizes at a CdS QD surface trap state, and the coupling between the electron and hole in this spin-correlated system is low. Additional studies involving the CdS QDs and organic hole acceptors are proposed which would investigate the exchange of charge and energy within the nanocrystal organic adlayer. Collisional charge transfer interactions between substituted benzoquinone molecules and PbS QDs coated with mixed monolayers of oleic acid and perfluorodecanethiol are monitored via photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopies. These experiments reveal that partially fluorinated ligand shells are less permeable to solution phase molecules and offer greater protection of the nanocrystal surface than their aliphatic counterparts. Only a small amount of fluorinated surfactant ( 20% surface coverage) is necessary to profoundly change the permeability of the ligand shell, and the protective nature of these fluorinated molecules is likely a combination of the molecular volume and oleophobicity of these ligands. Follow up work is discussed which would elucidate the influence of solvent and extent of surfactant fluorination on the permeability of these ligand shells, as

  13. Composition, size distribution, optical properties, and radiative effects of laboratory-resuspended PM10 from geological dust of the Rome area, by electron microscopy and radiative transfer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, new information has been gained on the laboratory-resuspended PM10 fraction from geological topsoil and outcropped rocks representative of the Rome area (Latium). Mineralogical composition, size distribution, optical properties and the surface radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) of dust types representing the compositional end members of this geological area have been addressed. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on chamber resuspension of raw materials and sampling of the PM10 fraction, to simulate field sampling at dust source, scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS) of individual mineral particles, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of bulk dust samples, building of number and volume size distribution (SD) from microanalysis data of mineral particles and fitting to a log-normal curve, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM) to retrieve optical properties and radiative effects of the compositional end-member dust samples. The mineralogical composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals (from volcanics lithotypes), and one mostly composed of calcite (from travertine or limestones). Lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by rock weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are reflected in the diversity of volume distributions, either within dust types or mineral species. Differences are also observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source; SD unimodal at 5 μm a.d.) and from road dust (anthropic source; SD bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d.). The volcanics and travertine dusts differently affect the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry

  14. A correlation between chemistry, polarization, and dust properties in the Pipe nebula starless core FeSt 1-457

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Frau, Pau; Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Morata, Oscar; Alves, Felipe O.; Beltrán, Maria T.; Padovani, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Pre-stellar cores within molecular clouds provide the very initial conditions in which stars are formed. FeSt 1-457 is a prototypical starless core and the most chemically evolved among those isolated, embedded in the most pristine part of the Pipe nebula, the bowl. We use the IRAM 30 m telescope and the PdBI to study the chemical and physical properties of the starless core FeSt 1-457 (Core 109) in the Pipe nebula. We fit the hyperfine structure of the N2H+ (1-0) IRAM 30 m data. This allowed us to measure with high precision the velocity field, line widths and opacity and derive the excitation temperature and column density in the core. We used a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere model adding a temperature gradient towards the center to fit the 1.2 mm continuum emission and visual extinction maps. Using this model, we have estimated the abundances of the N2H+ and the rest of molecular lines detected in the 30 GHz wide line survey performed at 3 mm with IRAM 30 m using ARTIST software. The core presents a rich chemistry with emission from early (C3H2, HCN, CS) and late-time molecules (e.g., N2H+), with a clear chemical spatial differentiation for nitrogen (centrally peaked), oxygen (peaking to the southwest) and sulfurated molecules (peaking to the east). For most of the molecules detected (HCN, HCO+, CH3OH, CS, SO, 13CO and C18O), abundances are best fit with three values, presenting a clear decrease of abundance of at least one or two orders of magnitude towards the center of the core. The Bonnor-Ebert analysis indicates the core is gravitationally unstable and the magnetic field is not strong enough to avoid the collapse. Depletion of molecules onto the dust grains occurs at the interior of the core, where dust grain growth and dust depolarization also occurs. This suggests that these properties may be related. On the other hand, some molecules exhibit asymmetries in their integrated emission maps, which appear to be correlated with a previously reported

  15. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples.

  16. Effect of soil texture and chemical properties on laboratory-generated dust emissions from SW North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, T.; Zobeck, T. M.; Lee, J. A.; Gill, T. E.; Dominguez, M. A.; Peinado, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the controls of mineral dust emissions and their particle size distributions during wind-erosion events is critical as dust particles play a significant impact in shaping the earth's climate. It has been suggested that emission rates and particle size distributions are independent of soil chemistry and soil texture. In this study, 45 samples of wind-erodible surface soils from the Southern High Plains and Chihuahuan Desert regions of Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and Chihuahua were analyzed by the Lubbock Dust Generation, Analysis and Sampling System (LDGASS) and a Beckman-Coulter particle multisizer. The LDGASS created dust emissions in a controlled laboratory setting using a rotating arm which allows particle collisions. The emitted dust was transferred to a chamber where particulate matter concentration was recorded using a DataRam and MiniVol filter and dust particle size distribution was recorded using a GRIMM particle analyzer. Particle size analysis was also determined from samples deposited on the Mini-Vol filters using a Beckman-Coulter particle multisizer. Soil textures of source samples ranged from sands and sandy loams to clays and silts. Initial results suggest that total dust emissions increased with increasing soil clay and silt content and decreased with increasing sand content. Particle size distribution analysis showed a similar relationship; soils with high silt content produced the widest range of dust particle sizes and the smallest dust particles. Sand grains seem to produce the largest dust particles. Chemical control of dust emissions by calcium carbonate content will also be discussed.

  17. Theoretical study on the charge transport properties of triphenylene discogens with a phenylpropionyloxy or 3-phenylpropenoyloxy side chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Charge transport is one of the most important properties in organic materials.Charge transport properties of triphenylene discogens with a phenylpropionyloxy or 3-phenylpropenoyloxy side chain have been investigated computationally on the basis of semi-classical Marcus theory.The results show that three triphenylene derivatives have high charge mobility.Title compounds have much better electronic mobility than the triphenylene.The triphenylenes containing 3-phenylpropenoyloxy have better hole mobility,but smaller electronic mobility than the triphenylenes with phenylpropionyloxy.For the triphenylene discogens with a phenylpropionyloxy,the longer the alkloxy chains,the better the positive charge transfer rate,but the smaller the negative charge transfer rate.

  18. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  20. Investigation of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties by charge transfer contributions of amine functionalized tetraphenylethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Meenakshi; Singla, Nidhi; Chatterjee, Amrita; Shukla, Abhishek; Chowdhury, Papia

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear Optical (NLO) properties of amine functionalized tetraphenylethylene (TPE-NH2) have been recorded and analyzed. The structural geometry, bonding features, harmonic vibrational frequencies (FTIR and Raman) of TPE-NH2 have been investigated by B3LYP density functional theory (DFT). Charge (Mulliken and natural) analysis, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) indicate the delocalization of charges over the donor-acceptor region by the increase of C-N bond length. The vibrational analysis on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) confirms the charge transfer interaction between donor and acceptor groups, and that in turn validates the presence of the larger dipole moment (μ), polarizability and hyperpolarizabilities (α, β and γ) in TPE-NH2. Higher value of ionization potential (IP), electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), chemical potential (CP) and smaller HOMO-LUMO energy gap (Δε) validate TPE-NH2's strong candidature to be used as an NLO active material.

  1. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  2. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilili Abuduwaili

    Full Text Available Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1 Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2 The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2>B(400g.m-2>C(300g.m-2>D(200g.m-2>E(100g.m-2>F(0g.m-2. (3The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the

  3. The disastrous effects of salt dust deposition on cotton leaf photosynthesis and the cell physiological properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  4. Charge distribution and transport properties in reduced ceria phases: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, E.; Smith, M. F.; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2011-12-01

    The question of the charge distribution in reduced ceria phases (CeO2-x) is important for understanding the microscopic physics of oxygen storage capacity, and the electronic and ionic conductivities in these materials. All these are key properties in the application of these materials in catalysis and electrochemical devices. Several approaches have been applied to study this problem, including ab initio methods. Recently [1], we applied the bond valence model (BVM) to discuss the charge distribution in several different crystallographic phases of reduced ceria. Here, we compare the BVM results to those from atomistic simulations to determine if there is consistency in the predictions of the two approaches. Our analysis shows that the two methods give a consistent picture of the charge distribution around oxygen vacancies in bulk reduced ceria phases. We then review the transport theory applicable to reduced ceria phases, providing useful relationships which enable comparison of experimental results obtained by different techniques. In particular, we compare transport parameters obtained from the observed optical absorption spectrum, α(ω), dc electrical conductivity with those predicted by small polaron theory and the Harrison method. The small polaron energy is comparable to that estimated from α(ω). However, we found a discrepancy between the value of the electron hopping matrix element, t, estimated from the Marcus-Hush formula and that obtained by the Harrison method. Part of this discrepancy could be attributed to the system lying in the crossover region between adiabatic and nonadiabatic whereas our calculations assumed the system to be nonadiabatic. Finally, by considering the relationship between the charge distribution and electronic conductivity, we suggest the possibility of low temperature metallic conductivity for intermediate phases, i.e., x˜0.3. This has not yet been experimentally observed.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N2-CH4 RF plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, F.; Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprévote, O.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.

