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Sample records for durum wheat triticum

  1. Alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in durum wheat (Triticum durum) kernels and pasta products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Rikard; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

    2006-04-19

    The total alkylresorcinol (AR) content and relative homologue composition of 21 durum wheat (Triticum durum) kernel samples, as well as 5 pasta products and the corresponding flour mixtures, were determined. Durum wheat contained on average 455 microg/g ARs, and the average relative homologue composition was C17:0 (0.4%), C19:0 (14%), C21:0 (58%), C23:0 (21%), and C25:0 (6.5%). The homologue composition was found to be relatively consistent among samples, with durum wheat being different from common wheat by having a higher proportion of the longer homologues. No differences in content or homologue composition were observed in pasta products compared to flour ingredients, showing that alkylresorcinols are stable during pasta processing. The ratio of the homologues C17:0 to C21:0 was wheat products, which is different from those of common wheat (0.1) and rye (0.9).

  2. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  3. Assessment of heritability and genetic advance for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

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    HASSAN NIKKHAHKOUCHAKSARAEI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the amount of heritability for desirable agronomic characteristics and the genetic progress associated with grain yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., a split plot experiment was carried out with four replications during three cropping seasons (2009-2012. Three sowing dates (as environmental factor and six durum wheat varieties (as genotypic factor were considered as main and sub factors respectively. Analysis of variance showed interaction effects between genotypes and environments in days to ripening, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of spikes per unit area, grain mass and grain yield. The grain yield showed the highest positive correlation with number of grains per spike also grain mass (91 % and 85 %, respectively. A relatively high heritability of these traits (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively suggests that their genetic improvement is possible. The maximum genetic gain (19.6 % was observed for grain mass, indicating this trait should be a very important indicator for durum wheat breeders, although the climatic effects should not be ignored.

  4. High-throughput SNP discovery and genotyping in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbi, Daniele; Maccaferri, Marco; de Heer, Peter; Sørensen, Anker; Giuliani, Silvia; Salvi, Silvio; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna; Massi, Andrea; van der Vossen, Edwin Andries Gerard; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    We describe the application of complexity reduction of polymorphic sequences (CRoPS(®)) technology for the discovery of SNP markers in tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). A next-generation sequencing experiment was carried out on reduced representation libraries obtained from four durum cultivars. SNP validation and minor allele frequency (MAF) estimate were carried out on a panel of 12 cultivars, and the feasibility of genotyping these SNPs in segregating populations was tested using the Illumina Golden Gate (GG) technology. A total of 2,659 SNPs were identified on 1,206 consensus sequences. Among the 768 SNPs that were chosen irrespective of their genomic repetitiveness level and assayed on the Illumina BeadExpress genotyping system, 275 (35.8%) SNPs matched the expected genotypes observed in the SNP discovery phase. MAF data indicated that the overall SNP informativeness was high: a total of 196 (71.3%) SNPs had MAF >0.2, of which 76 (27.6%) showed MAF >0.4. Of these SNPs, 157 were mapped in one of two mapping populations (Meridiano × Claudio and Colosseo × Lloyd) and integrated into a common genetic map. Despite the relatively low genotyping efficiency of the GG assay, the validated CRoPS-derived SNPs showed valuable features for genomics and breeding applications such as a uniform distribution across the wheat genome, a prevailing single-locus codominant nature and a high polymorphism. Here, we report a new set of 275 highly robust genome-wide Triticum SNPs that are readily available for breeding purposes.

  5. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  6. Phenotypic diversity in Ethiopian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) landraces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dejene K. Mengistu; Afeworki Y. Kiros; Mario E. Pè

    2015-01-01

    The phenotypic diversity of 274 Ethiopian durum wheat accessions was analyzed, taking their geographic origins into account. The aim was to assess the extent and patterns of agronomically important phenotypic variation across districts of origin and altitude classes for major qualitative traits using diversity index and multivariate methods. Eight qualitative and three quantitative traits were scored for 2740 plants and analyzed for diversity. The Shannon–Weaver diversity (H′) index was used to estimate phenotypic diversity. The estimated H′ ranged from monomorphic for glume hairiness to highly polymorphic for other traits. The highest (0.86) H′ was obtained for seed degree of shriveling, possibly indicating the differential responses of the genotypes to water deficit during later growth stages. With respect to district of origin, the highest (0.72) and lowest (0.44) H′values were obtained for the Bale and SNNP districts, respectively. With respect to altitude, the highest (0.76) and lowest (0.62) H′values were recorded for altitudes 1600–2000 and >3000 m above sea levels, respectively. Principal components analysis explained substantial variation contributed by district of origin and altitude range. Genotypes were clustered into three groups by districts of origin and altitude class, with relatively strong bootstrap values of 57 and 62 for the former and latter, respectively. It could be concluded that Ethiopian durum wheat landraces are very diverse both within and among districts of origin and altitude classes. This wealth of genetic diversity should be exploited for wheat improvement of yield and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly terminal drought.

  7. Phenotypic diversity in Ethiopian durum wheat(Triticum turgidum var.durum)landraces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dejene; K.Mengistu; Afeworki; Y.Kiros; Mario; E.Pè

    2015-01-01

    The phenotypic diversity of 274 Ethiopian durum wheat accessions was analyzed, taking their geographic origins into account. The aim was to assess the extent and patterns of agronomically important phenotypic variation across districts of origin and altitude classes for major qualitative traits using diversity index and multivariate methods. Eight qualitative and three quantitative traits were scored for 2740 plants and analyzed for diversity. The Shannon–Weaver diversity(H′) index was used to estimate phenotypic diversity. The estimated H′ ranged from monomorphic for glume hairiness to highly polymorphic for other traits. The highest(0.86) H′ was obtained for seed degree of shriveling, possibly indicating the differential responses of the genotypes to water deficit during later growth stages. With respect to district of origin, the highest(0.72) and lowest(0.44) H′ values were obtained for the Bale and SNNP districts, respectively. With respect to altitude, the highest(0.76) and lowest(0.62) H′ values were recorded for altitudes 1600–2000and > 3000 m above sea levels, respectively. Principal components analysis explained substantial variation contributed by district of origin and altitude range. Genotypes were clustered into three groups by districts of origin and altitude class, with relatively strong bootstrap values of 57 and 62 for the former and latter, respectively. It could be concluded that Ethiopian durum wheat landraces are very diverse both within and among districts of origin and altitude classes. This wealth of genetic diversity should be exploited for wheat improvement of yield and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly terminal drought.

  8. Phenotypic diversity in Ethiopian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene K. Mengistu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic diversity of 274 Ethiopian durum wheat accessions was analyzed, taking their geographic origins into account. The aim was to assess the extent and patterns of agronomically important phenotypic variation across districts of origin and altitude classes for major qualitative traits using diversity index and multivariate methods. Eight qualitative and three quantitative traits were scored for 2740 plants and analyzed for diversity. The Shannon–Weaver diversity (H′ index was used to estimate phenotypic diversity. The estimated H′ ranged from monomorphic for glume hairiness to highly polymorphic for other traits. The highest (0.86 H′ was obtained for seed degree of shriveling, possibly indicating the differential responses of the genotypes to water deficit during later growth stages. With respect to district of origin, the highest (0.72 and lowest (0.44 H′ values were obtained for the Bale and SNNP districts, respectively. With respect to altitude, the highest (0.76 and lowest (0.62 H′ values were recorded for altitudes 1600–2000 and > 3000 m above sea levels, respectively. Principal components analysis explained substantial variation contributed by district of origin and altitude range. Genotypes were clustered into three groups by districts of origin and altitude class, with relatively strong bootstrap values of 57 and 62 for the former and latter, respectively. It could be concluded that Ethiopian durum wheat landraces are very diverse both within and among districts of origin and altitude classes. This wealth of genetic diversity should be exploited for wheat improvement of yield and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly terminal drought.

  9. Antagonist effects of Bacillus spp. strains against Fusarium graminearum for protection of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ali, Hacina; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar Om Rabiia against F. graminearum fungus. Application of single bacterial culture medium, particularly that of B. amyloliquefaciens, showed better protection than combinations of various culture media. The tertiary combination of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and P. polymyxa bacterial cells led to the highest protection rate which could be due to strains synergistic or complementary effects. Hence, combination of compatible biocontrol agents could be a strategic approach to control plant diseases.

  10. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. grown under two levels of chemical protection

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    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007-2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Science in Lublin. The studies comprised two cultivation lines of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.: STH 716 and STH 717, as well as the 'Tonacja' cultivar of common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L.. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation: minimal and complex protection. Infection of wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Tottman's scale, 1987. After three years of study, the mean disease indexes for the analyzed wheat genotypes in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 31.13, 30.43 and 38.83 for, respectively, the 'Tonacja' cultivar and the cultivation lines of T. durum STH 716 and STH 717. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after three years of study the disease indexes ranged from 25.26 (T. durum STH 716 to 30.83 (T. durum STH 717. The results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, F. avenaceum as well as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani, caused root rot and necrosis of wheat stem bases. The analyzed chemical protection levels did not significantly influence grain yield of the investigated genotypes of T. aestivum and T. durum.

  11. Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on durum wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asefa

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... ... nutritional value. Key words: Durum wheat, Yield, Protein, Nitrogen ... wheat grain features for pasta and macaroni products are amber (yellow) color, vitreous endosperm, .... dockage free samples [18]. Grain N and straw N ...

  12. Drought-induced changes in photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant components of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynova, Irada M; Rustamova, Samira M; Suleymanov, Saftar Y; Aliyeva, Durna R; Mammadov, Alamdar Ch; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2016-12-01

    Water deficit is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. In the present study, the photosynthetic responses by means of chlorophyll fluorescence of chloroplasts, thylakoid membrane proteins, and antioxidant components were analyzed in wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants differing in their tolerance to drought. Two durum winter wheat varieties, Barakatli 95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg 2 (drought sensitive) were grown under field well-watered and drought conditions. It was found that contents of the PS I core (CPI) with Mr of 123 kD and apoprotein P700 with Mr of 63 kD were relatively higher in Barakatli 95 variety under drought stress compared with the control plants. Synthesis of α- and β-subunits of CF1 ATP-synthase complex with Mr of 55 and 53.5 kD also slightly increased in the tolerant Barakatli 95 and decreased in the drought sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2. A decrease in the intensity of 30 kD band and a significant increase were found in the content of the 25-16 kD region in Garagylchyg 2 variety. The synthesis of 60 kD and content of low molecular mass polypeptides (21.5 and 12 kD) were increased in the tolerant genotype Barakatli 95. The intensity of peaks at 687, 695, and 742 nm considerably increases in the fluorescence spectra (77 K) of chloroplasts isolated from the sensitive variety Garagylchyg 2, and there is a stimulation of the ratio of fluorescence band intensity F687/F740. At the same time, higher level of glycine betaine was found in the drought tolerant variety compared with the control one throughout the different periods of growth.

  13. Economical and Morpho-Biological Features of Whiner Wheat New Generation Varieties (Triticum durum

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    Л. І. Улич

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes summary of the researches, characteristics of morphological and agro-biological characteristics and features, a note is made of a significant progress in the selection of productivity and adaptability of registered Durum Winter Wheat Varieties of new crops rotation. Significant developments of  plants architectonic are marked, especially in height, characteristics of economical value, and in terms of considerable achievements in breeding of this kind of wheat. A stress in made on the need to enhance Durum Winter Wheat breeding to develop more frostresistant and drought-overheat resistant varieties.

  14. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

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    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  15. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves......, the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  16. Effect of Se application on photosynthesis, osmolytes and water relations in two durum wheat (Triticum durum L. genotypes under drought stress

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    Roghieh HAJIBOLAND

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Se (as Na2SeO4 at final concentration of 10 µg l-1 was studied in two durum wheat (Triticum durum L. genotypes in perlite under drought conditions. Se treatment increased slightly biomass of both genotypes under drought but not under control conditions. Photosynthetic rate was depressed by drought while increased by Se treatments in both genotypes up to 2.3 fold. However, transpirational water loss was also enhanced in Se-treated plants under both well-watered and drought conditions. Se application resulted in higher concentrations of soluble proteins and free α-amino acids under drought conditions, but not proline. Our results indicated that Se application improves some physiological parameters such as photosynthesis, accumulation of osmolyes and water use efficiency but did not change significantly plants biomass or water relation parameters.

  17. Determination of Variability Between Grain Yield and Yield Components of Durum Wheat Varieties (Triticum durum Desf. in Thrace Region

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    T. Kahraman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Variability of grain yield and some yield components of 17 durum wheat varieties with native and exotic originated was investigated. This research was performed under rainfed conditions in three different environments (Tekirdağ, Lüleburgaz and Edirne during two growing years (2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Significant differences among cultivars, locations and production years were determined. The highest variations among characters were found in grain weight/spike, grains/spike, spike length and grain yield. In the first experimental year, there was a high positive significant correlation between grain yield and grain weight/spike, test weight and 1000 grain weight. In the second experimental year, grain yield showed positive and significant correlations with 1000 grain weight, test weight and stem length. The biggest differences among investigated cultivar of durum wheat were found in stem length, grains/spike and 1000 grain weight. Grain yield of examined cultivars depended mainly on 1000 grain weight, test weight, grain weight/spike and agroecological conditions during the growing period. However, location, production year and genotypes were the most important determinant of potential yield of cultivars. Ç 1252, Fuatbey 2000, Epidur, Kızıltan95, Aydın 93 and Altın 97 were found more suitable cultivars that the others for durum wheat production in Thrace Region.

  18. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  19. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  20. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  1. Effects of Water Regime on the Structure of Roots and Stems of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

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    Amina Labdelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yield improvement of durum wheat is considerably limited by the expression of environmental abiotic factors. Water deficits are one of these limiting factors. Plants develop various strategies to tolerate the effects of water deficit. Some of such mechanisms might occur in the root and stem systems. The present study aimed to investigate some anatomical traits contributing to the drought tolerance in the durum wheat. The anatomical variations of the meristem of roots and stems, as a response to water deficit, were evaluated. The results indicated that the enhancement of the intensity of water deficit was accompanied by profound structural changes in the piliferous zone of roots. Water deficit caused a significant decrease in the diameter of the newly formed adventitious roots, which can be explained by a reduction in the thickness of the cortical parenchyma, through the reduction of cell size. This action was usually a contrary effect in the principal adventitious roots. The study also showed that increasing the intensity of water deficit reduced the diameter of vessels in the primary xylem, thereby increasing the hydraulic resistance of roots and lowering the flow of sap.

  2. Comparison of Several Models for Calculating Ozone Stomatal Fluxes on a Mediterranean Wheat Cultivar (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho

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    Daniel de la Torre Llorente

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone stomatal fluxes were modeled for a 3-year period following different approaches for a commercial variety of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho at the phenological stage of anthesis. All models performed in the same range, although not all of them afforded equally significant results. Nevertheless, all of them suggest that stomatal conductance would account for the main percentage of ozone deposition fluxes. A new modeling approach was tested, based on a 3-D architectural model of the wheat canopy, and fairly accurate results were obtained. Plant species-specific measurements, as well as measurements of stomatal conductance and environmental parameters, were required. The method proposed for calculating ozone stomatal fluxes (FO3_3-D from experimental gs data and modeling them as a function of certain environmental parameters in conjunction with the use of the YPLANT model seems to be adequate, providing realistic estimates of the canopy FO3_3-D, integrating and not neglecting the contribution of the lower leaves with respect to the flag leaf, although a further development of this model is needed.

  3. Growth, physiology and yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum) treated with sewage sludge under water stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjabi, Sonia; Kribaa, Mohammed; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas, low soil fertility and water deficit considerably limit crop production. The use of sewage sludge as an organic amendment could contribute to the improvement of soil fertility and hence the agronomic production. The study aims to highlight the behaviour of durum wheat to the application of sewage sludge associated with water stress. The assessment focused on morphophysiological parameters of the wheat plant and yield. Under greenhouse conditions, the variety Mohamed Ben Bachir was treated by four water stress levels (100 %, 80 %, 50 % and 30 %). Each stress level comprised five fertilizer treatments: 20, 50 and 100 t/ha of dry sludge, 35 kg/ha of urea, and a control with no fertilization. Results revealed a significant loss in water content and chlorophyll a in leaves. Water stress negatively affected the development of wheat plants by reducing significantly seed yield, leaf area and biomass produced. Plant's responses to water stress manifested by an accumulation of proline and a decrease in total phosphorus. However, the increasing doses of sewage sludge limited the effect of water stress. Our findings showed an increase in the amount of chlorophyll pigments, leaf area, total phosphorus, biomass and yield. In addition, excessive accumulation of proline (1.11 ± 1.03 µg/g DM) was recorded as a result of the high concentration of sludge (100 t/ha DM). The application of sewage sludge is beneficial for the wheat crop, but the high accumulation of proline in plants treated with high dose of sludge suggests to properly consider this fact. The application of sludge should be used with caution in soils where water is limited. Because the combined effect of these two factors could result in a fatal osmotic stress to crop development.

  4. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for high-throughput and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, I.; Maccaferri, M.; Bassi, F; Mantovani, P; Šimková, H. (Hana); Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Tuberosa, R

    2013-01-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a-resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative cv. Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf-rust resistance sources deployed in durum wheat breeding. Lr14a has been mapped close to the simple sequence repeat markers gwm146, gwm344 and wmc10 in the distal portion of the chromosome arm 7BL, a gene-dense region. The objectives of this study were: (1) to enric...

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  6. Genotype × Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordana Brankovic; Vesna Dragicevic; Dejan Dodig; Miroslav Zoric; Desimir Knezevic; Sladana Zilic; Srbislav Dencic; Gordana Surlan

    2015-01-01

    .... Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA), inorganic P (P^sub...

  7. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour, water absorption, rheology, and baking quality of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  8. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin).

  9. Characterization of genetic coefficients of durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Garrido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic coefficients, representative of a crop, are necessary to use growth models; in many cases the range of the species is known, but there are no specific values for varieties. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA' were sown under irrigation in the experiment station Antumapu of the Universidad de Chile on 29 June 2007, 19 May 2009, and 15 June 2010 in order to determinate four genetic coefficients: developmental thermal time, phyllochron (PHLN, extinction coefficient (k, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, and to evaluate the performance of these coefficients. Thermal times to anthesis and from anthesis to physiological maturity were 652 and 541 °C d, respectively. Two PHLN values were found, 46.6 °C d leaf-1 from emergence to fifth leaf and 102.9 °C d leaf-1 from fifth to eighth leaf. In both cases neither variety nor sowing date was significant. The value of kdid not vary among sowing dates for 'Llareta-INIA' and was not significantly different from that of 'Corcolén-INIA' for normal planting date, due to which a single fit for the two varieties was adjusted, obtaining a value of 0.46. However, 'Corcolén-INIA' had a lower value of kfor later sowing dates. RUE did not vary between varieties or sowing dates; its estimated value was 2.83 g MJ-1. The evaluation of the coefficients obtained showed coherent results, thus they can be used in model simulations.

  10. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  11. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  12. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice.

  13. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy...

  14. Genetic variation for glutenin and gliadins associated with quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum) landraces from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiriano, E.; Ruiz, M.; Fite, R.; Carrillo, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    The allelic variation at seven prolamin loci involved in quality has been studied in a set of durum wheat land races from all the Spanish regions where this crop has been traditionally cultivated. The genetic variability was higher than that found in other germplasm collections. All the loci, except Glu-B2, displayed a genetic variability higher than 0.62, with Glu-3 the most polymorphic. In total, five alleles were studied at Glu-A1, nine at Glu-B1, 15 at Glu-A3, 18 at Glu-B3, two at Glu- B2, and eight at Gli-A1 and Gli-B1. New allelic variants not previously identified in durum wheat were detected. The 30 different genotypes of B low-molecular-weight (B-LMW) glutenin subunits analysed, of which 25 are novel, provide an important source of genetic variability for quality breeding. Protein patterns for convars. durum and turgidum, and for the North and South of Spain were identified for the loci with significant influence on quality. Higher variability was observed in convar. turgidum and in the North zone than in convar. durum and the South, respectively, mainly for the Glu-B1 and Glu-B3. Also, convar. turgidum appeared to be a valuable source for new alleles for the LMW glutenin subunits. Wheats from the South were, however, more diverse for prolamins encoded at Glu-A3. (Author) 33 refs.

  15. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for high-throughput and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Irma; Maccaferri, Marco; Bassi, Filippo; Mantovani, Paola; Sanguineti, Maria C; Salvi, Silvio; Simková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Massi, Andrea; Ammar, Karim; Kolmer, James; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a-resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative cv. Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf-rust resistance sources deployed in durum wheat breeding. Lr14a has been mapped close to the simple sequence repeat markers gwm146, gwm344 and wmc10 in the distal portion of the chromosome arm 7BL, a gene-dense region. The objectives of this study were: (1) to enrich the Lr14a region with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and high-resolution melting (HRM)-based markers developed from conserved ortholog set (COS) genes and from sequenced Diversity Array Technology (DArT(®)) markers; (2) to further investigate the gene content and colinearity of this region with the Brachypodium and rice genomes. Ten new COS-SNP and five HRM markers were mapped within an 8.0 cM interval spanning Lr14a. Two HRM markers pinpointed the locus in an interval of COS-SNPs were mapped 2.1-4.1 cM distal to Lr14a. Each marker was tested for its capacity to predict the state of Lr14a alleles (in particular, Lr14-Creso associated to resistance) in a panel of durum wheat elite germplasm including 164 accessions. Two of the most informative markers were converted into KASPar(®) markers. Single assay markers ubw14 and wPt-4038-HRM designed for agarose gel electrophoresis/KASPar(®) assays and high-resolution melting analysis, respectively, as well as the double-marker combinations ubw14/ubw18, ubw14/ubw35 and wPt-4038-HRM-ubw35 will be useful for germplasm haplotyping and for molecular-assisted breeding.

  16. Diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE): a new approach to study the effect of osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, N S; Mauro, S; Muhovski, Y; Delporte, F; Renaut, J; Djekoun, A; Watillon, B

    2016-09-01

    Acclimatization to stress is associated with profound changes in proteome composition. The use of plant cell and tissue culture offers a means to investigate the physiological and biochemical processes involved in the adaptation to osmotic stress. We employed a new proteomic approach to further understand the response of calli to dehydration induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Calli of three durum wheat genotypes Djenah Khetifa, Oued Zenati and Waha were treated with two concentrations of polyethylene glycol to mimic osmotic stress. Changes in protein relative abundance were analyzed using a new electrophoretic approach named diagonal two-dimensional electrophoresis (D-2DE), combined with mass spectrometry. Total proteins were extracted from 30-day-old calli from three durum wheat genotypes that showed contrasting levels of drought stress tolerance in the field. The combination of one-dimensional electrophoresis and D-2DE gave a specific imprint of the protein extracts under osmotic stress, as well as characterizing and identifying individual target proteins. Of the variously expressed proteins, three were selected (globulin, GAPDH and peroxidase) and further analyzed using qRT-PCR at the transcriptome level in order to compare the results with the proteomic data. Western blot analysis was used to further validate the differences in relative abundance pattern. The proteins identified through this technique provide new insights as to how calli respond to osmotic stress. Our method of study provides an original and relevant approach of analyzing the osmotic-responsive mechanisms at the cellular level of durum wheat with agronomic perspectives.

  17. Study of root para-nodules formation in wheat (Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    djemel

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... Frankia strains can induce N2-fixing root nodules on certain non-leguminous plants. ... glauca and Alnus glutinosa, and the soil bacteria Frankia that lead to the .... morphology of nitrogen fixing paranodules on wheat roots.

  18. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  19. Genetic Variations of Gliadin and HMW Glutenins Subunits in Durum Wheat%硬粒小麦(Triticum durum)贮藏蛋白的遗传变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王含彦; 魏育明; 颜泽洪; 郑有良

    2006-01-01

    对来源于美、中、俄及埃塞阿比亚等22个国家的142份硬粒小麦材料的种子贮藏蛋白位点及遗传变异进行了研究.供试的硬粒小麦(Triticum durum Desf)材料共检测出37条醇溶蛋白条带,无1条带纹为所有材料共有,多态性达到100%,说明硬粒小麦具有丰富的醇溶蛋白等位变异.聚类分析将142份供试材料分为3个大类,材料间遗传差异大小在不同的国家有所不同,表明醇溶蛋白带型与地理来源有一定关系.高分子量谷蛋白电泳共分离出14种亚基和15种亚基组合,但是优质亚基所占比例不高,这可能是因为硬粒小麦加工用途的特殊性,使得多年的育种并未太多改变硬粒小麦高分子量谷蛋白亚基等位变异的频率,促成优质亚基的累计.%The wheat baking quality is controlled by the content and composition of wheat endosperm proteins. To exploit new genetic resources and provide fundamental materials for the improvement of bread wheat quality, the genetic variations of the storage proteins in 142 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) accessions from 22 countries were characterized by A-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. A total of 37 gliadin bands were detected, among which all bands(100%) were polymorphic. Furthermore, 142 accessions could be divided into three major groups using the clustering analysis, indicating that the gliadin variations among durum wheat were associated with their geographic origin. Fourteen high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits alleles and fifteen subunits combinations were identified. Glu-A1-c(null) was observed at the highest frequency among the 4 Glu-A1 alleles, and Glu-B1-b and Glu-B1-e were the major subunits encoded by Glu-B1.

  20. Cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer rate affect yield and nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimizing nitrogen (N) management and using cultivars with high N use efficiency (NUE) are of great importance for durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) producers in irrigated desert production systems. Field experiments with six durum wheat cultivars (Ocotillo, Orita, Kronos, Havasu, Duraking, and Toppe...

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Rania; Khoudi, Habib

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) proteins have become the subject of intensive research activity due to their involvement in a variety of biological processes. This research led to the identification of AP2/ERF genes in many species; however, little is known about these genes in durum wheat, one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In this study, a new member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, designated TdSHN1, was isolated from durum wheat using thermal asymetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method. Protein sequence analysis showed that TdSHN1 contained an AP2/ERF domain of 63 amino acids and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TdSHN1 belongs to a group Va protein in the ERF subfamily which contains the Arabidopsis ERF proteins (SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3). Expression of TdSHN1 was strongly induced by salt, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. In planta, TdSHN1 protein was able to activate the transcription of GUS reporter gene driven by the GCC box and DRE element sequences. In addition, TdSHN1 was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of TdSHN1 increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Taken together, the results showed that TdSHN1 encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. TdSHN1 is therefore a promising candidate for improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in wheat as well as other crops.

  2. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. I. Grain, milling and soft wheat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  3. Source-Sink Relationship in Wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum and Triticale (Triticale hexaploid Lart. Genotypes under Ahvaz Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Modhej

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sink-source physiological relationship, current photosynthesis, contribution and remobilization of assimilates to grain yield in wheat and triticale genotypes, a field experiment was conducted in Iran, Ahvaz area on 2003-4. Treatments were two bread wheat (Simareh and Tawer, one durum wheat (Showa and two triticale (Juvanillo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Grain weight changes determined with removal of 50% spikelet from one spike side in main stem and tillers. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest grain yield were in Juvanilo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Higher grain yield in Juvanillo92 genotype was due to higher biological yield (1500 g.m-2, grain number per spike (65 floret per spikelet (2.3 and spikelet number per spike (28. In average, source limitation was 22 and 30.7% in wheat and triticale genotypes, respectively. Increase in grain weight in spikelet removal treatments compared to unmanipulated spike was 22.2 and 29% for main stem and tillers, respectively. It seems that this reaction was due to remobilization of assimilates from main stems to tillers by spikelets removal from main spikes. However, in desirable conditions, high yielding genotypes of wheat and triticale could be selected on the basis of the higher spike number and grain yield which are related to increase of source limitation.

  4. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-09-24

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control.

  5. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, cultivar Senatore Cappelli) production systems effects on grain and flours functional properties under Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Chami, Ziad Al

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of organic farming is the "production of high quality products". Integrity and vital quality of products should be preserved along the entire production chain. In order to evaluate the effect of organic vs. conventional production systems on durum wheat phenolic acids and antioxidant activity open field experiment has been carried out. During the whole process chain from field to fork, there are various factors influencing the quality of the end product. Organic production should rely on genotypes with high nitrogen use efficiency, disease and pest resistance, weed competitiveness and tolerance especially under Mediterranean conditions. In this study, production systems differed according to the practices and inputs applied to manage the soil fertility and plant protection. In conventional system, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides were used. Whereas, in the two organic systems, cow manure with fertilizers and temporary intercropping with fava bean (Vicia faba) and fertilizers were used to manage soil fertility. Biopesticides were used for plant protection for organic systems. One treatment without inputs was used as a control in order to evaluate environmental site and cultivar effect. Quantity of free, free and conjugated and bounded phenolic acids were evaluated in relation to overall quality and production systems. In addition, antioxidant capacities of each fraction by different assays were assessed. The organic production method assured higher overall quality in paricular functional properties compared to the conventional one. Therefore, understanding the functional links between production systems variables and physiological responses is essential to improve and standardize the quality of organic durum wheat products. Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility management, phenolic acids, antioxidant activity.

  6. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  7. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kristin; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matt; Jin, Yue; Elias, Elias; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease, breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999 is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2-2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13.

  8. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, were determined. Heat and UV-B irradiation alone caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigment content, radical scavenging activity and super oxide radical scavenging activity in the two studied plants. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were stimulated in response to UV and/or heat stresses. The elevation of enzyme activities was higher under heat than under UV-B, especially in T. aestivum. According to our findings, it can be concluded that combined heat and UV-B provided cross-tolerance; otherwise, single stress was found to aggravate the responses.

  9. The ozone-like syndrome in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): Mechanisms underlying the different symptomatic responses of two sensitive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Valentina; Monga, Robert; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Faoro, Franco

    2017-03-01

    Colombo and Sculptur are two modern durum wheat cultivars that, in previous studies, proved to be very sensitive to ozone injury in terms of eco-physiological parameters and significant grain yield loss. Nevertheless, their response regarding leaf visible symptoms was very different; Sculptur showed almost no symptoms, even after several weeks of ozone exposure, whereas Colombo showed in a few weeks typical ozone-like symptoms (chlorotic/necrotic spots). The mechanisms underlying this different response has been studied with a biochemical and microscopical approach. Plants were grown in Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) and exposed to charcoal filtered and ozone enriched air. Flag leaves were analyzed at two phenological stages (pre- and post-anthesis). At pre-anthesis the ascorbate pool was significantly lower in Colombo, which also underwent an increase in the oxidized glutathione content and abundant H2O2 deposition in mesophyll cells around the substomatal chamber. No or scarce H2O2 was found at both phenological stages in ozone exposed leaf tissues of Sculptur, where stomata appeared often closed. In this cultivar, transmission electron microscopy showed that chloroplasts in apparently undamaged mesophyll cells were slightly swollen and presented numerous plastoglobuli, as a result of a mild oxidative stress. These results suggest that Sculptur leaves remains symptomless as a consequence of the higher content of constitutive ascorbate pool and the synergistic effect of stomata closure. Instead, Colombo shows chlorotic/necrotic symptoms because of the lower ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) scavenging capacity and the less efficient stomata closure that lead to severe damages of groups of the mesophyll cells, however leaving the surrounding photosynthetic tissue functional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  11. Attempted compensation for linkage drag affecting agronomic characteristics of durum wheat 1AS/1DL translocation lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield reduction due to linkage drag caused by introgression of alien chromatin is a major problem for incorporating new genes into durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Here we report attempts to improve yield of 1AS•1AL-1DL translocation lines of durum wheat that had previously been rep...

  12. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND TRITICUM DURUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of technological and antioxidant characteristics of selected varieties of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum grown in Slovakia and Serbia. Research was conducted during the two years 2009 and 2010. Measured values of water activity were in the range 0.4 - 0.5. Optimal activity of alpha-amylase was measured in Serbian varieties Etida (210 seconds, Pobeda (218 seconds and Renesansa (272 seconds. The highest sedimentation capacity expressed as sedimentation index by Zeleny had variety Karpatia (60 cm3. The high content of insoluble protein (gluten was measured in a variety Rusija (36.6%. Nitrogen content was in the range 12.7 - 13.9% of dry matter, starch content in the range 56.6 - 61.6% of dry matter. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method ranged in wheat varieties from 44 to 49%. The highest content of polyphenols was measured in a variety Etida (0.464 mg of catechin/g of sample. Durum wheat varieties have a higher content of polyphenols in general. The production of semolina flour from durum wheat may have the positive antioxidant effect according to gained measurements.

  13. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  14. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  15. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  16. Molecular speciation and tissue compartmentation of zinc in durum wheat grains with contrasting nutritional status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Daniel Pergament; de Bang, Thomas C.; Pedas, Pai R.

    2016-01-01

    Low concentration of zinc (Zn) in the endosperm of cereals is a major factor contributing to Zn deficiency in human populations. We have investigated how combined Zn and nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the speciation and localization of Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Zn-binding proteins w...

  17. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  18. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  19. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  20. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  1. Development of a diagnostic co-dominant marker for stem rust resistance gene Sr47 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, abbreviated as Pgt) resistance gene Sr47, originally transferred from Aegilops speltoides to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) line DAS15, confers a high level of resistance to Pgt race TTKSK (known as Ug99). Recently, the durum Rust...

  2. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  3. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplican sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Esselink, D.G.; Goryunova, S.V.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses

  4. Effect of N fertilisation, year and prolamin alleles on gluten quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum) landraces from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiriano, E.; Ruiz, M.; Fite, R.; Carrillo, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    A subset of durum wheat Spanish land races, previously evaluated for yield at low and high nitrogen (N) levels, was analysed for quality, protein content (P) and sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (SDSS) test. The evaluation was carried out at the two N rates and in two years. The influence of prolamine alleles at the Glu-1, Glu-3, Glu-B2 and Gli- 1 loci on quality parameters was also studied. The non significant Variety-by-Year or Variety-by-N interactions suggested that year and N affected all the varieties in a similar manner. Year and N effects were larger than variety effect for P, which increased with N. In contrast, variety genotype exhibited a stronger influence on SDSS test, which was not affected by year and fertilizer. Variety effects on P did not reflect the variety differences for SDSS test. A high positive influence of some prolamin alleles on quality parameters was detected, mainly for SDSS values. No correlation between yield and P was detected in the landraces adapted to low N. Based on the results of yield and quality evaluations, four landraces with high yield and high gluten strength were pre-selected for low N production. (Author)

  5. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  6. Durum Wheat Products%多伦小麦产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. A. HARELAND

    2004-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is tetrapolid (28 chromosomes) and contains two basic genomes (AB), whereas common bread wheat (Triticum spp.) is hexaploid and contains three basic gonomes (ABD). Durum is best adapted to growing in arid regions of the world: Italy and other areas in Southern Europe; Turkey and Syria in the Near East; Morocco and Algeria in Africa; Soviet Union; and Canada and Northern United States in North America. The major uses of durum vary throughout the world. In the U.S. And Europe, durum is used primarily for pasta products, while in the Middle East and North Africa durum is used primarily for bread with lesser amounts used for pasta, couscous, and bulgur. Durum is the hardest of all wheat and typically contains higher average protein content (12%~ 14%)than wheat of other classes. With a general shortage of protein in the world, breeders focus on improving the total amount of protein in wheat. Compared with protein from animal sources and some other grains, wheat protein generally lacks the essential amino acids (eg., lysine) necessary for good nutritional value.However, products that are made with durum are oftentimes fortified to increase nutritional value. The importance of durum in world markets is reflected in the protein composition, ie., gliadins which contribute to dough extensibility and glutenins which contribute to dough elasticity within the gluten protein matrix. Furthermore, the superior cooking quality of pasta products that are made with durum is linked to the high glutenin-gliadin ratio or high percentage of insoluble proteins. Durum is unique for its utility in the production of numerous extruded pasta products in addition to specialty products such as couscous and bulgur. However, durum is also gaining worldwide attention for bread products because of its high water binding capacity, which inhibits the staling process and leads to longer shelf life.%多伦小麦产品(Triticum durum)是四倍体(28个染色体)并包含

  7. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY: Farm... specific requirements for the Durum Wheat Quality Program (DWQP) authorized by the Food, Conservation, and... through 2012 to partially compensate producers for the cost of fungicides applied to durum wheat to...

