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Sample records for durum wheat grain

  1. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  2. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

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    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  3. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

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    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  4. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  5. Predictive statistical modelling of cadmium content in durum wheat grain based on soil parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Yoann; Laurette, Julien; Denaix, Laurence; Gourdain, Emmanuelle; Méléard, Benoit; Nguyen, Christophe; Schneider, André; Sappin-Didier, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Regulatory limits on cadmium (Cd) content in food products are tending to become stricter, especially in cereals, which are a major contributor to dietary intake of Cd by humans. This is of particular importance for durum wheat, which accumulates more Cd than bread wheat. The contamination of durum wheat grain by Cd depends not only on the genotype but also to a large extent on soil Cd availability. Assessing the phytoavailability of Cd for durum wheat is thus crucial, and appropriate methods are required. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model to predict Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain based on soil geochemical properties related to Cd availability in French agricultural soils with low Cd contents and neutral to alkaline pH (soils commonly used to grow durum wheat). The best model is based on the concentration of total Cd in the soil solution, the pH of a soil CaCl 2 extract, the cation exchange capacity (CEC), and the content of manganese oxides (Tamm's extraction) in the soil. The model variables suggest a major influence of cadmium buffering power of the soil and of Cd speciation in solution. The model successfully explains 88% of Cd variability in grains with, generally, below 0.02 mg Cd kg -1 prediction error in wheat grain. Monte Carlo cross-validation indicated that model accuracy will suffice for the European Community project to reduce the regulatory limit from 0.2 to 0.15 mg Cd kg -1 grain, but not for the intermediate step at 0.175 mg Cd kg -1 . The model will help farmers assess the risk that the Cd content of their durum wheat grain will exceed regulatory limits, and help food safety authorities test different regulatory thresholds to find a trade-off between food safety and the negative impact a too strict regulation could have on farmers.

  6. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

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    Anna Maria de Leonardis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L. subsp. turgidum (L. convar. durum (Desf. is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  7. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Grain Yield and Some Characteristics of Hulled, Durum and Bread Wheat Genotypes Varieties

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    Bekir Atar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the low grain yield they produce, the hulled wheat have become even more important in recent years because of their resistance to negative environmental conditions and healthy nutritional content. The research was carry out in order to comparison the yield and yield characteristics of durum (Kiziltan-91 and C-1252, hulled (Einkorn and Emmer and bread wheat (Tir varieties in Isparta ecological conditions in 2013-14 and 2014-15 vegetation periods. In both years, the highest grain yield was obtained in Kiziltan-91 variety (3992 and 3758 kg ha-1 respectively. The grain yield of hulled wheats in the first year (Einkorn 1269 kg ha-1, Emmer 2125 kg ha-1 was around Turkey averages. However, grain yield decreased of commercial wheat varieties due to the negative effect of high amount of rainfall in June in the second year, but considerably increased in (Einkorn 2150 kg ha-1, Emmer 2533 kg ha-1. N uptake was found to be lower in the than durum wheats. In terms of grain protein content, the highest values were obtained in Emmer variety (16.4%-15.3%.

  9. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

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    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering genotype × environment (GE interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares (TSS, and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm, and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  10. Identification and Validation of a New Source of Low Grain Cadmium Accumulation in Durum Wheat

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    Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has no known biological function and is toxic for many living organisms. The maximum level of Cd concentration allowed in the international market for wheat grain is 0.2 mg kg−1. Because phenotyping for Cd uptake is expensive and time consuming, molecular markers associated with genes conferring low Cd uptake would expedite selection and lead to the development of durum cultivars with reduced Cd concentrations. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with a novel low Cd uptake locus in the durum experimental line D041735, which has hexaploid common wheat in its pedigree. Genetic analysis revealed a single major QTL for Cd uptake on chromosome arm 5BL within a 0.3 cM interval flanked by SNP markers. Analysis of the intervening sequence revealed a gene with homology to an aluminum-induced protein as a candidate gene. Validation and allelism tests revealed that the low Cd uptake gene identified in this study is different from the closely linked Cdu1-B gene, which also resides on 5BL. This study therefore showed that the durum experimental line D041735 contains a novel low Cd uptake gene that was likely acquired from hexaploid wheat.

  11. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

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    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  12. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    in predicting grain yield even before maturity for a wide range of growing conditions in the Mediterranean climate, governed by different annual weather patterns. The results were evaluated on the basis of regression and normalized root mean squared error with known crop yield statistics at regional level....... durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...

  13. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  14. Differential representation of albumins and globulins during grain development in durum wheat and its possible functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Vitale, Monica; Mazzeo, Fiorella; Mamone, Gianfranco; Di Stasio, Luigia; Maccaferri, Marco; Curci, Pasquale Luca; Sonnante, Gabriella; Zambrano, Nicola; Scaloni, Andrea

    2017-06-06

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an economically important crop used for the production of semolina, which is the basis of pasta and other food products. Its grains provide proteins and starch for human consumption. Grain development is a key process in wheat physiology; it is highly affected by a number of enzymes that control the metabolic processes governing accumulation of starch and storage proteins and ultimately grain weight. Most of these enzymes are present in the albumin/globulin grain fraction, which represents about a quarter of total seed proteins. With the aim to describe the dynamic profile of the albumin/globulin fraction during durum wheat grain development, we performed a proteomic analysis of this subproteome using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based approach and compared six developmental stages. A total of 285 differentially (237 over- and 48 under-) represented spots was identified by nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS, which were associated with 217 non-redundant Triticum sequence entries. Quantitative protein dynamics demonstrated that carbon metabolism, energy, protein destination/storage, disease/defense and cell growth/division functional categories were highly affected during grain development, concomitantly with progressive grain size increase and starch/protein reserve accumulation. Bioinformatic interaction prediction revealed a complex network of differentially represented proteins mainly centered at enzymes involved in carbon and protein metabolism. A description of 18 proteins associated with wheat flour human allergies was also obtained; these components showed augmented levels at the last developmental stages. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of durum wheat grain development, yield and quality formation, this study provides the foundation and reveals potential biomarkers for further investigations of durum wheat breeding and semolina quality. A 2D

  15. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous improvement of grain yield and protein content in durum wheat by different phenotypic indices and genomic selection.

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    Rapp, M; Lein, V; Lacoudre, F; Lafferty, J; Müller, E; Vida, G; Bozhanova, V; Ibraliu, A; Thorwarth, P; Piepho, H P; Leiser, W L; Würschum, T; Longin, C F H

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous improvement of protein content and grain yield by index selection is possible but its efficiency largely depends on the weighting of the single traits. The genetic architecture of these indices is similar to that of the primary traits. Grain yield and protein content are of major importance in durum wheat breeding, but their negative correlation has hampered their simultaneous improvement. To account for this in wheat breeding, the grain protein deviation (GPD) and the protein yield were proposed as targets for selection. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of different indices to simultaneously improve grain yield and protein content in durum wheat and to evaluate their genetic architecture towards genomics-assisted breeding. To this end, we investigated two different durum wheat panels comprising 159 and 189 genotypes, which were tested in multiple field locations across Europe and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. The phenotypic analyses revealed significant genetic variances for all traits and heritabilities of the phenotypic indices that were in a similar range as those of grain yield and protein content. The GPD showed a high and positive correlation with protein content, whereas protein yield was highly and positively correlated with grain yield. Thus, selecting for a high GPD would mainly increase the protein content whereas a selection based on protein yield would mainly improve grain yield, but a combination of both indices allows to balance this selection. The genome-wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture for all traits with most QTL having small effects and being detected only in one germplasm set, thus limiting the potential of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement. By contrast, genome-wide prediction appeared promising but its performance strongly depends on the relatedness between training and prediction sets.

  17. Drought resistance in durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.

    1993-01-01

    Durum wheat is widely grown as a rainfed crop in the semi-arid tropics. Its production is low and variable from season to season due to frequent drought-stress. Characterization of target environment and employing both analytical and empirical breeding approaches would speed up progress in

  18. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  19. Mutation induction in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senay, A.; Sekerci, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the separate and combine effects of different doses of gamma rays and EMS concentrations on some characteristics of M1 plants of durum wheat, cv. Kunduru 1149. The seeds of durum wheat, cv. Kunduru 1149 which were irradiated with 50 Gy, 150 Gy and 250 Gy gamma rays and/or treated EMS for 6 hours at 30 C in 0,2 % and 0,4 % concentrated. According to the results of this research; separate and combine treatments of different doses of gamma rays and EMS have shown significant difference all of the observed traits at M1 plants of durum wheat cv. Kunduru 1149. The negative effects of increasing doses of mutagens on all plant characteristics for M1 plants were found statistically significant. Combined treatments were found to be more efficient than the sum of effects of the single treatments. In followed generation 3 mutant lines were selected according to plant height, spike height, number of seed, leaf relative water lost, and some quality traits. In M6 generation 3 desirable lines have been sown for preliminary field yield tests.

  20. Assessment of heritability and genetic advance for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

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    HASSAN NIKKHAHKOUCHAKSARAEI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the amount of heritability for desirable agronomic characteristics and the genetic progress associated with grain yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., a split plot experiment was carried out with four replications during three cropping seasons (2009-2012. Three sowing dates (as environmental factor and six durum wheat varieties (as genotypic factor were considered as main and sub factors respectively. Analysis of variance showed interaction effects between genotypes and environments in days to ripening, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of spikes per unit area, grain mass and grain yield. The grain yield showed the highest positive correlation with number of grains per spike also grain mass (91 % and 85 %, respectively. A relatively high heritability of these traits (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively suggests that their genetic improvement is possible. The maximum genetic gain (19.6 % was observed for grain mass, indicating this trait should be a very important indicator for durum wheat breeders, although the climatic effects should not be ignored.

  1. Insight into durum wheat Lpx-B1: a small gene family coding for the lipoxygenase responsible for carotenoid bleaching in mature grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlotta, Angelo; De Simone, Vanessa; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Cattivelli, Luigi; Papa, Roberto; Trono, Daniela

    2010-11-26

    The yellow colour of pasta products is one of the main criteria used by consumers to assess pasta quality. This character is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments in semolina. During pasta processing, oxidative degradation of carotenoid pigments occurs mainly due to lipoxygenase (LOX). In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), two Lpx-1 genes have been identified on chromosome 4B, Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2, and evidences have been reported that the deletion of Lpx-B1.1 is associated with a strong reduction in LOX activity in semolina. In the present study, we characterised the Lpx-B1 gene family identified in a durum wheat germplasm collection and related the distribution and expression of the Lpx-B1 genes and alleles to variations in LOX activity in the mature grains. In addition to the already known Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2 genes, a new gene was identified, Lpx-B1.3, along with three different Lpx-B1.1 alleles, Lpx-B1.1a, Lpx-B1.1b and the partially deleted Lpx-B1.1c. Screening of the germplasm collection showed that all of the genotypes have one of the three Lpx-B1.1 alleles, associated with either Lpx-B1.2 or Lpx-B1.3, thus showing that in this collection the two genes are alternatives. Therefore, based on Lpx-B1 distribution, three different haplotypes were distinguished: haplotype I, carrying Lpx-B1.3 and the Lpx-B1.1b allele; haplotype II carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1a allele; and haplotype III carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1c allele. Determination of Lpx-B1 transcript abundance and total LOX activity in mature grains revealed differences among these three haplotypes: haplotypes I, II and III showed high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of functional Lpx-B1 transcripts and enzymatic activity. In this germplasm collection, the Lpx-B1 gene family accounts for most of the total LOX activity in the mature grains. Information on these Lpx-B1 haplotypes provides significant improvement for prediction of LOX-1 activity levels in mature grains, and

  2. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

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    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  4. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  5. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  6. The Response of Durum Wheat to the Preceding Crop in a Mediterranean Environment

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    Laura Ercoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., maize (Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno.

  7. Variation of heavy metal and micro and macro element concentrations of bread and durum wheats and their relationship in grain of Turkish wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-09-01

    The 64 varieties displayed a large variation for all mineral elements, investigated Fe, Mn and Zn, ranging from 24.2 to 43.1 mg/kg, 27.6 to 64.8 mg/kg and 10.4 to 38.2 mg/kg, respectively. The mean Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S concentrations in wheat rain varieties amounted to 378, 4,266, 1,183, 317, 3,513 and 1,542 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S contents of wheat varieties changed at the levels between 266 and 531 mg/kg, 3,029 and 5,566 mg/kg, 972 and 1,525 mg/kg, 277 and 368 mg/kg, 2,422 and 4,610 mg/kg and 1,241 to 2,052 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of durum wheat samples were found at high levels. The mean Al, Cr, Mo, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in durum wheat varieties amounted to 10.93, 0.47, 0.72, 0.72, 5.37, 34.9, 37.28 and 20.88 mg/kg, respectively.