    2008-09-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N2-CH4 mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

  6. Submillimeter Continuum Properties of Cold Dust in the Inner Disk and Outflows of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Leeuw, Lerothodi L

    2008-01-01

    Deep submillimeter (submm) continuum imaging observations of the starburst galaxy M82 are presented at 350, 450, 750 and 850 micron wavelengths, that were undertaken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. The presented maps include a co-addition of submm data mined from the SCUBA Data Archive. The co-added data produce the deepest submm continuum maps yet of M82, in which low-level 850 micron continuum has been detected out to 1.5kpc, at least 10% farther in radius than any previously published submm detections of this galaxy. The overall submm morphology and spatial spectral energy distribution of M82 have a general north-south asymmetry consistent with H-alpha and X-ray winds, supporting the association of the extended continuum with outflows of dust grains from the disk into the halo. The new data raise interesting points about the origin and structure of the submm emission in the inner disk of M82. In particular, SCUBA short wavelength ev...

  7. The Effect of Dust Extinction on the Observed Properties of Galaxies in the Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Riad, Ihab F; Woudt, Patrick A

    2009-01-01

    Galaxies behind the Milky Way suffer size reduction and dimming due to their obscuration by dust in the disk of our Galaxy. The degree of obscuration is wavelength dependent. It decreases towards longer wavelengths. Compared to the optical, the Near InfraRed (NIR) $K_s$ band extinction is only $\\approx10%$ that of the $B$ band. This makes NIR surveys well suited for galaxy surveys close to the Galactic Plane where extinction is severe. While Galactic obscuration is less prominent in the NIR it is not negligible. In this paper we derive empirical relations to correct isophotal radii and magnitudes of galaxies observed in the NIR for foreground absorption. We simulate extinction in the $J$, $H$ and $K_s$ bands on 64 (unobscured) galaxies from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas \\citep{jarrett}. We propose two methods for the extinction correction, the first is optimized to provide the most accurate correction and the second provides a convenient statistical correction that works adequately in lower extinction regions....

  8. Properties of Dust Grains in Planetary Nebulae; 1, The Ionized Region of NGC 6445

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoof, P A M; Beintema, D A; Martin, P G; Pottasch, S R

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study new infrared spectra of the evolved planetary nebula NGC 6445 obtained with ISO. These data show that the thermal emission from the grains is very cool and has a low flux compared to H beta. A model of the ionized region is constructed, using the photo-ionization code CLOUDY 90.05. Based on this model, we show from depletions in the gas phase elements that little grain destruction can have occurred in the ionized region of NGC 6445. We also argue that dust-gas separation in the nebula is not plausible. The most likely conclusion is that grains are residing inside the ionized region of NGC 6445 and that the low temperature and flux of the grain emission are caused by the low luminosity of the central star and the low optical depth of the grains. This implies that the bulk of the silicon-bearing grains in this nebula were able to survive exposure to hard UV photons for at least several thousands of years, contradicting previously published results. A comparison between optical and infrare...

  9. Study of aerosol microphysical properties profiles retrieved from ground-based remote sensing and aircraft in-situ measurements during a Saharan dust event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Granados-Muñoz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an analysis of mineral dust optical and microphysical properties obtained from different retrieval techniques applied to active and passive remote sensing measurements, including a comparison with simultaneous in-situ aircraft measurements. Data were collected in a field campaign performed during a mineral dust outbreak a Granada, Spain, experimental site (37.16° N, 3.61° W, 680 m a.s.l. on the 27 June 2011. Column-integrated properties are provided by sun- and star-photometry which allows a continuous evaluation of the mineral dust optical properties during both day and night-time. Both the Linear Estimation and AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network inversion algorithms are applied for the retrieval of the column-integrated microphysical particle properties. In addition, vertically-resolved microphysical properties are obtained from a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system included in EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, by using both LIRIC (Lidar Radiometer Inversion Code algorithm during daytime and an algorithm applied to the Raman measurements based on the regularization technique during night-time. LIRIC retrievals reveal several dust layers between 3 and 5 km a.s.l. with volume concentrations of the coarse spheroid mode up to 60 μm3 cm−3. The combined use of the regularization and LIRIC methods reveals the night-to-day evolution of the vertical structure of the mineral dust microphysical properties and offers complementary information to that from column-integrated variables retrieved from passive remote sensing. Additionally, lidar depolarization profiles and LIRIC retrieved volume concentration are compared with aircraft in-situ measurements. This study presents for the first time a comparison of both volume concentration and dust particle polarization ratios measured with in-situ and remote sensing techniques. Results for the depolarization measurements in the dust layer indicate reasonable agreement

  10. Spectral and structural stability properties of charged particle dynamics in coupled lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C; Burby, J W

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized in recent years that coupled focusing lattices in accelerators and storage rings have significant advantages over conventional uncoupled focusing lattices, especially for high-intensity charged particle beams. A theoretical framework and associated tools for analyzing the spectral and structural stability properties of coupled lattices are formulated in this paper, based on the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. It is shown that for periodic coupled lattices that are spectrally and structurally stable, the matrix envelope equation must admit matched solutions. Using the technique of normal form and pre-Iwasawa decomposition, a new method is developed to replace the (inefficient) shooting method for finding matched solutions for the matrix envelope equation. Stability properties of a continuously rotating quadrupole lattice are investigated. The Krein collision process for destabilization of the lattice is demonstrated.

  11. Designing thiophene-based azomethine oligomers with tailored properties: Self-assembly and charge carrier mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiriy, N.; Bocharova, V.; Kiriy, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes synthesis and characterization of two thiophene-based azomethines designed to optimize solubility, self-assembly, and charge carrier mobility. We found that incorporation of azomethine and amide moieties in the alpha,omega-position, and hexyl chains in the beta-position of th...... with the mobilities of the best organic semiconductors. All these significant differences in properties of related compounds can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between QT-amide molecules responsible for the observed self-assembly.......-position of the quaterthiophene, considerably improves the self-assembly properties without suppression of solubility. Self-assembly of azomethine oligomers with (QT-amide) and without amide moieties (QT-aniline) were monitored by UV-vis, XRD, and AFM. Although no changes in the UV-vis spectrum of QT-aniline is observed upon...

  12. Charge transport and optical properties of the complexes of indigo wrapped over carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ankita; Ramachandran, C N

    2016-05-18

    A new molecular system comprising the non-covalently functionalized complexes of single walled (6,6) carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of finite length with indigo is proposed based on the dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations. In the complexes viz. the dyad and triad, indigo is wrapped over carbon nanotubes in the ratio of 1 : 1 and 2 : 1, respectively. A comprehensive study of stabilization energy, ionization energy, electron affinity, the energy gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (ΔELUMO-HOMO), and absorption spectra unravels the structure-property relationship of the complexes. The energy gap of ∼1 eV between the HOMO and the LUMO of the complexes suggests that they can be semiconductive. The energy levels of the frontier molecular orbitals of indigo and CNT suggest the possibility of the photoinduced charge transfer between them. Using the charge hopping rate based on Marcus theory, a hole mobility as high as 8.77 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is obtained for the dyad. For both the dyad and triad, a higher value of hole mobility than electron mobility is observed, thereby suggesting them to be useful for p-type semiconductor devices. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations predict that the absorption of indigo-CNT complexes occurs in the visible and the near-infrared regions finding applications in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, the effects of the length and the capping of CNTs as well as the orientation of indigo over the CNTs on the charge transport properties are also discussed.

  13. Relation between Nonlinear Optical Properties of Push-Pull Molecules and Metric of Charge Transfer Excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Zaleśny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ågren, Hans

    2015-09-08

    We establish the relationships between the metric of charge transfer excitation (Δr) for the bright ππ* state and the two-photon absorption probability as well as the first hyperpolarizability for two families of push-pull π-conjugated systems. As previously demonstrated by Guido et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 3118-3126), Δr is a measure for the average hole-electron distance upon excitation and can be used to discriminate between short- and long-range electronic excitations. We indicate two new benefits from using this metric for the analyses of nonlinear optical properties of push-pull systems. First, the two-photon absorption probability and the first hyperpolarizability are found to be interrelated through Δr; if β ∼ (Δr)(k), then roughly, δ(TPA) ∼ (Δr)(k+1). Second, a simple power relation between Δr and the molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push-pull systems offers the possibility of estimating properties for longer molecular chains without performing calculations of high-order response functions explicitly. We further demonstrate how to link the hyperpolarizabilities with the chain length of the push-pull π-conjugated systems through the metric of charge transfer.