  8. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  9. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat is known for its very hard texture, which influences how it is milled and for what products it is well suited. We developed soft kernel durum wheat lines via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination with Dr. Leonard Joppa...

  10. Traditional Mediterranean Durum Wheat-Based Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mandato, Sandra; ABECASSIS, JOEL; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; De Vries, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat plays a major role on nutritional, cultural, economic and social development of the Mediterranean basin, where almost two-thirds of the worldwide annual durum wheat production is consumed. The specific features of durum wheat (glassy texture, amber color, high protein level, etc.) makes it suitable to undergo primary and secondary transformations leading to a lot of diverse food products such as pasta, couscous, bulgur, frekeh, a variety of breads and pastries. For ...

  11. Interactive effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on grain yield, canopy temperature, and nitrogen use efficiency in overhead sprinkler-irrigated Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen and irrigation management are crucial in the production of high protein irrigated durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in arid regions. However, as the availability of irrigation water decreases and potential costs and regulation of nitrogen (N) increase, there is a need to understand how ir...

  12. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...

  13. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E; Newman, John W; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch.

  14. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Clustering genotype × environment (GE) interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques) was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars) along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2%of the total sum of squares (TSS), and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm), and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  15. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Clustering genotype × environment(GE) interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis(cluster and ordination techniques) was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat(Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) genotypes(breeding lines and old and new cultivars) along with a popular bread wheat(Triticum aestivum) cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation,accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares(TSS), and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance.Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters(cold and warm), and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  16. Preliminary characterization of an Italian craft durum wheat beer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Dostálek, Pavel; Olšovská, Jana; Del Caro, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    ... (Germany and the Czech Republic). Standard beer chemical analyses, along with volatile and sensorial profiles, were used to characterize the Sardinian craft durum wheat beer. Copyright © 2014 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

  17. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria de Leonardis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L. subsp. turgidum (L. convar. durum (Desf. is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  18. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways. PMID:26703576

  19. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leonardis, Anna Maria; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Beleggia, Romina; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria

    2015-12-19

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) subsp. turgidum (L.) convar. durum (Desf.)) is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C) applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: "Primadur", an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and "T1303", an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry) were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering) and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol) increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in "Primadur", with a general decrease in "T1303". Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  20. Genomic dissection of drought resistance in durum wheat x wild emmer wheat recombinant inbreed line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Abbo, Shahal; Yakir, Dan; Korol, Abraham B; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2009-07-01

    Drought is the major factor limiting wheat productivity worldwide. The gene pool of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, harbours a rich allelic repertoire for morpho-physiological traits conferring drought resistance. The genetic and physiological bases of drought responses were studied here in a tetraploid wheat population of 152 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs), derived from a cross between durum wheat (cv. Langdon) and wild emmer (acc# G18-16), under contrasting water availabilities. Wide genetic variation was found among RILs for all studied traits. A total of 110 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were mapped for 11 traits, with LOD score range of 3.0-35.4. Several QTLs showed environmental specificity, accounting for productivity and related traits under water-limited (20 QTLs) or well-watered conditions (15 QTLs), and in terms of drought susceptibility index (22 QTLs). Major genomic regions controlling productivity and related traits were identified on chromosomes 2B, 4A, 5A and 7B. QTLs for productivity were associated with QTLs for drought-adaptive traits, suggesting the involvement of several strategies in wheat adaptation to drought stress. Fifteen pairs of QTLs for the same trait were mapped to seemingly homoeologous positions, reflecting synteny between the A and B genomes. The identified QTLs may facilitate the use of wild alleles for improvement of drought resistance in elite wheat cultivars.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa Amphiploid and Its Derivatives for Resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Da-hui; LIN Zhi-shan; CHEN Xiao; ZHANG Zeng-yan; CHEN Cai-ceng; CHENG Shun-he; XIN Zhi-yong

    2007-01-01

    Take-all is a serious disease found in wheat across the world. Haynaldia villosa is considered to be resistant to take-all at a high level. TH3 was an amphiploid (2n=42, AABBVV) between Triticum durum and Haynaldia villosa with significant resistance to take-all fungus isolated from China. In greenhouse experiment, the derivatives of the hybrid between wheat and TH3 showed better resistance to take-all than that of the wheat control. One of the derivatives named HW918-5 was selected for further analysis. Cytological and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis indicated that a monotelosome originated from H. villosa existed in the genome of the offspring of the line HW918-5. The monotelosome with promising resistant gene for take-all was located on the 3V chromosome of H. villosa in the further PCR-based molecular analysis.

  2. Structural and functional peculiarities of the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the roots of Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Konnova, Svetlana A; Fedonenko, Yulia P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Smol'kina, Olga N; Kachala, Vadim V; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2011-10-20

    Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum durum, was classified as serogroup II on the basis of serological tests. Such serogroup affiliation is uncharacteristic of wheat-associated Azospirillum species. The lipid A of A. brasilense SR55 lipopolysaccharide contained 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids. The structure of the lipopolysaccharide's O polysaccharide was established, with the branched octasaccharide repeating unit being represented by l-rhamnose, l-3-O-Me-rhamnose, d-galactose and d-glucuronic acid. The SR55 lipopolysaccharide induced deformations of wheat root hairs. The lipopolysaccharide was not involved in bacterial cell aggregation, but its use to pretreat wheat roots was conducive to cell adsorption. This study shows that Azospirillum bacteria can utilise their own lipopolysaccharide as a carbon source, which may give them an advantage in competitive natural environments.

  3. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  4. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  5. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mohammadi; Behzad Sadeghzadeh; Hasan Ahmadi; Nowzar Bahrami; Ahmed Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust (Puccinia stri formis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly (WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera:Cephidae), and abiotic stresses:cold and drought. The main objectives were to (i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and (ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed. Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized. Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4% (yellow rust) to 21.6% (cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight (TKW) and from 19.9 (yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  6. Field evaluation of durum wheat landraces for prevailing abiotic and biotic stresses in highland rainfed regions of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; Mohammadi; Behzad; Sadeghzadeh; Hasan; Ahmadi; Nowzar; Bahrami; Ahmed; Amri

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses are major limiting factors for high crop productivity worldwide. A landrace collection consisting of 380 durum wheat(Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) entries originating in several countries along with four check varieties were evaluated for biotic stresses:yellow rust(Puccinia striiformis Westendorf f. sp. tritici) and wheat stem sawfly(WSS) Cephus cinctus Norton(Hymenoptera: Cephidae), and abiotic stresses: cold and drought. The main objectives were to(i) quantify phenotypic diversity and identify variation in the durum wheat landraces for the different stresses and(ii) characterize the agronomic profiles of landraces in reaction to the stresses. Significant changes in reactions of landraces to stresses were observed.Landraces resistant to each stress were identified and agronomically characterized.Percentage reduction due to the stresses varied from 11.4%(yellow rust) to 21.6%(cold stress) for 1000-kernel weight(TKW) and from 19.9(yellow rust) to 91.9%(cold stress) for grain yield. Landraces from Asia and Europe showed enhanced genetic potential for both grain yield and cold tolerance under highland rainfed conditions of Iran. The findings showed that TKW and yield productivity could be used to assess the response of durum wheat landraces to different stresses. In conclusion, landraces showed high levels of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and selected landraces can serve in durum wheat breeding for adaptation to cold and drought-prone environments.

  7. Mapping QTLs for Yield Stability in Durum Wheat Grown under Different Water Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C. Sanguineti; A. E1-Ahmed; I. Elouafi; F. Maalouf; V. Martos; M.M. Nachit; N.Nserallah; H. Ouabbou; Y. Rharrabti; S. Rhouma; C. Royo; M. Maccaferri; A. Slama; D. Villegas; R. Tuberosa; E. Natoli; J.L. Araus-Ortega; M.B. Salem; J.Bort; E. de Ambrogio; L.F.G. del Moral; A. de Montis

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among the most important Mediterranean annual crops, durum wheat is widely grown in drought-prone areas. Therefore, improving water-use efficiency (WUE) of durum wheat represents a major breeding goal.

  8. Stability Valuation of Some Mixtures between Foliar Fertilizers and Combined Herbicides for the Grain Yield of Durum Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    DELCHEV, Grozi; ZHELYAZKOVA, Tsenka; STOYANOVA, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    The research was conducted during 2010 - 2012 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Predel, which belongs to Triticum durum var. valenciae Desf. Factor A included years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 foliar fertilizers - Lactofol O 8 l ha-1, Terra-sorb - 3 l ha-1, Humustim - 1 l ha-1. Factor C included weeded no treated check and 3 combined herbicides – Axial one - 1 l ha-1, Hussar max OD – 1 l ha-1, Palace 75 WG - 250...

  9. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  10. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-08-25

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  11. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana Paramjit; Patnaik Debasis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic tra...

  12. Validation and application of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect common wheat adulteration of durum wheat for pasta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Omiccioli, Enrica; Ceppetelli, Veronica; Del Mastro, Michele; Rotundo, Luca; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Pasta is the Italian product par excellence and it is now popular worldwide. Pasta of a superior quality is made with pure durum wheat. In Italy, addition of Triticum aestivum (common wheat) during manufacturing is not allowed and, without adequate labeling, its presence is considered an adulteration. PCR-related techniques can be employed for the detection of common wheat contaminations. In this work, we demonstrated that a previously published method for the detection of T. aestivum, based on the gliadin gene, is inadequate. Moreover, a new molecular method, based on DNA extraction from semolina and real-time PCR determination of T. aestivum in Triticum spp., was validated. This multiplex real-time PCR, based on the dual-labeled probe strategy, guarantees target detection specificity and sensitivity in a short period of time. Moreover, the molecular analysis of common wheat contamination in commercial wheat and flours is described for the first time.

  13. Molecular markers as a complementary tool in risk assessments: quantifying interspecific gene flow from triticale to spring wheat and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Vanessa B; Hills, Melissa J; Goyal, Aakash; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Topinka, A Keith; Eudes, Francois; Hall, Linda M

    2013-08-01

    Triticale is being considered as a bioindustrial crop in Canada using genetic modification. Because related spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. durum) may exhibit synchronous flowering and grow in proximity, determination of interspecific gene flow when triticale is the pollen donor is necessary to evaluate potential risk. Pollen-mediated gene flow risk assessments generally rely on phenotypic markers to detect hybridization but DNA markers could be powerful and less ambiguous in quantifying rare interspecific gene flow. Six cultivars representing four species [spring wheat, durum wheat, triticale and rye (Secale cereale)] were screened with 235 spring wheat and 27 rye SSR markers to evaluate transferability and polymorphism. Fifty-five polymorphic markers were used in conjunction with morphological characterization to quantify interspecific gene flow from a blue aleurone (BA) triticale line to two spring wheat cultivars (AC Barrie and AC Crystal) and one durum wheat cultivar (AC Avonlea). Approximately 1.9 Million seeds from small plot experiments were visually screened in comparison with known hybrid seed. In total 2031 putative hybrids were identified and 448 germinated. Morphological analysis of putative hybrid plants identified five hybrids while molecular analysis identified 11 hybrids and two were common to both. Combined, 14 hybrids were confirmed: 10 spring wheat × triticale (0.0008 % of harvested seed): seven AC Barrie × BA triticale (0.001 %) and three AC Crystal × BA triticale (0.0005 %); and four durum wheat × triticale (0.0006 %). The occurrence of rare hybrids does not present a substantial risk to the development of GM triticale.

  14. Genetic transformation of mature embryos of bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A; Youssef, Sawsan S; Soliman, Mohamed H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop an efficient protocol for regeneration of transgenic wheat plants using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of mature embryos of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tetraploid pasta wheat (Triticum durum). The data indicated that embryogenic calli were formed within 7 days in the presence of 2 mgl-1 2,4-D. Adventitious shoots emerged from the embryonic calli in the presence of 2 mgl-1 BA. Shoot regeneration frequency varied between wheat cultivars according to their genetic background differences. Regeneration frequency was higher in the cultivar Gemmiza 10 (95 %) compared with the other cultivars tested. Mature embryos derived callus of the cultivars Gemmiza 10 and Gemmiza 9 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI-121 containing the neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene (npt-II). The resulted putative transgenic plantlets were able to grow on kanamycin containing medium. A successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by analyzing the T0 plantlets using Southern hybridization and PCR amplification. The gus gene expression can be detected only in the transgenic plants. The reported protocol is reproducible and can be used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants expressing the genes present in A. tumifaciens binary vectors.

  15. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  16. Linkage disequilibrium and genome-wide association mapping in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidò, Giovanni; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful tool for the identification of quantitative trait loci through the exploitation of the differential decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker loci and genes of interest in natural and domesticated populations. Using a sample of 230 tetraploid wheat lines (Triticum turgidum ssp), which included naked and hulled accessions, we analysed the pattern of LD considering 26 simple sequence repeats and 970 mostly mapped diversity array technology loci. In addition, to validate the potential for association mapping in durum wheat, we evaluated the same genotypes for plant height, heading date, protein content, and thousand-kernel weight. Molecular and phenotypic data were used to: (i) investigate the genetic and phenotypic diversity; (ii) study the dynamics of LD across the durum wheat genome, by investigating the patterns of LD decay; and (iii) test the potential of our panel to identify marker-trait associations through the analysis of four quantitative traits of major agronomic importance. Moreover, we compared and validated the association mapping results with outlier detection analysis based on population divergence. Overall, in tetraploid wheat, the pattern of LD is extremely population dependent and is related to the domestication and breeding history of durum wheat. Comparing our data with several other studies in wheat, we confirm the position of many major genes and quantitative trait loci for the traits considered. Finally, the analysis of the selection signature represents a very useful complement to validate marker-trait associations.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  18. Cadmium uptake and translocation in seedlings of near isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Gregory J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium (Cd concentrations in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum grain grown in North American prairie soils often exceed proposed international trade standards. To understand the physiological processes responsible for elevated Cd accumulation in shoots and grain, Cd uptake and translocation were studied in seedlings of a pair of near-isogenic durum wheat lines, high and low for Cd accumulation in grain. Results In short-term studies (109Cd-labelled nutrient solutions, there were no differences between lines in time- or concentration-dependent 109Cd accumulation by roots. In contrast, rates of 109Cd translocation from roots to shoots following longer exposure (48–60 h were 1.8-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating line, despite equal whole-plant 109Cd accumulation in the lines. Over the same period, the 109Cd concentration in root-pressure xylem exudates was 1.7 to 1.9-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating line. There were no differences between the lines in 65Zn accumulation or partitioning that could account for the difference between lines in 109Cd translocation. Conclusion These results suggest that restricted root-to-shoot Cd translocation may limit Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain by directly controlling Cd translocation from roots during grain filling, or by controlling the size of shoot Cd pools that can be remobilised to the grain.

  19. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  20. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes by cDNA-AFLP Technique in Response to Drought Stress in Triticum durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Melloul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the single largest abiotic stress factor leading to reduced crop yields. The identification of diff erentially expressed genes and the understanding of their functions in environmentally stressful conditions are essential to improve drought tolerance. Transcriptomics is a powerful approach for the global analysis of molecular mechanisms under abiotic stress. To identify genes that are important for drought tolerance, we analyzed mRNA populations from untreated and drought-stressed leaves of Triticum durum by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. Overall, 76 transcript-derived fragments corresponding to differentially induced transcripts were successfully sequenced. Most of the transcripts identified here, using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST database, were genes belonging to different functional categories related to metabolism, energy, cellular biosynthesis, cell defense, signal transduction, transcription regulation, protein degradation and transport. The expression patterns of these genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR based on ten selected genes representing different patterns. These results could facilitate the understanding of cellular mechanisms involving groups of genes that act in coordination in response to stimuli of water deficit. The identification of novel stress-responsive genes will provide useful data that could help develop breeding strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.

  1. Molecular Diversity and Genetic Structure of Durum Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GULNAR SHIKHSEYIDOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the genetic diversity of durum wheat, 41 accessions from Morocco, Ethiopia, Turkey, Lebanon, Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia were analyzed through Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR molecular markers. Out of the used twenty primers, 15 primers that included a considerable polymorphism were selected for the analyses. Among the genotypes under study, 163 fragments (73.7% were polymorph. Several indexes were used to determine the most appropriate primers. While UBC812, UBC864, UBC840, and UBC808 primers were among those markers which produced the highest number of bands and polymorphic bands, they also dedicated the highest rate of polymorphic index content (PIC. These primers also possessed the highest amounts of effective multiplex ratio (EMR and marker index (MI. Therefore, these primers can be recommended for genetic evaluation of the durum wheat. The results of cluster analysis and principle component analysis indicated that the observed genetic diversity in wheat materials under study is geographically structured. The results also indicated that the genetic diversity index based on ISSR markers was higher for Turkey, Lebanon, Morocco, and Ethiopia accessions than for other countries. The high level of polymorphism in this collections durum wheat would agree with the suggestion that Fertile Crescent and parts of Africa are first possible diversity center of this crop.

  2. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

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    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  3. Novos genótipos de triticum durum L.: rendimento, adaptabilidade e qualidade tecnológica New genotypes of triticum durum L.: grain yield, adaptability and technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO CARLOS FELICIO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezoito genótipos de Triticum durum L. e dois de Triticum aestivum L. em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão em diferentes regiões tritícolas paulistas, durante o período de 1995-97. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo da emergência à maturação, resistência às manchas foliares causadas por helmintosporiose, adaptabilidade, estabilidade, e qualidade tecnológica. O IAC 24 (T. aestivum foi o mais produtivo, não diferindo dos genótipos de T. durum ALTAR/STN (12, MEMOS "S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S" (17, STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79//HUI"S" (6, ALTAR/STN (11 e WIN"S"/SBA81A//STIL"S" (14 na comparação das médias para rendimento de grãos. Verificou-se que, em Ribeirão Preto, o rendimento médio de grãos foi de 5.332 kg/ha no período. Observaram-se valores semelhantes do coeficiente de determinação (R2 para a maioria dos genótipos estudados, exceto para IAC 24 e IAC 1001. Este e o Anahuac apresentaram-se instáveis quanto à produção de grãos nos ambientes desfavoráveis e estável nos favoráveis, ao contrário do IAC 24. As infecções do agente causal de mancha-foliar foram baixas, sendo as ocorrências mais generalizadas em Tatuí. Os melhores genótipos de T. durum em relação à qualidade tecnológica foram os tratamentos IAC 1003 (1, SCO"S"/3/BD1814//BD708/BD1543/4/ROK"S" (13, Altar 84 (15 e MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S" (17, enquadrando-se os demais genótipos na classificação de farinha (sêmola médio-fraca, produzindo massa de má qualidade. Estimou-se que as variáveis: tempo de desenvolvimento, sedimentação, índice de tolerância à mistura, energia de deformação da massa, número de queda, tenacidade versus elasticidade (P/L e estabilidade seriam, em ordem de importância, parâmetros a considerar na seleção de cada genótipo, conjuntamente com o rendimento de grãos e sua adaptabilidade.Eighteen durum

  4. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  5. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

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    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  6. Long-term durum wheat monoculture: modelling and future projection

    OpenAIRE

    Ettore Bernardoni; Marco Acutis; Domenico Ventrella

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of future climate change on grain production of a winter durum wheat cropping system were investigated. Based on future climate change projections, derived from a statistical downscaling process applied to the HadCM3 general circulation model and referred to two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B1), the response on yield and aboveground biomass (AGB) and the variation in total organic carbon (TOC) were explored. The software used in this work is an hybrid dynamic simulation model ...

  7. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

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    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  8. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat.

  9. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

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    Alessandro Masoni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  10. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  11. Effect of phytoliths for mitigating water stress in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Dominique; Barboni, Doris; Anwar-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Levard, Clément; Chaurand, Perrine; Vidal, Vladimir; Grauby, Olivier; Huc, Roland; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle; Rabier, Jacques; Keller, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic and abiotic stresses in crops is well evidenced by empirical studies; however, the mechanisms by which it works are still poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not phytolith composition and distribution in wheat are affected by drought and, if so, why. Durum wheat was grown using hydroponics in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 to perform a water-stress simulation. We developed an original method for in situ analysis of phytoliths in leaves via X-ray imaging. PEG was efficient in inhibiting water uptake by roots and creating stress, and prevented a small fraction of Si from being accumulated in the shoots. The application of Si with PEG maintained shoot and root fresh weights (FW) and relative water content at higher values than for plants without Si, especially at PEG 12%. Our data show that, under water stress in the presence of Si, accumulation of phytoliths over the veins provides better support to the leaf, thus allowing for a better development of the whole plant than in the absence of Si. The development of silicified trichomes in durum wheat depends primarily on the availability of Si in soil and is not an adaptation to water stress. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L. Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data.

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    Giovanni Laidò

    Full Text Available Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2, both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg and brittle rachis (Br characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles.

  14. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  15. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  16. Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate

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    Laura Ercoli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night. Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.

  17. Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mariotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night. Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.

  18. Resistance to Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus in durum wheat is controlled by a major QTL on chromosome arm 2BS and minor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ratti, Claudio; Rubies-Autonell, Concepcion; Vallega, Victor; Demontis, Andrea; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna

    2011-08-01

    Soil-borne cereal mosaic (SBCM) is a viral disease, which seriously affects hexaploid as well as tetraploid wheat crops in Europe. In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the elite germplasm is characterized by a wide range of responses to SBCMV, from susceptibility to almost complete resistance. In this study, the genetic analysis of SBCMV resistance was carried out using a population of 181 durum wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) obtained from Meridiano (resistant) × Claudio (moderately susceptible), which were profiled with SSR and DArT markers. The RILs were characterized for SBCMV response in the field under severe and uniform SBCMV infection during 2007 and 2008. A wide range of disease reactions (as estimated by symptom severity and DAS-ELISA) was observed. A large portion of the variability for SBCMV response was explained by a major QTL (QSbm.ubo-2BS) located in the distal telomeric region of chromosome 2BS near the marker triplet Xbarc35-Xwmc661-Xgwm210, with R(2) values ranging from 51.6 to 91.6%. The favorable allele was contributed by Meridiano. Several QTLs with minor effects on SBCMV response were also detected. Consistently with the observed transgressive segregation, the resistance alleles at minor QTLs were contributed by both parents. The presence and effects of QSbm.ubo-2BS were validated through association mapping in a panel of 111 elite durum wheat accessions.

  19. Evaluation of crossability between triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and common wheat, durum wheat and rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Melissa J; Hall, Linda M; Messenger, Doug F; Graf, Robert J; Beres, Brian L; Eudes, François

    2007-01-01

    Development of transgenic triticale as a platform for novel bio-industrial products is predicated on an environmental biosafety assessment that quantifies the potential risks associated with its release. Pollen-mediated gene flow to related species and conventional triticale varieties is one pathway for transgene movement. A tier 1 quantification of triticale hybridization was conducted by emasculating and hand pollinating flowers under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 2000 manual pollinations were conducted for each cross and its reciprocal between two triticale genotypes: a modern triticale cultivar (AC Alta) and primary triticale (89TT108), and common wheat, durum wheat and rye. The frequency of outcrossing, hybrid seed appearance and weight, and F(1) emergence and fertility were recorded. Outcrossing, F(1) emergence and fertility rates were high from crosses between triticale genotypes. Outcrossing in inter-specific crosses was influenced by the species, and the genotype and gender of the triticale parent. In crosses to common and durum wheat where triticale was the male parent, outcrossing was > or =73.0% and > or =69.5%, respectively, but triticale was the female parent. Overall, outcrossing with rye was lower than with common and durum wheat. F(1) hybrid emergence was greater when triticale was the female parent. With the exception of a single seed, all wheat-triticale F(1) hybrid seeds were non-viable when triticale was the male parent in the cross. Only seven durum wheat-triticale F(1) hybrids emerged from 163 seeds sown, and all were produced with triticale 89TT108 as female parent. With rye, 8 F(1) hybrids emerged from 38 seeds sown, and all were produced from crosses to AC Alta; five with AC Alta as the female parent and three as the male. Interspecific F(1) hybrids were self-sterile, with the exception of those produced in crosses between common wheat and triticale where triticale was the female parent. Tier 2 hybridization quantification will be

  20. Soluble free phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of bread and durum wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant capacity in the grain of ten bread (T. aestivum L. and ten durum (T. durum Desf. wheat genotypes. Soluble free forms of total phenolics, flavonoids, PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone bound phenolics, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were investigated. In addition, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant capacities and the concentration of different soluble free phenolic compounds, as well as between soluble free total phenolics and phenolic acids, flavonoids and PVPP bound phenolics were determined. Significant differences in the content of aceton/water extractable total phenolics, PVPP bound phenolics and phenolic acids between and within two wheat species were found. On the average, durum wheat samples had about 1.19-fold higher total phenolic compounds and about 1.5-fold higher PVPP bound phenolics than bread wheat samples. Three phenolic acids, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic, were detected in wholemeal bread wheat. Caffeic acid was not found in durum wheat samples whilst ferulic acid was the most abundant. Proanthocyanidins in bread and durum wheat genotypes were not detected. The antioxidant capacity measured as the DPPH radical scavenging activity was similar in wholemeal of bread and durum wheat, however, significant differences were observed among genotypes within species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31069

  1. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  2. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY ROOTS OF DURUM WHEAT PLANTS

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    Lyubka Koleva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Root Cd uptake of durum wheat plants (cv. Beloslava was characterized in hydroponics conditions. The uptake experiments have been performed in Cd concentration range of 0 – 2 μM adjusted by both stable Cd and radiolabeled (109Cd tracer. Cd removal from the solution over duration of 1 hour reached 50%. The part of loosely adsorbed Cd ions on root surface accounted for about 20%. Over 30% of absorbed Cd at 0.5 μM Cd treatment was retained in root cell walls. The apparent root Cd accumulation showed concentration-dependant tendency with the highest accumulation value of 7.45 nmol Cd g FW-1.

  4. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  5. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum, TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm, longitud de las espigas (cm, masa de mil granos (g y rendimiento agrícola (t.ha-1. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva para cada una de las variables estudiadas, estimándose la media y desviación típica por especie. La variedad cubana de trigo harinero CC-204 fue utilizada como control. La matriz de datos obtenida (genotipo x variable fue procesada mediante la técnica multivariada de Componentes Principales. Los datos para todos los análisis estadísticos se ejecutaron por el paquete estadístico SPSS 11. 0 para Windows. La mayoría de los genotipos tuvieron un comportamiento medio general, aunque se separaron del resto algunos genotipos de trigo harinero y triticale. Los valores de la media y desviación estándar para las variables analizadas muestran que no fue posible distinguir diferencias por especie, aunque las plantas de trigo duro fueron las de menor altura, siendo los mejores genotipos: 12 y 54 de la especie T. aestivum (trigo harinero; 17, 18 y 25 de T. durum (trigo duro; 29 y 37 del X Triticum secale (tritic

  6. Quantitative inheritance of resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch, causal agent Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot. (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici Desm., is the major foliar disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Tunisia causing frequent epidemics on T. turgidum L. var. durum (Desf. Bowden, and important yield and grain quality losses. To determine the inheritance of resistance to septoria, a cross was made using resistant ('Salim' and susceptible ('Karim' cultivars. Parents, and the 149 derived recombinant lines, were tested for resistance to septoria under field conditions during the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. The inheritance of resistance to septoria was quantitative where a continuous and normal distribution (W = 0.93 was shown among segregate progenies. During 2009 and 2010 crop seasons, the mean disease severities of recombinant inbred lines (RILs ranged from 29.1% to 41.8%, respectively, and 53% of RILs were associated with lower disease severity than the mid-parent value. The severity was significantly affected by Genotype x Year interaction (p < 0.01. Broad sense heritability was 0.55 suggesting a quantitative inheritance of resistance to M. graminicola. These results would imply that genetic resistance to STB could be attributed to additive gene effects. Thus, using identified sources of tolerance to STB in a breeding program would enhance the development of cultivars that are adapted to the prevailing isolates in field conditions.

  7. High molecular weight glutenin subunits in some durum wheat cultivars investigated by means of mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccilli, Vera; Lo Bianco, Marisol; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Gallo, Giulia; Foti, Salvatore

    2011-11-23

    The primary structures of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) of 5 Triticum durum Desf. cultivars (Simeto, Svevo, Duilio, Bronte, and Sant'Agata), largely cultivated in the south of Italy, and of 13 populations of the old spring Sicilian durum wheat landrace Timilia (Triticum durum Desf.) (accession nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, SG1, SG2, and SG3) were investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography/nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS). M(r) of the intact proteins determined by MALDI mass spectrometry showed that all the 13 populations of Timilia contained the same two HMW-GS with 75.2 kDa and 86.4 kDa, whereas the other durum wheat cultivars showed the presence of the expected HMW-GS 1By8 and 1Bx7 at 75.1 kDa and 83.1 kDa, respectively. By MALDI mass spectrometry of the tryptic digestion peptides of the isolated HMW-GS of Timilia, the 1Bx and 1By subunits were identified as the NCBInr Acc. No AAQ93629, and AAQ93633, respectively. Sequence verification for HMW-GS 1Bx and 1By both in Simeto and Timilia was obtained by MALDI mass mapping and HPLC/nESI-MSMS of the tryptic peptides. The Bx subunit of Timila presents a sequence similarity of 96% with respect to Simeto, with differences in the insertion of 3 peptides of 5, 9, and 15 amino acids, for a total insertion of 29 amino acids and 25 amino acid substitutions. These differences in the amino acidic sequence account for the determined Δm of 3294 Da between the M(r) of the 1Bx subunits in Timilia and Simeto. Sequence alignment between the two By subunits shows 10 amino acid substitutions and is consistent with the Δm of 148 Da found in the MALDI mass spectra of the intact subunits.

  8. Isolation and Analysis of α-Gliadin Gene Coding Sequences from Triticum durum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-yan; WEI Yu-ming; ZE Hong-yan; ZHENG You-liang

    2007-01-01

    Three coding sequences of gliadins genes, designed as Gli2_Du1, Gli2_Du2 and Gli2_Du3, were isolated from the genomic DNA of Triticum durum accessions CItr5083. Gli2_Du1 and Gli2_Du2 contain 945 and 864 bp, encoding the mature proteins with 314 and 287 amino acid residues, respectively. Gli2_Du3 is recognized as a pseudogene due to the stop codon occurring in the coding region. The pseudogenes, commonly occurring in gliadins family, are attributed to the single base change C → T. The amino acid sequences deduced from these gene sequences were characterized with the typical structure of α-gliadin proteins, including the toxic sequences (PSQQQP). The peptide fraction PF(Y)PP(Q)is thought to be an extra unit of repetitive domain, slightly diverging from the previous report. Six cysteine residues were observed within two unique domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed Gli2_Du2 and Gli2_Du3 were closely related to the genes on chromosome 6A, whereas Gli2_Du1 seems to be more homologous with the genes on chromosome 6B.

  9. Analysis of gluten proteins composition during grain filling in two durum wheat cultivars submitted to two water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Michela Giuliani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum is one of the major crops in the Mediterranean basin, where water stress often occurs during grain filling which represents a critical stage for the synthesis and accumulation of storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins. The aim of the study is to evaluate, by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE SDS-PAGE, the storage proteins composition of two durum wheat cultivars (Ciccio and Svevo cultivated in a growth chamber under two different water regimes (control and water deficit. At milk stage and physiological maturity, gluten proteins have been extracted and separated by 2DE SDS-PAGE. The analysis of the gels was performed by the software ImageMaster 2D Platinum (Amersham. The results showed differences in protein expression within the different gel regions between water regimes and cultivars; under water deficit the rate of protein accumulation was faster for all the protein regions, either at milk and physiological stage. Protein accumulation within high molecular weight (H region resulted faster in Ciccio than in Svevo mainly in the control treatment. In the low molecular weight region between 48 and 35 kDa (L 48-35, the cultivar Ciccio showed a higher protein expression than Svevo. Furthermore under water deficit a marked increase in H region volume and a decrease in the L 48-35 region was observed only for Svevo; instead in Ciccio no change was observed showing this cultivar a greater stability on changing water regime. Further studies by the use of mass spectrometry are necessary to identify specific peptides relative to drought stress during grain filling as well as to investigate the relationships with technological quality.

  10. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

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    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  11. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Budak; Melda Kantar; Kuaybe Yucebilgili Kurtoglu

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of c...

  12. Optimising nitrogen in order to improve the efficiency, eco-physiology, yield and quality on one cultivar of durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tedone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment was carried out in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of different combinations of nitrogen (N fertilizer rates (0, 55, 90, 135 kg ha–1, time of application (sowing, tillering, stem elongation and number of nitrogen applications on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., var. durum. A total of eight different combinations - in terms of quantity and time of application - were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil plant analysis development was analysed along with leaf area index, grain and straw yield, plant height, plant lodging, thousand-kernel weight, non-vitreous kernels, shrunken and discarded kernels, hectolitre weight, grain protein content, and sodium dodecylsulfate sedimentation. Nitrogen contents of soil, grain and straw were measured in order to assess nitrogen efficiency. The results showed the positive effect of increased nitrogen dosages of 90 and 135 kg ha–1. The optimization of nitrogen administration increased by splitting the nitrogen into three application times, as shown by the eco-physiological, productive and qualitative parameters, and the nitrogen efficiency parameters measured (N application efficiency and N recovery fraction.