  8. GABA Shunt in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronia Carillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA but not glycine betaine (GB is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

  9. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition, against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2 = 0.581 and R2 = 0.536, respectively, far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2 = 0.118 and R2 = 0.128, respectively. In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  10. Weed Population Dynamics, Water Productivity and Grain Yield of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. in No-Tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mojab

    2016-09-01

    and broadleaved weed densities were recorded at 30 days after the beginning of crop emergence. Wheat grain yield was calculated at harvest time. Comparison of the means was conducted based on protected LSD (PLSD at 0.05 significant levels. Results and Discussion: Tillage systems indicated a significant effect on wheat density. The average number of crop seedlings in no-tillage plots was 27 % higher than in the conventional tillage plots. Maintaining crop residues on the soil surface provided a better site for crop germination and emergence. The response to tillage system and year effects varied depending on the weed species. Results showed that the effect of tillage systems, year and their interactions were significant on the density of Lolium temulentum and Sinapis arvensis, while in the case of Phalaris minor and Hordeum spontaneum just the tillage regimen significantly influenced the weed density. L. temulentum and S. arvensis plants showed an almost similar pattern in their response to tillage systems and year effects. The density of these two species significantly decreased under no-tillage system compared with conventional tillage operations. Moreover, their densities in conventional tillage plots were significantly greater in the second year of the experiment than the first year. The lower seedling emergence of P. minor and H. spontaneum under no-tillage circumstances is not surprising, as crop residues prevent from reaching the light on the soil surface and the light requirement for germination of these species has been reported in several studies. The water productivity of the no-tillage plots was greater than of the conventional ones at both two years of the experiment. Preservation of wheat residues on the soil surface decreases soil temperature via shading and causes reduces the evaporation rate from the soil surface. Although there was no significant difference between wheat yields in the two growing seasons under conventional tillage environment, wheat

  11. Concentrations of radiocaesium in Italian durum wheat and its products after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, M.; Notaro, M.; Azimi-Garakani, D.; Tommasino, L.; Cubadda, R.; Santaroni, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The radiocaesium concentrations of over 400 samples of durum wheat (triticum durum) collected throughout Italy after the Chernobyl accident have been measured to study the implications of contamination of this specific type of wheat used primarily in making alimentary pasta. The transfer of radiocaesium from the wheat sample of highest activity into the human food chain was studied systematically by measuring radiocaesium levels in the outer layers of the grain and in semolina, pasta and bread produced this wheat. The effect of cooking on the nuclide content of pasta was also studied, the results showing that most of the radiocaesium is removed into the water in which the pasta is boiled. (author)

  12. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Thus, RAPD offer a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate genetic variation and relatedness among ten wheat ...

  13. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Welch, R.M.; Norvell, W.A.; Sullivanm, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  14. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  15. Induction of mutants in durum wheat (triticum durum desf cv. samra) using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albokari, M.

    2014-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was initiated in 2008 emphasizing the main constraints for sustainable production of durum wheat in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the program was to develop moderate or high yielding semi-dwarf/lodging tolerant, early maturing mutants with drought and disease tolerance from a local durum wheat cultivar (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Samra) which has the main defects of longer crop duration, lodging habit and low grain yield. Dry seeds of Samra were subjected to 150 and 200Gy doses of gamma irradiation and each treatment consisted of 2500 seeds. Irradiated seeds were grown as M1 population along with parental variety as control at Almuzahmiah Research Station of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decrease in germination (%) and survival rate (%) of plants was observed. A wide variation in days to flowering and plant height was found in the M1 populations. Three seeds from each spike per plant of M1 plants were collected, bulked dose wise and grown separately as M2 in 2009 growing season. From these M2, 17 desirable putative mutant plants which varied significantly with the mother were visually selected. These putative mutants were found to be semi-dwarf and early maturing in nature with other improved agronomic traits including lodging reaction and grain yield. The selected plants, when grown in progeny lines as M3 in 2010, more or less maintained their superiority over the mother for many traits. Most of the mutant lines showed homogeneity for most of characters studied. Eleven of these 17 lines were found to be promising in respect of days to flower, plant height (for semi-dwarf) and other traits including grain yield. (author)

  16. Impact of climatic variability on durum wheat (Triticum durum L. yields in North Western of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meterfi Baroudi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In semi arid region of the South West of the Mediterranean basin, low rainfall, and thermal fluctuations cause water stress situations affecting at different levels, with varying intensities, the development of durum wheat yields. This work aims to study the major climatic factors that determine water environment of durum wheat in its reproductive period and assess their trend related to yields of the grain. Comparing diagrams of Bagnoul and Gaussen, established for two periods (1913-1937 and 1977-2014, highlighted an increase in the duration of the dry season due to rising temperatures, especially summer and a decrease in volume of the seasonal rainfall involving therefore water stress during the reproductive phase of cereal. The analysis of water regime in the past three decades, for the months of March, April and May, through the application of the approach of UNESCO-FAO, highlighted a very large variability in intensity of water stress during grain development period during the last years and also the tendency of the spring season months to be more drought. This reflects the complexity of the selection for yield components in this region. International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1 2016,  pp: 107-120

  17. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  18. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L. and durum (Triticum durum Desf. wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L. and hard (Triticum durum Desf. are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  19. Systems responses to progressive water stress in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimah Z Habash

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is susceptible to terminal drought which can greatly decrease grain yield. Breeding to improve crop yield is hampered by inadequate knowledge of how the physiological and metabolic changes caused by drought are related to gene expression. To gain better insight into mechanisms defining resistance to water stress we studied the physiological and transcriptome responses of three durum breeding lines varying for yield stability under drought. Parents of a mapping population (Lahn x Cham1 and a recombinant inbred line (RIL2219 showed lowered flag leaf relative water content, water potential and photosynthesis when subjected to controlled water stress time transient experiments over a six-day period. RIL2219 lost less water and showed constitutively higher stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, abscisic acid content and enhanced osmotic adjustment at equivalent leaf water compared to parents, thus defining a physiological strategy for high yield stability under water stress. Parallel analysis of the flag leaf transcriptome under stress uncovered global trends of early changes in regulatory pathways, reconfiguration of primary and secondary metabolism and lowered expression of transcripts in photosynthesis in all three lines. Differences in the number of genes, magnitude and profile of their expression response were also established amongst the lines with a high number belonging to regulatory pathways. In addition, we documented a large number of genes showing constitutive differences in leaf transcript expression between the genotypes at control non-stress conditions. Principal Coordinates Analysis uncovered a high level of structure in the transcriptome response to water stress in each wheat line suggesting genome-wide co-ordination of transcription. Utilising a systems-based approach of analysing the integrated wheat's response to water stress, in terms of biological robustness theory, the findings suggest that each durum

  20. phenotypic diversity of tunisian durum wheat landraces abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Tunisia is considered as a diversification centre of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and barely ( ... diversification (Devra, 1999), especially within the primary and ..... Geographical patterns of morphological variation in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) germplasm from Ethiopia and Eritrea: qualitative characters.

  1. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour, water absorption, rheology, and baking quality of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  2. Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological and protein markers. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... No significant correlation was observed among the two methods tested. It is concluded ...

  3. Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Genotypes were grouped in cluster analysis (using Ward's method) based on Yp, Ys and ...

  4. Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on durum wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asefa

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The result showed that nitrogen rates and cultivars had significant effect on yield, yield related traits, nitrogen uptake ... cooking quality [8]. Durum wheat grain protein functionality can be influenced by N fertilization, particularly in the varieties of relatively with less gluten strength [9]. Information on the quality ...

  5. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  6. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  7. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  8. GGE biplot and AMMI application in the study of adaptability and grain yield stability of durum lines under dryland conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sadeghzadeh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum is grown for human consumption, mainly as pasta products, e.g., spaghetti and macaroni, couscous, bulgur, frike, flat breads, etc. Worldwide, the area annually planted to durum wheat is estimated to be around 17-18 million hectares, i.e., 8 percent of total wheat area, with a production averaging about 30 million tons annually, which is 5.5 percent of total wheat production. Although durum is grown in various regions of the world, the great bulk of durum area and production is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Eight countries (Algeria, Canada, Italy, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, and USA account for nearly two thirds (2/3 of world durum area and production. In Iran, the area under durum cultivation is about 400-500 thousands hectares with an annual production of 400-500 thousand tons, which covers about 60% of country demands. In spite of the importance of durum for Iranian rural economies, the country has not all succeeded in its research and development efforts to substantially improve durum productivity. The combinations of increasing demand for durum and durum products, as a result of demographic pressure, and relatively low durum productivity partly due to abiotic stresses (i.e. cold, terminal heat, moisture and nutrient deficiency stresses made the country to an importer of durum. These are frequently exacerbated by biotic stresses, e.g., diseases and insects that may severely inhibit crop growth. Materials and methods The main purpose of this study was to achieve high yielding durum wheat genotypes with higher yield stability in different environmental condition, tolerance to environmental stresses such as cold damage, drought and end of season heat stress. Hence, 17 durum wheat lines were evaluated for grain yeild and morphlogical traits in Maragheh, Sararood, Qamloo, Ardabil and Shirvan agricultural research stations in 2011-14. In each location, the

  9. RE-evolution of durum wheat by restoring the hardness locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat is an important crop worldwide. In many areas, durum wheat appears to have competitive yield and biotic and abiotic advantages over bread wheat. What limits durum production? In one respect, the comparatively more limited processing and food functionality. Two traits directly relate to t...

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on durum wheats and spaghetti quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köksel, H.; Celik, S.; Tuncer, T.

    1996-01-01

    study on the effects of gamma irradiation on the properties of durum wheat, semolina, and the spaghetti cooking quality has been found. A Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food convened by FAO, IAEA, and WHO stated that irradiation of any food commodity up to 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard (Anonymous 1981). Therefore, the effect of ionizing radiation on the quality of cereal grains needs to be investigated within this recommended dose level but below the tolerance of the final product. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of gamma irradiation on various wheat and semolina properties and the spaghetti cooking quality of two durum wheat cultivars

  11. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  12. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to Ug99 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effec...

  13. Enhanced gluten properties in soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft kernel durum wheat is a relatively recent development (Morris et al. 2011 Crop Sci. 51:114). The soft kernel trait exerts profound effects on kernel texture, flour milling including break flour yield, milling energy, and starch damage, and dough water absorption (DWA). With the caveat of reduce...

  14. Genetic adaptability of durum wheat to salinity level at germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Keys words: Durum wheat, genetic-adaptability, salinity level. ... tolerance of crop proves the first way to overcome the limitation of crops ... Analysis of variance using GLM procedures (SAS, 1990) were used ... Additive, dominance and environmental variance components were ..... Breeding for stability of.

  15. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  16. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  17. A Comparative Classification of Wheat Grains for Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Muhammet Fatih; SABANCI, Kadir; YİĞİT, Enes; KAYABAŞI, Ahmet; TOKTAŞ, Abdurrahim; DUYSAK, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, classification of two types of wheat grainsinto bread and durum was carried out. The species of wheat grains in thisdataset are bread and durum and these species have equal samples in the datasetas 100 instances. Seven features, including width, height, area, perimeter,roundness, width and perimeter/area were extracted from each wheat grains. Classificationwas separately conducted by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)artificial intelligence techn...

  18. Genetic variability in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compatibility supports the selection of durum wheat genotypes for enhancing soil ecological services and cropping systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Hamel, C; Depauw, R M; Knox, R E

    2012-03-01

    Crop nutrient- and water-use efficiency could be improved by using crop varieties highly compatible with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Two greenhouse experiments demonstrated the presence of genetic variability for this trait in modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) germplasm. Among the five cultivars tested, 'AC Morse' had consistently low levels of AM root colonization and DT710 had consistently high levels of AM root colonization, whereas 'Commander', which had the highest colonization levels under low soil fertility conditions, developed poor colonization levels under medium fertility level. The presence of genetic variability in durum wheat compatibility with AMF was further evidenced by significant genotype × inoculation interaction effects in grain and straw biomass production; grain P, straw P, and straw K concentrations under medium soil fertility level; and straw K and grain Fe concentrations at low soil fertility. Mycorrhizal dependency was an undesirable trait of 'Mongibello', which showed poor growth and nutrient balance in the absence of AMF. An AMF-mediated reduction in grain Cd under low soil fertility indicated that breeding durum wheat for compatibility with AMF could help reduce grain Cd concentration in durum wheat. Durum wheat genotypes should be selected for compatibility with AMF rather than for mycorrhizal dependency.

  19. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  20. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  1. Influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat is predominantly grown in semi-arid to arid environments where common wheat does not flourish, especially in the Middle East, North Africa, Mediterranean Basin, and portions of North America. Durum kernels are extraordinarily hard when compared to their common wheat counterparts. Due to ...

  2. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  3. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  4. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  5. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pampana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  6. Triticum durum Desf.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    duration of the vegetative phase, above ground biomass accumulated at headiny and plant height to the ... Key words: durum wheat, adaptation, biomass, plant height, grain yield, harvest index, semi-arid ...... Pakistan Journal of Agronomy, vol.

  7. Evaluation of Durum Wheat Lines for Tolerance to Early Season Cold via Early Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rashidi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the environmental factors that affect planting date of durum wheat in mountainous North West areas of Iran. To study tolerance of 36 Durum wheat lines for cold, an experiment was conducted in mid winter (mid of February at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, in 2007. Experimental design used was simple lattice. The results of analysis of variance showed that the lines under study responded differently to cold as to traits like percentage of survival, yield and its components. This indicates existence of genetic diversity among durum wheat lines. Percentage of survival of the lines 30, 5, 16, 27, 31 and 35 were for higher than those at other lines. Thus, they can be considered to be tolerant to early season cold. Comparison of means showed that lines 35, 31, 16 and 5 possessed higher percentage of survival and other percent survival also correlated positive with plant height, number of fertile spike seed yield and 1000 grain weight. As a whole line 35 was found to be more tolerant to early season cold than the others were. Cluster analysis was divided 36 lines into three groups. Lines in the third group possessed higher percentage of survival, plant height, number of fertile spike, biomass and high yield than their over all means.