  14. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  15. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    One of the complicating factors of the future robotic and human lunar landing missions is the influence of the dust. Meteorites bombardment has accompanied by shock-explosive phenomena, disintegration and mix of the lunar soil in depth and on area simultaneously. As a consequence, the lunar soil has undergone melting, physical and chemical transformations. Recently we have the some reemergence for interest of Moon investigation. The prospects in current century declare USA, China, India, and European Union. In Russia also prepare two missions: Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. Not last part of investigation of Moon surface is reviewing the dust condition near the ground of landers. Studying the properties of lunar dust is important both for scientific purposes to investigation the lunar exosphere component and for the technical safety of lunar robotic and manned missions. The absence of an atmosphere on the Moon's surface is leading to greater compaction and sintering. Properties of regolith and dust particles (density, temperature, composition, etc.) as well as near-surface lunar exosphere depend on solar activity, lunar local time and position of the Moon relative to the Earth's magneto tail. Upper layers of regolith are an insulator, which is charging as a result of solar UV radiation and the constant bombardment of charged particles, creates a charge distribution on the surface of the moon: positive on the illuminated side and negative on the night side. Charge distribution depends on the local lunar time, latitude and the electrical properties of the regolith (the presence of water in the regolith can influence the local distribution of charge). On light side of Moon near surface layer there exists possibility formation dusty plasma system. Altitude of levitation is depending from size of dust particle and Moon latitude. The distribution dust particle by size and altitude has estimated with taking into account photoelectrons, electrons and ions of solar wind, solar

  16. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in an opposite polarity dust plasma with nonextensive electrons and ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M AMINA; S A EMA; A A MAMUN

    2017-06-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic shock waves (DASHWs) in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasmasystem containing massive, micron-sized, positively and negatively charged inertial dust grains along with $q$ (nonextensive) distributed electrons and ions. The well-known reductive perturbation technique has been used to derive the modified Burgers equation (which describes the shock wave properties) and its numerical solution. It has been observed that the effects of charged dust grains of opposite polarity, nonextensivity of electrons and ions, and different dusty plasma parameters have significantly modified the fundamental properties (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the shock waves. The properties of DASHWs in nonplanar geometry are found tobe significantly different from those in one-dimensional planar geometry. The findings of our results from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the nonlinear features of localized electrostatic disturbancesin both space and laboratory dusty plasmas.

  17. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Halder, P; Roy, P Deb; Das, H S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with...

  18. Structure and physical properties of ternary organic conductors of TCNQ, iodine, and double-charged unsymmetrical cations: PET and PESe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, G.G. [Perm State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Natural Sci.; Russkikh, V.S. [Perm State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Natural Sci.; Koshta, A. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Molekularnej; Lapinski, A. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Molekularnej; Krol, S. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Molekularnej; Pukacki, W. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Molekularnej; Graja, A. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Molekularnej

    1996-01-01

    Ternary organic salts of TCNQ, iodine, and double-charged unsymmetrical cations containing sulfur or selenium are investigated. The crystal structure of the salts is determined; their dc electrical conductivity, ESR, and IR spectral properties are studied. The physical properties of the investigated salts are found as typical for Q-1D organic semiconductors. (orig.)

  19. Interplanetary dust particles collected from the stratosphere: Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and implications for their sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George J.

    1994-01-01

    The suggestion that significant quantities of interplanetary dust are produced by both main-belt asteroids and comets is based on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) detection of dust trails or bands associated with these objects. Gravitational focusing strongly biases all near-Earth collections of interplanetary dust in favor of particles with the lowest geocentric velocities, that is the dust from main-belt asteroids spiraling into the Sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson radiation drag. The major dust bands in the main-belt appear to be associated with the catastrophic disruptions which produced the Eos, Themis and Koronis families of asteroids. If dust particles are produced in the catastrophic collision process, then Poynting-Robertson radiation drag is such an efficient transport mechanism from the main-belt to 1 AU that near-Earth collections of interplanetary dust should include, and perhaps be dominated by, this material. Interplanetary dust particles from 5 to 100 micrometers in diameter have been recovered from the stratosphere of the Earth by NASA sampling aircraft since the mid-1970s. The densities of a large fraction of these interplanetary dust particles are significantly lower than the densities of their constituent silicate mineral phases, indicating significant porosites. The majority of the particles are chemically and mineralogically similar to, but not identical to, the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Most stony interplanetary dust particles have carbon contents exceeding those of Allende, a carbonaceous chondrite meteorite having a low albedo. Higher albedo particles corresponding to S-type asteroids are underrepresented or absent from the stratospheric collections, and primitive carbonaceous particles seem to be overrepresented in the stratospheric collections compared to the fraction of main-belt asteroids classified as primitive. This suggests that much of the interplanetary dust may be generated by a stochastic process

  20. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  1. Far-infrared dust properties in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hibi, Yasunori; SHIBAI, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A recent data analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) map of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds has shown that there is a tight correlation between two FIR colours: the 60 um-100 um and 100 um-140 um colours. This FIR colour relation called ``main correlation'' can be interpreted as indicative of a sequence of various interstellar radiation fields with a common FIR optical property of grains. In this paper, we constrain the FIR optical properties of grains by comparing the calculated FIR colours...

  2. A TALE OF THREE GALAXIES: ANOMALOUS DUST PROPERTIES IN IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013–0739, AND SDSS J0808+3948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    On a galactic scale, the 9.7 μm silicate emission is usually only seen in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They usually also display a flat emission continuum at ∼5-8 μm and the absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. In contrast, starburst galaxies, luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, and ultraluminous IR galaxies exhibit a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, and strong PAH emission bands. Here, we report the detection of anomalous dust properties by the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph in three galaxies (IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739, and SDSS J0808+3948) which are characterized by the simultaneous detection of a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features, as well as strong PAH emission bands. These apparently contradictory dust IR emission properties are discussed in terms of iron-poor silicate composition, carbon dust deficit, small grain size, and low dust temperature in the young AGN phase of these three galaxies.

  3. Charge carrier mobility and electronic properties of Al(Op3: impact of excimer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Magri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the electronic properties and the charge carrier mobility of the organic semiconductor tris(1-oxo-1H-phenalen-9-olatealuminium(III (Al(Op3 both experimentally and theoretically. We experimentally estimated the HOMO and LUMO energy levels to be −5.93 and −3.26 eV, respectively, which were close to the corresponding calculated values. Al(Op3 was successfully evaporated onto quartz substrates and was clearly identified in the absorption spectra of both the solution and the thin film. A structured steady state fluorescence emission was detected in solution, whereas a broad, red-shifted emission was observed in the thin film. This indicates the formation of excimers in the solid state, which is crucial for the transport properties. The incorporation of Al(Op3 into organic thin film transistors (TFTs was performed in order to measure the charge carrier mobility. The experimental setup detected no electron mobility, while a hole mobility between 0.6 × 10−6 and 2.1 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 was measured. Theoretical simulations, on the other hand, predicted an electron mobility of 9.5 × 10−6 cm2·V−1·s−1 and a hole mobility of 1.4 × 10−4 cm2·V−1·s−1. The theoretical simulation for the hole mobility predicted an approximately one order of magnitude higher hole mobility than was observed in the experiment, which is considered to be in good agreement. The result for the electron mobility was, on the other hand, unexpected, as both the calculated electron mobility and chemical common sense (based on the capability of extended aromatic structures to efficiently accept and delocalize additional electrons suggest more robust electron charge transport properties. This discrepancy is explained by the excimer formation, whose inclusion in the multiscale simulation workflow is expected to bring the theoretical simulation and experiment into agreement.

  4. Characterization of the charge transport and electrical properties in solution-processed semiconducting polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiGuo; ZHANG HuaiWu; TANG XiaoLi; LI YuanXun; ZHONG ZhiYong

    2012-01-01

    The conventional charge transport models based on density- and field-dependent mobility,only having a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence,cannot give good current-voltage characteristics of poly (2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) hole-only devices.In this paper,we demonstrate that the current-voltage characteristics can give a good unified description of the temperature,carrier density and electric field dependence of mobility based on both the Arrhenius temperature dependence and the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence.Furthermore,we perform a systematic study of charge transport and electrical properties for MEH-PPV.It is shown that the boundary carrier density has an important effect on the current-voltage characteristics.Too large or too small values of boundary carder density will lead to incorrect current-voltage characteristics.The numerically calculated carrier density is a decreasing function of the distance to the interface,and the numerically calculated electric field is an increasing function of the distance.Both the maximum of carrier density and the minimum of electric field appear near the interface.

  5. Modulation of the charge transfer and photophysical properties in non-fused tetrathiafulvalene-benzothiadiazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Flavia; Seifert, Sabine; Hankache, Jihane; Ding, Jie; Hauser, Andreas; Avarvari, Narcis

    2015-01-28

    Bis(thiomethyl)- and bis(thiohexyl)-tetrathiafulvalene-bromo-benzothiadiazoles, containing electron donor tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and electron acceptor benzothiadiazole (BTD) units, have been prepared by Stille coupling reactions between the TTF-SnMe3 precursors and BTD-Br2. In another series of experiments, TTF-acetylene-BTD compounds have been synthesized by Sonogashira coupling between either TTF-acetylenes and BTD-Br2 in low yields, or TTF-iodine and BTD-acetylene in moderate yields. In the compound TTF-C≡C-BTD the TTF and BTD units are coplanar in the solid state, as shown by the single crystal X-ray structure, and there is segregation in the packing between the donor and acceptor units. All the derivatives have good electron donor properties, as determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements, and they can also be reversibly reduced thanks to the presence of the BTD moiety. UV-visible spectroscopy and photophysical investigations show the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band and an emission band originating from the charge transfer. Both the absorption and the emission are modulated by the substitution scheme and the insertion of the acetylenic bridge.