  13. Physical localization of NORs and ITS length variants in old Portuguese durum wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-04-01

    The variation at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA has been correlated with the number of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in some plant species. Besides, the number of NORs might influence the rate of homogenization of the rDNA repeats. In recent studies, ITS length variants were detected in bread wheat cultivars but no reports about their presence in durum wheat were found. In the present study, we localized and identified the NORs of 51 old Portuguese durum wheat cultivars by using sequential silver staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with the pTa71 rDNA probe. We also detected ITS length variants by PCR-RFLP. No variation at the number of Ag-NORs per metaphase was found among the 51 durum wheat cultivars, but the PCR-RFLP technique carried out with the restriction enzyme HpaII, allowed the detection of ITS length variants among them. The molecular data was used in order to establish the genetic relationships among cultivars and botanical varieties of durum wheat. The knowledge of this feature could be useful for future design of breeding strategies, involving this collection that constitutes an excellent repository of germplasm in Portugal.

  14. Effect of Salt Stress on Grain Reserve Composition in Ten Durum Wheat Cultivars

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    Sonia Kahrizi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Saline soils are defined as those that contain sufficient soluble salts in the root zone to impair plant growth. Wheat is one of the three major cereals dominating world agriculture to date. Durum wheat is the hardest wheat and the concept of durum wheat quality is complex and confusing. Quality factors such as protein content, gluten strength and color have different priorities in various durum wheat markets. Changes in the grain quality of ten durum wheat cultivars under salt stress studied at the greenhouse condition. A factorial experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were salinity including 0, 60 and 120 mM and ten durum wheat cultivars (Boomer, PGS, 71135, 61130,605, C1351, KND, KDM, Haurani and G1252. Biochemical grain reserves such total protein and carbohydrate content, gluten, phosphorous and beta carotene were measured. Results showed that interaction of salt and cultivars was significant for all studied traits except of beta-carotene. At this experiment, gluten content changed very little with salinity levels. Cultivar 71135 at all salinity levels had the highest gluten content. With increasing of salt severity, the content of protein and carbohydrate decreased and content of phosphorous increased compared with control. In 60 mM salinity, cultivars 61130 and 71135, in 120 mM, 71135 and KDM and in control, 61130 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest content of protein. Cultivars 71135 and 61130 had the highest and PGS had the lowest phosphorous content in control. At 60 mM, cultivars 71135 and PGS respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. At 120mM, 71135 and Haurani respectively, had the highest and lowest phosphorous content. In three salt levels, cultivar 71135 was determined as the most tolerant cultivar according to content of grain reserve composition results.

  15. Identification and mapping of leaf, stem and stripe rust resistance quantitative trait loci and their interactions in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G

    2013-02-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding.

  16. Barium concentration in grain of Aegilops and Triticum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of barium in grain of various Aegilops and Triticum species with different genomes. The studied species differed significantly with respect to the concentration of barium. The grain of wild diploid Aegilops speltoides, the donor of B genome, contained significantly higher Ba concentration than all other analyzed genotypes. Wild and cultivated tetraploid wheats (Triticum diciccoides, Triticum dicoccon, Triticum turgidum and Triticum durum had the lowest Ba concentration in grain. The modern cultivated hexaploid varieties presented substantial variation in grain concentration of barium. The highest Ba concentration (3.42 mg/kg occurred in Serbian winter wheat variety Panonnia.

  17. Polymorphism of omega-gliadins in durum wheat as revealed by the two-step APAGE/SDS-PAGE technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Taladriz, M T; Branlard, G; Dardevet, M

    1994-03-01

    Polymorphism of omega-gliadins was studied in 243 durum wheats from 27 countries using the two-step one-dimensional APAGE/SDS-PAGE technique. A total of 12 bands of different mobility were observed, and four of them were found to be different from those previously detected by Khelifi et al. (1992) in bread wheat. Fifteen alleles, six coded by the Gli-A1 locus and nine coded by the Gli-B1 locus, were identified, accounting for 19 different electrophoretic patterns. Seven new alleles were detected: two at the Gli-A1 locus and five at the Gli-B1 locus. The polymorphism found at the Gli-A1 and Gli-B1 loci was slightly greater than that found in bread wheat. Allelic differences between both species were higher at the Gli-B1 locus. A comparison of the frequencies of alleles in both species was carried out. The null allele, Gli-A1e, was more common in durum wheat than in bread wheat. The Gli-B1b allele, present in 60% of the bread wheats, was found in only 2% of the durum wheats and Gli-B1e, very common in durum wheat (45%), was rare in bread wheat (4%). The Gli-B1IV allele, common in durum wheat (28%), was not detected in bread wheat.

  18. Effets de la vitesse et de la durée du remplissage du grain ainsi que de l'accumulation des assimilats de la tige dans l'élaboration du rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf. dans les conditions de culture des hautesplaines orientales d'Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmahammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of speed and the duration of grain filling and the accumulation of the assimilates of the stem in developing the durum wheat yield (Triticum durum Desf. in the culture conditions of the high plains of eastern Algeria. The present study was led on the experimental site of station ITGC in Setif. The objective is to determine the differences of duration and speed of filling and the contribution of the assimilates of the stems to the yield of 5 durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.. The year effect is significant, what explains the fluctuation of the conditions of one growth year to another. The grain yield is associated to the great quantity of assimilates stored and transferred from the stems to the grain filling. The Mbb genotype which has an important stem height transfers more assimilates. The genotypes ADS497 and Deraa present large standard leaves. The beginning of the active phase of the grain filling corresponds to the beginning of the foliar senescence. Mbb presents a slower foliar drying rate, the speed of drying stationary recorded by ADS497 is of -0.5957 cm2 per day. The speed of grain filling is negatively related to the duration of filling. The participation of the assimilates coming from the stem decreases when the environment allows the expression of a better grain yield.

  19. Long-term durum wheat monoculture: modelling and future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Bernardoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of future climate change on grain production of a winter durum wheat cropping system were investigated. Based on future climate change projections, derived from a statistical downscaling process applied to the HadCM3 general circulation model and referred to two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B1, the response on yield and aboveground biomass (AGB and the variation in total organic carbon (TOC were explored. The software used in this work is an hybrid dynamic simulation model able to simulate, under different pedoclimatic conditions, the processes involved in cropping system such as crop growth and development, water and nitrogen balance. It implements different approaches in order to ensure accurate simulation of the mainprocess related to soil-crop-atmosphere continuum.The model was calibrated using soil data, crop yield, AGB and phenology coming from a long-term experiment, located in Apulia region. The calibration was performed using data collected in the period 1978–1990; validation was carried out on the 1991–2009 data. Phenology simulation was sufficiently accurate, showing some limitation only in predicting the physiological maturity. Yields and AGBs were predicted with an acceptable accuracy during both calibration and validation. CRM resulted always close to optimum value, EF in every case scored positive value, the value of index r2 was good, although in some cases values lower than 0.6 were calculated. Slope of the linear regression equation between measured and simulated values was always close to 1, indicating an overall good performance of the model. Both future climate scenarios led to a general increase in yields but a slightly decrease in AGB values. Data showed variations in the total production and yield among the different periods due to the climate variation. TOC evolution suggests that the combination of temperature and precipitation is the main factor affecting TOC variation under future scenarios

  20. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  2. Nutritional properties of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2014-03-15

    The hulled wheat einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum), a staple food of early farmers for many thousand years, today is cropped only in small areas of the Mediterranean region and continental Europe. Increasing attention to the nutritional quality of foods has fostered renewed interest in this low-impact crop. The reappraisal of einkorn quality evidenced that this ancient wheat has some dietary advantages over polyploid wheats. Einkorn wholemeal is poor in dietary fibre but rich in proteins, lipids (mostly unsaturated fatty acids), fructans and trace elements (including zinc and iron). The good concentration of several antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, tocols, conjugated polyphenols, alkylresorcinols and phytosterols) and low β-amylase and lipoxygenase activities (which limit antioxidant degradation during food processing) contribute to the excellent nutritional properties of its flour, superior to those of other wheats. Conversely, einkorn has relatively low bound polyphenol content and high polyphenol oxidase activity. In spite of eliciting weaker toxic reactions than other Triticum species, einkorn is not suitable for coeliacs. Current trends towards the consumption of functional foods suggest that this cereal may still play a significant role in human consumption, especially in the development of new or special foods with superior nutritional quality.

  3. Khorasan wheat population researching (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum (McKey in the minimum tillage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat occupies a special place in the group of new-old cereals (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum McKey. It is an ancient species, native to eastern Persia, that is very close to durum wheat by morphological characteristics. Investigations were carried out in agro ecological conditions of the eastern Srem, with two wheat populations with dark and bright awns as objects of study. The following morphological and productive characteristics were investigated: plant height (PH, spike length (SH, number of spikelets per spike (NSS, absolute weight (AW and grain weight per spike (GW, seed germination (G and grains yield (YG. Field micro-experiments were set on the carbonate chernozem soil type on loess plateau in 2011 and 2012. Hand wheat sowing was conducted in early March with drill row spacing of 12 cm. The experiment was established as complete randomized block system with four replications. Tending crops measures were not applied during the growing season. Plants were grown without usage of NPK mineral nutrients. Chemical crop protection measures were not applied, although powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis was appeared before plants spike formation in a small extent. The results showed that both populations have a genetic yield potential. In general, both populations manifested a satisfactory tolerance on lodging and there was no seed dispersal. Plants from bright awns population were higher, had longer spikes and larger number of spikelet’s per spike. However, plants from dark awns population had higher absolute weight and grains weight per spike, as well as grain yield per plant. Strong correlation connections were identified among the investigated characteristics. The determination of correlations, as well as direct and indirect affects, enabled easier understanding of the mutual relationships and their balancing in order to improve the yield per unit area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31078 i br. TR 31022

  4. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masci Stefania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium. Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable.

  5. Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Durum wheat is the most important C3 rainfed crop in southern Sardinia, Italy and is highly vulnerable to climate variability. This region has experienced severe drought conditions and problems of competing water demands during the last decades. Within the framework of European (1) and Regional (2) research projects, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased maximum temperature and high rainfall variability on durum wheat yield, as part of an effort to devise strategies for water management and adaptation at the field and catchment scales in southern Sardinia. Towards this goal, the AquaCrop model was calibrated and its predictive performance was tested in the period from 1995 to 2012 using daily meteorological data and durum wheat (CV Creso) yield measurements from the experimental fields of the Agris Research Agency in Ussana (Sardinia, Italy). During the verification period, the model showed a good performance with a significant correlation between observed and simulated yield for durum wheat and a very good estimation of the water stress conditions during the drought period in 1995. Next, four future scenarios of climate change were simulated with AquaCrop to predict wheat yield responses and to investigate water availability for rainfed and irrigated crops for the 30-year periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The simulated future scenarios show potential improved productivity arising from the increased CO2 concentration. This positive outlook is however tempered by increased uncertainty and fluctuations in rainfall during the fall and early winter periods (September-December). The possible tradeoffs between these factors, as well as the expected negative effects of increased maximum temperatures, are being further examined. (1) Climate Induced Changes in the Mediterranean Region (CLIMB), funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. (2) Valutazione degli impatti sul comportamento idrologico dei bacini idrografici e sulle

  6. Landrace groups of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Bread wheat was introduced in the Old World some 8000 years ago. Owing to local specific natural and human selection a landrace spread over a large area fragmented into locally adapted landraces. These related landraces can be grouped again in a landrace group indicating their evolution from a commo

  7. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation.

  8. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  9. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %).

  10. Use of purple durum wheat to produce naturally functional fresh and dry pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; De Simone, Vanessa; De Leonardis, Anna Maria; Giovanniello, Valentina; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Lecce, Lucia; Borrelli, Grazia Maria; De Vita, Pasquale

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the effects of different milling procedures (roller-milling vs. stone-milling) and pasta processing (fresh vs. dried spaghetti), and cooking on the antioxidant components and sensory properties of purple durum wheat were investigated. Milling and pasta processing were performed using one purple and one conventional non-pigmented durum wheat genotypes, and the end-products were compared with commercial pasta. The results show that the stone milling process preserved more compounds with high health value (total fibre and carotenoids, and in the purple genotype, also anthocyanins) compared to roller-milling. The drying process significantly (ppasta production. The sensory properties of pasta from the purple genotype did not significantly differ from commercial wholemeal pasta, and its in vitro glycemic index was even lower. Thus, it is possible to consider this genetic material as a good ingredient for the production of functional foods from cereals naturally rich in bioactive compounds.

  11. Durum wheat in conventional and organic farming: yield amount and pasta quality in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnano, Massimo; Fiorentino, Nunzio; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Fabrizio; Ritieni, Alberto; Ferracane, Rosalia; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy) under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  12. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta.

  13. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti.

  14. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples.

  15. In vitro bioaccessibility of phenolics and vitamins from durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaupa, Maria; Scazzina, Francesca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bianchi, Marta A; Melegari, Camilla; De Albertis, Pietro; Tribuzio, Giovanni; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio

    2014-02-19

    Durum wheat aleurone, thanks to its nutrient-rich composition, might be of potential use as a functional ingredient in cereal-based foods provided nutrients can be made available for absorption. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of thiamine, niacin, and phenolic acids in different aleurone fractions obtained with an industrial processing aimed to obtain material of different composition and particle size. Results indicate that the main phenolic compounds and vitamins investigated have a higher bioaccessibility when present in the inner part of the aleurone layer compared to the outer part of aleurone or the unfractionated bran. Moreover, an ultramicronization treatment employed to reduce particle size does not further improve the bioaccessibility of these compounds. We conclude that aleurone fractions from durum wheat bran could represent a nutritionally relevant ingredient, bringing together a high fiber content and an excellent bioaccessibility of vitamins and phytochemicals generally associated with nutritional benefits.

  16. Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Plant Growth, Nutrient Absorption and Yield of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos KATSENIOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have adopted the use of magnetic field as a new pre-sowing, environmental friendly technique. Enhancements on plant characteristics with economic impact on producer’s income could be the future of a modern, organic and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was established at Soil Science Institute of Athens, Lycovrissi, Greece, in the winter of 2014. Two durum wheat cultivars were used. It was a pot experiment with 6 treatments (2 cultivars with 3 magnetic field time exposure. The seeds were treated using a PAPIMI electromagnetic field generator for 0, 30 and 45 minutes one day before planting. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six treatments and 30 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive effect of magnetic field pre-sowing treatment in a wide range of plant measurements, including yield. The influence of pulsed electromagnetic field on two varieties of durum wheat seeds showed some statistically significant differences at the 0.05 level in growth measurements, physiological measurements and root growth measurements. Plant tissue analysis showed that magnetic field treatments had higher values than control in total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper (only MF-45, zinc (only MF-30 and boron content, although values showed statistically significant differences only in total nitrogen. The results indicate that this innovative technique can increase the yield of durum wheat, through enhanced absorption of nutrients. Pre-sowing treatment of the seeds leads to vigorous plant growth that are more productive.

  17. A Whole Genome DArTseq and SNP Analysis for Genetic Diversity Assessment in Durum Wheat from Central Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Çiftçi, Vahdettin; E. Sáenz de Miera, Luis; Aasim, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad Azhar; Aktaş, Husnu; Özkan, Hakan; Hatipoğlu, Rüştü

    2017-01-01

    Until now, little attention has been paid to the geographic distribution and evaluation of genetic diversity of durum wheat from the Central Fertile Crescent (modern-day Turkey and Syria). Turkey and Syria are considered as primary centers of wheat diversity, and thousands of locally adapted wheat landraces are still present in the farmers’ small fields. We planned this study to evaluate the genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces from the Central Fertile Crescent by genotyping based on DArTseq and SNP analysis. A total of 39,568 DArTseq and 20,661 SNP markers were used to characterize the genetic characteristic of 91 durum wheat land races. Clustering based on Neighbor joining analysis, principal coordinate as well as Bayesian model implemented in structure, clearly showed that the grouping pattern is not associated with the geographical distribution of the durum wheat due to the mixing of the Turkish and Syrian landraces. Significant correlation between DArTseq and SNP markers was observed in the Mantel test. However, we detected a non-significant relationship between geographical coordinates and DArTseq (r = -0.085) and SNP (r = -0.039) loci. These results showed that unconscious farmer selection and lack of the commercial varieties might have resulted in the exchange of genetic material and this was apparent in the genetic structure of durum wheat in Turkey and Syria. The genomic characterization presented here is an essential step towards a future exploitation of the available durum wheat genetic resources in genomic and breeding programs. The results of this study have also depicted a clear insight about the genetic diversity of wheat accessions from the Central Fertile Crescent. PMID:28099442

  18. Accumulation of cadmium by durum wheat roots: bases for citrate-mediated exceptions to the free ion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelaar, Edward; Hale, Beverley A

    2003-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) roots from hydroponic solutions, with the proportion of total Cd (8.9-445 nM Cd) as Cd2+ varied by the addition of citrate, was determined to test the free-ion model (FIM) of metal bioavailability for higher plants. Calcium, Mg, and K were also varied. Citrate enhanced root-Cd accumulation at higher Cd2+ concentrations but not lower relative to the same Cd2+ concentrations in solutions containing 0 mM citrate. Elevating Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in the citrate solution to the same as those in control solutions alleviated some of the citrate-mediated enhancement but not all. Solutions containing 66% less Ca or Mg than control but the same Cd2+ concentration and no citrate also resulted in increased root Cd. Elevated K+ did not influence Cd accumulation. Regression relationships between root-Cd accumulation and total Cd in solution were similar for the control and pooled amended solutions, whereas they were different for root-Cd accumulation and solution Cd2+. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence that the FIM alone is likely insufficient to predict plant accumulation of metals from soils, although it may be a useful probe for the mechanistic bases of metal bioavailability.

  19. Accelerated evolution of the mitochondrial genome in an alloplasmic line of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is not only an important crop but also an excellent plant species for nuclear mitochondrial interaction studies. To investigate the level of sequence changes introduced into the mitochondrial genome under the alloplasmic conditions, three mitochondrial genomes of Triticum-Aegilops species w...

  20. Impact of domestication on the phenotypic architecture of durum wheat under contrasting nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Nagel, Kerstin A; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Pieruschka, Roland; De Vita, Pasquale; Fiorani, Fabio; Papa, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The process of domestication has led to dramatic morphological and physiological changes in crop species due to adaptation to cultivation and to the needs of farmers. To investigate the phenotypic architecture of shoot- and root-related traits and quantify the impact of primary and secondary domestication, we examined a collection of 36 wheat genotypes under optimal and nitrogen-starvation conditions. These represented three taxa that correspond to key steps in the recent evolution of tetraploid wheat (i.e. wild emmer, emmer, and durum wheat). Overall, nitrogen starvation reduced the shoot growth of all genotypes, while it induced the opposite effect on root traits, quantified using the automated phenotyping platform GROWSCREEN-Rhizo. We observed an overall increase in all of the shoot and root growth traits from wild emmer to durum wheat, while emmer was generally very similar to wild emmer but intermediate between these two subspecies. While the differences in phenotypic diversity due to the effects of primary domestication were not significant, the secondary domestication transition from emmer to durum wheat was marked by a large and significant decrease in the coefficient of additive genetic variation. In particular, this reduction was very strong under the optimal condition and less intense under nitrogen starvation. Moreover, although under the optimal condition both root and shoot traits showed significantly reduced diversity due to secondary domestication, under nitrogen starvation the reduced diversity was significant only for shoot traits. Overall, a considerable amount of phenotypic variation was observed in wild emmer and emmer, which could be exploited for the development of pre-breeding strategies.

  1. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  2. Assessment of the quality of durum wheat products by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence video image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novales, Bruno; Abecassis, Joel; Bertrand, Dominique; Devaux, Marie-Francoise; Robert, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Because assessment of Durum wheat semolina purity by standard ash-test has been widely criticized, we attempted to characterize products of a semolina mill by spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging. A collection of milled wheat products ranging from very pure semolina to brans were chosen for this study. Multidimensional statistical analyses (Principal component analyses) were applied to the spectral and image data. Maps showing a classification of the products according to purity were obtained without biochemical calibration. Principal component regression was applied to the data in order to test the relationship of aleurone fluorescence to ash content. Both spectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging gave similar results with good determination coefficients (r2 equals 0.97 and 0.92) for the study of a single wheat variety. Products obtained from different wheat varieties were more difficult to compare.

  3. Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Duan, Xiang-Qiu; Xia, Yan-Mei; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Zhi-Hao; Min, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by improving plant growth. For a long time, the reactive α, β-carbonyl ketoaldehyde methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MG) has been regarded as merely a toxic metabolite in plants, but, now, emerging as a signal molecule in plants. In this study, cadmium (Cd) stress decreased plant height, root length, fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that Cd had toxic effects on the growth of wheat seedlings. The toxic effects of Cd were alleviated by exogenously applied MG in a dosage dependent fashion, and 700 mM MG reached significant differences, but this alleviating effect was eliminated by the treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), suggesting that MG could mitigate Cd toxicity in wheat. This study reported for the first time that MG could alleviate Cd toxicity in wheat, uncovering a new possible physiological function for MG, and opening a novel line of research in plant stress biology.

  4. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  5. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Angelino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  6. Insight into durum wheat Lpx-B1: a small gene family coding for the lipoxygenase responsible for carotenoid bleaching in mature grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattivelli Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yellow colour of pasta products is one of the main criteria used by consumers to assess pasta quality. This character is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments in semolina. During pasta processing, oxidative degradation of carotenoid pigments occurs mainly due to lipoxygenase (LOX. In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., two Lpx-1 genes have been identified on chromosome 4B, Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2, and evidences have been reported that the deletion of Lpx-B1.1 is associated with a strong reduction in LOX activity in semolina. In the present study, we characterised the Lpx-B1 gene family identified in a durum wheat germplasm collection and related the distribution and expression of the Lpx-B1 genes and alleles to variations in LOX activity in the mature grains. Results In addition to the already known Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2 genes, a new gene was identified, Lpx-B1.3, along with three different Lpx-B1.1 alleles, Lpx-B1.1a, Lpx-B1.1b and the partially deleted Lpx-B1.1c. Screening of the germplasm collection showed that all of the genotypes have one of the three Lpx-B1.1 alleles, associated with either Lpx-B1.2 or Lpx-B1.3, thus showing that in this collection the two genes are alternatives. Therefore, based on Lpx-B1 distribution, three different haplotypes were distinguished: haplotype I, carrying Lpx-B1.3 and the Lpx-B1.1b allele; haplotype II carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1a allele; and haplotype III carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1c allele. Determination of Lpx-B1 transcript abundance and total LOX activity in mature grains revealed differences among these three haplotypes: haplotypes I, II and III showed high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of functional Lpx-B1 transcripts and enzymatic activity. Conclusions In this germplasm collection, the Lpx-B1 gene family accounts for most of the total LOX activity in the mature grains. Information on these Lpx-B1 haplotypes provides significant improvement for

  7. Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature:Genotypic and growing conditions effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rut Sanchez-Bragado; Abdelhalim Elazab; Bangwei Zhou; Maria Dolors Serret; Jordi Bort; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; Jos Luis Araus

    2014-01-01

    The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain fil ing in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (d13C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the d13C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain fil ing in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as wel as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmental y driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces.

  8. Production of aneuhaploid and euhaploid sporocytes by meiotic restitution in fertile hybrids between durum wheat Langdon chromosome substitution lines and Aegilops tauschii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fertile F1 hybrids were obtained between durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Langdon (LDN) and its 10 disomic substitution (LDN DS) lines with Aegilops tauschii accession AS60 without embryo rescue. Selfed seedset rates for hybrids of LDN with AS60 were 36.87% and 49,45% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Similar or higher selfed seedset rates were observed in the hybrids of ID (1A), 1D (1B), 3D (3A), 4D (4B), 7D (TA), and 2D (2B) with AS60, while lower in hybrids of 3D (3B) + 3BL, 5D (5A) + 5AL, 5D (5B) + 5B and 6D (6B) + 6BS with AS60 compared with the hybrids of LDN with AS60. Observation of male gametogenesis showed that meiotic restitution, both first-division restitution (FDR) and single-division meiosis (SDM) resulted in the formation of functional unreduced gametes, which in turn produced seeds. Both euhaploid and aneuhaploid gametes were produced in Fi hybrids. This suggested a strategy to simultaneously transfer and locate major genes from the ancestral species T. turgidum or Ae. tauschii. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the aneuhaploid rates between the F1 hybrids of LDN and LDN DS lines with AS60, suggesting that meiotic pairing between the two D chromosomes in the hybrids of LDN DS lines with AS60 did not promote the formation of aneuhaploid gametes.

  9. Degradation of pyrethrin residues on stored durum wheat after postharvest treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Minello, Elizabeth V; Cabras, Marco; Angioni, Alberto; Sarais, Giorgia; Dedola, Fabrizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-07

    In this paper, pyrethrin levels during a postharvest treatment on stored durum wheat were studied. Two experiments were carried out at single and double the dose recommended by the manufacturer. In all trials, the initial deposition of pyrethrins levels was below the fixed maximum residue level of 3 mg/kg. The fate of pyrethrins in the two experiments was similar, and the total content of pyrethrins remained unchanged for 22 days with a complete dissipation in 8 months. In the single dose experiment, half-life times of pyrethrins I and II were 46 and 72 days, while for the double dose, pyrethrins I and II were 41 and 53 days, respectively.

  10. Mycotoxins in durum wheat grain: hygienic-health quality of sicilian production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, G; Lo Bianco, M; Bognanni, R; Saimbene, G

    2008-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin concentrations in Sicilian durum wheat were determined through ELISA tests. The results highlighted the safety of the grain samples at harvest because deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and aflatoxin levels did not exceed European legal limits. With regard to aflatoxins, reliability of the ELISA test was evaluated, comparing it with HPLC analyses. The comparison of HPLC and ELISA data showed a tendency to overestimate aflatoxin concentrations with respect to chromatographic determinations. The usefulness of ELISA was confirmed as a rapid screening method; however, when contamination levels are close to legal limits, chromatographic analyses are necessary to quantify aflatoxins with greater accuracy and specificity.

  11. Fine mapping of a major QTL for grain yield on chromosome 3B of durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Graziani, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In durum wheat, two major QTL for grain yield (Qyld.idw-2B and Qyld.idw-3B) and related traits were identified in a recombinant population derived from Kofa and Svevo (Maccaferri et al. 2008). To further investigate the genetic and physiological basis of allelic variation for this important trait, the fine mapping of Qyld.idw-2B e Qyld.idw-3B was done during the PhD. In this regard, new molecular markers were added to increase the map resolution in the target interval. For Qyld.idw-2B ...

  12. Effects on Variations in M1 Generation of Durum Wheat (T. durum Thell by Induced Mutagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bilgin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research conducted ın Department of Field Crops, Tekirdağ Agricultural Faculty, TrakyaUniversity, the effect of six different gamma ray doses on plant growth in M1 generations derived from twodurum wheat cultivars was investigated.In the experiment, 10 plants in each pot (17 x 40 cm containing 5 kgsoil were grown with three replicates. Total 30 plants for each treatment were used. In M1 generation, numberof leaves, number of roots, seedling height, seedling weight, leaf weight and germination rate were determined.Application of 100-200 gray gamma ray doses did not have any inhibitory effect on investigated characters inseedling growth of M1 generation. On the other hand, 400-500 gray doses significantly inhibited the plantgrowth. 100-200 gray doses did not affect the seed germination rate whereas germination rate decreased with400-500 gray gamma ray applications. At 600 gray dose, only one seed remained viably, rest of them could notsurvive. It was generally observed the highest variations at 300-400 gray gamma doses in M1 plants.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYBRIDS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND GENERATIONS OF DURUM WINTER WHEAT OF VARIOUS CROSS-BREEDING

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    Samofalova N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates a necessity to apply the method of interspecific hybridization in durum winter wheat breeding, using the present soft winter varieties for improvement of frost and drought tolerance at the beginning of germination; resistance to snow mold, fusariosis and bacteriosis of ears and grain. The article presents the results of a comparative study of different types of crossbreeding at interspecific and intraspecific hybridization due to germination, emergence, productivity. It has been shown that intraspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’, interspecific hybrids ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз’ and ‘Т. аestivum оз. х T. durum оз.’ possessed the highest germination and emergence with 71,8/75,3% for direct and 60,4/82,5% for backward, 42,8 and 35,5% and 55,4 and 64,1% respectively. In backward (triplecross cross-breeding of F1 interspecific hybrids with durum winter wheat the grain germination was down to 37,4 and 36,6%, but the emergence was up to 64,1 and 69,7% and reached the level of intraspecific hybrids. According to the elements of ear (head productivity (grain mass per head, number of seeds per head, interspecific double-cross hybrids of the first and the second generation significantly conceded to intraspecific hybrids, but they matched them in a number of spikelets and grain size. The triple-cross hybrids exceed the double interspecific hybrids in this respect, but they concede to double-cross and triple-cross intraspecific hybrids. We studied the principle of splitting of interspecific hybrids of the second generation ‘T. durum оз. х Т. аestivum оз.’ and ‘T. durum оз. х T. durum оз.’ (direct and backward and the triple-cross hybrids obtained from cross-breeding of interspecific and intraspecific double-cross hybrids F1 with durum winter wheat

  14. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  15. Genetic variation and interrelationships of agronomic characteristics in durum wheat under two constructing water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the grain yield components and plant characteristics related to grain yield. Twenty-four durum wheat genotypes from the ICARDA durum wheat breeding program were grown during 2006-2007 under rainfed and irrigated conditions using a complete randomized block design with three replicate in west of Iran. Correlation and path analysis were carried out. Results showed that there was strong positive association of grain yield with the number of seed/spike, biomass and harvest index. Grain yield was negatively associated with spike length and plant height in different moisture conditions. Comparatively, high genetic variation was found in grain yield and other characteristics. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used as a tool to classify the genotypes according to their grain yield ability under optimum and drought stress conditions. Among the genotypes, one of three groups of genotypes were characterized by high grain yield in optimum and drought stress conditions. These genotypes could be used as source of germplasm for breeding for drought tolerance.

  16. Parameters of AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis in Durum Wheat

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    Naser Sabaghnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of new genotypes with acceptable yield stability in different environments is an important issue in breeding programs. In order to study genotype × environment (GE interaction and to determine the most stable durum wheat genotypes, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for three years (2007-2009. Results showed highly significant GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for the most stable genotypes. The AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis indicated that the first five axes were significant based on F-test of Gollob while the other tests (FGH1 and FGH2 identified first three axes as significant AMMI model components. Furthermore, according to FRatio test and cross validation results, only first two axes were significant. According to these distinct numbers of significant axes, sixteen AMMI stability parameters plus ASV(AMMI stability value were computed. Our results showed that EV- and D-based parameters, displayed G7 and G8, SIPC-based parameters indicated G3 and G4 and AMGE-based parameters identified G15 as the most stable genotypes. Genotypes G15 and G7 were the highest mean yielding genotypes and so they could be regarded as the most favorable durum wheat genotypes. The results of this investigation proved that the most of AMMI stability parameters are suitable indices for discriminating stable genotypes and AMGE-based parameters can detect highly seed yield genotypes with good stability.

  17. Parameters of AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sabaghnia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of new genotypes with acceptable yield stability in different environments is an important issue in breeding programs. In order to study genotype × environment (GE interaction and to determine the most stable durum wheat genotypes, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for three years (2007-2009. Results showed highly significant GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for the most stable genotypes. The AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis indicated that the first five axes were significant based on F-test of Gollob while the other tests (FGH1 and FGH2 identified first three axes as significant AMMI model components. Furthermore, according to FRatio test and cross validation results, only first two axes were significant. According to these distinct numbers of significant axes, sixteen AMMI stability parameters plus ASV (AMMI stability value were computed. Our results showed that EV- and D-based parameters, displayed G7 and G8, SIPC-based parameters indicated G3 and G4 and AMGE-based parameters identified G15 as the most stable genotypes. Genotypes G15 and G7 were the highest mean yielding genotypes and so they could be regarded as the most favorable durum wheat genotypes. The results of this investigation proved that the most of AMMI stability parameters are suitable indices for discriminating stable genotypes and AMGE-based parameters can detect highly seed yield genotypes with good stability.

  18. Identification and validation of a major cadmium accumulation locus and closely associated SNP markers in North Dakota durum wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat has the tendency of accumulating more cadmium (Cd), a biotoxic heavy metal, in seeds than other commonly grown cereals, thus posing a serious food safety/public health concern. This could have serious negative impact on the national pasta industry and the international export market of d...

  19. Etude des effets du déficit hydrique sur le processus de germination chez le blé dur (Triticum durum Desf.)

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMOUR, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Le déficit hydrique constitue le principal stress abiotique limitant considérablement la productivité du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf.) en Algérie. La phase de germination constitue l’une des étapes les plus sensibles aux effets engendrés par ce stress. Le travail présenté traite les impacts du déficit hydrique exprimés par l’abaissement du potentiel hydrique du milieu sur la réalisation des principales phases de la germination. Quatre niveaux de potentiel osmotique provoqués par des solution...

  20. Primary studies on tissue culture from mature embryos in diploid and tetraploid wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiming BI; Honggang WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using mature embryos (MEs) as the explants,the callus induction,embryogenic callus differentiation,plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency in diploid and tetraploid wheat of four genotypes were studied.The tested four genotypes wheat included cultivable emmer wheat ( Triticum dicoccum Schuble),durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) and the common wheat progenitors Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum aegilopides.Results indicated that there were significant differences in the efficiency of callus induction,callus differentiation and plant regeneration among the tested genotypes.The efficiency of differentiation and regeneration shows strong genotype dependence.The rates of callus induction,embryogenic callus differentiation,plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency respectively were 95.00%,90.00%,32.40%,and 27.70% in cultivable emmer wheat,which were significantly higher than other tested genotypes.Therefore,this study has provided a basis for genetic transformation,gene cloning and molecular plant breeding in wheat and other related species.

  1. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the sixth and penultimate enzyme in the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. The EPSPS genes of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) have not been well characterized. Herein, the three homoeologous copies of the wheat EPSPS gen...

  2. Effect of silicon on wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L.) grown in hydroponics and exposed to 0 to 30 µM Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C; Rizwan, M; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Chaurand, P; Meunier, J-D

    2015-04-01

    Aqueous Si limits Cu uptake by a Si-accumulating plant via physicochemical mechanisms occurring at the root level. Sufficient Si supply may alleviate Cu toxicity in Cu-contaminated soils. Little information is available on the role of silicon (Si) in copper (Cu) tolerance while Cu toxicity is widespread in crops grown on Cu-contaminated soils. A hydroponic study was set up to investigate the influence of Si on Cu tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) grown in 0, 0.7, 7.0 and 30 µM Cu without and with 1.0 mM Si, and to identify the mechanisms involved in mitigation of Cu toxicity. Si supply alleviated Cu toxicity in durum wheat at 30 µM Cu, while Cu significantly increased Si concentration in roots. Root length, photosynthetic pigments concentrations, macroelements, and organic anions (malate, acetate and aconitate) in roots, were also increased. Desorption experiments, XPS analysis of the outer thin root surface (≤100 Å) and µXRF analyses showed that Si increased adsorption of Cu at the root surface as well as Cu accumulation in the epidermis while Cu was localised in the central cylinder when Si was not applied. Copper was not detected in phytoliths. This study provides evidences for Si-mediated alleviation of Cu toxicity in durum wheat. It also shows that Si supplementation to plants exposed to increasing levels of Cu in solution induces non-simultaneous changes in physiological parameters. We propose a three-step mechanism occurring mainly at the root level and limiting Cu uptake and translocation to shoots: (i) increased Cu adsorption onto the outer thin layer root surface and immobilisation in the vicinity of root epidermis, (ii) increased Cu complexation by both inorganic and organic anions such as aconitate and, (iii) limitation of translocation through an enhanced thickening of a Si-loaded endodermis.