  8. Technical report of EFSA prepared by the Assessment Methodology Unit on Quantitative pathway analysis of the exposure of the wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores one year after importation of US wheat for grain into the EU and desert durum wheat into Italy. Appendix B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    and desert durum wheat into Italy, based on original model and an updated model with revised parameter values. Model output was teliospores number per hectare on soil surface of each EU country. Simulated teliospores numbers entering EU were lower with the updated than with the original model. These results...

  9. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  10. Mutation breeding for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Desf.) improvement in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G T [Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); D' Amato, F [Dipartimento di Biologia delle Piante Agrarie, Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzi, S [Dipartimento di Botanica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); and others

    1993-12-01

    In view of the economic importance of durum wheat in Italy and in the Mediterranean and Near East Region much effort was devoted to its genetic improvement. Lodging susceptibility and straw weakness, particularly under high fertilizer level, were the main reasons of substantially lower yields compared to bread wheat. An experimental mutagenesis programme was started in Italy in 1956 by F. D'Amato and G.T. Scarascia. It included both fundamental genetic studies and applied mutation breeding. Remarkable results were obtained at the 'Laboratorio Applicazioni in Agricoltura', Casaccia Nuclear Research Center, Roma, Italy, in radiobiology, radiogenetics, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. Selection among some 1,000 induced mutants and hybridization led to 11 registered mutant varieties, six by the direct use of selected mutants and the remaining from cross-breeding. The economic benefits derived from the developed mutant cultivars are substantial. Mutant varieties have a great impact on durum wheat production, both in Italy and other countries like Bulgaria or Austria where Italian mutants have been used successfully in cross-breeding. (author)

  11. Mutation breeding for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Desf.) improvement in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.T.; D'Amato, F.; Avanzi, S.

    1993-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of durum wheat in Italy and in the Mediterranean and Near East Region much effort was devoted to its genetic improvement. Lodging susceptibility and straw weakness, particularly under high fertilizer level, were the main reasons of substantially lower yields compared to bread wheat. An experimental mutagenesis programme was started in Italy in 1956 by F. D'Amato and G.T. Scarascia. It included both fundamental genetic studies and applied mutation breeding. Remarkable results were obtained at the 'Laboratorio Applicazioni in Agricoltura', Casaccia Nuclear Research Center, Roma, Italy, in radiobiology, radiogenetics, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. Selection among some 1,000 induced mutants and hybridization led to 11 registered mutant varieties, six by the direct use of selected mutants and the remaining from cross-breeding. The economic benefits derived from the developed mutant cultivars are substantial. Mutant varieties have a great impact on durum wheat production, both in Italy and other countries like Bulgaria or Austria where Italian mutants have been used successfully in cross-breeding. (author)

  12. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  13. Results and perspectives of mutagenesis applied to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnara, D.

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the main aspects and problems of mutagenesis applied to the breeding of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum). Features and type of action of the main physical and chemical mutagens are considered: a comparison is also made between the two classes of mutagens, on the basis of results so far achieved. Mentions is then made of methods of treatment; parts of plant which can be treated; growing of treated material in segregating generations: data to be successively recorded. Methods of estimating mutation frequency and the problem of arising chimerical tissues and its possible overcoming are also discussed. Examination is made of some special effects of mutagens, namely: induction of translocations; diploidization of polyploids; induction of haploids and aneuploids; genetic analysis of specific loci; induction of male sterility. Finally, results are reviewed concerning induction and utilization, either as varieties or in cross breeding programmes, of mutants for characters of agronomic interest. (Bagnara, D.)

  14. Improve of local durum wheat by gamma radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Syrian local durum wheat's, specially the cultivar Hurani, are known for adaptation to local environments; are characterized by many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, these local durum cultivars suffer from a low yield potential when compared to new high yielding lines, and lodging when high input technologies are used. A research program was initiated to improve the two local cultivars Hurani and Senator Capilli by exposing their seed to 5 doses of gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 krad) to induced mutation. The treated seed were sown during 1983/84 and up to 1987/88 cropping seasons. 160 mutants were studies in comparison with the local Syrian durum. Mutant lines were selected as resistant to lodging (860, 990, 1065, 1052) as dwarf mutant lines (899, 465, 1072) as higher yielding than Hurani and Sentor and Capilli (33, 695, 1003). Some were superior or equal to the checks (915, 832, 840). Work will continue in theses lines in the coming cropping seasons to be evaluated for yield and homogeneity. (author)

  15. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  16. An endogenous reference gene of common and durum wheat for detection of genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Matsuoka, Yasuyuki; Arami, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Megumi; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurimoto, Youichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    To develop a method for detecting GM wheat that may be marketed in the near future, we evaluated the proline-rich protein (PRP) gene as an endogenous reference gene of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). Real-time PCR analysis showed that only DNA of wheat was amplified and no amplification product was observed for phylogenetically related cereals, indicating that the PRP detection system is specific to wheat. The intensities of the amplification products and Ct values among all wheat samples used in this study were very similar, with no nonspecific or additional amplification, indicating that the PRP detection system has high sequence stability. The limit of detection was estimated at 5 haploid genome copies. The PRP region was demonstrated to be present as a single or double copy in the common wheat haploid genome. Furthermore, the PRP detection system showed a highly linear relationship between Ct values and the amount of plasmid DNA, indicating that an appropriate calibration curve could be constructed for quantitative detection of GM wheat. All these results indicate that the PRP gene is a suitable endogenous reference gene for PCR-based detection of GM wheat.

  17. Long-term durum wheat monoculture: modelling and future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Bernardoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of future climate change on grain production of a winter durum wheat cropping system were investigated. Based on future climate change projections, derived from a statistical downscaling process applied to the HadCM3 general circulation model and referred to two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B1, the response on yield and aboveground biomass (AGB and the variation in total organic carbon (TOC were explored. The software used in this work is an hybrid dynamic simulation model able to simulate, under different pedoclimatic conditions, the processes involved in cropping system such as crop growth and development, water and nitrogen balance. It implements different approaches in order to ensure accurate simulation of the mainprocess related to soil-crop-atmosphere continuum.The model was calibrated using soil data, crop yield, AGB and phenology coming from a long-term experiment, located in Apulia region. The calibration was performed using data collected in the period 1978–1990; validation was carried out on the 1991–2009 data. Phenology simulation was sufficiently accurate, showing some limitation only in predicting the physiological maturity. Yields and AGBs were predicted with an acceptable accuracy during both calibration and validation. CRM resulted always close to optimum value, EF in every case scored positive value, the value of index r2 was good, although in some cases values lower than 0.6 were calculated. Slope of the linear regression equation between measured and simulated values was always close to 1, indicating an overall good performance of the model. Both future climate scenarios led to a general increase in yields but a slightly decrease in AGB values. Data showed variations in the total production and yield among the different periods due to the climate variation. TOC evolution suggests that the combination of temperature and precipitation is the main factor affecting TOC variation under future scenarios

  18. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  19. Analysis of diallel crosses between six varieties of durum wheat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    $$)9

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... The study of morphological genetic determinism characteristics and production of durum wheat. (Triticum durum Desf.) ... analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) abilities and reciprocal ... increased and at the same time, these components results in an ...

  20. DHPLC technology for high-throughput detection of mutations in a durum wheat TILLING population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Incerti, Ornella; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2016-02-17

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is a cereal crop widely grown in the Mediterranean regions; the amber grain is mainly used for the production of pasta, couscous and typical breads. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection technologies and high-throughput mutation induction represent a new challenge in wheat breeding to identify allelic variation in large populations. The TILLING strategy makes use of traditional chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for single base mismatches to identify novel mutant loci. Although TILLING has been combined to several sensitive pre-screening methods for SNP analysis, most rely on expensive equipment. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been used in molecular human diagnostic to detect unknown mutations. In this work, we developed a new durum wheat TILLING population (cv. Marco Aurelio) using 0.70-0.85% ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). To investigate the efficiency of the mutagenic treatments, a pilot screening was carried out on 1,140 mutant lines focusing on two target genes (Lycopene epsilon-cyclase, ε-LCY, and Lycopene beta-cyclase, β-LCY) involved in carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains. We simplify the heteroduplex detection by two low cost methods: the enzymatic cleavage (CelI)/agarose gel technique and the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). The CelI/agarose gel approach allowed us to identify 31 mutations, whereas the DHPLC procedure detected a total of 46 mutations for both genes. All detected mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. The estimated overall mutation frequency for the pilot assay by the DHPLC methodology resulted to be of 1/77 kb, representing a high probability to detect interesting mutations in the target genes. We demonstrated the applicability and efficiency of a new strategy for the detection of induced variability. We produced and characterized a new durum wheat TILLING population useful for a better understanding of key gene functions

  1. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  2. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  3. Comparative proteome analysis of metabolic proteins from seeds of durum wheat (cv. Svevo) subjected to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laino, Paolo; Shelton, Dale; Finnie, Christine

    2010-01-01

    of nonprolamin proteins were monitored to identify polypeptides affected by heat stress during grain fill. This study shows that heat stress alters significantly the durum wheat seed proteome, although the changes range is only between 1.2- and 2.2-fold. This analysis revealed 132 differentially expressed...... include proteins with metabolic activity or structural function. In order to investigate the consequences of heat stress on the accumulation of nonprolamin proteins in mature durum wheat kernels, the Italian cultivar Svevo was subjected to two thermal regimes (heat stress versus control). The 2-D patterns...... polypeptides, 47 of which were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and included HSPs, proteins involved in the glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as stress-related proteins. Many of the heat-induced polypeptides are considered to be allergenic for sensitive individuals....

  4. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  5. Impacts of previous crops on Fusarium foot and root rot, and on yields of durum wheat in North West Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia CHEKALI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ten previous crop rotations (cereals, legumes and fallow on Fusarium foot and root rot of durum wheat were investigated for three cropping seasons in a trial established in 2004 in Northwest Tunisia. Fungi isolated from the roots and stem bases were identified using morphological and molecular methods, and were primarily Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. Under low rainfall conditions, the previous crop affected F. pseudograminearum incidence on durum wheat roots but not F. culmorum. Compared to continuous cropping of durum wheat, barley as a previous crop increased disease incidence more than fivefold, while legumes and fallow tended to reduce incidence.  Barley as a previous crop increased wheat disease severity by 47%, compared to other rotations. Grain yield was negatively correlated with the incidence of F. culmorum infection, both in roots and stem bases, and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.61 for roots and -0.77 for stem bases, P<0.0001. Fusarium pseudograminearum was also negatively correlated with yield and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.53 on roots and -0.71 on stem bases, P < 0.0001 but was not correlated with severity.

  6. Induction of mutants in Durum Wheat by hybridization and irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Ubaidi, M.O.; Ibrahim, I.F.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development a new genotypes of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiated seeds (F2) of durum wheat hybrid's (Sin Al-jemal X Izraa, Sin Al-Jemal X Cocorat and Izraa X Cocorat) with gamma rays 100 Gy dose. This program involves: Induction of variability, selection, evaluation of the best mutants at three different locations, Twaitha(Baghdad), Latifya (Babylon) and Swari (Kutt), for the period 1990-1999. Results revealed that the mutants ( Si X Iz-7, Si X Iz-22, Si X Co-43, Si X Co-48, Si X Co-50, Si X Co- 87, Iz X Co-95 and Iz X Co-105) showed resistance to lodging with a significant reduction in plant heigth, but mutant Si X Iz-22 surpassed the other mutants and it is origin in lodging resistance and reduction in plant heigth (84.8, 81.9 and 86.3 cm) at Twaitha, Latifya and Babylon respectively in M7 and M8 generations. Also there were a significant differences between the mutants and their origin in yield and yield components during the two successive generations, on the other hand mutant Iz X Co-105 surpassed the other mutants in spikes/m2 ( 278.8, 263.3 and 289) and grain yield (4950, 4820 and 5320 kg/ha) in the testing locations respectively

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM UPTAKE BY ROOTS OF DURUM WHEAT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Root Cd uptake of durum wheat plants (cv. Beloslava was characterized in hydroponics conditions. The uptake experiments have been performed in Cd concentration range of 0 – 2 μM adjusted by both stable Cd and radiolabeled (109Cd tracer. Cd removal from the solution over duration of 1 hour reached 50%. The part of loosely adsorbed Cd ions on root surface accounted for about 20%. Over 30% of absorbed Cd at 0.5 μM Cd treatment was retained in root cell walls. The apparent root Cd accumulation showed concentration-dependant tendency with the highest accumulation value of 7.45 nmol Cd g FW-1.