  6. Current mixing and properties of vector bosons in preon model with preonic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senju, Hirofumi (Nagoya Municipal Women' s Coll. (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    In the preon model with preonic charge, new vector boson which can mix with the photon exists. On the basis of the current mixing model, its properties are studied. Cross sections of e[sup +]e[sup -] [yields] U boson pair and of [iota][sub s]-nucleus scattering are given. It will be also shown that, if the new vector boson is sufficiently heavy (say [approx] 500 GeV), the success of the standard model at the LEP level is naturally reproduced. Small deviations from the standard model are predicted in a definite way, which seems to be rather supported by the data. Our model leads to lighter W boson than the standard model does and to positive [epsilon][sub b] parameter in contrast to the standard model. (author).

  7. Current Mixing and Properties of Vector Bosons in Preon Model with Preonic Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1994-09-01

    In the preon model with preonic charge, new vector boson which can mix with the photon exists. On the basis of the current mixing model, its properties are studied. Cross sections of e+e- --> U boson pair and of ls-nucleus scattering are given. It will be also shown that, if the new vector boson is sufficiently heavy (say ~500 GeV), the success of the standard model at the LEP level is naturally reproduced. Small deviations from the standard model are predicted in a definite way, which seems to be rather supported by the data. Our model leads to lighter W boson than the standard model does and to positive ɛb parameter in contrast to the standard model.

  8. Radiation properties and hydrodynamics evolution of highly charged ions in laser-produced silicon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; Su, Maogen; Cao, Shiquan; Sun, Duixiong; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Dong, Chenzhong

    2016-11-15

    We present a simplified radiation hydrodynamic model based on the fluid dynamic equations and the radiative transfer equation, which can be used to investigate the radiation properties and dynamics evolution of highly charged ions in a laser-produced plasma in vacuum. The outputs of the model consist of the evolution of the electron temperature, atom, and ion density, and the temporal and spatial evolution of various transient particles in plasma, as well as the simulated spectrum related to certain experimental conditions in a specified spectral window. In order to test the model and provide valuable experimental feedback, a series of EUV emission spectra of silicon plasmas have been measured using the spatio-temporally resolved laser produced plasma technique. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma is reliably reconstructed by using this model.

  9. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.

  10. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...... increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp3carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics...... with a conductivity of 267.2-537.5S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp2networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective...

  11. Charge Transport Properties of Tetrabenz[a,c,h,jl-anthracene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Ran; YU Wen-Hao; LI Quan

    2012-01-01

    Charge transport properties of F, OH, OCH3, SH and SCH3-substituted tetra- benz[a,c,h,j]- anthracene derivative molecules have been investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/6-31G** level using Marcus theory. The results showed that at 300 K, the hole or electron transport capability of F or SH-substituted molecules was better obviously than that of OH or OCH3-substituted molecules, The electron transport capability of SCH3-substituted and F or SH-substituted molecules was superior to their hole transport capability, respectively. F, SH or SCH3-substituted tetrabenz[a,c,h,j]-anthracene derivative molecules can be used as electron transport materials.

  12. Java application for the superposition T-matrix code to study the optical properties of cosmic dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, P.; Chakraborty, A.; Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a java application for the Superposition T-matrix code, JaSTA (Java Superposition T-matrix App), to study the light scattering properties of aggregate structures. It has been developed using Netbeans 7.1.2, which is a java integrated development environment (IDE). The JaSTA uses double precession superposition codes for multi-sphere clusters in random orientation developed by Mackowski and Mischenko (1996). It consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) in the front hand and a database of related data in the back hand. Both the interactive GUI and database package directly enable a user to model by self-monitoring respective input parameters (namely, wavelength, complex refractive indices, grain size, etc.) to study the related optical properties of cosmic dust (namely, extinction, polarization, etc.) instantly, i.e., with zero computational time. This increases the efficiency of the user. The database of JaSTA is now created for a few sets of input parameters with a plan to create a large database in future. This application also has an option where users can compile and run the scattering code directly for aggregates in GUI environment. The JaSTA aims to provide convenient and quicker data analysis of the optical properties which can be used in different fields like planetary science, atmospheric science, nano science, etc. The current version of this software is developed for the Linux and Windows platform to study the light scattering properties of small aggregates which will be extended for larger aggregates using parallel codes in future. Catalogue identifier: AETB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571570 No. of bytes in distributed program

  13. Relativistic coupled-cluster calculations of transition properties in highly charged inert-gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out an extensive investigation of various spectroscopic properties of highly charged inert-gas ions using a relativistic coupled-cluster method through a one-electron detachment procedure. In particular, we have calculated the atomic states 2 s22 p53/2 2P, 2 s22 p51/2 2P, and 2 s 2 p61/2 2S in F-like inert-gas ions; 3 s23 p53/2 2P, 3 s23 p51/2 2P, and 3 s 3 p61/2 2S states in Cl-like Kr, Xe, and Rn; and 4 s24 p53/2 2P, 4 s24 p51/2 2P, and 4 s 4 p61/2 2S states in Br-like Xe and Rn. Starting from a single-reference Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function, we construct our exact atomic states by including the dynamic correlation effects in an all-order perturbative fashion. Employing this method, we estimate the ionization potential energies of three low-lying orbitals present in their respective closed-shell configurations. Since the considered highly charged inert-gas ions exhibit huge relativistic effects, we have taken into account the corrections due to Breit interaction as well as from the dominant quantum electrodynamic correction such as vacuum polarization and self-energy effects in these systems. Using our calculated relativistic atomic wave functions and energies, we accurately determine various transition properties such as wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and lifetimes of the excited states.

  14. Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies II: Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Marshall, Jason; Evans, Aaron; Haan, Sebastian; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dongchan; Murphy, Eric J; Rich, Jeff A; Spoon, Henrik W W; Inami, Hanae; Petric, Andreea; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between ...

  15. The impact of bars on the mid-infrared dust emission of spiral galaxies global and circumnuclear properties

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Vigroux, L; Bosma, A; Bonoli, C; Gallais, P; Hawarden, T G; Madden, S; Mazzei, P

    2001-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared properties of a sample of 69 nearby spiral galaxies, selected to avoid Seyfert activity contributing a significant fraction of the central energetics, or strong tidal interaction, and to have normal infrared luminosities. These observations were obtained with ISOCAM, which provides an angular resolution of the order of 10 arcsec (half-power diameter of the point spread function) and low-resolution spectro-imaging information. Between 5 and 18 microns, we mainly observe two dust phases, aromatic infrared bands and very small grains, both out of thermal equilibrium. On this sample, we show that the global F15/F7 colors of galaxies are very uniform, the only increase being found in early-type strongly barred galaxies, consistent with previous IRAS studies. The F15/F7 excesses are unambiguously due to galactic central regions where bar-induced starbursts occur. However, the existence of strongly barred early-type galaxies with normal circumnuclear colors indicates that the relationship b...

  16. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papayannis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33–0.91 (355 nm to 0.18–0.60 (532 nm, while the lidar ratio (LR values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75–100 sr (355 nm and 45–75 sr (532 nm. Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR355/532 and Ångström-extinction-related (AER355/532 were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively, indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10 + 0.007( ± 0.007i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 μm. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide

  17. Optical-microphysical properties of Saharan dust aerosols and composition relationship using a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, in situ sensors and modelling: a case study analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayannis, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Amiridis, V.; Remoundaki, E.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kokkalis, P.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Nenes, A.; Fountoukis, C.