  3. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  4. Rapid Analysis of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat by FT-NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Cervellieri, Salvatore; Visconti, Angelo; Pascale, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier-transform-near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has been used to develop quantitative and classification models for the prediction of deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in durum wheat samples. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to determine DON in wheat samples in the range of 2,500 µg/kg) (LDA I). A second approach was used to discriminate highly contaminated wheat samples based on three different cut-off limits, namely 1,000 (LDA II), 1,200 (LDA III) and 1,400 µg/kg DON (LDA IV). The overall classification and false compliant rates for the three models were 75%–90% and 3%–7%, respectively, with model LDA IV using a cut-off of 1,400 µg/kg fulfilling the requirement of the European official guidelines for screening methods. These findings confirmed the suitability of FT-NIR to screen a large number of wheat samples for DON contamination and to verify the compliance with EU regulation. PMID:25384107

  5. Chromosomal location of genes for novel glutenin subunits and gliadins in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S S; Khan, K; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Nygard, G

    2004-05-01

    The glutenin and gliadin proteins of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides, have potential for improvement of durum wheat ( T. turgidum L. var. durum) quality. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomes controlling the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins present in three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions (Israel-A, PI-481521, and PI-478742), which were used as chromosome donors in Langdon durum- T. turgidum var. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) chromosome substitution lines. The three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions, their respective LDN-DIC substitution lines, and a number of controls with known HMW glutenin subunits were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea/SDS-PAGE, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE). The results revealed that all three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions possess Glu-A1 alleles that are the same as or similar to those reported previously. However, each T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accession had a unique Glu-B1 allele. PI-478742 had an unusual 1Bx subunit, which had mobility slightly slower than the 1Ax subunit in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. The subunits controlled by chromosome 1B of PI-481521 were slightly faster in mobility than the subunits of the Glu-B1n allele, and the 1By subunit was identified as band 8. The 1B subunits of Israel-A had similar mobility to subunits 14 and 16. The new Glu-B1 alleles were designated as Glu-B1be in Israel-A, Glu-B1bf in PI-481521, and Glu-B1bg in PI-478742. Results from A-PAGE revealed that PI-481521, PI-478742, and Israel-A had eight, 12, and nine unique gliadin bands, respectively, that were assigned to specific chromosomes. The identified glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins in the LDN-DIC substitution lines provide the basis for evaluating their effects on end-use quality, and they are also useful biochemical markers for identifying specific chromosomes or chromosome

  6. Trigo duro: comportamento de genótipos no estado de São Paulo Durum wheat: evaluation of genotypes for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 25 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., um cultivar de triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack e quatro cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L. em seis experimentos em condição de irrigação por aspersão, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. As linhagens de trigo duro 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" e 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", de porte baixo a médio, foram resistentes às ferrugens-do-colmo (com exceção da 21 e da-folha, moderadamente resistentes ao oídio, suscetíveis à mancha foliar, e destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos em solos com baixa acidez, não diferindo nem do trigo comum IAC-60, o mais cultivado atualmente no Estado de São Paulo, nem do triticale Álamos. Em condições de campo, a linhagem de trigo duro 19 (Mindum/Kingfisher "S"//Sandpiper apresentou imunidade às ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e foi moderadamente resistente ao oídio. O triticale Álamos e o trigo comum IAC-29 foram imunes ao oídio. Todos os genótipos avaliados foram altamente suscetíveis à mancha foliar, com exceção da linhagem 6 (Dackiye/Gerardo Vezio 394, moderadamente resistente.Twenty-five durum wheat (Triticum durum L. lines, one triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar and four wheat (T aestivum L. cultivars were evaluated in six trials under sprinkler irrigation taking into account the grain yield, agronomic characteristics and disease resistance. The durum wheat lines 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" and 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", showed the following traites: resistant to stem and leaf rusts; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to leaf spot, and short to

  7. Geostatistics as a validation tool for setting ozone standards for durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Alessandra; Screpanti, Augusto; Paoletti, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Which is the best standard for protecting plants from ozone? To answer this question, we must validate the standards by testing biological responses vs. ambient data in the field. A validation is missing for European and USA standards, because the networks for ozone, meteorology and plant responses are spatially independent. We proposed geostatistics as validation tool, and used durum wheat in central Italy as a test. The standards summarized ozone impact on yield better than hourly averages. Although USA criteria explained ozone-induced yield losses better than European criteria, USA legal level (75 ppb) protected only 39% of sites. European exposure-based standards protected > or =90%. Reducing the USA level to the Canadian 65 ppb or using W126 protected 91% and 97%, respectively. For a no-threshold accumulated stomatal flux, 22 mmol m(-2) was suggested to protect 97% of sites. In a multiple regression, precipitation explained 22% and ozone explained <0.9% of yield variability.

  8. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  9. Effect of raw material on cooking quality and nutritional composition of durum wheat spaghetti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, L; Mastromatteo, M; Lecce, L; Spinelli, S; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the effect of semolina and wholemeal flour from six durum wheat cultivars on the pasta cooking and nutritional quality was evaluated. The wholemeal spaghetti samples showed an improvement in the chemical composition (high protein and insoluble dietary fibre content) but they have a decline in the cooking quality (high cooking loss) with respect to the semolina spaghetti. In particular, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli and Core samples recorded the highest protein and insoluble dietary fibre content, respectively. As compared to the other samples, the wholemeal spaghetti Iride recorded a higher cooking loss. Moreover, the wholemeal spaghetti showed the lowest overall quality due to the low score of elasticity, firmness and colour. Specifically, the wholemeal Cappelli recorded a slight rise of the overall quality with respect to other wholemeal samples. In conclusion, the wholemeal spaghetti Cappelli was found to be an optimum compromise between the sensory and nutritional quality.

  10. A Novel Retrotransposon Inserted in the Dominant Vrn-B1 Allele Confers Spring Growth Habit in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C-G; Tan, C T; Yu, G-T; Zhong, S; Xu, S S; Yan, L

    2011-12-01

    Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In wheat (Triticum L. sp.), it was previously shown that allelic variation in the vernalization gene VRN1 was due to deletions or insertions either in the promoter or in the first intron. Here, we report a novel Vrn-B1 allele that has a retrotransposon in its promoter conferring spring growth habit. The VRN-B1 gene was mapped in a doubled haploid population that segregated for winter-spring growth habit but was derived from two spring tetraploid wheat genotypes, the durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum) variety 'Lebsock' and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accession PI 94749. Genetic analysis revealed that Lebsock carried the dominant Vrn-A1 and recessive vrn-B1 alleles, whereas PI 94749 had the recessive vrn-A1 and dominant Vrn-B1 alleles. The Vrn-A1 allele in Lebsock was the same as the Vrn-A1c allele previously reported in hexaploid wheat. No differences existed between the vrn-B1 and Vrn-B1 alleles, except that a 5463-bp insertion was detected in the 5'-UTR region of the Vrn-B1 allele. This insertion was a novel retrotransposon (designated as retrotrans_VRN), which was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contained primer binding site and polypurine tract motifs, a 325-bp long terminal repeat, and an open reading frame encoding 1231 amino acids. The insertion of retrotrans_VRN resulted in expression of Vrn-B1 without vernalization. Retrotrans_VRN is prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accessions, less prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum accessions, and rarely found in other tetraploid wheat subspecies.

  11. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids and lipophilic (isoprenoids extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  12. Phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the whole-meal flour of Italian durum wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Durante, Miriana; Minervini, Fiorenza; Garbetta, Antonella; Cardinali, Angela; D'Antuono, Isabella; Caretto, Sofia; Blanco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-02-04

    In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids) and lipophilic (isoprenoids) extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  13. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  15. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  16. Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdid, Mohamed; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Ehlert, Christina; Simonneau, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of Abscisic acid (ABA) in water potential and turgor variations as well as growth recovery during the first phase of a rapid water stress induced by PEG6000. Two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.), MBB (more tolerant) and OZ (less productive under drought), were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of the growing leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Water potential was measured using a pressure chamber; osmotic potential was estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone, turgor pressure of the same zone of leaf three was estimated directly by pressure probe. Growth rapidly ceased for a period of about one hour after the addition of PEG, gradual recovery was then observed for about 2 h. A significant difference was found in the % recovery of Leaf Elongation Rate (LER) and ABA between the two varieties, leading to better water status in MBB compared to OZ. The results of this study showed the possible role of ABA on growth resumption by the increase of relative water content and turgor via osmotic adjustment during the stress period in the leaves, which indicates the importance of OA in the resumption of LER even in the short term under conditions of water deficit. Full recovery of turgor but not of LER at the end stress period suggested the possible effect on cell wall extensibility (hardening) even at short term resulting from the rapid accumulation of ABA.

  17. Heat-shock effects on photosynthesis and sink-source dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Xu, H.Y.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms causing genotypic differences in heat tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), physiological responses to a heat shock in a vegetative (`end of tillering¿) or a reproductive (`early grain filling¿) stage were studied. Three cultivars ¿ Lavett, Ciano-79 and Attila ¿

  18. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.S.; Saleem, M.F.; Shah, G.M.; Jamil, M.; Khan, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in

  19. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of durum wheat contamination or adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rosita; Cusano, Erica; Perissi, Andrea; Ferron, Francisco; Severino, Valeria; Parente, Augusto; Chambery, Angela

    2014-12-01

    In this work, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (UPLC-ESI)-MS/MS methodology based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the selective and sensitive detection and quantification of durum wheat adulteration has been developed and fully validated. The targeted analysis was performed by monitoring specific transitions at m/z 543.7 > 657.4 and m/z 543.7 > 299.2 of a species-specific marker derived from a tryptic peptide of puroindoline a (Pin-a), a cysteine-rich protein selectively present only in common wheat. In addition, two transitions at m/z 500.4 > 725.4 and m/z 500.4 > 561.9 of a reference peptide belonging to purothionin A-1, present in both species, were also monitored. The calibration curves obtained on binary mixtures with known percentages of common/durum wheat flours showed linearity (coefficient of regression, r ≥ 0.99) over concentrations that ranged between 80 and 1%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Pin-a marker in wheat flours were 0.01 and 0.03%, respectively. The identified Pin-a marker was also found to be highly diagnostic for the quantification of common wheat in raw materials (kernels) and processed products (pasta), thus offering new opportunities to assess food authenticity.

  20. Characterization of α/β- and γ-gliadins in commercial varieties and breeding lines of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF and A-PAGE gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Santiago; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Hernando, Alberto; Barro, Francisco

    2011-12-01

    In this work, gliadin composition has been analyzed in 33 accessions of durum wheat using MALDI-TOF MS and compared with A-PAGE results. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra were 29,900-42,500 Da, which corresponds to the α/β- and γ-gliadin regions in A-PAGE. The average of gliadin peaks per line was 23 for MALDI-TOF MS and only 14.8 bands for A-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS identified 33 gliadin peaks in the durum wheat collection, 20 of which were unique peaks present in 7 lines. A-PAGE analysis identified 30 bands, of which only 4 were unique. Thus, the MALDI-TOF MS method was more sensitive than A-PAGE for identifying α/β- and γ-gliadins in the 33 durum wheat lines studied. Phylogenetic analyses performed using MALDI-TOF MS data assigned the durum wheat lines to two groups. The utility of MALDI-TOF MS to determine relationships among genotypes and for identification of durum wheat accessions is discussed.

  1. Rmg8, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in Hexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Vu Lan; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is one of the major diseases of wheat in South America. We identified a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of P. oryzae in common wheat 'S-615', and designated it "resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 8" (Rmg8). Rmg8 was assigned to chromosome 2B through molecular mapping with simple-sequence repeat markers. To identify an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, Triticum isolate Br48 (avirulent on S-615) was crossed with 200R29 (virulent on S-615), an F1 progeny derived from a cross between an Eleusine isolate (MZ5-1-6) and Br48. Segregation analysis of their progeny revealed that avirulence of Br48 on S-615 was conditioned by a single gene, which was designated AVR-Rmg8. AVR-Rmg8 was closely linked to AVR-Rmg7, which corresponded to Rmg7 located on chromosome 2A of tetraploid wheat.

  2. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  3. Probabilistic assessments of climate change impacts on durum wheat in the Mediterranean region

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    R. Ferrise

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted a shift from a scenario-based approach to a risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change. This provides more useful information to decision-makers who need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts.

    In this study, a probabilistic framework for evaluating the risk of durum wheat yield shortfall over the Mediterranean Basin has been exploited. An artificial neural network, trained to emulate the outputs of a process-based crop growth model, has been adopted to create yield response surfaces which are then overlaid with probabilistic projections of future temperature and precipitation changes in order to estimate probabilistic projections of future yields. The risk is calculated as the relative frequency of projected yields below a selected threshold.

    In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next few decades would outweigh the detrimental effects of the early stages of climatic warming and drying, the results of this study are of greater concern.

  4. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drying of Durum Wheat Pasta and Enriched Pasta: A Review of Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Samuel; Mondor, Martin; Moresoli, Christine; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Marcos, Bernard

    2016-05-18

    Models on drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta were reviewed to identify avenues for improvement according to consumer needs, product formulation and processing conditions. This review first summarized the fundamental phenomena of pasta drying, mass transfer, heat transfer, momentum, chemical changes, shrinkage and crack formation. The basic equations of the current models were then presented, along with methods for the estimation of pasta transport and thermodynamic properties. The experimental validation of these models was also presented and highlighted the need for further model validation for drying at high temperatures (>-100°C) and for more accurate estimation of the pasta diffusion and mass transfer coefficients. This review indicates the need for the development of mechanistic models to improve our understanding of the mass and heat transfer mechanisms involved in pasta drying, and to consider the local changes in pasta transport properties and relaxation time for more accurate description of the moisture transport near glass transition conditions. The ability of current models to describe dried pasta quality according to the consumers expectations or to predict the impact of incorporating ingredients high in nutritional value on the drying of these enriched pasta was also discussed.

  6. Genetic diversity for gliadin patterns of durum wheat landraces in the Northwest of Iran and Azerbaijan

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    Mohammad Zaefizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify gliadin band patterns and the extent of genetic diversity in durum wheat genotypes from Northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan. Gliadins from 46 landraces and four cultivars were evaluated through acid PAGE analyses. Sixty-six polymorphic bands and 81 patterns were identified. Twenty-four different motility bands and 22 patterns were found in the ω gliadin region with 14 polymorph bands and 20 patterns for α and γ gliadins, and 14 bands and 19 different patterns for β gliadins. The combination of these patterns generated 38 and 39 combinations for Gli-1 and Gli-2 loci, respectively. The genetic diversity index (H was higher for α gliadins (0.924, followed by ω and γ gliadins (0.899 and 0.878, respectively, and for β gliadin patterns (0.866. Extensive polymorphism (H = 0.875 was observed in four gliadin pattern regions, with higher genetic diversity in the Iranian landraces than in the Azerbaijani ones. Each genotype had special identifying patterns in the gliadin acid PAGE analysis, and cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients formed six groups. Gliadin has a simple, repeatable and economic analysis, and can be used in genetic studies

  7. Are Ancient Durum Wheats Less Toxic to Celiac Patients? A Study of α-Gliadin from Graziella Ra and Kamut

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    M. Stella Colomba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the controversial hypothesis suggesting ancient grains might show lower immunogenic properties and therefore the possibility to introduce them in the diet of wheat-sensitive people, including celiac patients, was investigated. The immunogenic potential of the ancient durum wheats Graziella Ra and Kamut was studied by comparison to the durum accessions Cappelli, Flaminio, Grazia and Svevo. Experiments were carried out with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs raised against α-gliadin peptides p31–49 and p56–75 (the latter containing the overlapping DQ2-Glia-α1 and DQ2-Glia-α2 epitopes, toxic for celiac patients. For all accessions, a few α-gliadin alleles were also cloned, sequenced and translated into aminoacid sequences. Several aminoacid substitutions or deletions were detected in p31–49, DQ2-Glia-α1 and DQ2-Glia-α2 epitopes, nevertheless, ELISA constantly showed antibody-antigen positive reactions which led us to suggest that mAbs binding was not apparently affected by polymorphisms. Moreover, a few substitutions were also observed in DQ2-Glia-α3 and DQ8-Glia-α1 epitopes. Although some DQ2-Glia-α1 and DQ2-Glia-α2 variants evidenced herein were previously reported to have a diminished or abolished T cell stimulatory capacity, present results cannot confirm that ancient durum wheats would be less CD-toxic. In conclusion, we strongly advice celiac patients from consuming ancient wheats including Graziella Ra or Kamut.

  8. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality classification of Italian wheat durum spaghetti by means of different spectrophometric techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, P.; Bucarelli, A.

    2007-09-01

    Wheat durum pasta (spaghetti in particular) can be considered as the most typical Italy's food product. Many small or craft pasta factories realize different quality product regarding the use of biological wheat and the application of mild (lower drying temperature) or traditional (bronze draw-plate) technologies, in competition with large industrial enterprises. The application of higher quality standards increases the producing cost and determines higher pasta prices. In order to setup a reliable easy-to-use methodology to distinguish different production technology approaches, spectrophotometric visible and near-infrared (VIS-Nir) techniques were applied on the intact pasta. Eighteen samples of commercial brand spaghetti classified in five different quality production factors (Full industrial - Teflon-drawn, high temperature-short time drying -; semolina from organic cultivations; bronze-drawn treatment; low temperature - long time drying; traditional high quality pasta - bronze-drawn and low temperature drying treatments-) were analyzed by three different spectrometric techniques: a VIS (400 - 700 nm) spectral imaging, a Nir (1000-1700 nm) spectral imaging - both of them acquiring reflected spectral images of spaghetti bundle - and a portable VIS-Nir system (400-800 nm), working with an interactance probe on single spaghetti string. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regressions (PLS) were performed on about 1500 spectral arrays, to test the ability of the systems to distinguish the different pasta products (commercial brands). Reflectance visible data presented highest percentage of correct classification: 98.6% total value, 100% for high quality spaghetti (bronze-drawn and/or low temperature drying). NIR reflectance and VIS-NIR interactance systems presented 85% and 70% of entire correct classification while for high quality pasta the percentages rise up to 75% and 83%

  10. Nitrogen fertilization and root growth dynamics of durum wheat for a sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato De Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an area of the Apulian Tavoliere (southern Italy, the effects of three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 on root development, growth analysis and yield parameters of durum wheat were evaluated. The research was conducted over a four-year period (1994-97. The non-destructive mini-rhizotron method was used to study the root system at stem extension and at the beginning of heading and ripening stages. At the end of tillering and at boot and flowering stages, samples of wheat biomass were taken and subjected to growth analysis. Yield data and the main biometric parameters were collected at harvest time. The doses of nitrogen (N fertilizer 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 had a greater effect on root development in the 20-30 cm soil layer and on epigeal biomass than the control test (N0 without nitrogen fertilization. In the test (N0 the growth of root and epigeal biomass was slower during the first vegetative phases, however, afterwards both of them recovered and the root system was mainly developed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A better development of root system in deeper soil layers, without nitrogen supply, has allowed the plant to overcome more easily the water-deficit and thermal stresses during the ripening stage. The results of this research have shown that the production of grain with 50 kg ha–1 of N is similar to those of 100 kg ha–1 of N doses and higher than the test without nitrogen fertilization. In this kind of environment can be recommended a nitrogen dose of 50 kg ha–1 for obtaining an increase in grain production with low costs and reduced agricultural sources of pollution.

  11. Subgenome chromosome walking in wheat: A 450-kb physical contig in Triticum monococcum L. spans the Lr10 resistance locus in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nils; Feuillet, Catherine; Wicker, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Keller, Beat

    2000-01-01

    For many agronomically important plant genes, only their position on a genetic map is known. In the absence of an efficient transposon tagging system, such genes have to be isolated by map-based cloning. In bread wheat Triticum aestivum, the genome is hexaploid, has a size of 1.6 × 1010 bp, and contains more than 80% of repetitive sequences. So far, this genome complexity has not allowed chromosome walking and positional cloning. Here, we demonstrate that chromosome walking using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones is possible in the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (Am genome). BAC end sequences were mostly repetitive and could not be used for the first walking step. New probes corresponding to rare low-copy sequences were efficiently identified by low-pass DNA sequencing of the BACs. Two walking steps resulted in a physical contig of 450 kb on chromosome 1AmS. Genetic mapping of the probes derived from the BAC contig demonstrated perfect colinearity between the physical map of T. monococcum and the genetic map of bread wheat on chromosome 1AS. The contig genetically spans the Lr10 leaf rust disease resistance locus in bread wheat, with 0.13 centimorgans corresponding to 300 kb between the closest flanking markers. Comparison of the genetic to physical distances has shown large variations within 350 kb of the contig. The physical contig can now be used for the isolation of the orthologous regions in bread wheat. Thus, subgenome chromosome walking in wheat can produce large physical contigs and saturate genomic regions to support positional cloning. PMID:11078510

  12. Bacterial endophytes mediate positive feedback effects of early legume termination times on the yield of subsequent durum wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Hamel, Chantal; Gan, Yantai; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Field crops influence the biotic properties of the soil, impacting the health and productivity of subsequent crops. Polymerase chain reaction and 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing of amplicons were used to clarify the legacy of chickpea and pea crops on the quality of the bacterial community colonizing the root endosphere of subsequent crops of wheat, in a replicated field study. Similar communities of root endosphere bacteria were formed in durum wheat grown after pea and chickpea crops when chickpea crops were terminated as early as pea (July). Termination of the chickpea crops in September led to the domination of Firmicutes in wheat root endosphere; Actinobacteria dominated the wheat root endosphere following early pulse crop termination. The architecture of wheat plants was correlated with the composition of its root endosphere community. High grain yield was associated with the production of fewer but larger wheat heads, the abundance of endospheric Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the scarcity of endospheric Firmicutes. Pulse termination time affected wheat root endosphere colonization strongly in 2009 but weakly in 2010, an abnormally wet year. This study improved our understanding of the so-called "crop rotation effect" in pulse-wheat systems and showed how this system can be manipulated through agronomic decisions.

  13. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  14. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  15. Polymorphism of microsatellite loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and related species

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    Kondić-Špika Ankica Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed polymorphism of 15 microsatellite loci in the col­lection comprising of 40 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 32 genotypes belonging to other species within Triticum genus and 3 genotypes from Aegilops genus. The results showed significant differences in the variability of the tested loci in bread wheat and related species. In the collection of bread wheat genotypes, 119 alleles were detected with the average number of 7.9 alleles per locus. In wild and cultivated related species 157 alleles were identified, with the average of 10.5 alleles per locus. All analysed parameters of micro­satellite loci variability (PIC value, gene diversity, heterozygosity, etc. indicated higher level of polymorphism in wild relatives than in the cultivated bread wheat. Analyses of individual genomes indicated that in the bread wheat genetic diversity of the B and D genomes was significantly reduced in relation to the A genome, while the differences in polymorphism between genomes in the wild relatives were significantly lower. The results showed that wild related species can be used as sources for new variability in wheat breeding. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development

  16. IMPACT OF SOME MIXTURES BETWEEN STIMULATORS AND ANTIGRASS HERBICIDES ON THE SOWING PROPERTIES OF THE DURUM WHEAT SOWING-SEEDS

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    Grozi DELCHEV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted during 2007-2009 on the experimental field of the Cotton and Durum Wheat Research Institute, Chirpan, Bulgaria, on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian durum wheat cultivar Vuzhod, which belongs to var. valenciae. Factor A included no treated check and 4 stimulators – Tritimil - 30 ml/da, Ramil – 30 ml/da, Trisalvit – 30 ml/da, Salvit - 50 ml/da. Factor B included weeded no treated check and 3 herbicides – Puma super - 100 ml/da, Grasp – 120 ml/da, Topik – 45 ml/da. All of stimulators, herbicides and their tank-mixtures were treated in tillering stage of the durum wheat. The weak adhesion of Grasp required its application with adjuvant Atplus – 120 ml/da. All of variants increase germinative energy with the exception of mixtures Tritimil + Topik, Ramil + Puma super, Trisalvit + Grasp, Trisalvit + Topik, Salvit + Puma super and Salvit + Grasp. Tank mixtures Tritimil + Topik and Ramil + Puma super are not influence on seed germination only. Coleoptile length is increased by mixtures of Tritimil with Puma super and Grasp. Roots length is increased by mixtures of Ramil with Grasp and Topik. Tank-mix combination Trisalvit + Topik decreases roots and coleoptiles length. Investigated variants do not influence on waste grain quantity. The most increase of grain yield is obtained at mixtures Tritimil + Puma super, Tritimil + Grasp, Ramil + Grasp, Ramil + Topik and Trisalvit + Grasp. There is antagonism by combined use of Tritimil with Topik, of Ramil with Puma super, of Trisalvit with Puma super and Grasp and of Salvit with the three antigrass herbicides.

  17. Durum wheat seedling responses to simultaneous high light and salinity involve a fine reconfiguration of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Pasqualina; Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Annunziata, Maria Grazia; Pacifico, Severina; Iannuzzi, Federica; Mirto, Antonio; D'Amelia, Luisa; Dell'Aversana, Emilia; Piccolella, Simona; Fuggi, Amodio; Carillo, Petronia

    2017-03-01

    Durum wheat plants are extremely sensitive to drought and salinity during seedling and early development stages. Their responses to stresses have been extensively studied to provide new metabolic targets and improving the tolerance to adverse environments. Most of these studies have been performed in growth chambers under low light [300-350 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), LL]. However, in nature plants have to face frequent fluctuations of light intensities that often exceed their photosynthetic capacity (900-2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) ). In this study we investigated the physiological and metabolic changes potentially involved in osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense in durum wheat seedlings under high light (HL) and salinity. The combined application of the two stresses decreased the water potential and stomatal conductance without reducing the photosynthetic efficiency of the plants. Glycine betaine (GB) synthesis was inhibited, proline and glutamate content decreased, while γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amides and minor amino acids increased. The expression level and enzymatic activities of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, asparagine synthetase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as other enzymatic activities of nitrogen and carbon metabolism, were analyzed. Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites were also considered. The results showed that the complex interplay seen in durum wheat plants under salinity at LL was simplified: GB and antioxidants did not play a main role. On the contrary, the fine tuning of few specific primary metabolites (GABA, amides, minor amino acids and hexoses) remodeled metabolism and defense processes, playing a key role in the response to simultaneous stresses.

  18. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  19. Evaluation of efficacy and effect of application timing of a new herbicide, a.i. propoxy-carbazone + iodosulfuron + mefenpyr on Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Filì, V; Crescenzi, A

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed from February to May 2010 by Bioagritest according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the land of Altamura (BA), in the core of Murgia, Apulia Region (Italy). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and effect of two different application times of the herbicide SIT90 (propoxycarbazone + iodosulfuron + mefenpyr) on Triticum durum for weeds' control. Sit90 was applied alone or in combination with the herbicide Dicuran (a.i. chlortolorun) in early post-emergence, and in late post emergence once more alone or in combination with the adjuvant Biopower or with the commercial formulate Atlantis WG (mesosulfuron+ iodosulfuron+ mefenpyr) + Biopower. T. durum cultivar was "Iride". The study has given sufficient results on the use of SIT90, in the conditions foreseen by the protocol and in consideration of the present weeds, which represented the species mostly diffused in the Murgia, mainly Avena ludoviciana and Papaver rhoaes. Treatments with the SIT90 alone (even in combination with Chortoluron), applied in early or in late post-emergence, were very ineffective on grass weeds and dicotyledonous, highlighting the importance of the adjuvant Biopower to enhance the expression of the herbicide. In fact, the presence of the adjuvant allowed the expression of a clear and good overall herbicide activity of SIT90 for the control of P. rhoaes and other dicotyledonous, but also a discrete activity against grasses. More reliable was the treatment with SIT90 mixed with Atlantis, against the entire community of grass weeds and on F. officinalis. The performance of all the treatments was insufficient on P. rhoaes, because of the clear resistance shown by the weed.

  20. Characteristics of cadmium uptake and membrane transport in roots of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Zhen; Tu, Chen; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of several cereals that is capable of accumulating higher amounts of Cd in plant tissues. It is important to understand the Cd(2+) transport processes in roots that result in excess Cd accumulation. Traditional destructive technologies have limited capabilities in analyzing root samples due to methodological limitations, and sometimes may result in false conclusions. The mechanisms of Cd(2+) uptake into the roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by assessing the impact of various inhibitors and channel blockers on Cd accumulation as well as the real-time net Cd(2+) flux at roots with the non-destructive scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The P-type ATPase inhibitor Na3VO4 (500 μM) had little effect on Cd uptake (p wheat, suggesting that Cd(2+) uptake into wheat root cells is not directly dependent on H(+) gradients. While, the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol significantly limited Cd(2+) uptake (p wheat, suggesting the existence of metabolic mediation in the Cd(2+) uptake process by wheat. The Cd content at the whole-plant level in wheat was significantly (p wheat root via Ca(2+) channels. In addition, our results suggested a role for protein synthesis in mediating Cd(2+) uptake and transport by wheat. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gao; Tiegui Nan; Guiyu Tan; Hongwei Zhao; Weiming Tan; Fanyun Meng; Zhaohu Li; Li, Qing X.; Baomin Wang

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanob...

  2. Distribution of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieczonka, K.; Rosopulo, A.

    1985-12-01

    Cadmium, copper, and zinc were quantitatively determined in the whole grain, the germ, the aleurone layer, the outer pericarp, and the endosperm from the caryopsis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the methods of direct solid microsampling and flame-AAS, respectively. Metal concentrations markedly differed among the tissues investigated. Both methods used in this study produced almost identical heavy metal concentrations. However, the techniques dramatically differed in the amounts of grain material required for analysis.

  3. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

  4. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  5. Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Analysis of Soluble Leaf Proteins of a Salt-sensitive (Triticum aestivum) and a Salt-tolerant (T. Durum) Cultivar in Response to NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this research, 3-day-old etiolated wheat seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ceyhan-99 (salt-sensitive) and T. durum Desf. cv. Firat-93 (salt-tolerant) were grown in control and salt (150 mmol/L NaCl) treatments at a 15/25℃ temperature regime in the light for 12 days. Soluble proteins extracted from the first leaf tissues of two cultivars were analyzed by twodimensional (2-D) electrophoresis in order to detect NaCl-induced changes. The soluble leaf protein profiles of cultivars were observed to be similar. However, quantitative differences in 74 proteins were detected in the salt treatment group,compared to the control. Among the 74 protein spots, 14 were common for two cultivars. As a result of NaCl treatment, two low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins (28.9 and 30.0 kDa) and one intermediate-molecular-weight (IMW) protein (44.3 kDa)in cv. Ceyhan-99 and six LMW proteins (18.6, 19.4, 25.7, 25.9, 26 and 27.6 kDa) in cv. Firat-93 were newly synthesized. The newly synthesized proteins were specific to each cultivar. In the Firat-93 cultivar, four proteins with LMW (24.8-27.9 kDa)were completely lost in NaCl treatment. Moreover, these four protein spots were not observed in both protein profiles of cv. Ceyhan-99. Most of these proteins were in acidic character (pi <6.0-6.9) and low molecular weight (<31.6 kDa). It is suggested that the newly synthesized or completely lost LMW proteins may be important for cultivars differing in sensitivity towards NaCl.

  6. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  7. Effect of Split Nitrogen Applications on Durum Wheat Cultivars in Volcanic Soil Efecto de Aplicaciones Parcializadas de Nitrógeno sobre Cultivares de Trigo Candeal en un Suelo Volcánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hirzel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum is an important crop for the world population and occupies a large cultivated area worldwide. New cultivars need constant improvement of their agronomic management, within which N fertilization is highlighted. Durum wheat is also important in Chile where genetic breeding and agronomic management have been developed to increase yield, industrial, and nutritional grain quality. The objective of this experiment was to determine the appropriate number of N applications during a crop cycle in a volcanic ash soil in South Central Chile. Nitrogen split applications were carried out on three durum wheat cultivars in a Melanoxerands soil during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 seasons. A rate of 200 kg ha-1 N was applied at different growing stages including planting, tillering, flag leaf, and heading (200-0-0-0, 100-100-0-0, 66-67-67-0, and 50-50-50-50 kg N ha-1, respectively. The evaluated traits were grain yield, hectoliter weight, and wet gluten content. Results indicated that the use of two and three split N applications increased grain yield and wet gluten content with differences among genotypes. The best N split strategy corresponded to two and three N splits: at planting and tillering; at planting, tillering, and flag leaf, respectively.El trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum es un alimento importante para la población mundial ocupando una amplia área de cultivo. Las nuevas variedades necesitan constantes ajustes en su manejo agronómico, dentro del cual destaca la fertilización nitrogenada. El trigo candeal es también importante en Chile, para el cual se ha desarrollado mejoramiento genético y manejo agronómico, con el objetivo de incrementar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional del grano. El objetivo de este experimento fue determinar el número adecuado de aplicaciones de N durante el ciclo del trigo candeal en un suelo volcánico del centro sur de Chile. Durante las temporadas 2003

  8. RÉGIMEN HÍDRICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN VARIEDADES CUBANAS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum Y T. durum CULTIVADAS EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 variedades cubanas de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum y Triticum durum cultivadas en condiciones de salinidad fueron evaluados, siguiendo las metodologías para tales fines. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía a un nivel de salinidad de 8 dS.m -1 , como control se montó un tratamiento con una conductividad eléctrica de 0,36 dS.m -1 . Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Como resultado se obtuvo una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de las variedades en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Las variedades que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todas las variedades y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todas las variedades realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en las variedades INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre variedades y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  9. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  10. Multi-Mycotoxin Analysis in Durum Wheat Pasta by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Josefa; Graziani, Giulia; Gaspari, Anna; Chianese, Donato; Ferrer, Emilia; Mañes, Jordi; Ritieni, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    A simple and rapid multi-mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins simultaneously is described in the present survey on durum and soft wheat pasta samples. Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin-A (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins: three enniatins (ENA, ENA1, and ENB), and beauvericin (BEA). Twenty-nine samples were analyzed to provide an overview on mycotoxin presence: 27 samples of durum wheat pasta, and two samples of baby food. Analytical results concluded that trichothecenes showed the highest incidence, mainly DON, NIV, and HT-2 toxin, followed by ZON and ENB, while NEO, FUS-X, OTA, AFB1, and FUM were not detected in any sample. The highest contents corresponded to ENB and ranged from 91.15 µg/kg to 710.90 µg/kg. PMID:28208797

  11. The down-regulation of the genes encoding Isoamylase 1 alters the starch composition of the durum wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestili, Francesco; Sparla, Francesca; Botticella, Ermelinda; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato; Falini, Giuseppe; Marri, Lucia; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Trost, Paolo; Lafiandra, Domenico

    2016-11-01

    In rice, maize and barley, the lack of Isoamylase 1 activity materially affects the composition of endosperm starch. Here, the effect of this deficiency in durum wheat has been characterized, using transgenic lines in which Isa1 was knocked down via RNAi. Transcriptional profiling confirmed the partial down-regulation of Isa1 and revealed a pleiotropic effect on the level of transcription of genes encoding other isoamylases, pullulanase and sucrose synthase. The polysaccharide content of the transgenic endosperms was different from that of the wild type in a number of ways, including a reduction in the content of starch and a moderate enhancement of both phytoglycogen and β-glucan. Some alterations were also induced in the distribution of amylopectin chain length and amylopectin fine structure. The amylopectin present in the transgenic endosperms was more readily hydrolyzable after a treatment with hydrochloric acid, which disrupted its semi-crystalline structure. The conclusion was that in durum wheat, Isoamylase 1 is important for both the synthesis of amylopectin and for determining its internal structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg(-1)) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL(-1) of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg(-1)) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL(-1) of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants.