  8. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among Syrian durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtar, S; Moualla, M Y; Kalhout, A; Röder, M S; MirAli, N

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 49 wheat varieties (37 durum and 12 bread wheat) was assayed using 32 microsatellites representing 34 loci covering almost the whole wheat genome. The polymorphic information content (PIC) across the tested loci ranged from 0 to 0.88 with average values of 0.57 and 0.65 for durum and bread wheat respectively. B genome had the highest mean number of alleles (10.91) followed by A genome (8.3) whereas D genome had the lowest number (4.73). The correlation between PIC and allele number was significant in all genome groups accounting for 0.87, 074 and 0.84 for A, B and D genomes respectively, and over all genomes, the correlation was higher in tetraploid (0.8) than in hexaploid wheat varieties (0.5). The cluster analysis discriminated all varieties and clearly divided the two ploidy levels into two separate clusters that reflect the differences in genetic diversity within each cluster. This study demonstrates that microsatellites markers have unique advantages compared to other molecular and biochemical fingerprinting techniques in revealing the genetic diversity in Syrian wheat varieties that is crucial for wheat improvement.

  10. Participation of Green Organs to Grain Filling in Triticum turgidum var durum Grown under Mediterranean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneveux, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In wheat, flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns contribute to grain filling through photosynthesis and/or re-mobilization. Environmental and genetic effects on the relative contribution of each organ were examined by analyzing the consequences of sink-source manipulations (shading and excision) and by comparing carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) values in dry matter (at maturity) and sap (two weeks after anthesis) in six durum wheat genotypes grown in two contrasting seasons. The contribution of flag leaf, stem, chaff and awns to grain filling, estimated by sink-source manipulations, highly varied with the season. The contribution of ear photosynthesis and re-mobilization from the stem increased with post-anthesis water stress. They showed a large genetic variation that was, however, not clearly associated to morphological characteristics of ear and stem. Isotopic imprints of chaff on grain Δ were identified as a possible surrogate of the destructive and cumbersome sink-source manipulations to evaluate the contribution of carbon assimilated in ears or re-mobilized from stem. This might facilitate screening of genetic resources and allow the combining of favourable drought tolerance mechanisms in wheat. PMID:29295600

  11. Stability of Durum Wheat Genotypes in Some Agronomic Traits Under Bursa Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Aydoğan Çiftçi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the study it is aimed to determine the stabilities of some agronomic traits of 10 different durum wheats over the years in conditions of Bursa. Research was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications between the years of 2008-2013. Averages of genotypes of agronomic characteristics, Eberhart and Russell’s regression coefficient and deviation from regression, Francis and Kannenberg’s coefficient of variation and environmental variance used as stability parameters. When the results of the study evaluated at the stability analysis, Amb × Çak-30 lines were determined to be stable in most of the agronomic traits. As for grain yield, which is of great importance for the producer, breeding lines of Amb × Çak -26 and Amb × Çak-30 were determined in good harmony at Bursa under different climatic conditions over five years.

  12. DNA microsatellite region for a reliable quantification of soft wheat adulteration in durum wheat-based foodstuffs by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Montemurro, Cinzia; Morgese, Anita; Sabetta, Wilma; Blanco, Antonio; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2009-11-11

    Italian industrial pasta and durum wheat typical breads must be prepared using exclusively durum wheat semolina. Previously, a microsatellite sequence specific of the wheat D-genome had been chosen for traceability of soft wheat in semolina and bread samples, using qualitative and quantitative Sybr green-based real-time experiments. In this work, we describe an improved method based on the same soft wheat genomic region by means of a quantitative real-time PCR using a dual-labeled probe. Standard curves based on dilutions of 100% soft wheat flour, pasta, or bread were constructed. Durum wheat semolina, pasta, and bread samples were prepared with increasing amounts of soft wheat to verify the accuracy of the method. Results show that reliable quantifications were obtained especially for the samples containing a lower amount of soft wheat DNA, fulfilling the need to verify labeling of pasta and typical durum wheat breads.

  13. Economical and Morpho-Biological Features of Whiner Wheat New Generation Varieties (Triticum durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. І. Улич

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes summary of the researches, characteristics of morphological and agro-biological characteristics and features, a note is made of a significant progress in the selection of productivity and adaptability of registered Durum Winter Wheat Varieties of new crops rotation. Significant developments of  plants architectonic are marked, especially in height, characteristics of economical value, and in terms of considerable achievements in breeding of this kind of wheat. A stress in made on the need to enhance Durum Winter Wheat breeding to develop more frostresistant and drought-overheat resistant varieties.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING TERM ON THE DURUM WHEAT INDUCTION ABILITY IN SOUTH UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambriborsh I. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sowing term of spring durum wheat influence on the induction ability in the South Ukraine was evaluated. Wheat was sowed in two terms: April, 11 and April, 18 of 2013. Two sowing term were different in the growing conditions. The second term is characterized with higher temperature and lower soil humidity during wheat germination and growing. Wheat spikes were cut in appropriate microspore development stage according to standard protocol. Anthers were cultivated on different cultural media. We used standard protocols as well as our own improved protocols of media preparation. The level of sowing term and plant culture media on the induction ability of different wheat genotypes was estimated. Stress growing conditions increased the induction ability of durum wheat. The new formation percentage was higher for the second sowing term wheat on different media. However it was shown that the level of sowing term influence was lower on appropriate cultural media.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Leaf Rust Response in a Durum Wheat Worldwide Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Breiland, Matthew; Kathryn Turner, M; Loladze, Alexander; Chao, Shiaoman; Xu, Steven S; Ammar, Karim; Anderson, James A; Kolmer, James A; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust (caused by Erikss. []) is increasingly impacting durum wheat ( L. var. ) production with the recent appearance of races with virulence to widely grown cultivars in many durum producing areas worldwide. A highly virulent race on durum wheat was recently detected in Kansas. This race may spread to the northern Great Plains, where most of the US durum wheat is produced. The objective of this study was to identify sources of resistance to several races from the United States and Mexico at seedling stage in the greenhouse and at adult stage in field experiments. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with leaf rust response in a worldwide durum wheat collection of 496 accessions. Thirteen accessions were resistant across all experiments. Association mapping revealed 88 significant SNPs associated with leaf rust response. Of these, 33 SNPs were located on chromosomes 2A and 2B, and 55 SNPs were distributed across all other chromosomes except for 1B and 7B. Twenty markers were associated with leaf rust response at seedling stage, while 68 markers were associated with leaf rust response at adult plant stage. The current study identified a total of 14 previously uncharacterized loci associated with leaf rust response in durum wheat. The discovery of these loci through association mapping (AM) is a significant step in identifying useful sources of resistance that can be used to broaden the relatively narrow leaf rust resistance spectrum in durum wheat germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  16. Causal agents of Fusarium head blight of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in central Italy and their in vitro biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, G; Colasante, V; Tini, F; Senatore, M T; Prodi, A; Sulyok, M; Covarelli, L

    2018-04-01

    Durum wheat samples harvested in central Italy (Umbria) were analyzed to: evaluate the occurrence of the fungal community in the grains, molecularly identify the Fusarium spp. which are part of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex and characterize the in vitro secondary metabolite profiles of a subset of Fusarium strains. The Fusarium genus was one of the main components of the durum wheat fungal community. The FHB complex was composed of eight species: Fusarium avenaceum (61%), F. graminearum (22%), F. poae (9%), F. culmorum (4%), F. proliferatum (2%), F. sporotrichioides (1%), F. sambucinum (0.5%) and F. langsethiae (0.5%). F. graminearum population was mainly composed of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype, while, F. culmorum population was composed of the 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotype. In vitro characterization of secondary metabolite biosynthesis was conducted for a wide spectrum of substances, showing the mycotoxigenic potential of the species complex. F. avenaceum strains were characterized by high enniantin and moniliformin production. F. graminearum strains were in prevalence deoxynivalenol producers. F. poae strains were characterized by a high biosynthesis of beauvericin like the F. sporotrichioides strain which was also found to be a high T-2/HT-2 toxins producer. Production of aurofusarin, butenolide, gibepyrone D, fusarin C, apicidin was also reported for the analyzed strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A return to the genetic heritage of durum wheat to cope with drought heightened by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Amor; Mallek-Maalej, Elhem; Ben Mohamed, Hatem; Rhim, Thouraya; Radhouane, Leila

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a comparative analysis of the physiological, biochemical and agronomical parameters of recent and heritage durum wheat cultivars (Triticum durum Desf.) under water-deficit conditions. Five cultivars were grown under irrigated (control) and rainfall (stressed) conditions. Different agro-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied: electrolyte leakage, relative water content, chlorophyll fluorescence, proline, soluble sugars, specific peroxidase activity, yield and drought stress indices. It was revealed that a water deficit increased proline content, electrolyte leakage, soluble sugars and specific peroxidase activity and decreased relative water content, fluorescence and grain yield. According to these parameters and drought stress indices, our investigation indicated that old cultivars are the best-adapted to local conditions and showed characteristics of drought tolerance, while recent cultivars showed more drought susceptibility. Therefore, local cultivars of each country should be kept by farmers and plant breeders to preserve their genetic heritage.

  18. Surface albedo following biochar application in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genesio, L; Miglietta, F; Lugato, E; Baronti, S; Pieri, M; Vaccari, F P

    2012-01-01

    The agronomic use of charcoal from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) represents an interesting option for increasing soil fertility and sequestering atmospheric CO 2 . However, before moving toward large-scale biochar applications, additional research must evaluate all possible land–atmosphere feedbacks. Despite the increasing number of studies investigating the effect of biochar on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, only a few have been done on surface albedo variations on agricultural lands. The present work had the aim of characterizing the annual albedo cycle for a durum wheat crop in Central Italy, by means of a spectroradiometer measurement campaign. Plots treated with biochar, at a rate of 30–60 t ha −1 , showed a surface albedo decrease of up to 80% (after the application) with respect to the control in bare soil conditions, while this difference tended to decrease during the crop growing season, because of the prevailing effect of canopy development on the radiometer response. After the post-harvesting tillage, the soil treated with biochar again showed a lower surface albedo value (<20–26% than the control), while the measurements taken in the second year after application suggested a clear decrease of biochar influence on soil color. The modeling of the surface energy balance highlighted changes in the partitioning of heat fluxes and in particular a substantial increase of ground heat fluxes on an annual basis. (letter)

  19. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  20. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  1. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  2. The 13C isotope discrimination technique for identifying durum wheat cultivars efficient in uptake and use of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechergui, M.; Snane, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The water balance model using a neutron moisture probe and the 13 C isotope discrimination method were used in this field to rank durum wheat genotypes for water use efficiency. The results presented focus on the first two years of a five-year study. Eighteen durum wheat cultivars were used in the first experiment. The 13 C/ 12 C ratio was measured to examine the correlation between this ratio and the water use efficiency. Total water consumption was calculated and the grain and straw yields and other parameters were also recorded. The results show differences between cultivars with respect to water use efficiency, 13 C discrimination and grain yield. From this experiment, four cultivars were selected for a detailed study in the second year. The data from this study show that there is a positive correlation between grain water use efficiency and Δ. Thus, it may be possible to use Δ as a tool for screening out water use efficient cultivars in semi-arid regions. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. The {sup 13}C isotope discrimination technique for identifying durum wheat cultivars efficient in uptake and use of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechergui, M; Snane, M H [Departement de Genie Rural et des Eaux et Forets, Tunis (Tunisia). Inst. National Agronomique de Tunisie

    1996-07-01

    The water balance model using a neutron moisture probe and the {sup 13}C isotope discrimination method were used in this field to rank durum wheat genotypes for water use efficiency. The results presented focus on the first two years of a five-year study. Eighteen durum wheat cultivars were used in the first experiment. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio was measured to examine the correlation between this ratio and the water use efficiency. Total water consumption was calculated and the grain and straw yields and other parameters were also recorded. The results show differences between cultivars with respect to water use efficiency, {sup 13}C discrimination and grain yield. From this experiment, four cultivars were selected for a detailed study in the second year. The data from this study show that there is a positive correlation between grain water use efficiency and {Delta}. Thus, it may be possible to use {Delta} as a tool for screening out water use efficient cultivars in semi-arid regions. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  4. Prolamin proteins alteration in durum wheat by species of the genus Eurygaster and Aelia (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salis, L.; Goula, M.; Valero, J.; Gordun, E.