    2012-05-01

    A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E) between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients) properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33-0.91 (355 nm) to 0.18-0.60 (532 nm), while the lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75-100 sr (355 nm) and 45-75 sr (532 nm). Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR355/532) and Ångström-extinction-related (AER355/532) were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively), indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index) inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10) + 0.007( ± 0.007)i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 μm. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide a possible aerosol composition

  18. Local geological dust in the area of Rome (Italy): linking mineral composition, size distribution and optical properties to radiative transfer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrodangelo, Adriana; Salzano, Roberto; Bassani, Cristiana; Pareti, Salvatore; Perrino, Cinzia

    2015-04-01

    Airborne mineral dust plays a key role in the energy balance of the Earth - atmosphere coupled system. The microphysical and optical properties of dust drive the direct radiative effects and are in turn influenced by the dust mineralogical composition. The latter varies largely, depending on the geology of the source region. Knowledge gaps still exist about relationships between the scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation by mineral dust and its mineralogical, size distribution and particle morphology features; this also affects the reliability of radiative transfer (RT) modelling estimates (Hansell et al., 2011). In this study, these relationships were investigated focusing on the crustal suspended PM10 dust, sourced from outcropping rocks of the local geological domains around Rome (Latium, Italy). The mineral composition variability of the Latium rocks ranges from the silicate-dominated (volcanics domain) to the calcite-dominated (travertine), through lithological materials composed in different proportions by silicates, silica and calcite, mainly (limestone series, siliciclastic series) (Cosentino et al., 2009). This peculiarity of the Latium region was thus exploited to investigate the behavior of the size distribution, optical properties and radiative transfer at BOA (Bottom Of Atmosphere) of the suspended dust PM10 fraction with the variability of mineral composition. Elemental source profiles of the same dust samples were previously determined (Pietrodangelo et al., 2013). A multi-faceted analysis was performed, and outcomes from the following approaches were merged: individual-particle scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), bulk mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), size distribution fit of the individual-particle data set and modelling of the dust optical and radiative properties. To this aim, the 6SV atmospheric radiative transfer code (Kotchenova et al., 2008

  19. Improving optical and charge separation properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} by surface modification with vitamin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajh, T.; Nedeljkovic, J.M.; Chen, L.X.; Poluektov, O.; Thurnauer, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1999-05-06

    The structural and electrochemical properties of nanoparticles were found to be different from those of the corresponding bulk semiconductors. Due to the specific binding of modifiers to corner defects, the optical properties of small titania particles were red shifted 1.6 eV compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. It was found using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) that, as with organic charge transfer superconductors, these novel nanocrystallites operate with a charge-transfer mechanism, and exhibit semiconducting properties through both constituents (large band gap semiconductor and organic modifier). The EPR spectra were consistent with hole trapping on the surface modifier and electron trapping on shallow interstitial and partially delocalized Ti sites. These systems have an important feature in that charge pairs are instantaneously separated into two phases--the holes on the donating organic modifier and the electrons in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}.

  20. Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Annou; R Annou

    2012-01-01

    Dust-acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are inertial charged dust grains, Boltzmannian electrons and nonthermal ions have been investigated by taking into account finite dust temperature. The pseudopotential has been used to study solitary solution. The existence of solitary waves having negative potential is reported.

  1. The measurement of the charging properties of fine particulate materials in pneumatic suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour-Chelu, D.I

    1998-11-01

    This document describes a programme of work that was designed to develop an improved understanding of the electrostatic charging properties of particulate materials with a view to applying this knowledge to the measurement of particulate concentrations in air-solid suspensions. An extensive literature review has been carried out. Some eighty published works were found and these concentrated on indirect charge measurement, the measurement of the two-phase pipe flow parameters, and on finding suitable models to explain tile work function given to insulators during metal to insulator contact. These areas are covered well in the field of electrostatics but data currently available in the area of programme of work being described here is very, limited, and so it is proposed that this research project will aim to improve such understanding. A test facility was developed to provide information from the flow of a particulate material under known conditions (particle velocity, suspension density). This test facility utilised three sensing probes, each with discrete charge amplifier units, at specific locations: one at the beginning and two further down the pipeline being utilised. Hence, the charging tendencies of any material were observed using this facility. The results obtained from this facility show the charging tendency of three particulate materials under various flow conditions. Signal processing techniques were developed to infer the suspension density for each flow condition and to estimate average particle velocity. Further analysis of the data resulted in tile derivation of a power spectral estimate for some of the flow conditions. This estimate was considered with the particle size distribution, as well as the estimate of tile average particle velocity, and there is a linkage. The main material selected for this programme was aluminium hydroxide. This was tested at environmental temperatures of 19 and 30 deg. C with relative humidity (RH) levels of 35, 45, and

  2. Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Saturn F-ring's Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.K. El-Shewy; M.I. Abo el Maaty; H.G. Abdelwahed; M.A.Elmessary

    2011-01-01

    Effect of hot and cold dust charge on the propagation of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) in unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust grains has been investigated.The reductive perturbation method is employed to reduce the basic set of fluid equations to the Kortewege-de Vries (KdV) equation.At the critical hot dusty plasma density NhO, the KdV equation is not appropriate for describing the system.Hence, a set of stretched coordinates is considered to derive the modified KdV equation.It is found that the presence of hot and cold dust charge grains not only significantly modifies the basic properties of solitary structure, but also changes the polarity of the solitary profiles.In the vicinity of the critical hot dusty plasma density NhO, neither KdV nor mKdV equation is appropriate for describing the DAWs.Therefore, a further modified KdV (fmKdV) equation is derived, which admits both soliton and double layer solutions.

  3. Properties of interstellar dust responsible for extinction laws with unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios of RV=1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the extinction properties along lines of sight to Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are described by steep extinction curves with unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios of RV = 1.0 - 2.0 . In order to reveal the properties of interstellar dust that causes such peculiar extinction laws, we perform the fitting calculations to the measured extinction curves by applying a two-component dust model composed of graphite and silicate. As for the size distribution of grains, we consider two function forms of the power-law and lognormal distributions. We find that the steep extinction curves derived from the one-parameter formula by Cardelli et al. (1989) with RV=2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 can be reasonably explained even by the simple power-law dust model that has a fixed power index of - 3.5 with the maximum cut-off radii of amax ≃ 0.13 μm , 0.094 μm, and 0.057 μm , respectively. These maximum cut-off radii are smaller than amax ≃ 0.24 μm considered to be valid in the Milky Way, clearly demonstrating that the interstellar dust responsible for steep extinction curves is highly biased to smaller sizes. We show that the lognomal size distribution can also lead to good fits to the extinction curves with RV = 1.0 - 3.1 by taking the appropriate combinations of the relevant parameters. We discuss that the extinction data at ultraviolet wavelengths are essential for constraining the composition and size distribution of interstellar dust.

  4. Effect of Addition of Boric Acid and Borax on Fire-Retardant and Mechanical Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Saw Dust Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenat A. Nagieb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the flame retardant urea formaldehyde (UF board made from saw dust fibers were investigated. Flame retardant chemicals that were evaluated include boric acid (BA and borax (BX which were incorporated with saw dust fibers to manufacture experimental panels. Three concentration levels, (0.5, 1, and 5% of fire retardants and 10% urea formaldehyde resin based on oven dry fiber weight were used to manufacture experimental panels. Physical and mechanical properties including water absorption, modulus of rupture (MOR, and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined. The results showed that water absorption and bending strength decreased as the flame retardant increased. The highest concentration of (BA + BX enhanced the fire retardant more than the lower ones. Scanning electron microscope and FTIR of composite panels were studied.

  5. Sensitivity of meteorological input and soil properties in simulating aerosols (dust, PM10, and BC) using CHIMERE chemistry transport model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishi Srivastava; S K Satheesh; Nadège Blond

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of a European chemistry transport model, ‘CHIMERE’ driven by the US meteorological model MM5, in simulating aerosol concentrations [dust, PM10 and black carbon (BC)] over the Indian region. An evaluation of a meteorological event (dust storm); impact of change in soil-related parameters and meteorological input grid resolution on these aerosol concentrations has been performed. Dust storm simulation over Indo-Gangetic basin indicates ability of the model to capture dust storm events. Measured (AERONET data) and simulated parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent are used to evaluate the performance of the model to capture the dust storm event. A sensitivity study is performed to investigate the impact of change in soil characteristics (thickness of the soil layer in contact with air, volumetric water, and air content of the soil) and meteorological input grid resolution on the aerosol (dust, PM10, BC) distribution. Results show that soil parameters and meteorological input grid resolution have an important impact on spatial distribution of aerosol (dust, PM10, BC) concentrations.

  6. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  7. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pietrodangelo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM.The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source and from road dust (anthropic source, specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust. Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA and the asymmetry parameter (g in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the

  8. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.