  13. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  14. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... It contributes 13.1% to the value added in agriculture and 2.8% to gross domestic product. (GDP) in Pakistan (Government of ... weeds of wheat in Pakistan causing huge economic losses are canarygrass (Phalaris minor R.), ...

  15. Adaptação, estabilidade e potencial produtivo de genótipos de Triticum durum L., irrigados por aspersão, no Estado de São Paulo Adaptability, stability and yield potential of Triticum durum L. genotypes under sprinkler irrigation in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 17 linhagens e duas cultivares de Triticum durum L. tendo como testemunha a cultivar IAC 24 de T. aestivum L., em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão nas localidades de Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto e Mococa, no período de 1998 a 2002, no Estado de São Paulo. Foram determinados os rendimentos de grãos e o comportamento de cada genótipo diante das variações ambientais. Análises de adaptação e estabilidade permitiram a identificação de genótipos com comportamento previsível a essas condições ambientais. Foram observados efeitos significativos para anos, locais e genótipos, destacando-se na média dos três locais quanto ao rendimento de grãos a linhagem de T. durum L. 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S". O melhor rendimento de grãos foi observado em Ribeirão Preto e o pior em Votuporanga. Observou-se nas linhagens 9 e 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S, 12 e 19 (GYS"S"/3/ STN"S"// HUI"S"/SOMOS"S" e 3 (STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79// HUI"S" adaptabilidade específica, portanto, responsivas ao emprego de alta tecnologia. A incidência da ferrugem-da- folha somente foi constatada na cultivar IAC 24 da espécie de T. aestivum.In order to evaluate Triticum durum L. genotypes having as control the T. aestivum L. cultivar IAC, 24 experiments were carried out, under sprinkler irrigation, at Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto and Mococa locations, in the period 1998 to 2002, in the State of São Paulo. Grain yield and performance of each genotype in relation to the environment variation were evaluated. Adaptability and stability analysis were made identify genotypes with predictable performance in these environment conditions. Significant effects were observed for years, locations and genotypes. Considering the three locations, Triticum durum inbred line 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S" presented the highest yield. The highest grain yields were observed in Ribeirão Preto and

  16. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  17. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97% were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR, one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP, and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL, including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of

  18. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s without significantly decreasing the germination rate was obtained at initial moisture content≤ 20.3% along with 20% MOTP. While, if initial moisture content of seeds was ≤ 16.7%, the seeds can be dried more rapidly using MOTP 30% without affecting germination capacity. The results obtained from this study would provide technical basis to select optimal wheat seed processing and design seed drying equipments.

  19. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Tao Zhang; Chenglai Wu; Chunqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP) and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s) without significantly decreasing the germination rate was...

  20. SOME CONSTRAINTS ON INTERSPECIFIC CROSSING OF DURUM WHEAT WITH AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONS SCREENED UNDER WATER-DEFICIT STRESS

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    Masanori Inagaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 accessions of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (goat grass collected from western Asia and the Caucasus were screened for the productive tillering capacity under rain-fed field conditions with the aim of developing new, synthetic hexaploid wheats having enhanced drought adaptation. Of these, 23 Ae. tauschii accessions were selected for interspecific crossing with two durum wheat varieties ‘Belikh-2’ and ‘Jennah Khetifa’. Fifteen of the selected accessions were of Pakistani origin and exhibited early ear-emergence and low cross-compatibility, and five accessions were from Iran and Turkmenistan and exhibited high cross-compatibility. A wide variation among accessions in cross-compatibility might be related to their region of origin. Successful hybridization resulted in the formation of immature embryos, which are capable of regenerating to plants on culture medium. The Ae. tauschii accession ig 47219, of Turkmenistan origin, gave the highest frequency of embryos in crosses with both wheat varieties, but regeneration from the crosses with ‘Belikh-2’ failed due to the occurrence of hybrid necrosis. Thus, a high frequency of embryo production did not always result in the satisfactory development of hybrid plants. Treatment of the hybrid plants with colchicine was essential for the successful set of hexaploid seeds on the newly-synthesized plants. These constraints were discussed for the efficient development of new, synthetic hexaploid wheats.

  1. Ancient wheat and health: a legend or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Danesi, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Taccari, Annalisa; Valli, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT(®) trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.

  2. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  3. Toxicological effects of rare earth yttrium on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秀娟; 朱国才; 李亚宁

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the stress of rare earth yttrium (Y) and showed that 25-100 mg/kg Y treatments evidently increased the biomass (root mass, shoot mass and leaf mass), accompanied by a significant (p<0.05) increase in the chlorophyll (CHL) content in wheat leaves. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were de-tected in wheat shoots (stem and leaf) and roots too, indicating the presence of poisoning active oxygen species (AOS). The MDA content in wheat roots increased with the augmentation of Y concentration. These results indicated that there was a dose-dependent effect of Y on the changes of MDA content in wheat roots. Although the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalases (CAT) in wheat shoots and roots irregularly fluctuated with the increase in Y concentration, 25-100 mg/kg Y significantly (p<0.01) increased the activities of SOD and POD. In general, the dose-dependent effects of Y on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes were insignificant. Our data also indicated that the increase in SOD and POD activities could be used as a good bio-marker for the stress induced by low concentrations of Y.

  4. ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM BY METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ISOFLAVONE PATHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Shehawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are large group of secondary metabolites produced in legumes such as soybeans. They have essential biological functions as nutraceutical and health functions for human. They are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing organisms and plant competition (allelopathy. In this report, isoflavonoids were expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum via introducing the key enzymes Isoflavone Synthase (IFS. Transgenic callli induced from wheat immature embryos were propagated and prepared for bombardment. Five gene constructs were prepared; the binary vector (plasmid pAHC25, 35S-CRC, 35S-IFS, Oleocin-IFS, Oleocin-IFS-CHI and were used for wheat calli transformation. Putative transgenic calli were used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants. Evaluation of recovered transgenic plants was carried out using PCR, southern bloting of PCR products and IFS-specific probe and HPLC analysis of transgenic plant tissue extracts. Genistein and naranigenin were detected in transgenic plants carrying IFS gene, indicating that the introduced IFS was able to use the endogenous substrate from wheat. IFS showed activity under 35S promoter as well as oleocin promoter. The activity of oleocin promoter in monocots provides a good tool to use plant promoters to drive plant gene expression in plants. This also represents promoter compatibility that the cis acting elements of the oleocin promoter represent binding targets for trans acting elements of wheat. Engineering the isoflavone pathway in wheat would lead to enhancement of nutraceutical value of wheat grains and improvement of wheat resistance to diseases.

  5. Trigo duro: tolerância à toxicidade do alumínio em soluções nutritivas e no solo Durum wheat: tolerance to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution and in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de 23 linhagens e cultivares de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., introduzidos do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México, juntamente com um cultivar de triticale e seis de trigo (Triticum aestivum L, em soluções nutritivas contendo seis concentrações de Al3+ (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 mg/litro, à temperatura constante de 25 ± 1°C, e pH 4,0. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Todos os germoplasmas de trigo duro estudados e os cultivares de trigo Siete Cerros e Anahuac foram sensíveis à concentração de 1 mg/litro de Al3+. O cultivar de trigo Alondra-S-46 mostrou-se sensível a 4mg/litro de Al3+; o de triticale Chiva e os de trigo BH-1146, IAC-24 e IAC-60 exibiram tolerância à presença de 6 mg/litro de Al3+ nas soluções. Os mesmos genótipos foram também estudados em experimentos em solo ácido (V% = 14 e H + Al = 8,9 meq/100cm³ e em solo corrigido (V% = 65 e H + AI = 2,9 meq/100cm³. As produções de trigo duro em solo ácido foram baixas, variando de 939 a 2.243 kg/ha, comparadas com as dos cultivares de trigo e triticale tolerantes ao Al3+, as quais variaram de 3.584 a 4.922 kg/ha. No experimento em solo corrigido, a melhor linhagem de trigo duro (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Pelicano "S" x D 67.2 produziu 4.128 kg/ha, em comparação com o triticale Chiva, 4547 kg/ha, e o melhor trigo IAC-24, 4.906 kg/ha. Esses resultados confirmaram a necessidade de ser incorporada tolerância ao Al3+ nos genótipos de trigo duro visando a seu cultivo em solos ácidos.Twenty three durum wheat inbred lines, one triticale and six bread wheat cultivars were studied in aerated nutrient solutions for aluminum tolerance with six different levels of aluminum (0, 1, 2, 3,4 and 6 mg/I, under constant temperature, 25 ± 1°C and pH 4.0. Aluminum

  6. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  7. Comparison of volatiles profile and contents of trichothecenes group B, ergosterol and ATP of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale grain naturally contaminated by mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Buśko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS, fungal biomass indicators (ergosterol (HPLC and ATP (luminometric and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range.The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  8. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  9. Genome-wide characterization of JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN transcription repressors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Qiao, Linyi; Bai, Jianfang; Wang, Peng; Duan, Wenjing; Yuan, Shaohua; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengting; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping

    2017-02-13

    The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome. Structural analysis revealed that the TaJAZ proteins in wheat were as conserved as those in other plants, but had structural characteristics. By phylogenetic analysis, all JAZ proteins from wheat and other plants were clustered into 11 sub-groups (G1-G11), and TaJAZ proteins shared a high degree of similarity with some JAZ proteins from Aegliops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa. The Ka/Ks ratios of TaJAZ genes ranged from 0.0016 to 0.6973, suggesting that the TaJAZ family had undergone purifying selection in wheat. Gene expression patterns obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed differential temporal and spatial regulation of TaJAZ genes under multifarious abiotic stress treatments of high salinity, drought, cold and phytohormone. Among these, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 were specifically expressed in the anther tissues of the thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) wheat line BS366 and normal control wheat line Jing411. Compared with the gene expression patterns in the normal wheat line Jing411, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 had different expression patterns in abnormally dehiscent anthers of BS366 at the heading stage 6, suggesting that specific up- or down-regulation of these genes might be associated with the abnormal anther dehiscence in TGMS wheat line. This study analyzed the size and composition of the JAZ gene family in wheat, and investigated stress responsive and differential tissue-specific expression profiles of each

  10. Physiological processes associated with genetic progress in yield potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aisawi, Khaled A. Boulgasem

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown of any crop and provides one-fifth of the total calories of the world's population. Since the 1960s, increases in productivity have been achieved as a result of wide-scale adoption of Green Revolution technologies. However, in spite of growing demand, the challenges of increasing production to feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050 are still considerable. Due to the increased demand, it is estimated that food production mu...

  11. Variations of the sensory profile of durum wheat Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread during staling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Bilancia, Maria Teresa; Caponio, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    The typical sensory characteristics of Altamura PDO (protected designation of origin) bread are due to both the use of durum wheat remilled semolina and the prolonged sponge-dough method based on sourdough. In this paper the sensory properties of Altamura bread were evaluated during a period of 6 days from baking. A total number of 24 descriptors was considered. The obtained results indicated that during the whole storage period many of the desirable characters such as crust consistence, crumb elasticity, crumb cohesiveness, overall aroma, and sour aroma decreased, while the undesirable stale aroma and crumb consistence increased their intensity. In any case, after 4 days from the production crumb color, crumb grain, crumb elasticity, and crumb humidity did not vary significantly.

  12. Different stress responsive strategies to drought and heat in two durum wheat cultivars with contrasting water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Alessio; Havlickova, Lenka; Panna, Riccardo; Marè, Caterina; Borrelli, Grazia M; Marone, Daniela; Perrotta, Carla; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Curn, Vladislav; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Rizza, Fulvia; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2013-11-22

    Durum wheat often faces water scarcity and high temperatures, two events that usually occur simultaneously in the fields. Here we report on the stress responsive strategy of two durum wheat cultivars, characterized by different water use efficiency, subjected to drought, heat and a combination of both stresses. The cv Ofanto (lower water use efficiency) activated a large set of well-known drought-related genes after drought treatment, while Cappelli (higher water use efficiency) showed the constitutive expression of several genes induced by drought in Ofanto and a modulation of a limited number of genes in response to stress. At molecular level the two cvs differed for the activation of molecular messengers, genes involved in the regulation of chromatin condensation, nuclear speckles and stomatal closure. Noteworthy, the heat response in Cappelli involved also the up-regulation of genes belonging to fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, glyoxylate cycle and senescence, suggesting an early activation of senescence in this cv. A gene of unknown function having the greatest expression difference between the two cultivars was selected and used for expression QTL analysis, the corresponding QTL was mapped on chromosome 6B. Ofanto and Cappelli are characterized by two opposite stress-responsive strategies. In Ofanto the combination of drought and heat stress led to an increased number of modulated genes, exceeding the simple cumulative effects of the two single stresses, whereas in Cappelli the same treatment triggered a number of differentially expressed genes lower than those altered in response to heat stress alone. This work provides clear evidences that the genetic system based on Cappelli and Ofanto represents an ideal tool for the genetic dissection of the molecular response to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  13. IMPACTO DE DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE LABOREO EN LA FISIOLOGÍA DE LA NUTRICIÓN DEL TRIGO (Triticum durum L.

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    Roberqui Martín Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló en la finca experimental “La Hampa”, perteneciente al Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (CSIC, España, con el objetivo de evaluar las respuestas fisiológicas provocadas por el laboreo tradicional (LT y el laboreo de conservación (LC en el estado nutricional del cultivo del trigo (Triticum durum L.,en experimentos de larga duración, en un suelo Xerofluvent, franco arcillo arenoso. El área experimental cuenta con una estación agrometeorológica que registra valores mínimos, medios y máximos de diferentes variables, considerándose para este trabajo las temperaturas y las precipitaciones. Para el estudio se utilizó un diseño de Bloques al Azar con tres réplicas por tratamiento; cada bloque contó con una superficie de 240 m2. En la fase experimental se evaluó la extracción de nutrientes por el cultivo en la masa foliar y en los granos, para lo cual se emplearon 10 plantas al azar por tratamiento. Las determinaciones de nitrógeno se realizaron por el método Kjeldahl y el resto de los elementos mediante espectroscopia de emisión atómica de plasma (ICP. Desde el punto de vista fisiológico, hay diferencias significativas en la extracción de nutrientes absorbidos por el cultivo, lo que asegura que en el laboreo de conservación las plantas no tuvieron problemas nutricionales, con una mayor producción de masa seca total. Tampoco se detectaron diferencias significativas entre ambos tratamientos, en lo que respecta al rendimiento, por lo que el laboreo de conservación resulta el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta los beneficios medioambientales que conlleva.

  14. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors.

  16. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

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    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  17. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats.

  18. Evolution of polyploid triticum wheats under cultivation: the role of domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation in their diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats is distinctive in that domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation have all had significant impacts on their diversification. In this review, I outline the phylogenetic relationships of cultivated wheats and their wild relatives and provide an overview of the recent progress and remaining issues in understanding the genetic and ecological factors that favored their evolution. An attempt is made to view the evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats as a continuous process of diversification that was initiated by domestication of tetraploid emmer wheat and driven by various natural events ranging from interploidy introgression via hybridization to allopolyploid speciation of hexaploid common wheat, instead of viewing it as a group of discrete evolutionary processes that separately proceeded at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. This standpoint underscores the important role of natural hybridization in the reticulate diversification of the tetraploid-hexaploid Triticum wheat complex and highlights critical, but underappreciated, issues that concern the allopolyploid speciation of common wheat.

  19. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour.

  20. The structure of the endodermis during the development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four stages of development in the process of differentiation of the root endodermis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Grana are described. The proendodermis cells have a meristematic nature. Their vacuoles accumulated an osmophilic material. In the next stage, Casparian strips arose in the walls of the endodermis. Dictyosomes and ER cisterns were numerous in the protoplasts of these cells. In the following stage, a suberin lamella was deposited over the entire internal surface of the primary cell wall. In the final stage, a secondary cell wall, thickened in the form of a letter U, was formed. In secondary wall simple pits arose. The endodermis of the wheat root developed asynchronously, more quickly over the phloem bundles.

  1. Effect of 5-n-alkylresorcinol extracts from durum wheat whole grain on the growth of fusarium head blight (FHB) causal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Pasquini, Marina; Sgrulletta, Daniela; Nocente, Francesca

    2015-01-14

    In an approach toward the identification of ecofriendly compounds for fusarium head blight biocontrol, the in vitro antifungal activity of 5-n-alkylresorcinol (AR) extracts, obtained from durum wheat intact kernels, was tested. In comparison with ethyl acetate and acetone extracts containing AR, total inhibition of Fusarium graminearum spore germination was observed with cyclohexane extract, which also exhibited a significant fungistatic activity against F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, and Fusarium poae. Additionally, the study of the influence of such variables as predrying of seeds and durum wheat genotype on AR cyclohexane extract properties allowed the association of its highest antifungal activity with the AR homologue composition and, in particular, with the presence of a higher C21:0/C23:0 ratio. The interesting finding of this study suggests a potential application of the AR homologues in crop protection systems and could be an important step toward the development of commercial formulations suitable to the prevention of fungal diseases.

  2. Soft wheat instead of hard wheat in pelleted diets results in high starch digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Muley, N; Gomez, J; Ouryt, F X; Laffitte, E; Guillou, D; Signoret, C

    2005-02-01

    (1) The aim of the experiment was to re-examine variations in digestibilities of food components in 3-week-old broiler chickens fed on pelleted diets based on wheats differing in lipase activity and hardness. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples, each from a different cultivar, were included at 550 g/kg in 14 different diets given to male Ross broiler chicks from 7 d of age. The other main ingredients consisted of soyabean meal (353 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (55 g/kg). A 15th diet containing durum wheat (Triticum durum) was also tested. (2) Hardness of wheats (Triticum aestivum) varied between 14 (very soft) and 88 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.1 (relative scale). No significant correlation was found between in vitro viscosities and other parameters such as hardness, particle size of wheat flours and lipase. Hardness was correlated with the mean particle size of wheat flours and durability of pellets. (3) Individual lipid digestibilities were negatively correlated with in vitro viscosities of wheats. (4) Individual starch digestibilities were negatively correlated with wheat hardness, particle size of wheat flour before pelleting, and pellet durability. The ratio of measured AME(N) to predicted AME(N) was also negatively correlated with wheat hardness. Simple regression calculation showed that a 100-point increase in wheat hardness resulted in a 3% decrease in the AME(N) value of diets. Multiple regression calculation showed the food/gain ratio (d 10 to d 21) to be positively related to wheat hardness and negatively related to pellet durability. (5) Wheat lipase activity was positively correlated with individual starch digestibility, which was the reverse of a result obtained in a previous experiment. Thus, wheat lipase activity did not seem consistent for predicting starch digestibility and AME(N) values. (6) Among all wheat samples, durum wheat showed the highest protein content and the lowest content of water-insoluble cell

  3. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  5. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). On loamy sand two compaction treatments (PAC-1 and PAC-2) and a no compaction reference treatment (REF) were applied. PAC-1 was intended to affect primarily the subsoil whereas PAC-2 was intended to affect primarily the topsoil. PAC-2 showed the highest and REF the lowest...

  6. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  7. The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase, is caused by a deletion in the VRN1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitsukawa, Naoki; Ikari, Chihiro; Shimada, Sanae; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Koichi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko; Takumi, Shigeo; Nasuda, Shuhei; Murai, Koji

    2007-04-01

    The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase (mvp), was induced by nitrogen ion-beam treatment and was identified by its inability to transit from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In our previous study, we showed that WAP1 (wheat APETALA1) is a key gene in the regulatory pathway that controls phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in common wheat. WAP1 is an ortholog of the VRN1 gene that is responsible for vernalization insensitivity in einkorn wheat. The mvp mutation resulted from deletion of the VRN1 coding and promoter regions, demonstrating that WAP1/VRN1 is an indispensable gene for phase transition in wheat. Expression analysis of flowering-related genes in mvp plants indicated that wheat GIGANTIA (GI), CONSTANS (CO) and SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) genes either act upstream of or in a different pathway to WAP1/VRN1.

  8. Application of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Derived from T.Durum, Ae. taushiiin Common Wheat Breeding for FHB Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The F1 and F4 plants of 'synthetic hexaploid wheat/common wheat'crosses and part of their parents were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum to evaluate FHB resistance.The results showed tht the scab resistance in the F1 varied with the synthetic wheat accessions used as crossing parents.In the F4,some resistant head lines were generated from the crosses,although their parents had different scab resistance levels.It indicated that synthetic hexaploid wheat are useful in wheat breeding for scab resistance.

  9. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the selection criteria to obtain a superior mutant derived from the wheat plants of such varieties as Dewata, Selayar and Alibey, adaptive in medium land. The analysis of agronomic growth characters showed a significantly effect on a growth percentage of the initial growth (8 mutants, flowering time (1 mutant, panicle stem length (15 mutants, number of panicles (7 mutants, the number of grains per panicle (8 mutants, grain weight observed (8 mutants, grain weight per genotype (6 mutants, leaf area (2 mutants and leaf greenness (5 mutants. The effects on the characters of ripe time, harvest, panicle length and plant height were not significant. The mutants of Dewata, Selayar and Alibey could be selected based on the characters of panicle stem length, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per observation because these characters generated more mutants than the other characters. The correlation analysis between the characters of growth and yield components of wheat mutants showed that the number of grains per panicle was positively correlated with the grain weight observed, while the length of panicle stem was positively correlated with grain weight per genotype, number of panicles and leaf area. Hopefully some mutants produced could adapt to the tropical medium land, thus adding to the diversity of wheat germplasm in Indonesia, thereby reducing the import of wheat to Indonesia.How to CiteSari, L., Purwito, A., Sopandie, D., Purnamaningsih, R. & Sudarmonowati, E. (2016. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 353-361. 

  10. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  11. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, L

    1986-07-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20 degrees C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent.

  12. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  13. The in silico identification and characterization of a bread wheat/Triticum militinae introgression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrouk, Michael; Balcárková, Barbora; Šimková, Hana; Komínkova, Eva; Martis, Mihaela M; Jakobson, Irena; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Rey, Elodie; Vrána, Jan; Kilian, Andrzej; Järve, Kadri; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-02-01

    The capacity of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome to tolerate introgression from related genomes can be exploited for wheat improvement. A resistance to powdery mildew expressed by a derivative of the cross-bread wheat cv. Tähti × T. militinae (Tm) is known to be due to the incorporation of a Tm segment into the long arm of chromosome 4A. Here, a newly developed in silico method termed rearrangement identification and characterization (RICh) has been applied to characterize the introgression. A virtual gene order, assembled using the GenomeZipper approach, was obtained for the native copy of chromosome 4A; it incorporated 570 4A DArTseq markers to produce a zipper comprising 2132 loci. A comparison between the native and introgressed forms of the 4AL chromosome arm showed that the introgressed region is located at the distal part of the arm. The Tm segment, derived from chromosome 7G, harbours 131 homoeologs of the 357 genes present on the corresponding region of Chinese Spring 4AL. The estimated number of Tm genes transferred along with the disease resistance gene was 169. Characterizing the introgression's position, gene content and internal gene order should not only facilitate gene isolation, but may also be informative with respect to chromatin structure and behaviour studies. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nitric oxide mediates alginate oligosaccharides-induced root development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Hang; Yin, Heng; Wang, Wenxia; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yuguang

    2013-10-01

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg L(-1)) were found to induce the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in the root system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which promoted the formation and elongation of wheat roots in a dose-dependent manner. NO inhibitors suggested that nitrate reductase (NR), rather than nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was essential for AOS-induced root development. Further studies confirmed that AOS-induced NO generation in wheat roots by up-regulating the gene expression and enzyme activity of NR at the post-transcriptional level. The anatomy and RT-PCR results showed that AOS accelerated the division and growth of stele cells, leading to an increase in the ratio of stele area to root transverse area. This could be inhibited by the NR inhibitor, sodium tungstate, which indicated that NO catalyzed by the NR was involved in AOS regulation of root development. Taken together, in the early stage of AOS-induced root development, NO generation was a novel mechanism by which AOS regulated plant growth. The results also showed that this marine resource could be widely used for crop development.

  15. Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins and phosphoproteins upon seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eDong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/ transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination.

  16. Acid Carboxypeptidases in Grains and Leaves of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Leena

    1986-01-01

    Extracts of resting and germinating (3 days at 20°C) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Ruso) grains rapidly hydrolyzed various benzyloxycarbonyldipeptides (Z-dipeptides) at pH 4 to 6. Similar activities were present in extracts of mature flag leaves. Fractionation by chromatography on CM-cellulose and on Sephadex G-200 showed that the activities in germinating grains were due to five acid carboxypeptidases with different and complementary substrate specificities. The wheat enzymes appeared to correspond to the five acid carboxypeptidases present in germinating barley (L Mikola 1983 Biochim Biophys Acta 747: 241-252). The enzymes were designated wheat carboxypeptidases I to V and their best or most characteristic substrates and approximate molecular weights were: I, Z-Phe-Ala, 120,000; II, Z-Ala-Arg, 120,000; III, Z-Ala-Phe, 40,000; IV, Z-Pro-Ala, 165,000; and V, Z-Pro-Ala, 150,000. Resting grains contained carboxypeptidase II as a series of three isoenzymes and low activities of carboxypeptidases IV and V. During germination the activity of carboxypeptidase II decreased, those of carboxypeptidases IV and V increased, and high activities of carboxypeptidases I and III appeared. The flag leaves contained high activity of carboxypeptidase I and lower activities of carboxypeptidases II, IV, and V, whereas carboxypeptidase III was absent. PMID:16664910

  17. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  18. Liquid N and S fertilizer solutions effects on the mass, chemical, and shear strength properties of winter wheat (Triticum aestuvum) residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve stand establishment in high crop residue situations, the utility of fertilizer to stimulate microbial decomposition of residue has been debated. Field experiments assessed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw decomposition under different fertilizer rates and application timings at thre...

  19. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Phytoene Synthase from Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerika; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitesh; Thakur, Neha; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Ajay Kumar; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) regulates the first committed step of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The present work reports identification and characterization of the three PSY genes (TaPSY1, TaPSY2 and TaPSY3) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 genes consisted of three homoeologs on the long arm of group 7 chromosome (7L), short arm of group 5 chromosome (5S), and long arm of group 5 chromosome (5L), respectively in each subgenomes (A, B, and D) with a similarity range from 89% to 97%. The protein sequence analysis demonstrated that TaPSY1 and TaPSY3 retain most of conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of all TaPSY revealed an evolutionary relationship among PSY proteins of various monocot species. TaPSY derived from A and D subgenomes shared proximity to the PSY of Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, respectively. The differential expression of TaPSY1, TaPSY2, and TaPSY3 in the various tissues, seed development stages, and stress treatments suggested their role in plant development, and stress condition. TaPSY3 showed higher expression in all tissues, followed by TaPSY1. The presence of multiple stress responsive cis-regulatory elements in promoter region of TaPSY3 correlated with the higher expression during drought and heat stresses has suggested their role in these conditions. The expression pattern of TaPSY3 was correlated with the accumulation of β-carotene in the seed developmental stages. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of each TaPSY protein. Hence, TaPSY can be explored in developing genetically improved wheat crop. PMID:27695116

  20. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H2O2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches.

  2. Eleven-year results on soft and durum wheat crops grown in an organic and in a conventional low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eleven-year results on yields and apparent balances of organic matter and nitrogen (N are reported for soft and durum wheat crops grown in the BIOSYST long-term experiment for the comparison between an organic and a conventional low-input system in Central Italy. The N supply to organic wheat consisted of 40 kg N ha–1 as poultry manure plus the supposed residual N left by green manures carried out before the preceding summer vegetable, while the N supply to conventional wheat consisted of 80 kg N ha–1 as mineral fertilisers, split in two applications of 40 kg ha–1 each, at tillering and pre-shooting. In every year, above ground biomass and N accumulation of each wheat species, including weeds, and the partitioning between grain yield and crop residues were determined. Apparent dry matter and N balances were calculated at the end of each crop cycle by taking into account the amounts of dry matter and N supplied to the system as fertilisers, and those removed with grain yield. Soft wheat yielded more than durum wheat. For both species, grain yield and protein content were more variable across years and generally lower in the organic than in the conventional system. In both systems, grain yield of both species resulted negatively correlated with fall-winter rainfall, likely for its effect on soil N availability. Both species caused a lower return of biomass and a higher soil N depletion in the organic than in the conventional system. Our experiment confirmed that winter wheat can help exploit the soil N availability and reduce N leaching in fall winter, especially after summer vegetables, but in stockless or stock-limited organic systems it needs to be included in rotations where soil fertility is restored by fall winter green manures to be carried out before summer crops.

  3. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  4. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Conditional QTL mapping of three yield components in common wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhang; Jiansheng Chen; Ruyu Li; Zhiying Deng; Kunpu Zhang; Bin Liu; Jichun Tian

    2016-01-01

    Spike number per m~2(SN),kernel number per spike(KNPS) and thousand-kernel weight(TKW)are the three main components determining wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) yield.To evaluate the relationships among them a doubled haploid(DH) population consisting of 168 lines grown at three locations for three years was analyzed by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping.Thirty-three unconditional QTL and fifty-nine conditional QTL were detected.Among them,two QTL(QSN-DH-2B and QSN-DH-3A-1.1) improved SN,with no effect on KNPS.QKNPS-DH-2B-2.1 improved KNPS,with no effect on SN.QKNPS-DH-1A-1.1,QKNPS-DH-2D-1.1and QKNPS-DH-6A improved KNPS,with no effect on SN or TKW.QKNPS-DH-6B was associated with increased SN and TKW.In addition,QTKW-DH-4B,QTKW-DH-5B and QTKW-DH-7B increased TKW without decreasing KNPS.These results provide useful information for marker assisted selection(MAS) and improvement in wheat yield.

  6. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  7. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  8. Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  9. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at Glu-1 Loci in Chinese Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-yong; PANG Bin-shuang; YOU Guang-xia; WANG Lan-fen; JIA Ji-zeng; DONG Yu-chen

    2002-01-01

    Wheat processing quality is greatly influenced by the seed proteins especially the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) components, the low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) components and gliadin components. Genes encoding the HMW-GS and LMW-GS components were located on the long arms and the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, respectively. HMW-GS components in 5 129 accessions of wheat germplasms were analyzed systematically, including 3 459 landraces and 1 670 modern varieties. These accessions were chosen as candidate core collections to represent the genetic diversity of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) germplasms documented and conserved in the National Gene Bank. These candidate core collections covered the 10 wheat production regions in China. In the whole country, the dominating alleles at the three loci are Glu-A1b (null), Glu-B1b (7 + 8), and Glu- D1a (2 + 12), respectively. The obvious difference between the land race and the modern variety is the dramatic frequency increase of alleles Glu-A1a (1), Glu-B1c (7 + 9), Glu-B1h (14 + 15), Glu-D1d (5 + 10) and allele cording 5 + 12 subunits in the later ones. In the whole view, there is minor difference on the genetic(allelic)richness between the landrace and the modern variety at Glu-1, which is 28 and 30 respectively. However, the genetic dispersion index (Simpson index) based on allelic variation and frequencies at Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 suggested that the modern varieties had much higher genetic diversity than the landraces. This revealed that various isolating mechanisms (such as auto-gamous nature, low migration because of undeveloped transposition system) limited the gene flow and exchange between populations of the landraces, which led up to some genotypes localized in very small areas. Modern breeding has strongly promoted gene exchanges and introgression between populations and previous isolated populations. In the three loci, Glu-B1 has the highest

  10. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329) Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Singh; Agrawal, S. B.; Dheeraj Rathore

    2003-01-01

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was ...

  11. TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Ellen; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Beaugrand, Johnny; Volckaert, Guido; Van Campenhout, Steven; Proost, Paul; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2007-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI> or =9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6-kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a K(i) of approx. 60-nM. Except for zeamatin, an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins.

  12. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change.

  13. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of phenolic compounds in modern and old varieties of durum wheat using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Carretero, Antonio Segura; Di Silvestro, Raffaella; Marotti, Ilaria; Fu, Shaoping; Benedettelli, Stefano; Ghiselli, Lisetta; Gutiérrez, Alberto Fernández

    2009-10-23

    An evaluation of the grain functional components of Italian durum wheat cultivars was conducted. The raw material was obtained from the field trial performed in 2006-2007 at the Experimental Farm of the University of Bologna, (Bologna, Italy). The aim of this study was to define the phytochemical profile of ten varieties, comprised of old and modern durum wheat genotypes, including quantitative and qualitative phenolic and flavonoid content (free and bound forms). The results showed that mean values of total phenolic compound and total flavonoid content in old wheat varieties (878.2+/-19.0 micromol gallic acid equivalent/100g of grain and 122.6+/-25.4 micromol catechin equivalent/100g of grain, respectively) did not differ significantly from those detected in modern genotypes (865.9+/-128.9 micromol gallic acid equivalent/100g and 123.5+/-20.6 micromol catechin equivalent/100g, respectively). However, the HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis highlighted remarkable differences between modern and old cultivars. The interpretation of the mass spectra allowed the identification of 70 phenolic compounds, including coumarins, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavones, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes and lignans. The free extracts of ancient wheat varieties showed the presence of a mean number of phenolic compounds and isomer forms (8.7+/-2.5 and 7.7+/-4.7 respectively) significantly higher than in modern genotypes (4.4+/-2.9 and 2.0+/-2.4, respectively). A similar trend was observed also for the bound phenolic fraction. Moreover, the phytochemical profiles showed the presence of unique phenolic compounds in both free and bound fractions of some of the investigated wheat genotypes. Results highlighted that investigated old wheat cultivars may offer unique nutraceutical values for their peculiar contents in bioactive phytochemicals, suggesting their uses into a wide range of regular and specialty products naturally enriched with health-promoting compounds.