    2010-07-01

    Wheat bugs are widely distributed in various areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Species belonging to the genus Eurygaster and Aelia pierce wheat kernels affecting protein quality. The effects of these insects feeding activity have been studied mainly in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study provides information on the degradation of prolamin proteins (glutenins and gliadins) of bug-damaged durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) in six cultivars grown in Sardinia (Italy). Samples of whole flour mixture of 70% sound wheat and 30% damaged wheat were hydrated and incubated at two temperatures (45 and 4 degree centigrade), for different periods of time (0, 1 and 3 h). Glutenin and gliadin content was analysed using free zone capillary electrophoresis. The presence of bug-damaged kernels had influence on the quality of durum wheat proteins. Glutenins were rapidly degraded independently to incubation temperature. Gliadin degradation, however, took place with dependence on temperature and incubation time. Therefore glutenin degradation was possibly not due solely to the activity of proteolytic enzymes but also to some other as yet unknown factor linked to wheat bugs feeding activity. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. Prolamin proteins alteration in durum wheat by species of the genus Eurygaster and Aelia (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salis, L.; Goula, M.; Valero, J.; Gordun, E.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat bugs are widely distributed in various areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Species belonging to the genus Eurygaster and Aelia pierce wheat kernels affecting protein quality. The effects of these insects feeding activity have been studied mainly in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study provides information on the degradation of prolamin proteins (glutenins and gliadins) of bug-damaged durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) in six cultivars grown in Sardinia (Italy). Samples of whole flour mixture of 70% sound wheat and 30% damaged wheat were hydrated and incubated at two temperatures (45 and 4 degree centigrade), for different periods of time (0, 1 and 3 h). Glutenin and gliadin content was analysed using free zone capillary electrophoresis. The presence of bug-damaged kernels had influence on the quality of durum wheat proteins. Glutenins were rapidly degraded independently to incubation temperature. Gliadin degradation, however, took place with dependence on temperature and incubation time. Therefore glutenin degradation was possibly not due solely to the activity of proteolytic enzymes but also to some other as yet unknown factor linked to wheat bugs feeding activity. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING TERM ON THE DURUM WHEAT INDUCTION ABILITY IN SOUTH UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Zambriborsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sowing term of spring durum wheat influence on the induction ability in the South Ukraine was evaluated. Wheat was sowed in two terms: April, 11 and April, 18 of 2013. Two sowing term were different in the growing conditions. The second term is characterized with higher temperature and lower soil humidity during wheat germination and growing. Wheat spikes were cut in appropriate microspore development stage according to standard protocol. Anthers were cultivated on different cultural media. We used standard protocols as well as our own improved protocols of media preparation. The level of sowing term and plant culture media on the induction ability of different wheat genotypes was estimated. Stress growing conditions increased the induction ability of durum wheat. The new formation percentage was higher for the second sowing term wheat on different media. However it was shown that the level of sowing term influence was lower on appropriate cultural media. Key words: in vitro anther culture, durum wheat, sowing term, new formation induction.

  7. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  9. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of the durum wheat Graziella Ra, Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn. (Poales, Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stella Colomba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the durum wheat Graziella Ra was compared to four Italian durum wheat varieties (Cappelli,Grazia, Flaminio and Svevo and to Kamut in order to preliminary characterize its genome and to investigategenetic diversity among and within the accessions by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs,Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs and α-gliadin gene sequence analysis. The main aim of the study was anattempt to determine the relationship between the historic accession Graziella Ra and Kamut which isconsidered an ancient relative of the durum subspecies. In addition, nutritional factors of Graziella Ra werereported. Obtained results showed that (i both AFLP and SSR molecular markers detected highly congruentpatterns of genetic diversity among the accessions showing nearly similar efficiency; (ii for AFLPs,percentage of polymorphic loci within accession ranged from 6.57% to 19.71% (mean 12.77% and, for SSRs,from 0% to 57.14% (mean 28.57%; (iii principal component analysis (PCA of genetic distance amongaccessions showed the first two axes accounting for 58.03% (for AFLPs and 61.60% (for SSRs of the totalvariability; (iv for AFLPs, molecular variance was partitioned into 80% (variance among accessions and 20%(within accession and, for SSRs, into 73% (variance among accessions and 27% (within accession; (vcluster analysis of AFLP and SSR datasets displayed Graziella Ra and Kamut into the same cluster; and (vimolecular comparison of α-gliadin gene sequences showed Graziella Ra and Kamut in separate clusters. Allthese findings indicate that Graziella Ra, although being very similar to Kamut, at least in the little part of thegenome herein investigated by molecular markers, may be considered a distinct accession showing appreciablelevels of genetic diversity and medium-high nutritional qualities.

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Sodium Chloride on Germination Characteristics of 20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat20 Cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bijanzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salt stress is a major stress influencing wheat seedling establishment. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of 20 cultivars of wheat to two levels of salinity (8 and 16 dS/m NaCl, at the College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran in 2008. Maximum root length was obtained in Dabira (5.73 mm at 16dS/m salinity level. In control, durum wheat cultivars including D81-17, Yavaros, D82-16, D79-15 and Taro3 had the maximum root length compared to bread wheat, however, with increasing salinity level to 16dS/m, minimum root length was observed in D82-16 (0.3 mm. In all cultivars, with increasing salinity level, shoot length was decreased and minimum shoot length was observed in D82-16 and D79-15. Under control conditions, Taro 3 cultivar had maximum seedling dry weight (108.6 mm, however, at 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels, seedling dry weight of this cultivar was decreased to 92.33 and 78.43 mg, respectively. All seeds (100% were germinated in D82-16, Taro3, Bolani Cross, and Chamran cultivars under 16 dS/m but in Marvdasht cultivar, seed germination percentage under 8 and 16 dS/m reached to 65 and 50%, respectively. Shiraz (10.8 seeds/day, Adl Cross(10 seeds/day, and Bolani Cross (9.1 seeds/day had maximum germination rate under 16 dS/m salinity level. Differences among wheat cultivars also found in germination stress index (germination rate under stress divided by germination rate under control and Shiraz, Adl Cross and Bolani Cross had maximum germination stress index, while Yavaros and D82-16 had minimum germination stress index. Furthermore, with increasing salinity level, different responses were observed among wheat cultivars in root and shoot length, germination rate and germination stress index which demonstrated the genetic diversity among wheat cultivars. It appeared that durum wheat cultivars, compared to bread wheat cultivars, had lower germination stress index and germination rate. Among what

  12. Computer vision-based method for classification of wheat grains using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Kadir; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Toktas, Abdurrahim

    2017-06-01

    A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data subsets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained with 180 grains and its accuracy tested with 20 grains from a total of 200 wheat grains. Seven input parameters that are most effective on the classifying results are determined using the correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm to simplify the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8 × 10 -6 by the simplified ANN model. This shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Antagonist effects of Bacillus spp. strains against Fusarium graminearum for protection of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Ali, Hacina; Sellami, Sameh; Nasfi, Zina; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-11-01

    Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) cultivar Om Rabiia against F. graminearum fungus. Application of single bacterial culture medium, particularly that of B. amyloliquefaciens, showed better protection than combinations of various culture media. The tertiary combination of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, and P. polymyxa bacterial cells led to the highest protection rate which could be due to strains synergistic or complementary effects. Hence, combination of compatible biocontrol agents could be a strategic approach to control plant diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular and morpho-anatomical characterization of some Egyptian durum wheat cultivars/lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.; Hamiedeldin, N.; Khafaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grains of eight durum wheat cultivars were tested for identification of genetic relationship among molecular, anatomical and morphological levels. On the molecular level, two techniques have been used; Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR). Amplification of RAPD primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to thirteen fragments. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0% to 100%. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 69%. Amplification of ISSR primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to twelve fragments. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 68%. The grain's coat morphology was reticulated in all taxa. There were variations with regard to the alignment and the shape of network and architecture of interspaces enclosed by raised line. Reticulate surface patterns appeared some variations ranged from weakly reticulate such as G 413 to strongly reticulate such as G 203. Stem cuticles of all cultivars were thick except cultivar; Benisweif 1. For leaf anatomy, all cultivars had epidermis composed of one layer of thick wall cells except cultivars; G 203 and Benisweif 1. (author)

  15. Characterization of the RAPD for 6 Durum wheat lines (Triticum durum desf.) selected from M4-irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kassem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Grains of two durum wheat cultivars Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with different doses of gamma ray 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grins were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions during 2005-2009 Results of field experiments showed that there were new six putative lines S1, S2, S3, S4, B1 and B2. Each putative line had superiority than its parent in grain yield / plant. The putative lines S1 and S2 had superiority over their parent Sohag 3 under normal conditions in grain yield per plant this increase equal 52 and 60% respectively. The putative lines S3 and S4 had superiority in grain yield per plan as compared to Sohag 3 under drought conditions this increase equal 75 to 58% respectively. The putative lines B1 and B2 had superiority in grain yield per plant than their parent Beni Suef 3 under normal condition this increase equal 46 and 12% respectively. Results for RAPD markers showed that each putative line was characterized by positive and negative unique marker. The putative line S1: characterized by four negative marker amplified by OPM-05, OPN-04, OPA-18 and OPB-12 primers. The putative line S2: characterized by one negative unique marker amplified by OPQ-14 marker. The putative line S3: characterized by two positive markers amplified by OPB-07 and OPG-12 markers and one negative unique marker amplified by OPA-10 marker. The putative line S4: characterized by four negative markers amplified by OPM-05, OPN-13, OPQ-12 and OPQ-14 markers and one positive unique marker amplified by OPC-05 marker. The putative line B1: characterized by four positive markers amplified by OPA-10, OPG-12, OPB-07 and OPA-18 markers and three negative markers amplified with OPM-05, OPC-05 and OPB-12 markers. The putative line B2: characterized by three positive unique marker amplified by OPB-07, OPN-04, OPN-10 markers and four negative markers amplified with OPA-10

  16. Evaluation of growth characters and yield components for six durum wheat lines (triticum durum deaf) selected from M4 and M5 - irradiated population under drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesiem, M. R. A.; Kassem, M. K. M.; Basyouny, M. A. E.

    2012-12-01

    Grain of two durum wheat cultivars, Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were irradiated with gamma ray doses 0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy to obtain new durum wheat lines, characterized by high yielding and drought tolerance. Irradiated grains were cultivated in the field under normal and drought conditions 2005 - 2010 seasons. 20 grain (M 1 ) from each treatment was planed as in the first season. In the second season (M 2 ), grains of 61 plants were selected as thy had the following higher criteria, i.e yield, grain yield / plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50% or more than control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under normal and drought condition. At the end of this season, six selected putative line had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines had an excellent grain yield per plant under normal condition but S3 and S4 lines had superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to parents Sohag3. B1 and B2 lines had the superiority for grain per plant under normal condition comparing with the parent Beni Suef3. In the fourth season (M4),growth, chemical compositions and yield as well as its components of the six putative lines as well as the parents Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant under normal and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number / plant for S1, S2, B1, B2 as compared with their corresponding parent under normal condition. Also, S3 and S4 line shad the same results comparing with the parent Sohag3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed an accumulation of organic protective asmolytes such as sugar, proline and free amino acid. As well as N, P, K, and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to the parent Sohag 3 . The putative line S1, A2 and B1 showed significant increase

  17. Nitrogen fertilization and root growth dynamics of durum wheat for a sustainable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato De Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In an area of the Apulian Tavoliere (southern Italy, the effects of three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 on root development, growth analysis and yield parameters of durum wheat were evaluated. The research was conducted over a four-year period (1994-97. The non-destructive mini-rhizotron method was used to study the root system at stem extension and at the beginning of heading and ripening stages. At the end of tillering and at boot and flowering stages, samples of wheat biomass were taken and subjected to growth analysis. Yield data and the main biometric parameters were collected at harvest time. The doses of nitrogen (N fertilizer 50 and 100 kg N ha–1 had a greater effect on root development in the 20-30 cm soil layer and on epigeal biomass than the control test (N0 without nitrogen fertilization. In the test (N0 the growth of root and epigeal biomass was slower during the first vegetative phases, however, afterwards both of them recovered and the root system was mainly developed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A better development of root system in deeper soil layers, without nitrogen supply, has allowed the plant to overcome more easily the water-deficit and thermal stresses during the ripening stage. The results of this research have shown that the production of grain with 50 kg ha–1 of N is similar to those of 100 kg ha–1 of N doses and higher than the test without nitrogen fertilization. In this kind of environment can be recommended a nitrogen dose of 50 kg ha–1 for obtaining an increase in grain production with low costs and reduced agricultural sources of pollution.

  18. Optimising nitrogen in order to improve the efficiency, eco-physiology, yield and quality on one cultivar of durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tedone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment was carried out in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of different combinations of nitrogen (N fertilizer rates (0, 55, 90, 135 kg ha–1, time of application (sowing, tillering, stem elongation and number of nitrogen applications on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., var. durum. A total of eight different combinations - in terms of quantity and time of application - were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil plant analysis development was analysed along with leaf area index, grain and straw yield, plant height, plant lodging, thousand-kernel weight, non-vitreous kernels, shrunken and discarded kernels, hectolitre weight, grain protein content, and sodium dodecylsulfate sedimentation. Nitrogen contents of soil, grain and straw were measured in order to assess nitrogen efficiency. The results showed the positive effect of increased nitrogen dosages of 90 and 135 kg ha–1. The optimization of nitrogen administration increased by splitting the nitrogen into three application times, as shown by the eco-physiological, productive and qualitative parameters, and the nitrogen efficiency parameters measured (N application efficiency and N recovery fraction.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplican sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Esselink, D.G.; Goryunova, S.V.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses

  20. Genomic restructuring in Hordeum chilense durum wheat hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANDREIA DELGADO

    4John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. 5Departament of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto ... [Delgado A., Carvalho A., Martín A. C., Martín A. and Lima-Brito J. 2017 Genomic restructuring in F1 Hordeum chilense × durum ...... Academic Press, Burlington,.

  1. Durum wheat diversity for heat stress tolerance during inflorescence emergence is correlated to TdHSP101C expression in early developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bento

    Full Text Available The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions. In this work we used CMS assay and explored TdHSP101C genes as an additional tool for durum wheat screening. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of TdHSP101C genes were performed in varieties with contrasting CMS results and further correlated with heat stress tolerance during fertilization and seed development. Although the durum wheat varieties studied presented a very high homology on TdHSP101C genes (>99% the transcriptomic assessment allowed the discrimination between varieties with good CMS results and its correlation with differential impacts of heat treatment during inflorescence emergence and seed development on grain yield. The evidences here reported indicate that TdHSP101C transcription levels induced by heat stress in fully expanded leaves may be a promising complementary screening tool to discriminate between durum wheat varieties identified as thermotolerant through CMS.