    2015-05-01

    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  9. Measurement of scattering and absorption properties of dust aerosol in a Gobi farmland region of northwestern China - a potential anthropogenic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Jinsen; Hu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Tian; Zhang, Guolong; Huang, Zhongwei; Wang, Xin; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a comprehensive field campaign to explore the optical characteristics of mineral dust in Dunhuang farmland near the Gobi Desert of northwest China during spring of 2012. The day-to-day and diurnal variations of dust aerosol showed prominent features throughout the experiment, primarily attributable to frequent dust events and local anthropogenic emissions. The overall average mass concentrations of the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), light scattering coefficient (σsp, 670), absorption coefficient (σap, 670), and single-scattering albedo (SSA670) were 113 ± 169 µg m-3, 53.3 ± 74.8 Mm-1, 3.2 ± 2.4 Mm-1, and 0.913 ± 0.05, respectively, which were comparable to the background levels in the southern United States but smaller than those in the eastern and other northwestern Chinese cities. The anthropogenic dust produced by agricultural cultivations (e.g., land planning, plowing, and disking) exerted a significant superimposed effect on high dust concentrations in Dunhuang farmland prior to the growing season (i.e., from 1 April to 10 May). Strong south valley wind and vertical mixing in daytime scavenged the pollution, and the weak northeast mountain wind and stable inversion layer at night favorably accumulated the air pollutants near the surface. In the afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT, local time), mean SSA670 was 0.945 ± 0.04 predominantly from dust particles, whereas finer particles and lower SSA670 values ( ˜ 0.90-0.92) were measured at night, suggesting the potential influence by the mixed dust pollutants. During a typical biomass burning event on 4 April 2012, σap, 670 increased from ˜ 2.0 to 4.75 Mm-1 and SSA670 changed from ˜ 0.90 to ˜ 0.83, implying remarkable modification of aerosol absorptive properties induced by human activities. The findings of this study would help to advance an in-depth understanding of the interaction among dust aerosol, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change in a desert

  10. Astrophysics of Dust in Cold Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2003-01-01

    Nine lectures reviewing the astrophysics of dust in interstellar clouds. Topics include: (1) Summary of observational evidence concerning interstellar dust: broadband extinction, scattering of starlight, polarization of starlight, spectroscopy of dust, IR and FIR emission, and depletions of grain-forming elements. (2) Optics of interstellar dust grains: dielectric functions of nonconducting and conducting materials, calculational techniques, formulae valid in the Rayleigh limit, Kramers-Kronig relations, microwave emission mechanisms, and X-ray scattering. (3) IR and FIR emission: heating of interstellar dust, including single-photon heating, and resulting IR emission spectrum. (4) Charging of dust grains: collisional charging, photoelectric emission, and resulting charge distribution functions. (5) Dynamics: gas drag, Lorentz force, forces due to anisotropic radiation, and resulting drift velocities. (6) Rotational dynamics: brownian rotation, suprathermal rotation, and effects of starlight torques. (7) Alig...

  11. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF HIGHLY REDDENED Type Ia SUPERNOVA 2014J: PECULIAR PROPERTIES OF DUST IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, K. S.; Akitaya, H.; Itoh, R.; Moritani, Y. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ui, T.; Kawabata, M.; Mori, K.; Takaki, K.; Ueno, I.; Chiyonobu, S.; Harao, T.; Matsui, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Nagae, O. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nomoto, K.; Suzuki, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M., E-mail: kawabtkj@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared multi-band linear polarimetry of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J that appeared in M82. SN 2014J exhibits large polarization at shorter wavelengths, e.g., 4.8% in the B band, which decreases rapidly at longer wavelengths, while the position angle of the polarization remains at approximately 40° over the observed wavelength range. These polarimetric properties suggest that the observed polarization is likely predominantly caused by the interstellar dust within M82. Further analysis shows that the polarization peaks at a wavelengths much shorter than those obtained for the Galactic dust. The wavelength dependence of the polarization can be better described by an inverse power law rather than by the Serkowski law for Galactic interstellar polarization. These points suggest that the nature of the dust in M82 may be different from that in our Galaxy, with polarizing dust grains having a mean radius of <0.1 μm.

  12. The mass-loss return from evolved stars to the Large Magellanic Cloud III. Dust properties for carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Matsuura, M; Meixner, M; Kemper, F; Tielens, A G G M; Volk, K; Speck, A K; Woods, Paul M; Gordon, K; Marengo, M; Sloan, G C

    2010-01-01

    We present a 2Dust model for the dust shell around a LMC long-period variable (LPV) previously studied as part of the OGLE survey. OGLE LMC LPV 28579 (SAGE J051306.40-690946.3) is a carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star for which we have photometry and spectra from the Spitzer SAGE and SAGE-Spec programs along with UBVIJHK_s photometry. By modeling this source, we obtain a baseline set of dust properties to be used in the construction of a grid of models for carbon stars. We reproduce its spectral energy distribution using a mixture of AmC and SiC (15% by mass). The grain sizes are distributed according to the KMH model. The best-fit model has an optical depth of 0.28 for the shell at the peak of the SiC feature, with R_in~1430 R_sun or 4.4 R_star. The temperature at this inner radius is 1310 K. Assuming an expansion velocity of 10 km s^-1, we obtain a dust mass-loss rate of 2.5x10^-9 M_sun yr-1. We calculate a 15% variation in this rate by testing the fit sensitivity against variation in input param...

  13. ISM Properties in Low-Metallicity Environments III. The Dust Spectral Energy Distributions of II Zw 40, He 2-10 and NGC 1140

    CERN Document Server

    Galliano, F; Jones, A P; Wilson, C D; Bernard, J P

    2005-01-01

    We present new 450 and 850 micron SCUBA data and 1.3 mm MAMBO data of the dwarf galaxies II Zw 40, He 2-10 and NGC 1140. Additional ISOCAM, IRAS as well as ground based data are used to construct the observed mid-infrared to millimeter spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. These spectral energy distributions are modeled in a self-consistent way, as was achieved with NGC 1569 (Galliano et al., 2003), synthesizing both the global stellar radiation field and the dust emission, with further constraints provided by the photoionisation of the gas. Our study shows that low-metallicity galaxies have very different dust properties compared to the Galaxy. Our main results are: (i) a paucity of PAHs which are likely destroyed by the hard penetrating radiation field, (ii) a very small (3-4 nm) average size of grains, consistent with the fragmentation and erosion of dust particles by the numerous shocks, (iii) a significant millimetre excess in the dust spectral energy distribution which can be explained by the ...

  14. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  15. Improved antifouling properties of PVDF membranes modified with oppositely charged copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Zhao, Yiping; Feng, Xia; Bi, Sixin; Ding, Wenbin; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling resulting from the attachment of microorganisms communities to the membrane surface is the major obstacle for the widespread application of membrane technology. This work develops a feasible approach to prepare an anti-biofouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. A copolymer that possessed oppositely charged groups was first synthesized via radical copolymerization with methyl methacrylate, 2-methacryloxy ethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulphonic acid as monomers. The copolymer was blended with the PVDF powder to prepare the antifouling membrane via the immersed phase inversion method. The antifouling properties of the modified PVDF membrane were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurement, zeta-potential measurement, protein adsorption, microbial adhesion and filtration experiments. The modified PVDF membrane showed limited adsorption and adhesion of protein bovine serum albumin and microbes (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with increasing copolymer concentration in the casting solution. The modified PVDF membrane exhibited excellent antibiofouling properties.

  16. A comparative study of aerosol microphysical properties retrieved from ground-based remote sensing and aircraft in situ measurements during a Saharan dust event

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Granados-Muñoz, María; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Baumgardner, Darrel; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Veselovskii, Igor; Lyamani, Hassan; Valenzuela, Antonio; José Olmo, Francisco; Titos, Gloria; Andrey, Javier; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Dubovik, Oleg; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present an analysis of aerosol microphysical properties during a mineral dust event taking advantage of the combination of different state-of-the-art retrieval techniques applied to active and passive remote sensing measurements and the evaluation of some of those techniques using independent data acquired from in situ aircraft measurements. Data were collected in a field campaign performed during a mineral dust outbreak at the Granada, Spain, experimental site (37.16° N, 3.61° W, 680 m a.s.l.) on 27 June 2011. Column-integrated properties are provided by sun- and star-photometry, which allows for a continuous evaluation of the mineral dust optical properties during both day and nighttime. Both the linear estimation and AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversion algorithms are applied for the retrieval of the column-integrated microphysical particle properties. In addition, vertically resolved microphysical properties are obtained from a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system included in EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network), by using both LIRIC (Lidar Radiometer Inversion Code) algorithm during daytime and an algorithm applied to the Raman measurements based on the regularization technique during nighttime. LIRIC retrievals reveal the presence of dust layers between 3 and 5 km a.s.l. with volume concentrations of the coarse spheroid mode up to 60 µm3 cm-3. The combined use of the regularization and LIRIC methods reveals the night-to-day evolution of the vertical structure of the mineral dust microphysical properties and offers complementary information to that from column-integrated variables retrieved from passive remote sensing. Additionally, lidar depolarization profiles and LIRIC retrieved volume concentration are compared with aircraft in situ measurements. This study presents for the first time a comparison of the total volume concentration retrieved with LIRIC with independent in situ measurements, obtaining agreement within

  17. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  18. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies at $z\\sim3$

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Márquez, J; Heinis, S; Buat, V; Faro, B Lo; Béthermin, M; López-Fortín, C E; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Hurley, P; Ibar, E; Ilbert, O; Koekemoer, A M; Lemaux, B C; Pérez-Fournon, I; Rodighiero, G; Salvato, M; Scott, D; Taniguchi, Y; Vieira, J D; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    We explore from a statistical point of view the far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) properties of a large sample of LBGs (22,000) at z~3 in the COSMOS field. The large number of galaxies allows us to split it in several bins as a function of UV luminosity, UV slope, and stellar mass to better sample their variety. We perform stacking analysis in PACS (100 and 160 um), SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 um) and AzTEC (1.1 mm) images. Our stacking procedure corrects the biases induced by galaxy clustering and incompleteness of our input catalogue in dense regions. We obtain the full IR spectral energy distributions (SED) of subsamples of LBGs and derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of UV luminosity, UV slope, and stellar mass. The average IRX is roughly constant over the UV luminosity range, with a mean of 7.9 (1.8 mag). However, it is correlated with UV slope, and stellar mass. We investigate using a statistically-controlled stacking analysis as a function of (stellar mass, UV slope) the dispersion ...