  15. Development of a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species for improvement of wheat for activity against chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santra Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species as a resource for the identification and characterization of wheat lines with preventive activity against chronic diseases. Given that cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the world and shares risk factors with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and given that wheat has been reported to protect against these diseases, the core collection was developed based on cancer prevalence. Methods The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database was used to identify Triticum and Aegilops species grown in regions of the world that vary in cancer prevalence based on the International Agency for Cancer Research GLOBOCAN world map of cancer statistics (2008. Cancer incidence data drove variety selection with secondary consideration of ploidy, center of origin, and climate. Results Analysis indicated that the geographic regions from which wheat is considered to have originated have a lower incidence of cancer than other geographic regions (P Conclusions A diverse core collection of wheat germplasm has been established from a range of regions worldwide. This core collection will be used to identify wheat lines with activity against chronic diseases using anticancer activity as a screening tool.

  16. Characterization of a PDR type ABC transporter gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Yi; XIAO Jin; MA LuLin; WANG HaiYan; QI ZengJun; CHEN PeiDu; LIU DaJun; WANG XiuE

    2009-01-01

    DON,as a virulence factor,plays an important role in the infection of Fusarium graminearum in wheat.The infection ability of F. graminearum depends on its capacity of producing DON. The production of DON by F. graminearum is significantly decreased in the wheat varieties with scab resistance. In this study,GeneChip analysis indicated that an EST encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was up-regulated by 45 times in a wheat landrace Wangshuibai,which is resistant to DON accumulation.A pair of EST-derived primers were designed based on the EST sequence,and a clone was then isolated from a wheat genomic DNA TAC library. The TAC clone was sequenced using chromosome walking and gene prediction was conducted using Softberry. A cDNA clone of this gene was subsequently isolated from Wangshuibai induced by DON using gene-specific primers designed according to the untranslated sequence of the gene. The genome size of the gene is 7377 bp,consisting of 19 exons with coding sequences of 4308 bp. It encodes a protein with 1435 amino acid residues and the calculated molecular weight is about 161 kD. BLAST analysis indicated that the gene may belong to pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) sub-family,and hence designated as TaPDR1 (Triticum aestivum pleiotropic drug resistance). TaPDR1 was located on chromosome 5A of wheat using nulliaomic-tetrasomic lines of Chinese Spring. TaPDR1 was up-regulated by induction of both DON and F. graminearum. Expression patterns of TaPDR1 were different in wild-type Wangshuibai and the fast-neutron induced Wangshuibai mutant lacking FHB1,a major QTL of FHB resistance and DON resistance in chromosome arm 3BS. These results suggested that TaPDR1 might be a candidate gene responsible for DON accumulation resistance. The expression profile showed that TaPDR1 expression was neither induced by hormones typically involved in biotic stress,such as JA and SA,nor by abiotic stresses,such as heat,cold,wounding and NaCI. However,TaPDR1 expression was

  17. Trigo duro: tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em soluções nutritivas Durum wheat: tolerance to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento diferencial de 23 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. em compraração com os seguintes cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L.: IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros e IAC-60, quanto aos níveis de Al3+ (0;0,2;0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 mg/L, de Mn2+ (0,11; 300; 600 c 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56; 5; 10 e 20 mg/L em solução nutritiva. Os cultivares de trigo Siete Cerros (sensível à toxicidade de Al3+, BH-1146, IAC-60 e IAC-24 (tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exibiram crescimento das raízes na presença de 1 mg/L de Al3+, e todas as linhagens de trigo duro avaliadas foram totalmente sensíveis a 0,4 mg/L de Al3+, com paralisação irreversível do crescimento das raízes. O aumento das concentrações de Mn2+(0,11 a 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56 a 20 mg/L nas soluções causou uma redução significativa no comprimento das raízes dos genótipos em estudo. As linhagens de trigo duro I (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Purcell "S"/D.67.2, 2 (Cando - Yavaros "S", 6 (Chen "S" e 8 (Carcomum "S" apresentaram-se muito tolerantes à toxicidade de Mn2+ em relação ao controle 'Siete Cerros'. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens de trigo duro 1, 6, 12 (CI 14955 x Yavaros "S"- Gediz "S"/Tropic Bird, 16 e 21 (Swan "S" c 20 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane/Ganso//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/ Memo "S" exibiram tolerância à presença de elevadas quantidades de Fe2+ nas soluções nutritivas.Twenty three durum wheat inbred lines were evaluated with four bread wheat cultivars (IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros and IAC-60 in three experiments, using nutrient solutions. In the first experiment, the following levels of Al3+ were used: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L; in the second experiment, the following levels of Mn2+ were used: 0.11; 300; 600 and 1.200 mg/L; and in the third experiment, Fe2+ was used at: 0.56; 5; 10 and 1.200 mg/L. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros (sensitive to Al3+ toxicity and BH-1146, IAC-24 and IAC-60 (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity

  18. Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Rates on Yield and Quality on Durum Wheat in a Two-year Rotation

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    Giovanna Cucci

    Full Text Available Within the environmental impact reduction perspective, this work was aimed at assessing for durum wheat, grown within two crop rotations, the minimum allowable value of fertilising formulae to obtain adequate crop yields and quality for the operators of the whole production chain. Six fertilising formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of 3 nitrogen levels (N = 50-100-150 kg ha-1 and 2 phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 were compared against an unfertilised control N0P0K0. The potassium rate was the same for all fertilising formulae (K2O = 100 kg ha-1. The treatments were studied within a comparative trial between 2 two-year rotations: potato - wheat + bean (A1 and potato + purslane - wheat + bean (A2 aimed at testing the purslane potential and its ability to use the available residual nitrogen after potato cropping to reduce deep percolation losses. The best yield results were observed for wheat in the rotation that did not include purslane after potato (A1. In agreement with the literature, the nitrogen fertilisation had a positive effect on wheat grain yield also in the same cropping season as a consequence of a diversified action on the major yield components. The highest grain yields were observed in both rotations at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 of N, without any change with the rates of P. The protein content, which is higher in rotation A1, shows in both rotations the lowest value in the unfertilised control and improves with the increase in fertilisation, reaching the highest value (about 6% more with the rate N3. No significant difference was observed between the rates N1 and N2; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. A similar trend was observed in the gluten content that does not show any significant difference between N0 and N1, whereas it shows increases significantly different with the two higher rates. The

  19. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  20. NsLTP1 and NsLTP2 isoforms in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum Cv. Centauro) and farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saviozzi, Franco; Saletti, Rosaria; Lorenzi, Roberto; Foti, Salvatore; Galleschi, Luciano

    2005-10-05

    Isoforms of nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1) and nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 2 (nsLTP2) were investigated in bran tissues isolated from caryopses of two cereal crops quite relevant for the Italian market, the cultivar Centauro of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian emmer or farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank). By sequential separation of the bran extracts on cation-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, fractions containing only proteins belonging to the nsLTP1 and nsLTP2 classes were obtained. The proteins were roughly identified by SDS-PAGE and by immunoreactions in Western blotting experiments. By MALDI-MS and RP-HPLC/ESI-MS analyses we were able to show the presence of several LTP1 and LTP2 isoforms in the investigated species. Bioinformatic searches based on the determined Mr indicated that (i) two nsLTP1s already identified in T. aestivum have Mr and number of Cys residues identical to that of a 9.6 kDa protein present both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro; (ii) two isoforms of nsLTP2 detected in T. aestivum have the same Mr and number of Cys residues of two 7 kDa proteins found in Centauro; and (iii) a nsLTP1 detected in Ambrosia artemisiifolia has Mr and number of Cys residues coincident to that of a 9.9 kDa protein found both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro.

  1. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  2. Evaluation of the safety of ancient strains of wheat in coeliac disease reveals heterogeneous small intestinal T cell responses suggestive of coeliac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuligoj, Tanja; Gregorini, Armando; Colomba, Mariastella; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since it is unknown if all wheat varieties are equally toxic to coeliac patients seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid) were studied. Selected strains of wheat were ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome). Small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 coeliac patients were tested with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. All strains of wheat independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin triggered heterogeneous responses covering wide ranges of stimulation indices. Ancient strains of wheat, although previously suggested to be low or devoid of coeliac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple coeliac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity. Our findings provide further evidence for the need for a strict gluten-free diet in coeliac patients, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the photosynthesis-related traits and high temperature resistance in tetraploid wheat (Triticum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina OLSOVSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of 10 parental lines of tetraploid wheat genotypes with various origin was cultivated in growth chamber. Leaf and growth traits such as assimilation pigments content, dry mass and leaf area of plants were measured. The genotype differences were recognized by chlorophyll a fluorescence fast kinetics method applied on penultimate young wheat leaves. Consequently, heat stress susceptibility based on the exposure of whole plants in pots to air temperature of 42oC for 6 hours was measured, too. Rapid chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics method gave us better knowledge about differences among tetraploid wheat genotypes collection comparing to classic assimilation pigments analyse. Genotypes with higher content of pigments did not always exhibit good resistance against heat stress. Using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, the rating of genotypes based on photosynthetic performance as well as photosystem II (PSII thermostability was done. We identified the genotypes TRG7 (Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum, PI 384230, Ethiopia and RONCAL (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon, TRI 17700, Spain as the perspective donors of genes for better thermostability of photosynthetic apparatus in changed climate conditions and material into wheat efficiency breeding programs.

  4. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development.

  5. Effects of As on As uptake,speciation,and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quanji; HU Chengxiao; TAN Qiling; SUN Xuccheng; SU Jingjun; LIANG Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth,nutrition and As uptake,and spcciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Winter wheat has high tolerance to As.Most As is accumulated in the roots,and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As.Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots.Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species,although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues.Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue.Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K),nitrogen (N),and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots,particularly the concentration of P.Concentrations of iron,copper,and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates,with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93,0.94,and 0.97,respectively.

  6. Effects of As on As uptake, speciation, and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanji; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Sun, Xuecheng; Su, Jingjun; Liang, Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth, nutrition and As uptake, and speciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Winter wheat has high tolerance to As. Most As is accumulated in the roots, and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As. Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots. Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species, although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues. Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue. Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots, particularly the concentration of P. Concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates, with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively.

  7. Association analysis of grain traits with SSR markers between Aegilops tauschii and hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-lan; WANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Xiao-cun; DU Xu-ye; LI An-fei; KONG Ling-rang

    2015-01-01

    Seven important grain traits, including grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), grain length/width ratio (GLW), roundness (GR), and thousand-grain weight (TGW), were analyzed using a set of 139 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in 130 hexaploid wheat varieties and 193Aegilops tauschiaccessions worldwide. In total, 1612 aleles inAe. tauschiand 1360 aleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) were detected throughout the D genome. 197 marker-trait associations inAe. tauschi were identiifed with 58 different SSR loci in 3 environments, and the average phenotypic variation value (R2) ranged from 0.68 to 15.12%. In contrast, 208 marker-trait associations were identiifed in wheat with 66 different SSR markers in 4 environments and the average phenotypicR2ranged from 0.90 to 19.92%. Further analysis indicated that there are 6 common SSR loci present in bothAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat, which are signiifcantly associated with the 5 investigated grain traits (i.e., GA, GP, GR, GL, and TGW) and in total, 16 aleles derived from the 6 aforementioned SSR loci were shared byAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. These preliminary data suggest the existence of common aleles may explain the evolutionary process and the selection betweenAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the genetic differentiation of grain shape and thousand-grain weight were observed in the evolutionary developmental process fromAe. tauschi to hexaploid wheat.

  8. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  9. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  10. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  11. Nitrogen and Photosynthesis in the Flag Leaf of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J R

    1983-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants were grown with various concentrations of nitrate nitrogen available to the roots. Sampling of flag leaves began after they had reached full expansion and continued throughout senescence. Rates of gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuP(2)) carboxylase activity, and the amounts of chlorophyll, soluble protein, nitrogen, and phosphorus were determined for each flag leaf. Rate of CO(2) assimilation was uniquely related to total leaf nitrogen irrespective of nutrient treatment, season, and leaf age. Assimilation rate increased with leaf nitrogen, but the slope of the relationship declined markedly when leaf nitrogen exceeded 125 millimoles nitrogen per square meter. Chlorophyll content and RuP(2) carboxylase activity were approximately proportional to leaf nitrogen content. As leaves aged, RuP(2) carboxylase activity and calculated Hill activity declined in parallel. With normal ambient partial pressure of CO(2), the intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) was always such that rate of assimilation appeared colimited by RuP(2) carboxylation and RuP(2) regeneration capacity.The initial slope of rate of CO(2) assimilation against intercellular partial pressure of CO(2) varied nonlinearly with carboxylase activity. It is suggested that this was due to a finite conductance to CO(2) diffusion in the wall and liquid phase which causes a drop in CO(2) partial pressure between the intercellular spaces and the site of carboxylation. A double reciprocal plot was used to obtain an estimate of the transfer conductance.

  12. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Dark-Induced Senescence in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Li; Fanyun Lin; Gui Wang; Ruilian Jing; Qi Zheng; Bin Li; Zhensheng Li

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the genetics of dark-induced senescence in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),aquantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid population developed from across between the varieties Hanxuan 10 (HX) and Lumai 14 (LM).The senescence parameters chlorophyll content (Chl a+b,Chl a,and Chl b),original fluorescence (Fo),maximum fluorescence level (Fm),maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm),and ratio of variable fluorescence to original fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were evaluated in the second leaf of whole three-leaf seedlings subjected to 7 d of darkness.A total of 43 QTLs were identified that were associated with dark-induced senescence using composite interval mapping.These QTLs were mapped to 20 loci distributed on 11 chromosomes:1B,1D,2A,2B,3B,3D,5D,6A,6B,7A,and 7B.The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 7.5% to 19.4%.Eleven loci coincided with two or more of the analyzed parameters.In addition,14 loci co-located or were linked with previously reported QTLs regulating flag leaf senescence,tolerance to high light stress,and grain protein content (Gpc),separately.

  14. Bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in rats fed with durum wheat aleurone fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Brighenti, Furio; Melegari, Camilla; Crozier, Alan; de Lorgeril, Michel; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of wholemeal cereals has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases, and the mechanisms behind these protective effects may be linked, besides dietary fiber and micronutrients, to an increased intake of hydroxycinnamates contained in the bran. Among bran fractions, aleurone usually contains the highest concentration of ferulic acid and diferulic acid esters linked to arabinoxylans representing the most relevant subclasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the absorption of hydroxycinnamates by measuring the urinary metabolite profiles of rats fed with the two different aleurone fractions (the inner part of the aleurone, named wheat aleurone A, WA-A, and the outer part, named wheat aleurone B, WA-B). An acute feeding experiment with two rat groups consuming equivalent amounts of total ferulic acid from the different aleurone fractions was carried out to evaluate ferulic acid bioavailability as affected by different sources. A chronic feeding experiment was also conducted with two rat groups consuming the same amount of the two different aleurone fractions, carried out to investigate the short-term metabolism and absorption of aleurone phenolics. The results revealed higher increases in the 24 h-excretion of phenolic metabolites/catabolites in aleurone fed rats compared to rats fed with a regular diet. Specifically, in the chronic feeding, ferulic acid was more bioavailable when WA-A was ingested. Based on previous observations, demonstrating various positive physiological responses to ferulic acid and aleurone fractions characterized by higher phenolic bioavailability, our results indicate that the WA-A fraction has potentially interesting nutritional characteristics that might be used for the formulation of new wheat based products.

  15. Protective effects of nitricoxide on salt stress-inducedoxidative damage to wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, plasma membrane permeability confirmed that 0.1 and 1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, could markedly alleviate the oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves induced by 150 and 300 mmol/L NaCl treatments, respectively. Further results proved that NO significantly enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), both of which separately contributed to the delay of and H2O2 accumulation in wheat leaves under salt stress. Meanwhile, the accumulation of proline was apparently accelerated. Therefore, these results suggested that NO could strongly protect wheat leaves from oxidative damage caused by salt stress.

  16. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2010-12-01

    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Associated Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Long Yang; Rui-Lian Jing; Xiao-Ping Chang; Wei Li

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (PCFKs) under drought stress condition are generally used to characterize instincts for dehydration tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Therefore, it is important to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PCFKs in wheat genetic improvement for drought tolerance. A doubled haploid (DH)population with 150 lines, derived from a cross between two common wheat varieties, Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14,was used to analyze the correlation between PCFKs and chlorophyll content (ChlC) and to map QTLs at the grainfilling stage under conditions of both rainfed (drought stress, DS) and well-watered (WW), respectively. QTLs for these traits were detected by QTLMapper version 1.0 based on the composite interval mapping method of the mixed-linear model. The results showed a very significant positive correlation between Fy, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo.The correlation coefficients were generally higher under WW than under DS. Also, there was a significant or a highly significant positive correlation between Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and ChlC. The correlation coefficients were higher in the DS group than the WW group. A total of 14 additive QTLs (nine QTLs detected under DS and five QTLs under WW)and 25 pairs of eplstatic QTLs (15 pairs detected under DS and 10 pairs under WW) for PCFKs were mapped on chromosomes 6A, 7A, 1B, 3B, 4D and 7D. The contributions of additive QTLs for PCFKs to phenotype variation were from 8.40% to 72.72%. Four additive QTLs (two QTLs detected under DS and WW apiece) controlling ChlC were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 5A and 7A. The contributions of these QTLs for ChlC to phenotype variation were from 7.27% to 11.68%. Several QTL clusters were detected on chromosomes 1B, 7A and 7D, but no shared chromosomal regions for them were identified under different water regimes, indicating that these QTLs performed different expression patterns under rainfed and well-watered conditions.

  18. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  19. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (Pancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (Pancient wheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat products.

  20. Rmg7, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae Identified in Tetraploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-04-01

    A single gene for resistance, designated Rmg7 (Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 7), was identified in a tetraploid wheat accession, St24 (Triticum dicoccum, KU120), against Br48, a Triticum isolate of Pyricularia oryzae. Two other wheat accessions, St17 (T. dicoccum, KU112) and St25 (T. dicoccum, KU122), were also resistant against Br48 and showed a similar disease reaction pattern to St24. Crosses between these resistant accessions yielded no susceptible F2 seedlings, suggesting that St24, St17, and St25 carry the same resistance gene. Furthermore, a single avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg7 was detected in a segregation analysis of random F1 progenies between Br48 and MZ5-1-6, an Eleusine isolate virulent to St24 at a higher temperature. This avirulence gene was recognized not only by St24, but also by St17 and St25, thus supporting the preceding results indicating that all three accessions carry Rmg7. This resistance gene may have potential in future wheat breeding programs.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Carmina Falcato; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka;

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro- and mic......Aims To evaluate the role of the AM symbiosis on nutrient allocation in Triticum aestivum L. cv. 1110 at different growth stages before and after heat-stress at anthesis. Methods Measurements of plant biomass and grain yield at anthesis, grain-filling and maturity; determination of macro......- and micronutrient concentrations in aboveground biomass; evaluation of AM fungal structures in roots and assessment of light-use efficiency of plants. Results AM increased grain number in wheat under heat-stress, and altered nutrient allocation and tiller nutrient composition. Heat increased number of arbuscules...... in wheat root, whereas number of vesicles and total colonization were unaffected. Heat increased photosystem II yield and the electron transfer rate, whereas non-photochemical quenching decreased during the first 2 days of heat-stress. Conclusions Nutrient allocation and –composition in wheat grown under...

  2. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  3. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  4. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  5. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  6. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  7. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarda, D.D.; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J. E.; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with a...

  8. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  9. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  10. GENETIC DETERMINATION OF THE NITROGEN SUPPLY OF SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikov M.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  11. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes.

  12. Application of DSSAT models for an agronomic adaptation strategy under climate change in Southern of Italy: optimum sowing and transplanting time for winter durum wheat and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many climate change studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation capacity of agricultural crops for determined environments characterized from climatic, pedological and agronomical point of view. The objective of this study was to analyse the productive response of winter durum wheat and tomato to climate change and sowing/transplanting time in one of most productive areas of Italy (i.e. Capitanata, Puglia, using CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO cropping system models. Three climatic datasets were used: i a single dataset (50 km x 50 km provided by the JRC European centre for the period 1975-2005; two datasets from HadCM3 for the IPCC A2 GHG scenario for time slices with +2°C (centred over 2030-2060 and +5°C (centred over 2070-2099, respectively. All three datasets were used to generate synthetic climate series using a weather simulator (model LARS-WG. No negative yield effects of climate change were observed for winter durum wheat with delayed sowing (from 330 to 345 DOY increasing the average dry matter grain yield under forecasted scenarios. Instead, the warmer temperatures were primarily shown to accelerate the phenology, resulting in decreased yield for tomato under the + 5°C future climate scenario. In general, under global temperature increase by 5°C, early transplanting times could minimize the negative impact of climate change on crop productivity but the intensity of this effect was not sufficient to restore the current production levels of tomato cultivated in southern Italy.

  13. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Production of Powerful Antioxidant Supplements via Solid-State Fermentation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. by Cordyceps militaris

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    Zuofa Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of fermented wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. extracted using acidified water, 70 % acetone and 70 % ethanol as compared to uninoculated control. Antioxidant activity, measured by the scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals, reducing power and ferrous ion chelating ability was more effective in fermented than unfermented wheat. Furthermore, the extraction yield, total phenolic, total flavonoid and free phenolic acid content were significantly enhanced in fermented wheat. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of the fermented wheat had the highest content of antioxidant compounds (66.37 mg/g as gallic acid equivalent per mass of the extract for polyphenols and 32.27 mg/g as rutin equivalent per mass of flavonoid extract and antioxidant activity with the lowest EC50 values. Thus, fermentation with Cordyceps militaris can be used as a tool to develop wheat as a health food or ingredient with multi-functional properties which can be used in the food industry as a natural antioxidant.

  15. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  16. Evaluación bajo condiciones de temporal de variedades de trigo macarronero generadas para riego Evaluation under rainfed conditions of durum wheat varieties generated for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer las posibilidades de producir trigo cristalino con buen rendimiento y calidad en las áreas temporaleras de Valles Altos de México, se estableció un experimento en cuatro diferentes ambientes de producción, en donde se probaron las variedades de trigo cristalino Topacio C98, Júpare C2001 y Gema C2004 comparadas con las variedades de trigo harinero Rebeca F2000 y Tlaxcala F2000, desarrolladas para siembras de temporal; los genotipos se evaluaron con y sin aplicación de fungicida. Los resultados indican que las variedades de trigo harinero, superaron por sus características agronómicas y de rendimiento a los trigos cristalinos en todos los sitios de prueba, obteniendo rendimientos mayores hasta 20% (1 200 kg ha-1. Los trigos harineros presentaron mayores rendimientos y fueron la mejor opción en los ambientes favorables de producción evaluados y la mejor alternativa en los ambientes críticos. Por su comportamiento agronómico y de rendimiento, Júpare C2001 fue el trigo cristalino que presentó mejor respuesta y adaptación en los ambientes evaluados. La calidad industrial de los trigos cristalinos en ninguna condición permitió obtener sémola apropiada para la elaboración de productos de buena calidad; sin embargo, su producción en temporal podría ser una alternativa como mejorador de mezclas de harina.In order to know the possibilities of producing crystalline wheat with good yields and quality in rainfed areas of High Valleys of Mexico, an experiment was established in four different production environments, where wheat varieties Topacio C98, Júpare C2001 and Gema C2004 were tested and compared with bread wheat varieties Rebeca F2000 and Tlaxcala F2000, which were developed for rainfed conditions; genotypes were evaluated with and without fungicide application. The results indicate that the bread wheat varieties overcame for its agronomic and yield characteristics to the durum wheat in all the testing

  17. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease.

  18. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM. Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and

  19. Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

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    Iván Matus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than ‘Llareta-INIA’ and ‘Corcolén-INIA’. In La Platina, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ yield exceeded ‘Llareta-INIA’ by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%, and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color

  20. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety.

  1. Assessment of Vegetation Indices Derived by UAV Imagery for Durum Wheat Phenotyping under a Water Limited and Heat Stressed Mediterranean Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Angelos C; Skarlatos, Dimitrios P; Menexes, George C; Vamvakousis, Vasileios F; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were observed for SVIs. GNDVI explained more variability than NDVI and SR, when recorded at booting. GNDVI was significantly correlated with grain yield when recorded at booting and anthesis during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively, while NDVI was correlated to grain yield when recorded at booting, but only for the 1st year. These results suggest that GNDVI has a better discriminating efficiency and can be a better predictor of yield when recorded at early reproductive stages. The predictive ability of SVIs was affected by plant phenology. Correlations of grain yield with SVIs were stronger as the correlations of SVIs with heading were weaker or not significant. NDVIs recorded at the experimental site were significantly correlated with grain yield of the same set of genotypes grown in other environments. Both positive and negative correlations were observed indicating that the environmental conditions during grain filling can affect the sign of the correlations. These findings highlight the potential use of SVIs derived by UAV imagery for durum wheat phenotyping under low yielding Mediterranean conditions.

  2. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  3. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  4. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  5. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  6. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possess a significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess little or virtually no pre-formed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during...

  7. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  9. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild Diploid Wheat Triticum boeoticum from Iran Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Naghavi; M. Malaki; H. Alizadeh; M. Mardi; Fakhre-Tabatabaei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although Iran is a main center of distribution of wild wheats, but little information is available regarding genetic variation in wild wheat relatives from this country (Tabatabaei and Massoumi, 2001).

  10. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  11. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat.

  12. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Triticum mosaic virus exhibits limited population variation yet shows evidence of parallel evolution after replicated serial passage in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Melissa; French, Roy; Graybosch, Robert A; Tatineni, Satyanarayana

    2016-05-01

    An infectious cDNA clone of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus; family Potyviridae) was used to establish three independent lineages in wheat to examine intra-host population diversity levels within protein 1 (P1) and coat protein (CP) cistrons over time. Genetic variation was assessed at passages 9, 18 and 24 by single-strand conformation polymorphism, followed by nucleotide sequencing. The founding P1 region genotype was retained at high frequencies in most lineage/passage populations, while the founding CP genotype disappeared after passage 18 in two lineages. We found that rare TriMV genotypes were present only transiently and lineages followed independent evolutionary trajectories, suggesting that genetic drift dominates TriMV evolution. These results further suggest that experimental populations of TriMV exhibit lower mutant frequencies than that of Wheat streak mosaic virus (genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae) in wheat. Nevertheless, there was evidence for parallel evolution at a synonymous site in the TriMV CP cistron.

  14. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong CHEN; Dong-fa SUN; De-fu RONG; Jun-hua PENG; Cheng-dao LI

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature.Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis.All F1's were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 populations with a ratio of 3 fertile:1 sterile under short daylength/low temperature.It is shown that male sterility in 337S was controlled by a single recessive gene,temporarily designated as wptms3.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) coupled with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was applied to map the sterile gene using one mapping population.The wptms3 gene was mapped to chromosome arm 1BS and flanked by Xgwm413 and Xgwm182 at a genetic distance of 3.2 and 23.5 cM,respectively.The accuracy and efficiency of marker-assisted selection were evaluated and proved essential for identifying homozygous recessive male sterile genotypes of the wptms3 gene in F2 generation.

  15. Activation of polyphenol oxidase in extracts of bran from several wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars using organic solvents, detergents, and chaotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okot-Kotber, Moses; Liavoga, Allan; Yong, Kwon-Joong; Bagorogoza, Katherine

    2002-04-10

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), known to induce browning in wheat-based products, has been shown to be activatable in wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran extracts by chemical compounds. The activity in the extracts could be increased to varying degrees with acetone, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and n-butanol as additives in the extraction buffer. The most potent alcoholic activator was n-butanol (about a 3-fold increase), followed by 2-propanol and ethanol, whereas methanol had the least effect. Ionic detergents in the extraction buffer were also good activators, with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) being more potent (3-fold increase) than cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) that had only half as much effect, whereas the nonionic detergent, Triton X-114, was ineffective. The chaotropes, urea and guanidine x HCl (GND), were the most potent activators of all, increasing the activity over 4-fold. Of the two chaotropes, GND was more effective at lower concentrations (<6 M) than urea. However, the enzyme activity lessened at a higher concentration of GND (6 M), while there was a further increase in the activity with 6 M urea treatment. The activity lessened with higher concentration of GND presumably as a result of extensive denaturation of the enzyme, as GND is known to be a more potent denaturant than urea. It is hypothesized that in wheat PPO exists in an inactive form which may be activated by the presence of activators, hitherto unknown, similar in effect to that elicited by the chemical denaturants in this study.

  16. Characterization of durum wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits Bx20 and By20 sequences by a molecular and proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Vito Davide; Sestili, Francesco; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato; Rogniaux, Helene; Masci, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunit variation is important because of its great influence on glutenin polymer structure, that is related to dough technological properties. Among the different subunits, the pair Bx20 and By20 is known to have a negative effect on quality, but the reasons are not clear: Bx20 has two cysteines, which theoretically make this subunit a chain extender of the glutenin polymer, just like the other Bx subunits, showing four cysteines, two of which should be involved in intra-molecular disulfide bonds. By20 has never been characterized so far at molecular level. Here we report the nucleotide sequences of Bx20 and By20 genes isolated from the durum wheat cultivar 'Lira 45' and the validation of the corresponding deduced amino acid sequences by using MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS. Four nucleotide differences were identified in the Bx20 gene with respect to the deduced sequence present in NCBI, causing two amino acid substitutions. For the By20 subunit, nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed a great similarity to By15, both at gene and protein levels, showing five nucleotide changes generating two amino acid differences. No evidence of post-translational modifications has been found. Hypotheses are formulated in regard to relationships with technological quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329 Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329 by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc. showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  18. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin;

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce biomass and then allocate some of this biomass to reproduction. The pattern of reproductive allocation is an important aspect of a plant’s reproductive strategy in nature and is closely linked to yield and Harvest Index in cereal crops. Recent research has concluded that reproductive...... allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... size. There were significant differences among the varieties in the allometric exponent (slope of log–log relationship) of grain versus vegetative mass, such that some varieties produced higher yield (and therefore had a higher Harvest Index) than others when plants were small, while others had higher...

  19. Nucleic acid (cDNA) and amino acid sequences of alpha-type gliadins from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, D D; Okita, T W; Bernardin, J E; Baecker, P A; Nimmo, C C; Lew, E J; Dietler, M D; Greene, F C

    1984-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence for an alpha-type gliadin protein of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linnaeus) endosperm has been derived from a cloned cDNA sequence. An additional cDNA clone that corresponds to about 75% of a similar alpha-type gliadin has been sequenced and shows some important differences. About 97% of the composite sequence of A-gliadin (an alpha-type gliadin fraction) has also been obtained by direct amino acid sequencing. This sequence shows a high degree of similarity with amino acid sequences derived from both cDNA clones and is virtually identical to one of them. On the basis of sequence information, after loss of the signal sequence, the mature alpha-type gliadins may be divided into five different domains, two of which may have evolved from an ancestral gliadin gene, whereas the remaining three contain repeating sequences that may have developed independently. Images PMID:6589619

  20. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...... sheath cells. In situ localisation confirmed that GS1 transcripts were present in the perifascicular sheath cells whilst those for GSr were confined to the vascular cells. Studies of the expression and protein profiles showed that all GS sub-families were differentially expressed in the leaves, peduncle......, glumes and roots. Expression of GS genes in leaves was developmentally regulated, with both GS2 and GS1 assimilating or recycling ammonia in leaves during the period of grain development and filling. During leaf senescence the cytosolic isozymes, GS1 and GSr, were the predominant forms, suggesting major...

  1. Growth responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) exposed to ambient air pollution under varying fertility regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, S B; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2003-08-20

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc.) showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  2. Short communication: Emergence of a new race of leaf rust with combined virulence to Lr14a and Lr72 genes on durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleiman, N.H; Solis, I.; Soliman, M.H.; Sillero, J.C.; Villegas, D.; Alvaro, F.; Royo, C.; Serra, J.; Ammar, K.; Martínez-Moreno, F.

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. (Author)

  3. EFECTOS DE LA SALINIDAD EN LAS VARIABLES HÍDRICAS POTENCIALES HÍDRICO Y OSMÓTICO Y AJUSTE OSMÓTICO EN CULTIVARES CUBANOS DE TRIGO (Triticum aestivum L. Y T. durum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandris Argentel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la salinidad en los potenciales hídrico y osmótico y el ajuste osmótico en 12 cultivares de trigo pertenecientes a las especies Triticum aestivum L. y Triticum durum L., en etapas iniciales del desarrollo, siguiendo las metodologías para su determinación. Las plantas se establecieron en un invernadero en condiciones de hidroponía aplicando, como primer tratamiento, una solución nutritiva salinizada a base de NaCl a una conductividad eléctrica de 8 dS.m-1. El tratamiento control consistió en la solución nutritiva sin salinidad significativa (0,36 dS.m-1. Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 días posteriores a la germinación. Los resultados mostraron una significativa disminución de los valores del potencial hídrico en la mayoría de los cultivares en todos los órganos medidos y se observó una significativa disminución de sus valores desde las raíces hasta las hojas para asegurar el gradiente hídrico. Los cultivares que no disminuyeron significativamente su potencial hídrico mostraron comportamiento similar en los tres órganos evaluados aunque el gradiente de potenciales se mantuvo. El potencial osmótico disminuyó significativamente en todos los cultivares y sus valores fueron inferiores a -0,6 MPa. Todos los cultivares realizaron el ajuste osmótico, siendo el valor más significativo AO= 0,3 MPa en los cultivares INIFAT RM-36, INIFAT RM-32, INIFAT RM-37. Se observó variabilidad en la respuesta al estrés salino entre los cultivares y especies para las tres variables evaluadas.

  4. Biochemical characterization and spatio-temporal expression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Alok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol into d-glucuronic acid. The present study demonstrates isolation of MIOX cDNA (TaMIOX from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. with open reading frame of 912 bp encoding 303 amino acid polypeptides with a molecular mass of 35.2 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis of TaMIOX across kingdoms confirmed the close relationship with Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Secondary structure of TaMIOX consists of α-helixes (42.9%, β-turns (7.26% joined by extended strands (14.85%, and 37 random coils (34.94%. Three-dimensional structure of TaMIOX suggested its close functional and structural resemblance with known MIOX. Catalytic activity of the purified TaMIOX is 3.47 μkatal at pH 8.0 and 35 °C with Michaelis constant 5.6 mM. Differential expression pattern of TaMIOX was observed in leaves, root, stem, seed and seed developmental stages. Leaves showed a significantly higher transcript accumulation followed by root, stem and seed. Expression of TaMIOX during seed development stages showed higher expression at later stage and suggested that expression of TaMIOX was significantly higher in endosperm as compared with aleurone. The exogenous application of myo-inositol enhanced the expression of TaMIOX in leaves and roots suggested myo-inositol acts as an inducer for the TaMIOX expression. The present study reports molecular, structural and biochemical characterizations of MIOX in wheat which might play an important role in myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  5. Intraspecific Polymorphisms of Cytogenetic Markers Mapped on Chromosomes of Triticum polonicum L.