  2. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Background Wheat is the staple food for most of the world’s population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Methods/Principle findings Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two du...

  3. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  4. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masci Stefania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium. Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable.

  5. Quality Characteristics of Wholemeal Flour and Bread from Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L subsp. durum Desf.) after Field Treatment with Plant Water Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Alessandra; Comparato, Andrea; Labruzzo, Andrea; Muccilli, Serena; Giannone, Virgilio; Spina, Alfio

    2016-09-01

    The use of selected plant water extracts to control pests and weeds is gaining growing attention in organic and sustainable agriculture, but the effects that such extracts may exert on the quality aspects of durum wheat are still unexplored. In 2014, 5 plant water extracts (Artemisia arborescens, Euphorbia characias, Rhus coriaria, Thymus vulgaris, Lantana camara) were prepared and distributed on durum wheat cv Valbelice to evaluate their potential herbicidal effects. After crop harvesting, the major physicochemical and technological parameters of wholemeal flours obtained from each treatment were measured and compared with those from chemical weeding and untreated controls. A baking test was also performed to evaluate the breadmaking quality. In wholemeal flours obtained after the treatment with plant extracts protein and dry gluten content were higher than in control and chemical weeding. Wholemeal flours obtained after chemical weeding reached the highest Mixograph parameters, and that from durum wheat treated with R. coriaria extract demonstrated a very high α-amylase activity. We concluded that the treatments with plant water extracts may influence many quality traits of durum wheat. This occurrence must be taken into account in overall decisions concerning the use of plant extracts in pest and weed management practice. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Improvement of some quantitative characters by mutation breeding in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Başer, İ.; Bİlgİn, O.; Korkut, K.Z.; Balkan, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this research conducted in the Department of Field Crops, Agricultural Faculty, Namık Kemal University, the effect of six different gamma ray doses on plant growth in M 1 and M 2 generations derived from two durum wheat cultivars was investigated. When mutants and control genotypes in M 2 generation were investigated for seven characters, a considerable number of mutants having the desired characteristics were obtained. The application of 200 gray dose resulted in significantly short genotypes among selected mutant genotypes. After 300 gray dose applications, suitable genotypes were obtained in terms of plant height, seed yield per main spike, the number of seeds per spike, harvesting index and spike length. In addition, mutagen application increased number of tillers per plant. For obtained protein band design using the SDS-PAGE method in the Standard and mutant durum wheat genotypes were observed different in 300, 400 and 500 gray mutagen doses. (author) [tr

  7. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Study the chemical composition and agronomic traits for some durum wheat lines (Triticum durum) selected from M4-irradiated populations under drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.K.; Nesiem, M.R.A.; Kasem, M.K.M.; Basyouny, M.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out during four successive seasons 2005-2009 to access the effectiveness of gamma rays on inducing new drought tolerance lines from two durum wheat cultivars, i.e. Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3. Irradiated grains (0, 150, 250 and 350 Gy) of both cultivars were sown and at harvest, 20 grains (M1) from each treatment were planted as in the first season. In the second season, grains of 61 plants were selected as they had the following higher criteria, i.e. yield, grain yield/plant, plant height, tillering and 100 grains weight. The selected variants should exceed by 50 % or more the control. Grains of the 61 selected plants were individually sown under drought or non-stress conditions, at the end of this season, six selected putative lines had superiority over their parents. The S1 and S2 lines have an excellent grain yield per plant under non stress condition as compared to Sohag3. The S3 and S4 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under drought condition as compared to Sohag 3. The B1 and B2 lines have the superiority for grain yield per plant under non stress condition comparing with Beni Suef 3. In the fourth season, growth, chemical composition and yield of the six putative lines as well as Sohag 3 and Beni Suef 3 were determined under non stress and drought conditions. The results showed a significant increase in the number of leaves on the main stem and tillering number/plant for S1, S2, B1 and B2 as compared each with their corresponding parent under non stress condition. Also, S3 and S4 lines had the same results comparing with Sohag 3 under drought condition. The results of S3 and S4 showed and accumulation of organic protective osmolytes such as sugar proline and free amino acids. As well as N, P, K and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots as compared to Sohag 3 .The putative lines S1, S2 and B1 showed a significant increase for grain yield per plant comparing with their controls under non stress

  9. Gel-free proteomics reveal potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercha, Azzedine; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Gherroucha, Hocine; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Lagana, Aldo

    2013-10-08

    Seed priming has been successfully demonstrated to be an efficient method to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. As a first step toward better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the priming-induced salt stress tolerance in durum wheat, and to overcome the limitations of the gel-based approach, a comparative gel-free proteomic analysis was conducted with durum wheat seed samples of varying vigor as generated by hydro- and ascorbate-priming treatments. Results indicate that hydro-priming was accompanied by significant changes of 72 proteins, most of which are involved in proteolysis, protein synthesis, metabolism and disease/defense response. Ascorbate-priming was, however, accompanied by significant changes of 83 proteins, which are mainly involved in protein metabolism, antioxidant protection, repair processes and, interestingly, in methionine-related metabolism. The present study provides new information for understanding how 'priming-memory' invokes seed stress tolerance. The current work describes the first study in which gel-free shotgun proteomics were used to investigate the metabolic seed protein fraction in durum wheat. A combined approach of protein fractionation, hydrogel nanoparticle enrichment technique, and gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis allowed us to identify over 380 proteins exhibiting greater molecular weight diversity (ranging from 7 to 258kDa). Accordingly, we propose that this approach could be useful to acquire a wider perspective and a better understanding of the seed proteome. In the present work, we employed this method to investigate the potential biomarkers of priming-induced salt tolerance in durum wheat. In this way, we identified several previously unrecognized proteins which were never been reported before, particularly for the ascorbate-priming treatment. These findings could provide new avenues for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. © 2013.

  10. Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Plant Growth, Nutrient Absorption and Yield of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos KATSENIOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have adopted the use of magnetic field as a new pre-sowing, environmental friendly technique. Enhancements on plant characteristics with economic impact on producer’s income could be the future of a modern, organic and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was established at Soil Science Institute of Athens, Lycovrissi, Greece, in the winter of 2014. Two durum wheat cultivars were used. It was a pot experiment with 6 treatments (2 cultivars with 3 magnetic field time exposure. The seeds were treated using a PAPIMI electromagnetic field generator for 0, 30 and 45 minutes one day before planting. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six treatments and 30 replications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive effect of magnetic field pre-sowing treatment in a wide range of plant measurements, including yield. The influence of pulsed electromagnetic field on two varieties of durum wheat seeds showed some statistically significant differences at the 0.05 level in growth measurements, physiological measurements and root growth measurements. Plant tissue analysis showed that magnetic field treatments had higher values than control in total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper (only MF-45, zinc (only MF-30 and boron content, although values showed statistically significant differences only in total nitrogen. The results indicate that this innovative technique can increase the yield of durum wheat, through enhanced absorption of nutrients. Pre-sowing treatment of the seeds leads to vigorous plant growth that are more productive.

  11. Characterization of Volatile Compounds of Bulgur (Antep Type Produced from Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ibrahim Yousif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulgur is enjoyed and rediscovered by many people as a stable food because of its color, flavor, aroma, texture, and nutritional and economical values. There is more than one type of bulgur overall the world according to production techniques and raw materials. The volatile compounds of bulgur have not been explored yet. In this study, Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GS-MS methods were used to determine the volatile flavor compounds of bulgur (Antep type, produced from Durum wheat. Approaching studies were used and the results were optimized to determine the ideal conditions for the extraction and distinguish the compounds responsible for the flavor of bulgur. Approximately, 47 and 37 important volatile compounds were determined for Durum wheat and bulgur, respectively. The study showed that there was a great diversity of volatiles in bulgur produced using Durum wheat and Antep type production method. These can lead to a better understanding of the combination of compounds that give a unique flavor with more researches.

  12. Inheritance and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Leaf Rust and Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Kolmer, James A; Rouse, Matthew N; Chao, Shiaoman; Bulbula, Worku Denbel; Elias, Elias M; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage. The Lr and Sr genes were mapped in five populations using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bulked segregant analysis. Five leaf-rust-resistant genotypes carried single dominant Lr genes whereas, in the remaining accessions, there was deviation from the expected segregation ratio of a single dominant Lr gene. Seven genotypes carried Lr genes different from those previously characterized in durum. The single dominant Lr genes in PI 209274, PI 244061, PI387263, and PI 313096 were mapped to chromosome arms 6BS, 2BS, 6BL, and 6BS, respectively. The Sr gene in PI 534304 mapped to 6AL and is most likely Sr13, while the Sr gene in PI 192051 could be uncharacterized in durum.

  13. Durum and bread wheat differ in their ability to retain potassium in leaf mesophyll: implications for salinity stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms involved in the differential salinity tolerance between bread wheat and durum wheat is essential for breeding salt-tolerant varieties to cope with the global salinity issue threatening future food supply. In the past, higher salinity tolerance in bread wheat compared with durum wheat has been attributed to its better ability to exclude Na(+) from uptake. Here we show that another mechanism, namely more superior K(+) retention ability in the leaf mesophyll, also contributes to this difference. A strong positive correlation (R(2) > 0.41, P varieties. However, while the above correlation was strong in bread wheat, it was statistically insignificant in durum wheat. Consistent with these findings, a significantly higher relative leaf K(+) content was found in bread wheat than in durum wheat. In contrast to root tissues, the role of voltage-gated K(+) channels in K(+) retention in the wheat mesophyll was relatively small, and non-selective cation channels played a major role in controlling intracellular K(+) homeostasis. Moreover, a significant negative correlation between NaCl-induced mesophyll H(+) flux and mesophyll K(+) retention was found, and interpreted as a compensatory mechanism employed by sensitive varieties to regain K(+) leaked into the apoplast. It is concluded that bread wheat and durum wheat show different strategies of coping with salinity, and that targeting mechanisms conferring K(+) retention in the leaf mesophyll may be a promising way to improve the overall salinity tolerance in these species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves......, the first set was used as the control and watered using ordinary bottled water sold commercially. The other five sets with T. durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet seedlings were additionally watered with various concentrations of sodium cyanide, the test-quantity used being 10-50 mg/L. Growth...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  15. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  16. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Marek Fikrle; Jan Kucera; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha -1 ) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordao, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. (author)

  17. Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat that Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf. Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.

  18. molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R. Mzid

    1 sept. 2017 ... "Gli-A1" encoding a γ-gliadin protein associated with gluten strength and ... Keywords: in silico; Storage Proteins; Gliadin; Triticum ; wheat; ... Les différences qui définissent la propriété de la pâte et sa qualité de cuisson.

  19. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for high-throughput and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Irma; Maccaferri, Marco; Bassi, Filippo; Mantovani, Paola; Sanguineti, Maria C; Salvi, Silvio; Simková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Massi, Andrea; Ammar, Karim; Kolmer, James; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a-resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative cv. Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf-rust resistance sources deployed in durum wheat breeding. Lr14a has been mapped close to the simple sequence repeat markers gwm146, gwm344 and wmc10 in the distal portion of the chromosome arm 7BL, a gene-dense region. The objectives of this study were: (1) to enrich the Lr14a region with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and high-resolution melting (HRM)-based markers developed from conserved ortholog set (COS) genes and from sequenced Diversity Array Technology (DArT(®)) markers; (2) to further investigate the gene content and colinearity of this region with the Brachypodium and rice genomes. Ten new COS-SNP and five HRM markers were mapped within an 8.0 cM interval spanning Lr14a. Two HRM markers pinpointed the locus in an interval of HRM designed for agarose gel electrophoresis/KASPar(®) assays and high-resolution melting analysis, respectively, as well as the double-marker combinations ubw14/ubw18, ubw14/ubw35 and wPt-4038-HRM-ubw35 will be useful for germplasm haplotyping and for molecular-assisted breeding.