  19. Spectral properties and reactivity of diarylmethanol radical cations in aqueous solution. Evidence for intramolecular charge resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo

    2002-04-19

    Spectral properties and reactivities of ring-methoxylated diarylmethane and diarylmethanol radical cations, generated in aqueous solution by pulse and gamma-radiolysis and by the one-electron chemical oxidant potassium 12-tungstocobalt(III)ate, have been studied. The radical cations display three bands in the UV, visible, and vis-NIR regions of the spectrum. The vis-NIR band is assigned to an intramolecular charge resonance interaction (CR) between the neutral donor and charged acceptor rings, as indicated by the observation that the relative intensity of the vis-NIR band compared to that of the UV and visible bands does not increase with increasing substrate concentration and that the position and intensity of this band is influenced by the ring-substitution pattern. In acidic solution (pH = 4), monomethoxylated diarylmethanol radical cations 1a.(+ -)1e.(+) decay by C(alpha)-H deprotonation [k = (1.7-1.9) x 10(4)s(-1)] through the intermediacy of a ketyl radical, which is further oxidized in the reaction medium to give the corresponding benzophenones, as evidenced by both time-resolved spectroscopic and product studies. With the dimethoxylated radical cation 2.(+), C(alpha)-H deprotonation is instead significantly slower (k = 6.7 x 10(2)s(-1)). In basic solution, 1a.(+)-1e.(+) undergo (-)OH-induced deprotonation from the alpha-OH group with k(OH.)approximately equal to 1.4 x 10(10)M(-1)s(-1), leading to a ketyl radical anion, which is oxidized in the reaction medium to the corresponding benzophenone.

  20. Parameterization of dust emissions in the global atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC: impact of nudging and soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne desert dust influences radiative transfer, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, as well as nutrient transport and deposition. It directly and indirectly affects climate on regional and global scales. Two versions of a parameterization scheme to compute desert dust emissions are incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry. One uses a globally uniform soil particle size distribution, whereas the other explicitly accounts for different soil textures worldwide. We have tested these two versions and investigated the sensitivity to input parameters, using remote sensing data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET and dust concentrations and deposition measurements from the AeroCom dust benchmark database (and others. The two versions are shown to produce similar atmospheric dust loads in the N-African region, while they deviate in the Asian, Middle Eastern and S-American regions. The dust outflow from Africa over the Atlantic Ocean is accurately simulated by both schemes, in magnitude, location and seasonality. Approximately 70% of the modelled annual deposition data and 70–75% of the modelled monthly aerosol optical depth (AOD in the Atlantic Ocean stations lay in the range 0.5 to 2 times the observations for all simulations. The two versions have similar performance, even though the total annual source differs by ~50%, which underscores the importance of transport and deposition processes (being the same for both versions. Even though the explicit soil particle size distribution is considered more realistic, the simpler scheme appears to perform better in several locations. This paper discusses the differences between the two versions of the dust emission scheme, focusing on their limitations and strengths in describing the global dust cycle and suggests possible future improvements.

  1. Piezoelectrets from sandwiched porous polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) films: influence of porosity and geometry on charging properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Von Seggern, Heinz [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fedosov, Sergey, E-mail: zhukov@e-mat.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, Kanatnaya 112, 65039 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2011-03-16

    Sandwiched structures of open-porous and solid polymer dielectrics reveal a strong piezoelectric response after proper charging by high electric fields. Here, the electrical properties of corona-poled three-layer FEP/ePTFE/FEP sandwiches are studied theoretically and experimentally with the objective of its possible optimization for the highest piezoelectric activity. Modelling of the charging properties is performed for different sandwich geometries. It is shown that the maximum value of the remanent interface charge density accumulated during poling depends mainly on the ratio of the solid and porous layers thicknesses and on parameter E{sub B}, which characterizes the electric breakdown strength of air in the porous layer. E{sub B} exhibits specific dependences on porosity and thickness of the porous layer. For a given porous layer E{sub B} is independent of the solid film thickness. The obtained results can be utilized to further optimize the sandwich structure as an electromechanically active device.

  2. Analysis of the columnar radiative properties retrieved during African desert dust events over Granada (2005-2010) using principal plane sky radiances and spheroids retrieval procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Antón, M.; Quirantes, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-02-01

    The southern Iberian Peninsula is an important area for studying the columnar radiative properties of African desert dust air masses reaching Europe. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angström coefficient, α (440-1020 nm), have been retrieved during the dust events reached at surface from 2005 to 2010 at Granada (37.18°N, 3.58°W, 680 m a.m.s.l), using extinction measurements by means of a CIMEL CE 318-1 sun-photometer. In addition, sky radiance measurements performed in principal plane in conjunction with solar irradiance measurements were used to retrieve columnar aerosol size distributions, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. During these desert dust intrusions, high values of AOD at 440 nm (0.27 ± 0.17) and low values of α (0.4 ± 0.2) were found. These values indicate both high aerosol load and predominance of coarse particles during these events. The aerosol volume size distributions were bimodal, with the fine and coarse radius mode centered at 0.20 μm and 2.41 μm, respectively. The mean coarse to fine volume concentration ratio value was 11 ± 6, showing a predominance of coarse particles in good agreement with α analysis. During these events, columnar aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0) increased with wavelength in accordance with previous works. However, the obtained values of ω0 in all wavelengths were lower than those reported by other authors during desert dust intrusions. The mixing of desert dust with absorbing particles from anthropogenic origin could explain the low ω0 values measured in the study area.

  3. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  4. Near-infrared scattered light properties of the HR 4796 A dust ring. A measured scattering phase function from 13.6° to 166.6°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milli, J.; Vigan, A.; Mouillet, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Augereau, J.-C.; Pinte, C.; Mawet, D.; Schmid, H. M.; Boccaletti, A.; Matrà, L.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.; Chauvin, G.; Bazzon, A.; Ménard, F.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Thalmann, C.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Min, M.; Girard, J. H.; Galicher, R.; Bonnefoy, M.; Fusco, T.; de Boer, J.; Janson, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Mesa, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; SPHERE Consortium

    2017-03-01

    Context. HR 4796 A is surrounded by a debris disc, observed in scattered light as an inclined ring with a high surface brightness. Past observations have raised several questions. First, a strong brightness asymmetry detected in polarised reflected light has recently challenged our understanding of scattering by the dust particles in this system. Secondly, the morphology of the ring strongly suggests the presence of planets, although no planets have been detected to date. Aims: We aim here at measuring with high accuracy the morphology and photometry of the ring in scattered light, in order to derive the phase function of the dust and constrain its near-infrared spectral properties. We also want to constrain the presence of planets and set improved constraints on the origin of the observed ring morphology. Methods: We obtained high-angular resolution coronagraphic images of the circumstellar environment around HR 4796 A with VLT/SPHERE during the commissioning of the instrument in May 2014 and during guaranteed-time observations in February 2015. The observations reveal for the first time the entire ring of dust, including the semi-minor axis that was previously hidden either behind the coronagraphic spot or in the speckle noise. Results: We determine empirically the scattering phase function of the dust in the H band from 13.6° to 166.6°. It shows a prominent peak of forward scattering, never detected before, for scattering angles below 30°. We analyse the reflectance spectra of the disc from the 0.95 μm to 1.6 μm, confirming the red colour of the dust, and derive detection limits on the presence of planetary mass objects. Conclusions: We confirm which side of the disc is inclined towards the Earth. The analysis of the phase function, especially below 45°, suggests that the dust population is dominated by particles much larger than the observation wavelength, of about 20 μm. Compact Mie grains of this size are incompatible with the spectral energy

  5. Discussion about Dust Collector for Coke Pushing Car of Top Charging Coke Oven%顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海莲

    2015-01-01

    针对顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置存在的问题 ,提出了相应的解决措施 ,以提高环保效果为目标 ,使太重公司的产品成为具有市场竞争力的高可靠性、实用性的设备.%In this article ,to the problems in dust collector for coke pushing car of top charging coke oven ,a relevant solution is giv-en ,which aims at high environmental protection ,to makes our products have high reliability and practicality in market competitive-ness .

  6. Effect of superthermal electrons on dust-acoustic Gardner solitons in nonplanar geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deb Kumar Ghosh; Yday Narayan Ghosh; Prasanta Chatterjee; C S Wong

    2013-04-01

    The properties of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless three-component dusty plasma, whose constituents are negatively charged cold dust fluid, superthermal/non-Maxwellian electrons (represented by kappa distribution) and Boltzmann distributed ions, are investigated by deriving the modified Gardner (MG) equation. The well-known reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the MG equation. The basic features of nonplanar DA Gardner solitons (GSs) are discussed. It is seen that the properties of nonplanar DAGSs (positive and negative) significantly differ as the value of spectral index changes.