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    Michał Kwiatek

    Full Text Available Triticum genus encloses several tetraploid species that are used as genetic stocks for expanding the genetic variability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the T. aestivum (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD and T. durum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB karyotypes were well examined by chromosome staining, Giemsa C-banding and FISH markers, other tetraploids are still poorly characterized. Here, we established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH patterns on chromosomes of 20 accessions of T. polonicum species using different repetitive sequences from BAC library of wheat 'Chinese Spring'. The chromosome patterns of Polish wheat were compared to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28, AABB Triticum species: T. durum, T. diccocon and T. turanicum, as well. A combination of pTa-86, pTa-535 and pTa-713 probes was the most informative among 6 DNA probes tested. Probe pTa-k374, which is similar to 28S rDNA sequence enabled to distinguish signal size and location differences, as well as rDNA loci elimination. Furthermore, pTa-465 and pTa-k566 probes are helpful for the detection of similar organized chromosomes. The polymorphisms of signals distribution were observed in 2A, 2B, 3B, 5B, 6A and 7B chromosomes. Telomeric region of the short arm of 6B chromosome was the most polymorphic. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of T. polonicum genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for wheat. Collection and characterization of this germplasm can contribute to the wheat biodiversity safeguard.

  6. Weed suppression and yield of thirteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties grown in an organic system

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    Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between morphological features, canopy parameters, weed infestation, and grain yield of spring wheat varieties. The study was conducted in the period 2011–2013, on fields managed organically at the Experimental Station of The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, Osiny, Poland. Thirteen spring wheat varieties were sown in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Weed density and dry matter production were estimated as well biometric features of the wheat varieties at tillering (BBCH 22–24 and dough (BBCH 85–87 stages. The analyses of variance showed that the year had a stronger effect than varieties on the level of weed infestation. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that weed number was influenced by the height of wheat plants and their aboveground biomass at the tillering stage and additionally by number of tillers at the dough stage. A significant correlation (r = −0.328, siginfficant at p < 0.05 was shown between the number of weeds and wheat grain yield. Different morphological features and canopy parameters influenced the competitive abilities of the spring wheat varieties tested. A cluster analysis detected one set of varieties with the largest (‘Bombona’, ‘Brawura’, ‘Hewilla’, ‘Kandela’, ‘Katoda’, ‘Łagwa’, and ‘Żura’ and another with the smallest (‘Monsun’, ‘Ostka Smolicka’, and ‘Parabola’ competitive abilities against weeds. The main outcome of the research is information for farmers as to which varieties are highly competitive against weeds and also high yielding. Among the varieties with the highest competitiveness, Triticum aestivum ‘Żura’ was the highest yielder (3.82 t ha−1 on average, whereas ‘Bombona’ yielded only at an average level (3.03 t ha−1. The suppressive ability of spring wheat varieties against weeds and yield potential should be both

  7. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  8. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  9. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  10. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

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    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  11. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  12. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

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    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  13. Identifying genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, though differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor was examined using a two-choice feeding system and the Student’s t statistic. To eliminate the confounding effect of processin...

  14. Genetic markers of wheat (Triticum aestivum) associated with flavor preference using a mouse (Mus musculus) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat products provide critical nutrients for human health, differences in wheat flavor are not well understood. Using the house mouse as a model system, flavor preference and discrimination were examined using a two-choice feeding system and 24-h trials and the Student’s t statistic. To elimi...

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  16. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  17. Biological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to the herbicide simetryne in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Yang, Yi; Jia, Lin Xian; Lin, Jing Ling; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Lin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The rotation of rice and wheat is widely used and highly endorsed, and simetryne (s-triazine herbicide) is one of the principal herbicides widely used in this rotation for weed and grass control. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of the ecological and physiological effects of simetryne on wheat crops. In this study, we performed a comprehensive investigation of crop response to simetryne to elucidate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of the herbicide in wheat crops. Wheat plants exposed to 0.8 to 8.0mgkg(-1) simetryne for 7 d exhibited suppressed growth and decreased chlorophyll content. With simetryne concentration in the soil varied from 0.8mgkg(-1) to 8.0mgkg(-1), simetryne was progressively accumulated by the wheat plants. The accumulation of simetryne in the wheat plants not only induced the over production of ROS and injured the membrane lipids but also stimulated the production of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A test of enzymatic activity and gene expression illustrated that the wheat plants were wise enough to motivate the antioxidant enzymes through both molecular and physiological mechanisms to alleviate the simetryne-induced stress. This study offers an illuminating insight into the effective adaptive response of the wheat plants to the simetryne stress.

  18. Salt-Induced Tissue-Specific Cytosine Methylation Downregulates Expression of HKT Genes in Contrasting Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Beena, Ananda Sankara; Awana, Monika; Singh, Archana

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity. The differential expression of HKTs has been reported to confer tolerance to salt stress in plants. In this study, we investigated variations in cytosine methylation and their effects on the expression of HKT genes in contrasting wheat genotypes under salt stress. We observed a genotype- and tissue-specific increase in cytosine methylation induced by NaCl stress that downregulated the expression of TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;3 in the shoot and root tissues of Kharchia-65, thereby contributing to its improved salt-tolerance ability. Although TaHKT1;4 was expressed only in roots and was downregulated under the stress in salt-tolerant genotypes, it was not regulated through variations in cytosine methylation. Thus, understanding epigenetic regulation and the function of HKTs would enable an improvement in salt tolerance and the development of salt-tolerant crops.

  19. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

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    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  20. Effects of Interaction Between Cadmium and Plumbum on Phytochelatins and Glutathione Production in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin SUN; Xiao-Rong WANG; Shi-Ming DING; Xin-Fang YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) may function as a potential biomarker for metal toxicity. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of metal interactions on the production of PCs and glutathione (GSH),the most prominent cellular thiol. In the present study, the effects of interactions between cadmium (Cd) and plumbum (Pb) on the production of PCs and GSH were monitored over a period of 14 d in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues. The results showed that combination of Cd and Pb led to synergistic growth inhibition in wheat. Exposure to Cd or Pb increased levels of PCs in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. Cadmium was more effective that Pb in increasing PCs production. Compared with the effects of Cd or Pb alone on the production of PCs, the combination of Cd and Pb acted synergistically, resulting in an enhanced production of PCs. Cadmium also stimulated GSH production in a concentration-, tissue-, and time-dependent manner. However, Pb had no obvious effects on GSH levels. The combination of Pb and Cd antagonized GSH production over the course of the growth period. The results of the present study suggest that metal interactions should be considered in the application of PCs and GSH as potential biomarkers for the evaluation of metal toxicity.

  1. Salicylic acid changes the properties of extracellular peroxidase activity secreted from wounded wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minibayeva, F; Mika, A; Lüthje, S

    2003-05-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) roots released proteins showing peroxidase activity in the apoplastic solution in response to wound stress. Preincubation of excised roots with 1 mM salicylic acid at pH 7.0 enhanced the guaiacol peroxidase activity of the extracellular solution (so-called extracellular peroxidase). The soluble enzymes were partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Despite an increase in the total activity of secreted peroxidase induced by pretreatment of excised roots with salicylic acid, the specific activity of the partially purified protein was significantly lower compared to that of the control. Purification of the corresponding proteins by ion exchange chromatography indicates that several isoforms of peroxidase occurred in both control and salicylic acid-treated samples. The activities of the extracellular peroxidases secreted by the salicylic acid-treated roots responded differently to calcium and lectins compared with those from untreated roots. Taken together, our data suggest that salicylic acid changes the isoforms of peroxidase secreted by wounded wheat roots.

  2. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

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    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  3. Cevy Oro C2008, trigo cristalino con resistencia a roya de la hoja Cevy Oro C2008, durum wheat with resistance to leaf rust

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    Guillermo Fuentes-Dávila

    2012-04-01

    producers from southern Sonora; therefore, this cultivar is a new option of durum wheat for wheat producers of northwest Mexico.

  4. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  5. Heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis in heat susceptible and tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by using Wheat Genome Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huiru

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is a major crop in the world, and the high temperature stress can reduce the yield of wheat by as much as 15%. The molecular changes in response to heat stress are poorly understood. Using GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles in the leaves of two wheat genotypes, namely, heat susceptible 'Chinese Spring' (CS and heat tolerant 'TAM107' (TAM. Results A total of 6560 (~10.7% probe sets displayed 2-fold or more changes in expression in at least one heat treatment (false discovery rate, FDR, α = 0.001. Except for heat shock protein (HSP and heat shock factor (HSF genes, these putative heat responsive genes encode transcription factors and proteins involved in phytohormone biosynthesis/signaling, calcium and sugar signal pathways, RNA metabolism, ribosomal proteins, primary and secondary metabolisms, as well as proteins related to other stresses. A total of 313 probe sets were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, which could be responsible for the difference in heat tolerance of the two genotypes. Moreover, 1314 were differentially expressed between the heat treatments with and without pre-acclimation, and 4533 were differentially expressed between short and prolonged heat treatments. Conclusion The differences in heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes may be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms involving HSPs, transcription factors, and other stress related genes. Heat acclimation has little effects on gene expression under prolonged treatments but affects gene expression in wheat under short-term heat stress. The heat stress responsive genes identified in this study will facilitate our understanding of molecular basis for heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes and future improvement of heat tolerance in wheat and other cereals.

  6. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-04

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  7. Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Minerals in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong-li; TONG Yi-ping; JING Rui-lian; ZHANG Fu-suo; ZOU Chun-qin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is an important source of essential minerals for human body. Breeding wheat with high grain mineral concentration thus benefits human health. The objective of present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain mineral concentration and to evaluate the relation between nitrogen (N) and other essential minerals in winter wheat. Wheat grains were harvested from field experiment which conducted in China and analyzed for this purpose. Forty-three QTLs controlling grain mineral concentration and nitrogen-related traits were detected by using a double haploid (DH) population derived from winter wheat varieties Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. Chromosomes 4D and 5A might be very important in controlling mineral status in wheat grains. Significant positive correlations were found between grain nitrogen concentration (GNC) and nutrients Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg concentrations (FeGC, MnGC, CuGC, MgGC). Flag leaf N concentration at anthesis (FLNC) significantly and positively correlated with GNC, FeGC, MnGC, and CuGC. The study extended our knowledge on minerals in wheat grains and suggested which interactions between minerals should be considered in future breeding program.

  8. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  9. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Holtz

    Full Text Available Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2 and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur. Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays.

  10. Genotyping by Sequencing Using Specific Allelic Capture to Build a High-Density Genetic Map of Durum Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Ardisson, Morgane; Ranwez, Vincent; Besnard, Alban; Leroy, Philippe; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Viader, Véronique; Santoni, Sylvain; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequence capture is a promising technology which helps reduce costs for sequencing and genotyping numerous genomic regions in large sets of individuals. Bait sequences are designed to capture specific alleles previously discovered in parents or reference populations. We studied a set of 135 RILs originating from a cross between an emmer cultivar (Dic2) and a recent durum elite cultivar (Silur). Six thousand sequence baits were designed to target Dic2 vs. Silur polymorphisms discovered in a previous RNAseq study. These baits were exposed to genomic DNA of the RIL population. Eighty percent of the targeted SNPs were recovered, 65% of which were of high quality and coverage. The final high density genetic map consisted of more than 3,000 markers, whose genetic and physical mapping were consistent with those obtained with large arrays.

  11. Identification of Kernel Proteins Associated with the Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous potential components involved in the resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals have been indicated, however, our knowledge regarding this process is still limited and further work is required. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in their levels of resistance to FHB were analyzed to identify the most crucial proteins associated with resistance in this species. The presented work involved analysis of protein abundance in the kernel bulks of more resistant and more susceptible wheat lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines, after inoculation with F. culmorum under field conditions. All the obtained two-dimensional patterns were demonstrated to be well-resolved protein maps of kernel proteomes. Although, 11 proteins were shown to have significantly different abundance between these two groups of plants, only two are likely to be crucial and have a potential role in resistance to FHB. Monomeric alpha-amylase and dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both highly accumulated in the more resistant line, after inoculation and in the control conditions. Fusarium pathogens can use hydrolytic enzymes, including amylases to colonize kernels and acquire nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm and we suggest that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress in the analyzed wheat line with a higher resistance. Alpha-amylase activity assays confirmed this suggestion as it revealed the highest level of enzyme activity, after F. culmorum infection, in the line more susceptible to FHB. PMID:25340555

  12. Characterization of Wheat Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Associated with the H11 Hessian Fly Resistance Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhia Bouktila; Maha Mezghani; Mohamed Marrakchi; Hanem Makni

    2006-01-01

    In Tunisia, the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor Say is a major pest of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)and bread wheat (T. aestivum L.). Genetic resistance is the most efficient and economical method of control of this pest. To date, 31 resistance genes, designated H1-H31, have been identified in wheat. These genes condition resistance to the insect genes responsible for virulence. Using wheat cultivars differing for the presence of an individual Hessian fly resistance gene and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis,we have identified a polymorphic 386-bp DNA marker (Xgmib1-1A.1) associated with the H11 Hessian fly resistance gene. Blast analysis showed a high identity with a short region in the wild wheat (T. monococcum)genome, adjacent to the leaf rust resistance Lr10 gene. A genetic linkage was reported between this gene (Lr10) and Hessian fly response in wheat. These data were used for screening Hessian fly resistance in Tunisian wheat germplasm. Xgmib1-1A.1-like fragments were detected in four Tunisian durum and bread wheat varieties. Using these varieties in Hessian fly breeding programs in Tunisia would be of benefit in reducing the damage caused by this fly.

  13. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  14. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  16. The Physical and Chemical Properties of Wheat Flour in Some Wheat (Triticum spp. Varieties Grown in West Sumatera

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    Fauzan Azima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the physical and chemical properties of wheat flour in some wheat varieties grown inWest Sumatra. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisting of five treatments and three repetitions. Thetreatments are: A (Wheat varieties Jarissa, B (Wheat varieties Dewata, C (Wheat varieties 1247, D (Wheat varieties Selayar and E(Wheat varieties SO1. Observation ofthe resulting flour includes analysis of physical, functional, and proximate. Physical analysis ofthe results obtained flour; yield varieties Jarissa (50.00%; Dewata (45.45%, 1247 (50.00%; Selayar (47.83%; SO1 (47.66%. Waterabsorption of Jarissa varieties (65.90%; Dewata (59.95%, 1247 (49.27%; Selayar (69.85%; SO1 (51.67%. Oil absorption ofJarissa varieties (17.67%; Dewata (18.33%, 1247 (19.67%; Selayar (16.00%; SO1 (15.67%. Gelatinization temperature of Jarissavarieties (65.67°C; Dewata (65°C; 1247 (66°C; Selayar (67°C; SO1 (65.67°C. Chemical analysis results obtained flour; Watercontent of Jarissa varieties (10.02%; Dewata (12.00%, 1247 (14.75%; Selayar (9.48%; SO1 (12.24%. Ash content of Jarissavarieties (1.45%; Dewata (1.75%, 1247 (2.15%; Selayar (1.63%; SO1 (1.87%. Fat content of Jarissa varieties (2.24%; Dewata(2.59%, 1247 (2.50%; Selayar (2.15%; SO1 (2.34%. Crude fiber content of Jarissa varieties (3.46%; Dewata (3.11%, 1247(2.56%; Selayar (2.73%; SO1(3.13%. Carbohydrates of Jarissa varieties (71.55%; Dewata (67.00%, 1247 (66.06%; Selayar(73.60%; SO1 (69.59%. Starch content of Jarissa varieties (53.00%; Dewata (51.92%, 1247 (50.86%; Selayar (46.08%; SO1(42.74%. Protein content of Jarissa varieties (14.75%; Dewasa (16.66%, 1247 (14.54%; Selayar (13.13%; SO1 (13.97%. GlutenofJarissa varieties (50.09%; Dewata (13.37%, 1247 (12.71%; Selayar (28.57%; SO1 (35.36%.

  17. Phytotoxicity and uptake of roxarsone by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), the primary aromatic arsenical additive (AAA) used in animal feeding operations, is of increasing concern to environmental and human health due to land application of ROX-laden animal manure. Few studies have investigated the phytotoxicity, uptake mechanisms, and speciation of AAA in crop plants. In this study, wheat seedlings were employed to address these issues under hydroponic conditions. Compared to inorganic arsenic, ROX was less toxic to wheat root elongation. Wheat roots were more sensitive to ROX stress than shoots. For the first time, metabolized inorganic arsenic was detected in plants, although ROX was the predominant detected arsenic species in wheat seedlings. ROX uptake and toxicity to roots were inhibited by humic acid at concentrations higher than 50 mg/L due to interaction with ROX. Phosphate enhanced ROX uptake, but no trends were observed for ROX uptake in the presence of glycerol at concentrations lower than 250 mM. In addition, ROX uptake was significantly decreased by silicate (Si(IV), 0.5-10 mM) and the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol (0.5-2 mM), indicating that ROX transport into wheat roots was actively mediated by Si(IV)-sensitive transporters. These findings provide important insights into the fate and speciation of AAA in soil-water-plant systems relevant to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning and expression profiles of 15 genes encoding WRKY transcription factor in wheat (Triticum aestivem L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualing Wu; Zhongfu Ni; Yingyin Yao; Ganggang Guo; Qixin Sun

    2008-01-01

    WRKY proteins are involved in various physiological processes, including biotic and abiotic stress responses, hormone responses and development. However, no systematic identification, expression and function analysis of WRKY genes in wheat were reported. In this study, we isolated 15 wheat cDNAs with complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding putative WRKY proteins using in silico cloning. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 15 wheat WRKY genes belonged to three major WRKY groups. Expression analysis revealed that most genes expressed drastically in leaf, except TaWRKY10 which expressed in crown intensively. Four genes were strongly up-regulated with the senescence of leaves. Eight genes were responsive to low temperature, high temperature, NaCl or PEG treatment. Moreover, differential expression patterns were also observed between wheat hybrid and its parents, and some genes were more responsive to PEG treatment in the hybrid. These results demonstrated that wheat WRKY genes are involved in leaf senescing and abiotic stresses. And the changed expression of these WRKY genes in hybrid might contribute to the heterosis by improving the stress tolerance in hybrids.

  19. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YouSheng; LUAN FuLei; ZHU HongLiang; SHAO Yi; CHEN AnJun; LU ChengWen; LUO YunBo; ZHU BenZhong

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs)are a class of endogenous,non-coding,short (-21 nt)RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level.Previous reports have noted that plant miRNAs in the plant kingdom are highly conserved,which provides the foundation for identification of conserved miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment.Conserved miRNAs in wheat are identified using EST (Expressed Sequence Tags)and GSS analysis.All previously known miRNAs in other plant species were blasted against wheat EST and GSS sequences to select novel miRNAs in wheat by a series of filtering criteria.From a total of 37 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families 10 conserved miRNAs comprising 4 families were reported in wheat.MiR395 is found to be a special family,because three members belonging to the same miR395 family are clustered together,similar to animal miRNAs.MiRNA targets are transcription factors involved in wheat growth and development,metabolism,and stress responses.

  20. Stable chloroplast transformation of immature scutella and inflorescences in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiju Cui; Guangxiao Yang; Guangyuan He; Fei Song; Yi Tan; Xuan Zhou; Wen Zhao; Fengyun Ma; Yunyi Liu; Javeed Hussain; Yuesheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in wheat was achieved by bombardment of scutella from immature embryos and immature inflorescences. respectively. A wheat chloroplast sitespecific expression vector, pBAGNRK, was constructed by placing an expression cassette containing neomycin phosphotransferase Ⅱ (nptⅡ) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) as selection and reporter genes, respectively, in the intergenic spacer between atpB and rbcL of wheat chloroplast genome. Integration of gfp gene in the plastome was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern blotting using gfp gene as a probe. Expression of GFP protein was examined by western blot. Three positive transformants were obtained and the Southern blot of partial fragment of atpB and rbcL (targeting site) probes verified that one of them was homoplasmic. Stable expression of GFP fluorescence was confirmed by confocal microscopy in the leaf tissues from T progeny seedlings. PCR analysis of gfp gene also confirmed the inheritance of transgene in the T progeny. These results strengthen the feasibility of wheat chloroplast transformation and also give a novel method for the introduction of important agronomic traits in wheat through chloroplast transformation.

  1. Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding, short (~21 nt) RNAs directly involved in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Previous reports have noted that plant miRNAs in the plant kingdom are highly conserved, which provides the foundation for identification of conserved miRNAs in other plant species through homology alignment. Conserved miRNAs in wheat are identified using EST (Expressed Sequence Tags) and GSS analysis. All previously known miRNAs in other plant species were blasted against wheat EST and GSS sequences to select novel miRNAs in wheat by a series of filtering criteria. From a total of 37 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families 10 conserved miRNAs comprising 4 families were reported in wheat. MiR395 is found to be a special family, because three members belonging to the same miR395 family are clustered together, similar to animal miRNAs. MiRNA targets are transcription factors involved in wheat growth and development, metabolism,and stress responses.

  2. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and 6 cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, beta-amylase, alpha-amylase inhibitor, dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of late grain development.

  3. Adaptation to rhizosphere acidification is a necessary prerequisite for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling resistance to ammonium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Tian, Zhongwei; Liu, Yang; Abid, Muhammad; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-11-01

    Because soil acidification accompanies ammonium (NH4(+)) stress, the tolerance of higher plants to ammonium is associated with their adaptation to root medium acidification. However, the underlying mechanisms of this adaptation have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was thus to elucidate the effect of rhizosphere pH on NH4(+) tolerance in different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were carried out on two wheat cultivars: AK58 (an NH4(+)-sensitive cultivar) and XM25 (an NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar). Four pH levels resembling acidified (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) were tested and 5 mM NH4(+) nitrogen (AN) was used as a stress treatment, with 5 mM nitrate nitrogen used as a control. The addition of AN led to a severe reduction in biomass and an increase in free NH4(+), amino acids, and the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the shoots and roots of the two wheat cultivars. Further decreases in growth medium pH led to further increases in free NH4(+), but decreases in total amino acids and the activities of GS and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GDH). However, there was less of an increase in free NH4(+) and less of a reduction in the activities of GS and NADH-GDH in the cultivar XM25 compared with AK58. In addition, total soluble sugar content and the root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratio were also decreased by AN treatment, except in the shoots of XM25. Decreasing pH resulted in lower root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratios with greater reductions in the AK58 cultivar. These results indicate that wheat growth was inhibited significantly by the addition of NH4(+) combined with low pH. Low medium pH reduced the capacity for nitrogen assimilation and interrupted carbohydrate transport between the shoot and root. The NH4(+)-tolerant cultivar XM25 was better adapted to low rhizosphere pH due to its increased capacity for assimilating NH4(+) efficiently and thereby avoiding toxic

  4. Gibberellins and heterosis of plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Ni Zhongfu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis in internode elongation and plant height are commonly observed in hybrid plants, and higher GAs contents were found to be correlated with the heterosis in plant height. However, the molecular basis for the increased internode elongation in hybrids is unknown. Results In this study, heterosis in plant height was determined in two wheat hybrids, and it was found that the increased elongation of the uppermost internode contributed mostly to the heterosis in plant height. Higher GA4 level was also observed in a wheat hybrid. By using the uppermost internode tissues of wheat, we examined expression patterns of genes participating in both GA biosynthesis and GA response pathways between a hybrid and its parental inbreds. Our results indicated that among the 18 genes analyzed, genes encoding enzymes that promote synthesis of bioactive GAs, and genes that act as positive components in the GA response pathways were up-regulated in hybrid, whereas genes encoding enzymes that deactivate bioactive GAs, and genes that act as negative components of GA response pathways were down-regulated in hybrid. Moreover, the putative wheat GA receptor gene TaGID1, and two GA responsive genes participating in internode elongation, GIP and XET, were also up-regulated in hybrid. A model for GA and heterosis in wheat plant height was proposed. Conclusion Our results provided molecular evidences not only for the higher GA levels and more active GA biosynthesis in hybrid, but also for the heterosis in plant height of wheat and possibly other cereal crops.

  5. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Guangfang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two

  6. [Transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L H; Wang, X W; Zhang, W J; Zhang, X D; Hu, D F; Liu, G T

    1999-01-01

    The herbicide-resistant EPSPs (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene was transformed into about 1,000 young spikes and 800 young embryos of wheat variety, Jinghua 1, with gene gun. Thirty-eight and four regenerated plants were obtained respectively screened with glyphosate. All regenerated plants were analysed by PCR and/or Southern blotting. The results indicated that EPSPs gene was integrated stably into the genome of Jinghua 1, and some of the transformants showed fertile. So herbicide-resistant EPSPs gene could be used as selective marker in the transformation of monocotyledon cereal crops, such as wheat.

  7. RFLP Tagging of a Gene Pm12 for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾继增; T.E.Miller; S.M.Reader; M.D.Gale

    1994-01-01

    A dominant gene, Pml2, conferring the resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis) has been transferred to wheat from Aegilops speltoides. Sixteen RFLP probes were used to test Line 31 and its parents, showing that Line 31 is a 6B/6S translocation lines. The linkage analysis by five probes indicates that Pm12 is located on the chromosome 6B/6S, and tightly flanked by an RFLP marker α-Amy-1 (1.1 cM), identified by RFLP and isozyme analysis. This approach is equally applicable to the identification of other transferred alien genes and the segments of alien chromosome introgressed into wheat.

  8. Banámichi C2004, nueva variedad de trigo cristalino Banámichi C2004, new durum wheat cultivar

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    Miguel Alfonso Camacho-Casas

    Full Text Available Un nuevo cultivar de trigo duro o cristalino, Banámichi C2004, fue desarrollado para las áreas productoras de trigo del noroeste de México. Este cultivar fue obtenido en el Campo Experimental Valle del Yaqui (CEVY del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y pecuarias (INIFAP y registrado con el número 1732-TRI-061-030505-C en el Servicio Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 es resistente a la nueva raza BBG/BN de roya de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, con rendimientos de 5.5 a 6.2 t ha-1 y buena calidad del grano para el mercado de exportación. Banámichi C2004 supera en forma consistente al testigo Júpare C2001, tanto en la capacidad de producir proteína en grano como en el contenido de pigmento amarillo en el endospermo y en la fuerza del gluten. Banámichi C2004 puede crecer durante el ciclo otoño-invierno en los estados de Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa y Sonora.A new variety of durum wheat, Banámichi C2004, was developed for the wheat-producing areas in northwestern Mexico. This variety was produced in the Yaqui Valley Experimental Station (CEVY of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (INIFAP and registered with the number 1732-TRI- 061-030505-C in the National Seed Inspection and Certification Service (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 is resistant to the new BBG/BN breed of wheat rust (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, and has yields of 5.5 to 6.2 t ha-1 and good grain quality for the export market. Banámichi C2004 surpasses the control Júpare C2001 in a consistent manner, in the protein-producing capacity in the grain as in the content of yellow pigment in the endosperm and in the strength of gluten. Banámichi C2004 can grow in the autumn-winter cycle in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa and Sonora.

  9. Uptake and metabolism of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhu, Lingyan

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite. Accumulation of initial 10:2 FTOH and its metabolites were observed in the wheat and earthworms, suggesting that 10:2 FTOH could be bioaccumulated in wheat and earthworms and biotransformed to the highly stable PFCAs. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and PFDA were detected in wheat root, while PFDA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were detected in shoot. PFNA and PFDA were determined in earthworms and the concentration of PFDA was much higher. The presence of earthworms and/or plant stimulated the microbial degradation of 10:2 FTOH in soil. The results supplied important evidence that degradation of 10:2 FTOH was an important potential source of PFCAs in the environment and in biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed.

  11. SEED BORNE MYCOFLORA OF SOME COMMERCIAL WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Hussain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed borne mycoflora associated with ten commercial varieties of wheat viz. Blue silver, Faisalabad 85, Manthar-3, Pak 81, Parwaz 94, Pirsabaq 2005, Punjnad-1, Sariab-92, Sh-2002 and Wafaq-2001 was investigated through standard blotter paper and agar plate method by using Mann-Whitney U test. At least eleven fungal genera were recovered from seeds. The most frequently isolated fungi were Bipolaris sorokiniana (11.125%, Aspergillus flavus (9.825%, Alternaria alternata (7.15% and Aspergillus niger (6.225%. It is apparent from the present investigation that all commercial wheat verities tested were contaminated by fungi. The rolled paper method was used to find out the effect of seed borne fungi on seed germination. Seeds of Pak 81, Wafaq-2001 and Blue silver were germinated in high proportion with variable number of normal and abnormal seedlings than the seeds of other varieties tested. The fungi associated with seeds of wheat cause dire diseases in wheat reducing the germination capacity.

  12. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  13. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. quality traits and yield to sowing date.

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    Mukhtar Ahmed

    Full Text Available The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10 and location (Talagang with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP and grain ash (GA than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing. However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  14. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

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    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  15. Effect of Sulfated Chitooligosaccharides on Wheat Seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; He, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xing, Ronge; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-04-13

    In this study, sulfated chitooligosaccharide (SCOS) was applied to wheat seedlings to investigate its effect on the plants' defense response under salt stress. The antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, and fluorescence characters of wheat seedlings were determined at a certain time. The results showed that treatment with exogenous SCOS could decrease the content of malondialdehyde, increase the chlorophyll contents, and modulate fluorescence characters in wheat seedlings under salt stress. In addition, SCOS was able to regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase. Similarly, the mRNA expression levels of several antioxidant enzymes were efficiently modulated by SCOS. The results indicated that SCOS could alleviate the damage of salt stress by adjusting the antioxidant enzyme activities of plant. The effect of SCOS on the photochemical efficiency of wheat seedlings was associated with its enhanced capacity for antioxidant enzymes, which prevented structure degradation of the photosynthetic apparatus under NaCl stress. Furthermore, the effective activities of alleviating salt stress indicated the activities of SCOS were closely related with the sulfate group.

  16. Selenium promotes sulfur accumulation and plant growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Paulo F; de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Yang, Yong; Luo, Hongmei; Giri, Shree; Hart, Jonathan J; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Thannhauser, Theorodore W; Li, Li

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and a target for biofortification in crops. Sulfur (S) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth. To gain better understanding of Se and S nutrition and interaction in plants, the effects of Se dosages and forms on plant growth as well as on S level in seven wheat lines were examined. Low dosages of both selenate and selenite supplements were found to enhance wheat shoot biomass and show no inhibitory effect on grain production. The stimulation on plant growth was correlated with increased APX antioxidant enzyme activity. Se forms were found to exert different effects on S metabolism in wheat plants. Selenate treatment promoted S accumulation, which was not observed with selenite supplement. An over threefold increase of S levels following selenate treatment at low dosages was observed in shoots of all wheat lines. Analysis of the sulfate transporter gene expression revealed an increased transcription of SULTR1;1, SULTR1;3 and SULTR4;1 in roots following 10 μM Na2 SeO4 treatment. Mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantification confirmed the gene expression results and showed enhanced protein levels. The results suggest that Se treatment mimics S deficiency to activate specific sulfate transporter expression to stimulate S uptake, resulting in the selenate-induced S accumulation. This study supports that plant growth and nutrition benefit from low dosages of Se fertilization and provides information on the basis underlying Se-induced S accumulation in plants.

  17. The contribution of yield components in determining the productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Elżbieta Harasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different growth regulator rates and nitrogen fertilization levels on yield components and to evaluate their influence on winter wheat productivity. A field experiment with winter wheat ‘Muza’ was conducted at the Czesławice Experimental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland over the period 2004–2007. In this experiment, the effect of the studied factors on yield and its components was primarily dependent on weather conditions during the study period. An increase in nitrogen rate from 100 to 150 kg ha−1 in 2005 and 2007 had a significant effect on the increase in grain yield per unit area. In 2005, the grain yield rose through increased spike density (by 6.3% and a higher number of grains per spike (by 1.6%. The 1000-grain weight decreased the grain yield per unit area (by 0.04 t ha−1. In 2007, the higher yield of wheat fertilized with nitrogen at a rate of 150 kg N ha−1 was positively affected by all the three yield components. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the winter wheat grain yields were also significantly affected by the retardant rates applied depending on the year.

  18. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum

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    Furkan Orhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%.Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.

  20. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed.

  1. Antioxidant properties of wheat as affected by pearling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika; Dexter, Jim; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-08-23

    The effects of pearling on the content of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of two Canadian wheat classes, namely, Canada Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum; CWAD) and Canada Western Red Spring; Triticum aestivum L.; CWRS) were examined. The antioxidant activity of wheat phenolics was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of photochemiluminescence (PCL), Rancimat method, inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and DNA. The phenolic composition of wheat extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of both pearled grains and byproducts significantly decreased as the degree of pearling increased. Among grains, the unprocessed whole grains demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity. The byproducts always demonstrated higher antioxidant capacity compared to the pearled grains, regardless of the wheat class. The resultant byproducts from 10-20% pearling possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. Processing of cereals may thus exert a significant effect on their antioxidant activity. The concentration of grain antioxidants is drastically reduced during the refining process. As phenolic compounds are concentrated in the outermost layers, the bran fractions resulting from pearling may be used as a natural source of antioxidants and as value-added products in the preparation of functional food ingredients or for enrichment of certain products.

  2. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

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    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  3. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

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    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  4. Whole genome association mapping of plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Christine D Zanke

    Full Text Available The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Genotyping of diagnostic markers revealed the Rht-D1b mutant allele in 58% of the investigated varieties, while the Rht-B1b mutant was only present in 7% of the varieties. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Further genotyping data included 732 microsatellite markers, resulting in 770 loci, of which 635 markers were placed on the ITMI map plus a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90 k iSELECT chip. When Bonferroni correction was applied, a total of 153 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs were observed for plant height and the SSR markers (-log10 (P-value ≥ 4.82 and 280 (-log10 (P-value ≥ 5.89 for the SNPs. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid (GA metabolism and perception, i.e. GA20 and GA2 oxidases orthologous to wheat chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3A, 3B, 5B, 5D and 7B, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase orthologous to wheat chromosome 7A, ent-kaurene synthase on wheat chromosome 2B, as well as GA-receptors like DELLA genes orthologous to wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 7A and genes of the GID family orthologous to chromosomes 2B and 5B. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development.