  20. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P  0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Foliar Application Time of Nano-micronutrients on Quantity and Qualitative Traits in Rainfed durum Wheat Genotypes in Moghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Firoozi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var.durum because of the high protein content compared to other grain products plays a major role in providing the protein needed by humans. Different crop varieties have different performance potential even a figure from region to region does not have the same performance. Nano slow and controlled release fertilizers because of root elements in a good area, have high efficiency. In Iran, 300 to 400 tons of durum wheat annually produced which 60% is recoverable for production of pasta and other domestic needs is imported. Per capita consumption of pasta in the country is 5 kg per year (about one quarter of Europe and with regard to nutrients such as gluten and beta-carotene in pasta and very low losses, it is necessary to increase the amount of its consumption. For this purpose, the government has taken incentive policies such as higher rates order of durum wheat (about 6% compared to bread wheat and prizes export to exporters of this product, to increase its production and exports. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application time of Nano-chelate Super Plus on yield and its components and protein content in durum wheat varieties in Parsabad Moghan area was conducted. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as the form of randomly split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments include the application of Nano-chelate fertilizer Super Plus (Biozar with a concentration of two per thousand in four levels, (tilling, flowering, seed and control (no application as the main factor and cultivars of durum wheat lines operating in 18 level as were minor. Studied traits including plant height, number of tillers and fertile tillers, peduncle length, ear length, number of spikelets, number of seeds per plant, grain weight, straw weight, total seed weight per plant, total plant weight, number of days to heading, days to maturity, grain weight, protein

  2. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis mitigates the negative effects of salinity on durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraffia, Rosolino; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is generally considered to be effective in ameliorating the plant tolerance to salt stress. Unfortunately, the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in salinity stress alleviation by AM symbiosis is far from being complete. Thus, an experiment was performed by growing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants under salt-stress conditions to evaluate the influence of AM symbiosis on both the plant growth and the regulation of a number of genes related to salt stress and nutrient uptake. Durum wheat plants were grown outdoors in pots in absence or in presence of salt stress and with or without AM fungi inoculation. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of spores of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) and Funneliformis mosseae (formerly G. mosseae). Results indicate that AM symbiosis can alleviate the detrimental effects of salt stress on the growth of durum wheat plants. In fact, under salt stress conditions mycorrhizal plants produced more aboveground and root biomass, had higher N uptake and aboveground N concentration, and showed greater stability of plasma membranes compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with AM fungi had no effect on the expression of the N transporter genes AMT1.1, AMT1.2, and NAR2.2, either under no-stress or salt stress conditions, probably due to the fact that plants were grown under optimal N conditions; on the contrary, NRT1.1 was always upregulated by AM symbiosis. Moreover, the level of expression of the drought stress-related genes AQP1, AQP4, PIP1, DREB5, and DHN15.3 observed in the mycorrhizal stressed plants was markedly lower than that observed in the non-mycorrhizal stressed plants and very close to that observed in the non-stressed plants. Our hypothesis is that, in the present study, AM symbiosis did not increase the plant tolerance to salt stress but instead generated a condition in which plants were subjected to a level of salt stress lower than that of non

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis mitigates the negative effects of salinity on durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileccia, Veronica; Ruisi, Paolo; Ingraffia, Rosolino; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Martinelli, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is generally considered to be effective in ameliorating the plant tolerance to salt stress. Unfortunately, the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in salinity stress alleviation by AM symbiosis is far from being complete. Thus, an experiment was performed by growing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) plants under salt-stress conditions to evaluate the influence of AM symbiosis on both the plant growth and the regulation of a number of genes related to salt stress and nutrient uptake. Durum wheat plants were grown outdoors in pots in absence or in presence of salt stress and with or without AM fungi inoculation. The inoculum consisted of a mixture of spores of Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly Glomus intraradices) and Funneliformis mosseae (formerly G. mosseae). Results indicate that AM symbiosis can alleviate the detrimental effects of salt stress on the growth of durum wheat plants. In fact, under salt stress conditions mycorrhizal plants produced more aboveground and root biomass, had higher N uptake and aboveground N concentration, and showed greater stability of plasma membranes compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Inoculation with AM fungi had no effect on the expression of the N transporter genes AMT1.1, AMT1.2, and NAR2.2, either under no-stress or salt stress conditions, probably due to the fact that plants were grown under optimal N conditions; on the contrary, NRT1.1 was always upregulated by AM symbiosis. Moreover, the level of expression of the drought stress-related genes AQP1, AQP4, PIP1, DREB5, and DHN15.3 observed in the mycorrhizal stressed plants was markedly lower than that observed in the non-mycorrhizal stressed plants and very close to that observed in the non-stressed plants. Our hypothesis is that, in the present study, AM symbiosis did not increase the plant tolerance to salt stress but instead generated a condition in which plants were subjected to a level of salt stress lower than that of non

  5. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Septoria tritici Blotch Resistance in Ethiopian Durum Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef G. Kidane

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch (STB is a devastating fungal disease affecting durum and bread wheat cultivation worldwide. The identification, development, and employment of resistant wheat genetic material is the key to overcoming costs and limitations of fungicide treatments. The search for resistance sources in untapped genetic material may speed up the deployment of STB genetic resistance in the field. Ethiopian durum wheat landraces represent a valuable source of such diversity. In this study, 318 Ethiopian durum wheat genotypes, for the most part traditional landraces, were phenotyped for resistance to different aspects of STB infection. Phenology, yield and yield component traits were concurrently measured the collection. Here we describe the distribution of STB resistance traits in modern varieties and in landraces, and the relation existing between STB resistance and other agronomic traits. STB resistance sources were found in landraces as well as in modern varieties tested, suggesting the presence of alleles of breeding relevance. The genetic material was genotyped with more than 16 thousand genome-wide polymorphic markers to describe the linkage disequilibrium and genetic structure existing within the panel of genotypes, and a genome-wide association (GWA study was run to allow the identification of genomic loci involved in STB resistance. High diversity and low genetic structure in the panel allowed high efficiency GWA. The GWA scan detected five major putative QTL for STB resistance, only partially overlapping those already reported in the wheat literature. We report four putative loci for Septoria resistance with no match in previous literature: two highly significant ones on Chr 3A and 5A, and two suggestive ones on Chr 4B and 5B. Markers underlying these QTL explained as much as 10% of the phenotypic variance for disease resistance. We found three cases in which putative QTL for agronomic traits overlapped marker trait association

  7. Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ajay S; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2018-04-17

    This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder ( Pseudophycis bachus ). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease ( p pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  9. Genetics of Na+ exclusion and salinity tolerance in Afghani durum wheat landraces

    KAUST Repository

    Shamaya, Nawar Jalal; Shavrukov, Yuri; Langridge, Peter; Roy, Stuart John; Tester, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundSelecting for low concentration of Na+ in the shoot provides one approach for tackling salinity stress that adversely affects crop production. Novel alleles for Na+ exclusion can be identified and then introduced into elite crop cultivars.ResultsWe have identified loci associated with lower Na+ concentration in leaves of durum wheat landraces originating from Afghanistan. Seedlings of two F2 populations derived from crossings between Australian durum wheat (Jandaroi) and two Afghani landraces (AUS-14740 and AUS-14752) were grown hydroponically and evaluated for Na+ and K+ concentration in the third leaf. High heritability was found for both third leaf Na+ concentration and the K+/Na+ ratio in both populations. Further work focussed on line AUS-14740. Bulk segregant analysis using 9 K SNP markers identified two loci significantly associated with third leaf Na+ concentration. Marker regression analysis showed a strong association between all traits studied and a favourable allele originating from AUS-14740 located on the long arm of chromosome 4B.ConclusionsThe candidate gene in the relevant region of chromosome 4B is likely to be the high affinity K+ transporter B1 (HKT1;5-B1). A second locus associated with third leaf Na+ concentration was located on chromosome 3BL, with the favourable allele originating from Jandaroi; however, no candidate gene can be identified.

  10. Genetics of Na+ exclusion and salinity tolerance in Afghani durum wheat landraces

    KAUST Repository

    Shamaya, Nawar Jalal

    2017-11-21

    BackgroundSelecting for low concentration of Na+ in the shoot provides one approach for tackling salinity stress that adversely affects crop production. Novel alleles for Na+ exclusion can be identified and then introduced into elite crop cultivars.ResultsWe have identified loci associated with lower Na+ concentration in leaves of durum wheat landraces originating from Afghanistan. Seedlings of two F2 populations derived from crossings between Australian durum wheat (Jandaroi) and two Afghani landraces (AUS-14740 and AUS-14752) were grown hydroponically and evaluated for Na+ and K+ concentration in the third leaf. High heritability was found for both third leaf Na+ concentration and the K+/Na+ ratio in both populations. Further work focussed on line AUS-14740. Bulk segregant analysis using 9 K SNP markers identified two loci significantly associated with third leaf Na+ concentration. Marker regression analysis showed a strong association between all traits studied and a favourable allele originating from AUS-14740 located on the long arm of chromosome 4B.ConclusionsThe candidate gene in the relevant region of chromosome 4B is likely to be the high affinity K+ transporter B1 (HKT1;5-B1). A second locus associated with third leaf Na+ concentration was located on chromosome 3BL, with the favourable allele originating from Jandaroi; however, no candidate gene can be identified.

  11. Inheritance and bulked segregant analysis of leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes in eight durum wheat genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to Pg...

  12. Registration of DGE-2, a durum wheat disomic alien substitution line 1E(1A) involving a diploid wheatgrass chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 2x = 28; AABB genomes) alien disomic substitution 1E(1A) line DGE-2 (PI 663216) was developed by the USDA–ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Fargo, North Dakota and released in 2011. DGE-2 has 2n = 28 chromosomes, which are...

  13. Registration of DGE-3, a durum wheat disomic substitution line 1E(1B) involving a wheatgrass chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) alien disomic substitution 1E(1B) line DGE-3 (PI 665473) was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service, Northern Crop Science Lab, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Fargo, ND and released in 2012. It was ...

  14. Influence of salinity stress on the height and productivity features of durum wheat samples in different phases of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sikhmuradov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of salinity stress on the morphological features of durum wheat in different phases of vegetation is studied in the work. It is revealed that in earlier phases the samples have weak stability, but further salt-stability increases.

  15. Novos genótipos de triticum durum L.: rendimento, adaptabilidade e qualidade tecnológica New genotypes of triticum durum L.: grain yield, adaptability and technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO CARLOS FELICIO

    1999-01-01

    wheat and two bread wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, plant height, cycle from emergence to maturity, resistance to leaf spots caused by Helminthosporium sp, adaptability, stability and technological quality, in experiments, under sprinkler irrigation, carried out at different regions of State of São Paulo, Brazil. The bread wheat IAC 24 presented the highest yield but not differing from the durum genotypes ALTAR/STN (12, MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPIS"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S" (17, STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79//HUI"S" (6, ALTAR/STN (11 and WIN"S"SBA81A//STIL"S"(14. At Ribeirão Preto site the grain yield mean of the evaluated genotypes was 5,332 kg/ha, in the period. Coefficients of determination for all genotypes were similar with exception for IAC 24 and IAC 1001. The last one, a durum wheat, showed instable in relation to grain yield under not favorable environments, and stable under favorable environments. The bread wheat IAC 24 presented opposite behaviour. The infection of the causal agent of leaf spot was low, but at Tatuí site the occurrence of this disease was more generalized. The best durum wheat genotypes in relation to quality were IAC 1003 (1, SCO"S"/3/BD1814//BD708/BD1543/4/ROK"S"(13, ALTAR 84 (15 and MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"/HUI"S" (17. The other durum wheat genotypes presented medium to low flour strength producing bad quality dough. Dough development time, sedimentation test, index of mixture tolerance, energy for deformation of the dough, falling number, tenacity versus elasticity (P/L and dough stability were in order of importance the parameters to be considered combined with grain yield and adaptability for the genotype selections.

  16. Identification of durum wheat genotypes with efficiency on the uptake and Use of water using Carbon-13 discrimination and neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechergui, M.; Daaloul, A.; Snane, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-13 isotope discrimination method and water balance model Using neutron probe are the two tools used in this study to genotypes for water use efficiency. It is a three years experiment and the results presented will be for the last year. Four durum wheat Cvs were selected and planted in a randomnized block design with 6 replicates. Total consumption of water was calculated. Grain and strow yields and other parameters were recorded. The carbon isotope ratio which illustrates carbon 13 dicrimination is measured for each genotype in grain and strow. The total and the grain water use efficiency were calculated and correlated to the G C-13 isotope dicrimination to compare genotypes between them. The main results presented in this paper revealed that. Carbon-13 discrimination technique is an excellent screening technique for screening for water use in cultivars in semi-arid conditions. 2 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Identification of durum wheat genotypes with efficiency on the uptake and Use of water using Carbon-13 discrimination and neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechergui, M; Daaloul, A [Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle - 1082 Tunis Mahrajene - (Tunisia); Snane, M H [Institut National Agronomique de (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Carbon-13 isotope discrimination method and water balance model Using neutron probe are the two tools used in this study to genotypes for water use efficiency. It is a three years experiment and the results presented will be for the last year. Four durum wheat Cvs were selected and planted in a randomnized block design with 6 replicates. Total consumption of water was calculated. Grain and strow yields and other parameters were recorded. The carbon isotope ratio which illustrates carbon 13 dicrimination is measured for each genotype in grain and strow. The total and the grain water use efficiency were calculated and correlated to the G C-13 isotope dicrimination to compare genotypes between them. The main results presented in this paper revealed that. Carbon-13 discrimination technique is an excellent screening technique for screening for water use in cultivars in semi-arid conditions. 2 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  20. Comparative analysis the selenium concentration in grains of wheat and barley species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Arif, M.; Munsif, F.; Ali, K.