  7. A multi-wavelength analysis for interferometric (sub-)mm observations of protoplanetary disks: radial constraints on the dust properties and the disk structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tazzari, M; Ercolano, B; Natta, A; Isella, A; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L M; Andrews, S; Wilner, D J; Ricci, L; Henning, T; Linz, H; Kwon, W; Corder, S A; Dullemond, C P; Carpenter, J M; Sargent, A I; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Greaves, J A; Lazio, J; Deller, A T

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models of grain growth predict dust properties to change as a function of protoplanetary disk radius, mass, age and other physical conditions. We lay down the methodology for a multi-wavelength analysis of (sub-)mm and cm continuum interferometric observations to constrain self-consistently the disk structure and the radial variation of the dust properties. The computational architecture is massively parallel and highly modular. The analysis is based on the simultaneous fit in the uv-plane of observations at several wavelengths with a model for the disk thermal emission and for the dust opacity. The observed flux density at the different wavelengths is fitted by posing constraints on the disk structure and on the radial variation of the grain size distribution. We apply the analysis to observations of three protoplanetary disks (AS 209, FT Tau, DR Tau) for which a combination of spatially resolved observations in the range ~0.88mm to ~10mm is available (from SMA, CARMA, and VLA), finding evidence ...

  8. Properties of interstellar dust responsible for extinction laws with unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios of Rv=1-2

    CERN Document Server

    Nozawa, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the extinction properties along lines of sight to Type Ia supernovae are described by steep extinction curves with unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios of Rv = 1.0-2.0. In order to reveal the properties of interstellar dust that causes such peculiar extinction laws, we perform the fitting calculations to the measured extinction curves by applying a two-component dust model composed of graphite and silicate. As for the size distribution of grains, we consider two function forms of the power-law and lognormal distributions. We find that the steep extinction curves derived from the one-parameter formula by Cardelli et al. (1989) with Rv = 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 can be reasonably explained even by the simple power-law dust model that has a fixed power index of -3.5 with the maximum cut-off radii of a_{max} = 0.13 um, 0.094 um, and 0.057 um, respectively. These maximum cut-off radii are smaller than a_{max} ~ 0.24 um considered to be valid in the Milky Way, clearly demonstrating that...

  9. The Mass-Loss Return from Evolved Stars to the Large Magellanic Cloud II: Dust Properties for Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Benjamin A; Meixner, M; Kemper, F; Tielens, A G G M; Speck, A K; Matsuura, M; Bernard, J -Ph; Hony, S; Gordon, Karl D; Indebetouw, R; Marengo, M; Sloan, G C; Woods, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We model multi-wavelength broadband UBVIJHKs and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry and IRS spectra from the SAGE and SAGE-Spec observing programs of two oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (O-rich AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using radiative transfer models of dust shells around stars. We chose a star from each of the bright and faint O-rich AGB populations found by earlier studies of the SAGE sample in order to derive a baseline set of dust properties to be used in the construction of an extensive grid of radiative transfer models of the O-rich AGB stars found in the SAGE surveys. From the bright O-rich AGB population we chose HV 5715, and from the faint O-rich AGB population we chose SSTISAGE1C J052206.92-715017.6 (SSTSAGE052206). We found the complex indices of refraction of oxygen-deficient silicates from Ossenkopf et al (1992) and a "KMH"-like grain size distribution with gamma of -3.5, a_min of 0.01 microns, and a_0 of 0.1 microns to be reasonable dust properties for these models. There...

  10. LADEE Search for a Dust Exosphere: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, D. A.; Stubbs, T. J.; Elphic, R.

    2014-01-01

    The LADEE search for exospheric dust is strongly motivated by putative detections of forward-scattered sunlight from exospheric dust grains which were observed during the Apollo era. This dust population, if it exists, has been associated with charging and transport of dust near the terminators. It is likely that the concentration of these dust grains is governed by a saltation mechanism originated by micrometeoroid impacts, which are the source of the more tenuous ejecta cloud.

  11. First report of charge-transfer induced heat-set hydrogel. Structural insights and remarkable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subham; Maiti, Bappa; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2016-05-01

    The remarkable ability of a charge-transfer (CT) complex prepared from a pyrene-based donor (Py-D) and a naphthalenediimide-based acceptor (NDI-A) led to the formation of a deep-violet in color, transparent hydrogel at room temperature (RT-gel). Simultaneously, the RT-gel was diluted beyond its critical gelator concentration (CGC) to obtain a transparent sol. Very interestingly, the resultant sol, on heating above 70 °C, transformed into a heat-set gel instantaneously with a hitherto unknown CGC value. Detailed studies revealed the smaller globular aggregates of the RT-gels fuse to form giant globules upon heating, which, in turn, resulted in heat-set gelation through further aggregation. The thermoresponsive property of Py-D alone and 1 : 1 Py-D : NDI-A CT complex was investigated in detail which revealed the hydrophobic collapse of the oxyethylene chains of the CT complex upon heating was mainly responsible for heat-set gelation. Thixotropy, injectability, as well as stimuli responsiveness of the RT-gels were also addressed. In contrast, heat-set gel did not show thixotropic behavior. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the xerogel depicted lamellar packing of the CT stacks in the gel phase. Single crystal XRD studies further evidenced the 1 : 1 mixed CT stack formation in the lamellae and also ruled out orthogonal hydrogen bonding possibilities among the hydrazide unit in the CT gel although such interaction was observed in a single crystal of NDI-A alone. In addition, a Ag+-ion triggered metallogelation of NDI-A and nematic liquid-crystalline property of Py-D were also observed.The remarkable ability of a charge-transfer (CT) complex prepared from a pyrene-based donor (Py-D) and a naphthalenediimide-based acceptor (NDI-A) led to the formation of a deep-violet in color, transparent hydrogel at room temperature (RT-gel). Simultaneously, the RT-gel was diluted beyond its critical gelator concentration (CGC) to obtain a transparent sol. Very interestingly, the

  12. The cosmic dust analyser onboard cassini: ten years of discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srama, R.; Kempf, S.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Altobelli, N.; Auer, S.; Beckmann, U.; Bugiel, S.; Burton, M.; Economomou, T.; Fechtig, H.; Fiege, K.; Green, S. F.; Grande, M.; Havnes, O.; Hillier, J. K.; Helfert, S.; Horanyi, M.; Hsu, S.; Igenbergs, E.; Jessberger, E. K.; Johnson, T. V.; Khalisi, E.; Krüger, H.; Matt, G.; Mocker, A.; Lamy, P.; Linkert, G.; Lura, F.; Möhlmann, D.; Morfill, G. E.; Otto, K.; Postberg, F.; Roy, M.; Schmidt, J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Svestka, J.; Tschernjawski, V.; Grün, E.; Röser, H.-P.

    2011-12-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after 7 years of cruise phase. The German cosmic dust analyser (CDA) was developed under the leadership of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg under the support of the DLR e.V. This instrument measures the interplanetary, interstellar and planetary dust in our solar system since 1999 and provided unique discoveries. In 1999, CDA detected interstellar dust in the inner solar system followed by the detection of electrical charges of interplanetary dust grains during the cruise phase between Earth and Jupiter. The instrument determined the composition of interplanetary dust and the nanometre-sized dust streams originating from Jupiter's moon Io. During the approach to Saturn in 2004, similar streams of submicron grains with speeds in the order of 100 km/s were detected from Saturn's inner and outer ring system and are released to the interplanetary magnetic field. Since 2004 CDA measured more than one million dust impacts characterising the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument is one of the three experiments which discovered the active ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system led to the discovery of large reservoirs of liquid water (oceans) below the icy crust of Enceladus. Finally, the determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring (at least twice as large as predicted) allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. This paper summarizes the discoveries of a 10-year story of success based on reliable measurements with the most advanced dust detector flown in space until today. This paper focuses on cruise results and findings achieved at Saturn with a focus on flux and density measurements. CDA discoveries related to the detailed dust stream

  13. Effect of Specific Adsorption of Ions on Electrokinetic Properties of Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG; ZHANGXIAO-NIAN

    1991-01-01

    Studies were carried out by using electrophoretic method on the effects of the specific adsorption of the anions,such as SO42-,PO43-,and F- ions,the cations,such as Ca2+,Mn2+,Zn2+,and Cu2+,ions,and the anions and cations coexisting,such as Zn2+ and SO42= ions,on electrokinetic properties of the red soils as typical variable charge soils in China concerning variation in the specific ion species and concentrations,with an emphasis on the interaction between soil colloid surfaces and the ions in soil solutions.The results showed that the adsorption of specific ions led to a very pronounced decrease in zeta potentials of the soil colloids and a shift of the IEPs to lower values for specific anions,and an obvious increase in zeta potentials of the soil colloids and a shift of the IEPs to higher values for specific cations.Under circumstances of the specific anions and cations coexisting,for instance,Zn2+ and SO42- ions,the zeta potentials changed with values higher than the value for SO42- alone and lower than that fo