  5. Effects of rhizobial bacteria on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils

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    S homayoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major agricultural problems and it is limiting crop productivity in many parts of the cultivated areas all over the world. Saline soils are differentiated by the presence of great ratios of Na/Ca, Na/K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl/NO3 (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 and high levels of neutral salts in the surface layers, which are resulting from the capillary action (Al-Falih, 2002. Osmotic stress occurs when soluble salts increase in the soils and then results in specific ion toxicity (Agarwal & Ahmad, 2010. Therefore, one of the most important side effects of salinity is nutritional disorders. High concentration of NaCl in the root medium usually reduces nutrients uptake and affects the transportation of potassium and calcium ions in plant. (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 reported that the salinity of soils changes ionic strength of the substrate and it can influence mineral nutrient uptake and translocation. Salinity also changes the mineral nutrient availability and disrupts the mineral relations of plants. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of rhizobial bacteria inoculation on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils. Material and methods Soil sample was collected from Astan Ghodse Razavi farm, Mashhad Iran, and then was dried and passed through a 12-mesh (approximately 2 mm screen. Soil sample was divided into three parts and then was placed into three containers. Each container was watered by a different proportion of saline water (EC= 10 dS.m-1. Salinity of soils was regularly monitored until three salinities (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 came out. Then, a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement was carried out in a greenhouse condition. The experimental factors included four levels of inoculation (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum and control and three levels of soil salinity (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 with

  6. GENOTYPE SPECIFICITY OF WINTER WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN CADMIUM, ZINC AND IRON ACCUMULATION IN GRAIN

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    Andrijana Eđed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the uptake, translocation, distribution and accumulation of Cd, Zn and Fe and the interaction of these elements in winter wheat. The objectives were: (1 to characterise specificity among winter wheat genotypes in terms of accumulation of Cd, Zn and Fe in various organs and identify genotypes combining low accumulation of Cd with high accumulation of Zn and/or Fe, (2 to determine genetic specificity of winter wheat genotypes in terms of translocation of Cd, Zn and Fe from the vegetative parts to the grain, and (3 elucidate an effect of soil cadmium contamination on the distribution and accumulation of Cd, Zn and Fe in various organs of wheat. In the 2007/2008 vegetation season, 52 winter wheat varieties (34 Croatian, 7 Austrian, 5 Hungarian, 3 French and one variety of Russian, Italian and German descent were investigated. The pots were arranged, according to a completely randomized design with two levels of soil Cd contamination (0 and 20 mg kg-1 soil in four replicates. In the vegetation season of 2008/2009 the experiment was set up to a completely randomized block design with 10 varieties of wheat and three levels of soil Cd contamination (0, 2 and 5 mg kg-1 soil in four replicates. The concentration of Cd, Zn and Fe in the solution of plant samples was determined by ICP-OES. The concentration of Cd, Zn and Fe was determined at the flowering stage in the root, stem,leaves, flag leaf and spike and in a full maturity in the straw, leaves, glumes and grain. Collected data were statistically analyzed with SAS software 9.1.3. Analysis of variance identified a statistically significant difference in the concentrations of Cd, Zn and Fe in vegetative parts and grain between the tested wheat varieties at all levels of soil Cd contamination. It was also found that the soil Cd contamination had a significant effect on the accumulation of Cd in grain while the accumulation of Zn and Fe in the grain hasn’t been influenced by soil Cd

  7. Expression Pattern Analysis of Zinc Finger Protein Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Phosphorus Deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-juan; GUO Cheng-jin; LU Wen-jing; DUAN Wei-wei; ZHAO Miao; MA Chun-ying; GU Jun-tao; XIAO Kai

    2014-01-01

    Zinc ifnger protein (ZFP) genes comprise a large and diverse gene family, and are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. In this study, a total of 126 ZFP genes classiifed into various types in wheat were characterized and subjected to expression pattern analysis under inorganic phosphate (Pi) deprivation. The wheat ZFP genes and their corresponding GenBank numbers were obtained from the information of a 4×44K wheat gene expression microarray chip. They were conifrmed by sequence similarity analysis and named based on their homologs in Brachypodium distachyon or Oriza sativa. Expression analysis based on the microarray chip revealed that these ZFP genes are categorized into 11 classes according to their gene expression patterns in a 24-h of Pi deprivation regime. Among them, ten genes were differentially up-regulated, ten genes differentially down-regulated, and two genes both differentially up-and down-regulated by Pi deprivation. The differentially up-or down-regulated genes exhibited signiifcantly more or less transcripts at one, two, or all of the checking time points (1, 6, and 24 h) of Pi stress in comparison with those of normal growth, respectively. The both differentially up-and down-regulated genes exhibited contrasting expression patterns, of these, TaWRKY70;5 showed significantly up-regulated at 1 and 6 h and down-regulated at 24 h whereas TaAN1AN20-8;2 displayed signiifcantly upregulated at 1 h and downregulated at 6 h under deprivation Pi condition. Real time PCR analysis conifrmed the expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes obtained by the microarray chip. Our results indicate that numerous ZFP genes in wheat respond to Pi deprivation and have provided further insight into the molecular basis that plants respond to Pi deprivation mediated by the ZFP gene family.

  8. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Yin, Ruochun; Chen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lifang; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-04-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation. The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1, 3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla. The seeds were germinated at 23oC after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field. The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method. The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs. Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups, a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome, triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla, respectively. The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration, but no linear relationship was observed. Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T.

  9. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pingping; YIN Ruochun; CHEN Zhiyou; WU Lifang; YU Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation.The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0,1,3,5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1,3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla.The seeds were germinated at 23℃ after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field.The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method.The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN),chromosomal bridge,lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs.Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups,a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge,lagging chromosome,triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla,respectively.The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration,but no linear relationship was observed.Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T.

  10. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.

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    Latifah K Darusman3

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1 extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2 analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v was applied.Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v.

  11. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Decay of enteric microorganisms in biosolids-amended soil under wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K R; Sidhu, J P S; Pritchard, D L; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing need for better assessment of health risks associated with land-applied biosolids. This study investigated in-situ decay of seeded human adenovirus (HAdV), Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage (MS2) in biosolids-amended soil under wheat cultivation. The biosolids seeded with microorganisms were placed in decay chambers which were then placed in the topsoil (10 cm depth) at three different sites. Sites were selected in arid wheat-growing regions of Australia with loamy-sand soil type (Western Australia) and sandy soil (South Australia). Seeded E. coli and S. enterica had a relatively short decay time (T90 = 4-56 days) in biosolids-amended soil compared to un-amended soil (T90 = 8-83 days). The decreasing soil moisture over the wheat-growing season significantly (P soils. Increasing soil temperature also significantly (P soils at all three sites. The HAdV decay time (T90 ≥ 180 days) in biosolids-amended and un-amended soils was significantly higher than MS2 (T90 = 22-108 days). The results of this study suggest that adenovirus could survive for a longer period of time (>180 days) during the winter in biosolids-amended soil. The stability of adenovirus suggests that consideration towards biosolids amendment frequency, time, rates and appropriate withholding periods are necessary for risk mitigation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological and antioxidant response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings to fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Luqman; Mahmood, Tariq; Coyne, Mark S; Khalid, Azeem; Rashid, Audil; Hayat, Malik Tahir; Gulzar, Asim; Amjad, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Combinations of antibiotics occur in terrestrial environments due to excessive prescription, consumption, and disposal and have adverse effects, including crop toxicity. We examined short-term (20-d) toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and their mixture in a germination and a greenhouse sand culture study with wheat. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in toxicity by examining stress products and antioxidants involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress. Germination was unaffected by any antibiotic concentration or mixture used. The highest antibiotic concentrations, 100 and 300 mg L(-1), significantly decreased wheat growth. In 20 days exposure the maximum malondialdehyde production (2.45 μmol g(-1) fresh weight), total phenols (16.40 mg g(-1) of extract), and total antioxidant capacity (17.74 mg of Vitamin C g(-1) of extract) and maximum activities of superoxide dismutase (7.99 units mg(-1) protein min(-1)) and ascorbate peroxidase (0.69 μmol ascorbate mg(-1) protein min(-1)) significantly increased compared to the control. In contrast, catalase (0.45 mmol H2O2 mg(-1) protein min(-1)) and peroxidase (0.0005 units mg(-1) protein min(-1)) activity significantly decreased compared to the control. We conclude that high antibiotic concentrations in the plant growth medium reduced wheat growth by causing oxidative stress. The capacity to respond to oxidative stress was compromised by increasingly higher antibiotic concentrations in some enzyme systems. This stress damaged the physiological structure of the young plants and could reduce crop productivity in the long term. Consequently, fluoroquinolone-contaminated water challenges developing countries with constraints on available water for irrigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Genealogical Analysis of the Use of Aegilops (Aegilops L.) Genetic Material in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, S P; Dobrotvorskaya, T V; Mitrofanova, O P

    2015-09-01

    A genealogical analysis of accessions in the global gene pool of the wheat database GRIS4.0 showed that the use of the genetic material of Aegilops in wheat breeding began about half a century ago. During this time, more than 1350 varieties and 9000 lines, the pedigree of which contains Aegilops species, were created in different regions of the world. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the distribution of wheat varieties containing the genetic material of Aegilops was investigated. Analysis of the data showed that most commercial varieties with a pedigree including Ae. tauschii and/or Ae. umbellulata were created and grown in North America. More than 70% of the varieties were produced with Ae. ventricosa, which is common in western and central Europe. A gradual increase in the proportion of varieties with Aegilops genetic material was recorded from 1962 to 2011. The percentage of varieties created with the involvement of Ae. umbellulata increased from 1-5% in the 1960s to 25-29% in the 2000s. Those created with Ae. tauschii increased from 0% to 14-18%, and those created with Ae. ventricosa increased from 1% to 34-37%. The increases in the number of these varieties indicates that the resistance genes from Aegilops species retain their effectiveness. Genealogical analysis of the varieties in which resistance genes from Aegilops were postulated revealed that varieties or lines that were sources of identified genes were often absent in the pedigree. This may be due to an incorrect pedigree record or errors in the identification of resistance genes by phytopathological testing and/or the use of molecular markers, or confusion in nurseries. Preliminary analysis of pedigrees provides an opportunity to reveal discrepancies between the pedigree and postulated genes.

  16. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of natural enemies to control pests can be enhanced through habitat manipulation. However, due to the differences in their ecology, generalist and specialist species may respond differently to the same manipulation. Moreover, interactions among natural enemies (i.e. cannibalism.......3) than in flower margins (mean = 30.7%, SD = 17.4). We found a significant positive relationship between the number of artificial caterpillars attacked by chewing insects, and activity density for large (≥15 mm) ground beetles. Predation of sentinel aphids in wheat fields did not vary significantly...

  17. Transcriptional profiling of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots identifies novel, dehydration-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kav, Nat N V; Deyholos, Michael K

    2007-05-01

    We used a long-oligonucleotide microarray to identify transcripts that increased or decreased in abundance in roots of dehydration-tolerant hexaploid bread wheat, in response to withholding of water. We observed that the major classes of dehydration-responsive genes (e.g. osmoprotectants, compatible solutes, proteases, glycosyltransferases/hydrolases, signal transducers components, ion transporters) were generally similar to those observed previously in other species and osmotic stresses. More specifically, we highlighted increases in transcript expression for specific genes including those putatively related to the synthesis of asparagine, trehalose, oligopeptide transporters, metal-binding proteins, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and transcription factors. Conversely, we noted a decrease in transcript abundance for diverse classes of glutathione and sulphur-related enzymes, specific amino acids, as well as MATE-efflux carrier proteins. From these data, we identified a novel, dehydration-induced putative AP2/ERF transcription factor, which we predict to function as a transcriptional repressor. We also identified a dehydration-induced 'little protein' (LitP; predicted mass: 8 kDa) that is highly conserved across spermatophytes. Using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression patterns of selected genes between two related wheat genotypes that differed in their susceptibility to dehydration, and confirmed that these novel genes were highly inducible by water limitation in both genotypes, although the magnitude of induction differed.

  18. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  19. Effects of heavy-ion beams on chromosomes of common wheat, Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Saito, Yoshinaka [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Hisashi, E-mail: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    To investigate the nature of plant chromosomes irradiated by heavy-ion beams, the effects of nitrogen (N) and neon (Ne) ion beams on hexaploid wheat chromosomes were compared with those of X-ray. Chromosome aberrations, such as short, ring and dicentric chromosomes appeared in high frequency. The average numbers of chromosome breaks at LD-50 by irradiation with X-ray, N and Ne ion beams were 32, 20 and 20, respectively. These values may be underestimated because chromosome rearrangement without change in chromosome morphology was not counted. Thus, we subsequently used a wheat line with a pair of extra chromosomes from an alien species (Leymus racemosus) and observed the fate of the irradiated marker chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that 50 Gy of neon beam induced about eight times more breaks than those induced by X-ray. This result suggests that heavy-ion beams induce chromosome rearrangement in high frequency rather than loss of gene function. This suggests further that most of the novel mutations produced by ion beam irradiation, which have been used in plant breeding, may not be caused by ordinary gene disruption but by chromosome rearrangements.

  20. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  1. Changes in the nuclear proteome of developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Chambon, Christophe; Boudet, Julie; Branlard, Gérard; Martre, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Wheat grain end-use value is determined by complex molecular interactions that occur during grain development, including those in the cell nucleus. However, our knowledge of how the nuclear proteome changes during grain development is limited. Here, we analyzed nuclear proteins of developing wheat grains collected during the cellularization, effective grain-filling, and maturation phases of development, respectively. Nuclear proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Image analysis revealed 371 and 299 reproducible spots in gels with first dimension separation along pH 4–7 and pH 6–11 isoelectric gradients, respectively. The relative abundance of 464 (67%) protein spots changed during grain development. Abundance profiles of these proteins clustered in six groups associated with the major phases and phase transitions of grain development. Using nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyse 387 variant and non-variant protein spots, 114 different proteins were identified that were classified into 16 functional classes. We noted that some proteins involved in the regulation of transcription, like HMG1/2-like protein and histone deacetylase HDAC2, were most abundant before the phase transition from cellularization to grain-filling, suggesting that major transcriptional changes occur during this key developmental phase. The maturation period was characterized by high relative abundance of proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002999. PMID:26579155

  2. Mycoflora and deoxynivalenol in whole wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Tibola, Casiane S; Scussel, Vildes M

    2014-01-01

    The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)).

  3. Comparison Study On In Vitro morphogenesis of Mature and Immature Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Al. A. Almobasher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study comparedthe in vitro performance of two stages of wheat embryos;mature and immature embryos explantswere cultured in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dfor callus induction,mature embryosgenerally showed ostensibly preference to the immature embryo and achieved the highest fresh weight value (62.0±0.01a at 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses derived were transferred to regeneration mediasupplemented with different levels of activated charcoal, sucrose and silver nitrate. Mature embryo derived calluses achieved the highestpercentages (50-100% of nodular callus at all types of regeneration mediatested compared to immature embryo derived callusespercentages (8-66%.Shootregenerationfrequencies obtained were better in the mature embryo derived callus cultures, where it achieved 25% regeneration percentage at 3.0mg/l activated charcoal;16% regeneration percentage at 60.0 g/l sucrose and 25% regeneration percentage at 10.0 ml/l silver nitrate, while immature embryo derived callus cultures achieved 8% regeneration percentage at all activated charcoal concentrations, failed to regenerate shoots in sucrose concentrations and the highest regeneration percentage obtained was 8% at silver nitrate treatments. The present study showed the mature embryo culturespreference to immature embryo culturesfor callus induction, embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in Elnileen wheat cultivar.

  4. Development of EMS-induced mutation population for amylose and resistant starch variation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and identification of candidate genes responsible for amylose variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Singh, Anuradha; Sharma, Monica; Kumar, Pankaj; Roy, Joy

    2016-10-06

    Starch is a major part of cereal grain. It comprises two glucose polymer fractions, amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP), that make up about 25 and 75 % of total starch, respectively. The ratio of the two affects processing quality and digestibility of starch-based food products. Digestibility determines nutritional quality, as high amylose starch is considered a resistant or healthy starch (RS type 2) and is highly preferred for preventive measures against obesity and related health conditions. The topic of nutrition security is currently receiving much attention and consumer demand for food products with improved nutritional qualities has increased. In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), variation in amylose content is narrow, hence its limited improvement. Therefore, it is necessary to produce wheat lines or populations showing wide variation in amylose/resistant starch content. In this study, a set of EMS-induced M4 mutant lines showing dynamic variation in amylose/resistant starch content were produced. Furthermore, two diverse mutant lines for amylose content were used to study quantitative expression patterns of 20 starch metabolic pathway genes and to identify candidate genes for amylose biosynthesis. A population comprising 101 EMS-induced mutation lines (M4 generation) was produced in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety. Two methods of amylose measurement in grain starch showed variation in amylose content ranging from ~3 to 76 % in the population. The method of in vitro digestion showed variation in resistant starch content from 1 to 41 %. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variation (p wheat. It is also useful for the study of the genetic and molecular basis of amylose/resistant starch variation in wheat. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of 20 starch metabolic genes in the two diverse mutant lines (low and high amylose mutants) indicates that in addition to key genes, several other genes (such as phosphorylases, isoamylases, and

  5. Dynamics of small RNA profiles of virus and host origin in wheat cultivars synergistically infected by Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus: virus infection caused a drastic shift in the endogenous small RNA profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Riethoven, Jean-Jack M; Graybosch, Robert A; French, Roy; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Co-infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, a Tritimovirus) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, a Poacevirus) of the family Potyviridae causes synergistic interaction. In this study, the effects of the synergistic interaction between WSMV and TriMV on endogenous and virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) were examined in susceptible ('Arapahoe') and temperature-sensitive resistant ('Mace') wheat cultivars at 18°C and 27°C. Single and double infections in wheat caused a shift in the profile of endogenous small RNAs from 24 nt being the most predominant in healthy plants to 21 nt in infected wheat. Massive amounts of 21 and 22 nt vsiRNAs accumulated in singly and doubly infected Arapahoe at both temperatures and in Mace at 27°C but not 18°C. The plus- and minus-sense vsiRNAs were distributed throughout the genomic RNAs in Arapahoe at both temperature regimens and in Mace at 27°C, although some regions served as hot-spots, spawning an excessive number of vsiRNAs. The vsiRNA peaks were conserved among cultivars, suggesting that the Dicer-like enzymes in susceptible and resistant cultivars similarly accessed the genomic RNAs of WSMV or TriMV. Accumulation of large amounts of vsiRNAs in doubly infected plants suggests that the silencing suppressor proteins encoded by TriMV and WSMV do not prevent the formation of vsiRNAs; thus, the synergistic effect observed is independent from RNA-silencing mediated vsiRNA biogenesis. The high-resolution map of endogenous and vsiRNAs from WSMV- and/or TriMV-infected wheat cultivars may form a foundation for understanding the virus-host interactions, the effect of synergistic interactions on host defense, and virus resistance mechanisms in wheat.

  6. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  7. Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899 × Rmada, A899 × Wifak, and A1135 × Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901 × Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899 × Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. σgca2/σsca2,  (σD2/σA21/2 low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation.

  8. Protocol for efficient regulation of in vitro morphogenesis in einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.), a recalcitrant diploid wheat species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Dmitry; Chaban, Inna; Chernobrovkina, Mariya; Dolgov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed. Various auxins used as sole inductors in einkorn displayed low effect for morphogenesis (0–8%) and plant regeneration (1–2 shoots per explant). The addition of Daminozide, the inhibitor of biosynthesis of gibberellins, together with auxin significantly improved the formation of morphogenic structures, especially when Dicamba (51.4%) and Picloram (56.6%) were used for combination; furthermore, the simultaneous addition of cytokinin into induction medium significantly promoted in vitro performance. Among the tested cytokinins, the urea-type substances, such as TDZ and CPPU were more effective than the adenine type ones, BA and Zeatin, for the regulation of morphogenesis; especially, TDZ was more effective than CPPU for shoot formation (11.73 vs. 7.04 per regenerating callus). The highest morphogenic response of 90.2% with the production of more than 10 shoots per initial explant was observed when 3.0 mg/L Dicamba, 50.0 mg/L Daminozide and 0.25 mg/L TDZ were combined together. Along with the identification of appropriate induction medium, the optimal developmental stage for einkorn was found as partially transparent immature embryo in size of around 1.0 mm. Although in the present study the critical balance between plant growth regulators was established for einkorn only, we assume that further the proposed strategy could be successfully applied to other recalcitrant cereal species and genotypes. PMID:28273182

  9. UPLC-QTOF analysis reveals metabolomic changes in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under low-nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Ji-Hong; Huang, Bing-Yan; Guo, Xiao-Yang; Xiong, Shu-Ping; La, Gui-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of the most important grain crop plants worldwide. Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of wheat and exerts a marked influence on its metabolites. To investigate the influence of low nitrogen stress on various metabolites of the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a metabolomic analysis of two wheat cultivars under different induced nitrogen levels was conducted during two important growth periods based on large-scale untargeted metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF). Multivariate analyses-such as principle components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)-were used for data analysis. PCA yielded distinctive clustering information among the samples, classifying the wheat flag samples into two categories: those under normal N treatment and low N treatment. By processing OPLS-DA, eleven secondary metabolites were shown to be responsible for classifying the two groups. The secondary metabolites may be considered potential biomarkers of low nitrogen stress. Chemical analyses showed that most of the identified secondary metabolites were flavonoids and their related derivatives, such as iso-vitexin, iso-orientin and methylisoorientin-2″-O-rhamnoside, etc. This study confirmed the effect of low nitrogen stress on the metabolism of wheat, and revealed that the accumulation of secondary metabolites is a response to abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, we aimed to identify markers which could be used to monitor the nitrogen status of wheat crops, presumably to guide appropriate fertilization regimens. Furthermore, the UPLC-QTOF metabolic platform technology can be used to study metabolomic variations of wheat under abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. OVER LAST 25 YEARS IN THE TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khet Raj Dahal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  A study on the effect of climate change and associated factors on the production and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. over last 25 years in the Terai region of Nepal was conducted. Three major wheat growing districts of Nepal (Kanchanpur, Rupandehi and Dhanusha were focused. Climate and wheat management data were deployed. Farmers' feedback was taken through a set of semi-structured questionnaire followed by one day workshop cum seminar. Focus Group Discussion (FGD was also conducted in the field. Comparison over 25 years showed that rainfall during wheat season declined significantly while maximum temperature increased by over 10C. Mean minimum temperature showed slight decline. Farmers' interaction indicated that growth period of wheat appeared to reduce over years, while new diseases/races and weeds have emerged. This led to increase in use of chemical pesticides. Use of inputs such as chemical fertilizers increased significantly leading to increased production cost by many folds. Despite limitations, wheat farming area and production has increased significantly in the past 25 years. The major issues for farmers were found to be a deficit of inorganic fertilizers, insufficient supply of quality seeds and an unsystematic market. The coping mechanism for climate change in wheat farming in all the three districts was not applied due to lack of knowledge, facilities and access to improved technologies. The farmers expected advanced technological know-how along with other facilities for climate resilient wheat farming.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page:

  11. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  12. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIAN ABDUR REHMAN ARIF; MANUELA NAGEL; ULRIKE LOHWASSER; ANDREAS BÖRNER

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical andchemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over somedecades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageingprocedures. A phenotype–genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observedvariation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait.Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implyingsome non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevityappear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, A.; Schumann, E.; Fürste, A.; Cöster, H.; Leithold, B.; Röder, S.; Weber, E.

    2002-11-01

    A set of 114 recombinant inbred lines of the 'International Triticeae Mapping Initiative' mapping population was grown during the seasons 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 under several environments. Twenty morphological (glume colour, awn colour, waxiness, leaf erectness, peduncle length), agronomical (ear emergence time, flowering time, grain filling time, ear length, plant height, lodging, grain number, thousand-grain-weight, grain weight per ear, grain protein content, winter hardiness) and disease resistance (powdery mildew, yellow rust, leaf rust, fusarium) traits were studied. Not all traits were scored in each experiment. In total 210 QTLs with a LOD threshold of >2.0 (minor QTLs) were detected of which 64 reached a LOD score of >3.0 (major QTLs). Often QTLs were detected in comparable positions in different experiments. Homologous and homoeologous relationships of the detected QTLs, and already described major genes or QTLs determining the same traits in wheat or other Triticeae members, are discussed.

  14. Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Jørgensen, Malene

    2011-07-01

    Phytase activity in grain is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism, and in food and feed. Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases (PAPhy). Mature wheat grain is dominated by TaPAPhy_a which, in the present work, has been characterized by extensive peptide and glycopeptide sequencing by mass spectrometry. Seven N-linked glycosylation sites were found. Three of these sites were dominated by variant forms of the XylMan(3)FucGlcNAc(2), i.e. the HRP-type of glycan. Complex-type glycans with one or two additional GlcNAc were observed, however in trace amounts only. At four sites the glycan consisted of a single GlcNAc residue. The mature protein is ca. 500 residues in size and appears to be truncated at the N- and C-termini. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Solar Radiation-Associated Adaptive SNP Genetic Differentiation in Wild Emmer Wheat, Triticum dicoccoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Miaomiao; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Frenkel, Vladimir; Yin, Xuegui; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome scans with large number of genetic markers provide the opportunity to investigate local adaptation in natural populations and identify candidate genes under positive selection. In the present study, adaptation genetic differentiation associated with solar radiation was investigated using 695 polymorphic SNP markers in wild emmer wheat originated in a micro-site at Yehudiyya, Israel. The test involved two solar radiation niches: (1) sun, in-between trees; and (2) shade, under tree canopy, separated apart by a distance of 2–4 m. Analysis of molecular variance showed a small (0.53%) but significant portion of overall variation between the sun and shade micro-niches, indicating a non-ignorable genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats. Fifty SNP markers showed a medium (0.05 ≤ FST ≤ 0.15) or high genetic differentiation (FST > 0.15). A total of 21 outlier loci under positive selection were identified by using four different FST-outlier testing algorithms. The markers and genome locations under positive selection are consistent with the known patterns of selection. These results suggested that genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats is substantial, radiation-associated, and therefore ecologically determined. Hence, the results of this study reflected effects of natural selection through solar radiation on EST-related SNP genetic diversity, resulting presumably in different adaptive complexes at a micro-scale divergence. The present work highlights the evolutionary theory and application significance of solar radiation-driven natural selection in wheat improvement. PMID:28352272

  16. Protein glutathionylation protects wheat (Triticum aestivum Var. Sonalika) against Fusarium induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subhalaxmi; Mittra, Bhabatosh

    2016-12-01

    Fusarium induced oxidative stress could be recovered by reversible protein oxidative modification through the process of glutathionylation in co-stressed (low-dose (50 μM) Cd(2+) pre-treatment followed by Fusarium inoculation) wheat seedlings. Co-stressed seedlings showed low disease severity index as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings. A reduced level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and carbonyl contents due to irreversible protein oxidation were observed in co-stressed seedlings as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings. Further, a comparative biochemical assay showed an enhanced glutathione content in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. In an investigation, reduced glutathione pre-coated agarose gel beads were used to pull down proteins having affinity with GSH. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase and 3-Phosphoglycerate kinase were observed to be co-existed in co-stressed seedlings when analysed by LC-MS/MS after being processed through protein-pull assay. Co-stressed tissues showed an enhanced free protein thiol content as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. The ratio of free thiol to thiol disulfides was also observed to be increased in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. In contrast, the quantitative assay by Ellman's reagent and qualitative analysis by diagonal gel electrophoresis showed enhanced protein thiol disulfides in Fusarium infected tissues as compared to co-stressed tissues. Further, glutaredoxin, responsible for the reverse reduction of proteins was observed to be enhanced in co-stressed tissues as compared to Fusarium infected tissues. Thus, a low dose Cd(2+) triggered glutathionylation is suggestive of offering tolerance against Fusarium induced oxidative stress and protects target proteins from irreversible modification and permanent damage in wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Vergara-Diaz; Shawn; C.Kefauver; Abdelhalim; Elazab; Maria; Teresa; Nieto-Taladriz; José; Luis; Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen(Warrior/Ambition),against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red,Green, Blue(RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity.RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust(R2= 0.581 and R2= 0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI(R2= 0.118 and R2= 0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  18. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz; Shawn C. Kefauver; Abdelhalim Elazab; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; José Luis Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition), against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2=0.581 and R2=0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2=0.118 and R2=0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7%of the yield losses.

  19. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  20. Grinding up Wheat: a Massive Loss of Nucleotide Diversity Since Domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haudry, Anabelle; Cenci, Alberto; Ravel, Catherine;

    2007-01-01

    Several demographic and selective events occurred during the domestication of wheat from the allotetraploid wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). Cultivated wheat has since been affected by other historical events. We analyzed nucleotide diversity at 21 loci in a sample of 101 individu......Several demographic and selective events occurred during the domestication of wheat from the allotetraploid wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). Cultivated wheat has since been affected by other historical events. We analyzed nucleotide diversity at 21 loci in a sample of 101...... individuals representing 4 taxa corresponding to representative steps in the recent evolution of wheat (wild, domesticated, cultivated durum, and bread wheats) to unravel the evolutionary history of cultivated wheats and to quantify its impact on genetic diversity. Sequence relationships are consistent...... with a single domestication event and identify 2 genetically different groups of bread wheat. The wild group is not highly polymorphic, with only 212 polymorphic sites among the 21,720 bp sequenced, and, during domestication, diversity was further reduced in cultivated forms-by 69% in bread wheat and 84...

  1. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed wei...... harvest for green grain resulted in a decreased 1000-seed weight, and a high seed protein and ash content....

  2. SUPLEMENTASI STEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp. PADA MARGARIN (Supplementation of Margarine with Wheat Germ Sterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Anna Marliyati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Margarine is a water in oil (w/o emulsion product which is widely used for household cooking and baking industry. Consuming of margarine, which contains trans fatty acid may cause health problem due to the increase of LDL cholesterol. Since margarine is also a good carrier of phytosterol which prevent the absorption of cholesterol, there is a possibility to formulate a healthier margarine. In this research formulation and characteristics of products was investigated. The research work consisted of two steps: (1 supplementation of wheat germ sterol into margarine (two methods and (2 analysis of physical, chemical characteristics and hedonic score. Parameters of physical characteristics were melting point and emulsion stability, whereas chemical characteristics were water and oil contents. The hedonic test was carried out based on product’s color, odor, taste, texture, and spreadability. Results showed that method II of supplementation produced better margarine than method I, in which the concentration of sterol in the margarine was higher with a melting point similar to that of control, better emulsion stability, and higher hedonic score. Supplementation process was carried out by mixing sterol into fat phase melted at 50 0C, followed by mixing with aqueous phase at 4 0C. Sterol used for method II was extracted using mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol at the ratio of 1:2 (v/v, which was resulted from previous experimentation.

  3. ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS IN DIFFERENT CROSSES OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMTA SINGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report some of the heterotic wheat crosses produced by crossing fifteen parents in a line x tester mating scheme. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance among the genotypes. Manifestation of heterosis was done over mid parent, better parent and the two standard checks i.e. UP 2684 and PBW 343. The generated data registered JUPIBJY/URES X UP 2572 as the best heterotic hybrid for harvest index against the checks UP 2684 and PBW 343 with the values of 27.39% and 50.54% respectively. Likewise HP 1749 X UP 2572 showed maximum heterosis (18.66% over the check PBW 343. The data provides information on heterotic advantage of important yield and associated components. The highest heterotic genotypes can be exploited in future breeding programs to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. However, comprehensive field evaluation over locations and years is advocated for the crosses having significant heterosis before their commercial exploitation.

  4. In-situ atrazine biodegradation dynamics in wheat (Triticum) crops under variable hydrologic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Maggi, Federico

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive biodegradation reaction network of atrazine (ATZ) and its 18 byproducts was coupled to the nitrogen cycle and integrated in a computational solver to assess the in-situ biodegradation effectiveness and leaching along a 5 m deep soil cultivated with wheat in West Wyalong, New South Wales, Australia. Biodegradation removed 97.7% of 2 kg/ha ATZ yearly applications in the root zone, but removal substantially decreased at increasing depths; dechlorination removed 79% of ATZ in aerobic conditions and 18% in anaerobic conditions, whereas deethylation and oxidation removed only 0.11% and 0.15% of ATZ, respectively. The residual Cl mass fraction in ATZ and 4 byproducts was 2.4% of the applied mass. ATZ half-life ranged from 150 to 247 days in the soil surface. ATZ reached 5 m soil depth within 200 years and its concentration increased from 1 ×10-6 to 4 ×10-6 mg/kgdry-soil over time. The correlation between ATZ specific biomass degradation affinity Φ0 and half-life t1/2, although relatively uncertain for both hydrolyzing and oxidizing bacteria, suggested that microorganisms with high Φ0 led to low ATZ t1/2. Greater ATZ applications were balanced by small nonlinear increments of ATZ biodegraded fraction within the root zone and therefore less ATZ leached into the shallow aquifer.

  5. Yield stability of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasul Tahir

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten promising wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield stability under varied environments at nine locations in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The interaction between genotypes and environments (G x E was found significant in this study. None of the regression coefficients (bi was significantly different from variety; therefore, stable performance of the genotypes could not be predicted on ‘bi’ alone. In this study, deviations from regression (S2d and average grain yields were used to identify the superior genotypes. Above average grain yields were observed in genotypes, CT-99022, SAW-98063, CT- 99155 and Saleem-2000. Although cultivar Saleem-2000 produced high yield, on the basis of high S2d value seemed to be sensitive upon environmental changes. Based on grain yield performance, low deviation from regression and bi values the genotype CT-99022 is more suitable for favourable and CT-99155 for unfavourable environments. Stable performance was expressed by SAW-98063 because of higher grain yield, regression coefficient (bi = .983 and low deviation from regression (S2d = 0.065.

  6. Screening of Bangladeshi winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for sensitivity to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitanis, Costas J; Bari, Shafiqul M; Burkey, Kent O; Stamatelopoulos, Dimitris; Agathokleous, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity to ozone of ten Bangladeshi wheat cultivars was tested by exposing plants to eight ozone exposure regimes (50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 135, 150, and 200 ppb for 14, 11, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 days, respectively, for 8 h/day) in controlled environment chambers. Visible leaf injury, dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, leaf greenness (SPAD value), quantum yield of photosynthesis, and stomatal resistance were measured to evaluate response. Shoot biomass, total chlorophyll, leaf greenness, and carotenoid content were reduced in ozone-exposed plants. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA)-biplot analysis, the order of sensitivity to ozone was: Akbar > Sufi ≥ Bijoy ≥ Shatabdi > Bari-26 ≥ Gourab > Bari-25 ≥ Prodip ≥ Sourav > Kanchan. The most important parameters to discriminate cultivars with respect to ozone sensitivity were visible injury and chlorophyll b/a ratio, whereas quantum yield of photosynthesis was less important. Differences in stomatal resistance were not a significant factor in ozone response. Regression of cultivars' PCA scores against year of release revealed no trend, suggesting that o