    2016-01-01

    Macro and micro nutrients are essential for human health and growth development. It is reported that about three million people are suffering from nutrient deficiencies all over the world. Various sources are available like: vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and cereals to overcome these deficiencies. Among cereals, wheat and barley are main source to meet the requirement of this dietary element. Two year studies were conducted to investigate the Se concentration in grains of different wheat (T. aestivum L., T. turgidum L. and T. durum L.) and barley (H. spontaneum L. and H. vulgare L.) species originated from different parts of the world. Results indicated that the durum and emmer wheat grains contain higher Se level in both studied years (70.5 and 72.9 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 74.1 and 73.2 microg kg-1 in 2013 respectively). Among H. spontaneum L. collected from six populations, Mahola population of barley showed remarkable variations in grain Se concentration ranged from 88.3-437.2 and 90.2-439.5 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The information obtained from the findings helps in identifying the lines of wild barley that have more Se uptake and accumulation capability. According to the conclusion of the study that H. Spontaneum L. had greater genetic variation for Se as compare to other species of wheat and barley. (author)

  1. Microbial inoculants for the biocontrol of Fusarium spp. in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffoni, Loredana; Gaggia, Francesca; Dalanaj, Nereida; Prodi, Antonio; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Biavati, Bruno; Di Gioia, Diana

    2015-10-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a severe disease caused by different Fusarium species, which affects a wide range of cereal crops, including wheat. It determines from 10 to 30% of yield loss in Europe. Chemical fungicides are mainly used to reduce the incidence of FHB, but low environmental impact solutions are looked forward. Applications of soil/rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents against FHB in wheat are described in literature, whereas the potential use of lactobacilli in agriculture has scarcely been explored. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effect of two bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum SLG17 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FLN13, against Fusarium spp. in vitro and to assess their efficacy in field, coupled to the study of the microbial community profile of wheat seeds. Antimicrobial assays were performed on agar plates and showed that the two antagonistic strains possessed antimicrobial activity against Fusarium spp. In the field study, a mixture of the two strains was applied to durum wheat i) weekly from heading until anthesis and ii) at flowering, compared to untreated and fungicide treated plots. The FHB index, combining both disease incidence and disease severity, was used to evaluate the extent of the disease on wheat. A mixture of the two microorganisms, when applied in field from heading until anthesis, was capable of reducing the FHB index. Microbial community profile of seeds was studied via PCR-DGGE, showing the presence of L. plantarum SLG17 in wheat seeds and thus underlining an endophytic behavior of the strain. L. plantarum SLG17 and B. amyloliquefaciens FLN13, applied as biocontrol agents starting from the heading period until anthesis of wheat plants, are promising agents for the reduction of FHB index.

  2. Low-cost Assessment for Early Vigor and Canopy Cover Estimation in Durum Wheat Using RGB Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gallego, J. A.; Kefauver, S. C.; Aparicio Gutiérrez, N.; Nieto-Taladriz, M. T.; Araus, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Early vigor and canopy cover is an important agronomical component for determining grain yield in wheat. Estimates of the canopy cover area at early stages of the crop cycle may contribute to efficiency of crop management practices and breeding programs. Canopy-image segmentation is complicated in field conditions by numerous factors, including soil, shadows and unexpected objects, such as rocks, weeds, plant remains, or even part of the photographer's boots (many times it appears in the scene); and the algorithms must be robust to accommodate these conditions. Field trials were carried out in two sites (Aranjuez and Valladolid, Spain) during the 2016/2017 crop season. A set of 24 varieties of durum wheat in two growing conditions (rainfed and support irrigation) per site were used to create the image database. This work uses zenithal RGB images taken from above the crop in natural light conditions. The images were taken with Canon IXUS 320HS camera in Aranjuez, holding the camera by hand, and with a Nikon D300 camera in Valladolid, using a monopod. The algorithm for early vigor and canopy cover area estimation uses three main steps: (i) Image decorrelation (ii) Colour space transformation and (iii) Canopy cover segmentation using an automatic threshold based on the image histogram. The first step was chosen to enhance the visual interpretation and separate the pixel colors into the scene; the colour space transformation contributes to further separate the colours. Finally an automatic threshold using a minimum method allows for correct segmentation and quantification of the canopy pixels. The percent of area covered by the canopy was calculated using a simple algorithm for counting pixels in the final binary segmented image. The comparative results demonstrate the algorithm's effectiveness through significant correlations between early vigor and canopy cover estimation compared to NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index) and grain yield.

  3. Thallium and potassium uptake kinetics and competition differ between durum wheat and canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Heidi; Koopmans, Amy; Hale, Beverley; Berkelaar, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is very toxic to mammals but little is known about its accumulation by plants, and it would be useful if prediction of Tl accumulation could be done using potassium (K) accumulation models. The objectives of this study were to compare the uptake kinetics of Tl(+) and K(+), and to determine how readily K(+) can inhibit Tl(+) uptake. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and spring canola (Brassica napus L.) were grown hydroponically and exposed to 0-75 μM Tl or 0-250 μM K for up to 150 min (kinetics experiment), or to 0.1 or 10 μM Tl with Tl to K ratios of 1:1 to 1:10,000 for up to 300 min (competition experiment). The rate of uptake of Tl(+) by canola was about three to five times faster than by wheat, while the rate of Tl(+) uptake in wheat was the same as the rate of K(+) uptake by either species. Uptake of Tl(+) was more readily suppressed by K(+) in wheat than in canola. When exposed to 0.1 uM Tl for 300 min with 100 or 1,000 uM K(+), Tl(+) uptake by wheat was reduced by 20 % and 50 %, respectively, while Tl(+) uptake by canola was not reduced. Our results suggest that predicting Tl accumulation using a K accumulation model with a correction factor may be possible for canola, but would be much more difficult for wheat, since uptake of Tl(+) is very sensitive to levels of K(.)

  4. In vitro screening of durum wheat against water-stress mediated through polyethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sandra Kacem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes with three levels of drought tolerance were screened in order to evaluate their response to water stress at callus induction and plant regeneration levels. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, and polyethylene glycol (PEG levels used, and their interactions were however, significant for all the studied characters. Increase in PEG concentration increased the time required for callus initiation and reduced the number of calli frequency of embryogenic structures and number of plants regenerated, showing the adverse effect of PEG on the somatic embryogenesis developmental., under in vitro conditions tested, and Djenah Khetifa was the most tolerant genotype, followed by Oued Zenati and Waha. This pattern was per their drought tolerance behavior under field conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA showed that 95.56% of the total variation was explained by the first two principal components. Biplot analysis allowed the stress-tolerant genotype to be distinguished from the two less tolerant genotypes. Time required for callus initiation was strongly negatively correlated with all other studied traits. These traits can be recommended as suitable selection criteria for screening drought-tolerant genotypes. The selected cells and plants will provide a tool for determining the mechanisms involved in tolerance to water stress.

  5. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  6. Studies on productivity lodge resistance of radiation induced mutants of syrian local durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfares, A M; Ghazal, H M [Dep. of Radiation Agriculture, Syrian Atomic Energy Commision, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the research was to induce mutations characterized by lodging resistant and high yielding ability in two syrian local durum wheat land races. This research was carried out at two periods during 1983-1987 and from 1991-1993. At the first period, Kernels of Hourani and Senatore Cappelle were treated with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 K rad of gamma rays at the Laboratory of the commission of Syrian Atomic Energy to induce mutations. The treated Kernels were planted in 1983/1984 season. After that, selection were practicised on plants which characterized by good performance and lodging resistant. During the successive seasons, screening were made on mutant lines to keep out only lines which show adaptability to intensive cultivation. Second period includes testing of selected lines at two govern orates of syria (Raqqa and Aleppo) during three successive seasons; 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 under intensive cultivation conditions (fertilization, irrigation, stands, etc.).

  7. Effects of Different Metals on Photosynthesis: Cadmium and Zinc Affect Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momchil Paunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the effects of exposure to high Cd2+ (50 µM and excess Zn2+ (600 µM on photosynthetic performance of hydroponically-grown durum wheat seedlings was performed. At day 8, Cd and Zn were added to the nutrient solution. After 7-days exposure, the chosen concentrations of both metals resulted in similar relative growth rate (RGR inhibitions of about 50% and comparable retardations of the CO2 assimilation rates (about 30% in the second developed leaf of wheat seedlings. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence indicated that both metals disturbed photosynthetic electron transport processes which led to a 4- to 5-fold suppression of the efficiency of energy transformation in Photosystem II. Non-specific toxic effects of Cd and Zn, which prevailed, were an inactivation of part of Photosystem II reaction centres and their transformation into excitation quenching forms as well as disturbed electron transport in the oxygen-evolving complex. The specificity of the Cd and Zn modes of action was mainly expressed in the intensity of the toxicity effects: despite the similar inhibitions of the CO2 assimilation rates, the wheat photochemistry showed much more sensitivity to Cd than to Zn exposure.

  8. Mutation breeding on dueruem wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cereals provide 50 % of protein and calorie essential for nutrition. Cereals contribution to total daily food consumption can go up to 3/4, if their role in animal feeding has also been considered. Of the 41 % of crop plants are cereals and their share in food production is as high as 98 %. Combination of high yielding cultivars and adequate management techniques is primary to increase yield in unit area. Crossing is the most common breeding method to develop new cultivars. Mutation has been important as a direct or complemental technique to crossing in plant breeding. Mutation is an effective method to expand existent gene pools for breeding purposes. It has been proved as a successful and effectual method by widely grown mutant cereal varieties. Considering these successful examples, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center started a durum wheat mutation breeding program in 2002. Main goal of the program is to develop durum wheat lines/varieties with high adaptation to drought and cold, high yield and quality, and short length. Kunduru 1149 has been used as parent cultivar. Kunduru 1149 had 11 % seed moisture content and 98 % germination rate. Seeds were irradiated with 50, 150, 250 Gy of gamma rays from a 6 0Co source and 0,002-0,004 EMS doses of individual and bulk applications for growth rooms and field experiments, respectfully. M1 plants of field experiment had been transplanted to the several field days after the treatment. M2 generation seeds were harvested from fertile spikes of M1 plants and planted to field in the next growing season in 2003. Selections based on the program goals were made throughout M3-M6 generations in 2004-2008. Preliminary field yield trials have been in progress with selected mutant lines of M6 generation based on their quality analysis.

  9. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  10. Phytochemical Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Extracts from the Whole-Meal Flour of Italian Durum Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quali-quantitative composition of hydrophilic (phenolic acids and lipophilic (isoprenoids extracts from whole-meal flour of five elite Italian durum wheat cultivars was determined. Significant differences in the content of bioactive compounds were observed among the wheat extracts, in particular concerning the content of bound phenolic acids, lutein and β-tocotrienols. The cultivars Duilio and Svevo showed the highest amount of phenolic acids and isoprenoids, respectively. Extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 human colon cells by measuring the levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1. Durum wheat extracts significantly inhibited the secretion of the pro-inflammatory IL-8 mediator at 66 µg/mL of phenolic acids and at 0.2 µg/mL of isoprenoids. Conversely, the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator TGF-β1 was not modified by neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic extracts. These results provide further insight into the potential of durum wheat on human health suggesting the significance of varieties with elevated contents of bioactive components.

  11. Elemental characterization of bread and durum wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Pacheco, A.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only due to the sheer amount of their gross-tonnage production and prevalence in human diets worldwide, but also as food vehicles of important items for human nutrition and wellness at large-proteins, dietary fibers and oligoelements, such as selenium, calcium, zinc and iron, to name just a few. Still, some micronutrients feature an uneven distribution in the upper continental crust, and thus in cultivation soils deriving therefrom. Whether soils have always been poor in an essential element, or have just become deprived of it by intensive farming, the result is the same: insufficient soil-plant transfer, feeble-to-nonexistent plant uptake, and, therefore, unsatisfactory dietary distribution of that element through the food chain. Countries that implemented corrective measures or programs of crop biofortification and consumer education have been successful in dealing with some micronutrients' deficiencies. Given their relative weight in Portuguese diets, cereals are obvious candidates for crop-supplementation strategies that may contribute to an upgrade in the health status of the whole population. A good knowledge of element-baseline data for major cereal varieties (plants) and main production areas (soils) is a pre-requisite though. The present work was aimed at an elemental characterization of cereals and soils from relevant wheat-producing areas of mainland Portugal. This paper is focused on wheat samples-bread and durum wheats; Triticum aestivum L. (Farak and Jordao cultivars) and Triticum durum Desf. (Don Duro and Simeto cultivars), respectively-from the 2009 campaign, collected at Tras-os-Montes, Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo (inland regions). Elemental concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k 0 -variant), and assessed with the k 0 -IAEA software. Quality control was asserted through the analysis of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour), NIST-SRM R 1568a

  12. Qualidade tecnológica de massas alimentícias frescas elaboradas de semolina de trigo durum (T. durum L. e farinha de trigo (T. aestivum L. Quality of fresh pastas obtained from blends of durum wheat semolina (T. durum L. and wheat flour (T. aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kil Chang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram elaboradas massas alimentícias frescas utilizando as seguintes proporções de semolina de trigo durum e farinha de trigo comum: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60; 20:80 e 0:100, respectivamente. As massas foram embaladas em sacos plásticos com propriedades de impermeabilidade a água, e armazenadas a 4ºC. No dia da preparação (dia 0 e nos dias 1, 2 e 3, foram avaliados o tempo de cozimento, aumento de volume, ganho de peso, perda de sólidos solúveis e textura (firmeza das massas. As massas preparadas com porcentagens acima de 60% de semolina de trigo durum apresentaram melhores características no tempo de cozimento, firmeza e intensidade da cor amarela. Os 3 dias de armazenamento não influenciaram de forma significativa (p Fresh pastas using the following proportions of durum wheat semolina and wheat flour: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60; 20:80 and 0:100, respectively, were prepared. The pastas were stored at 4ºC in plastic bags with barrier properties to water steam. In the days 0 (preparation day, 1, 2 and 3, the cooking-time, volume increase, weight gain, cooking solids loss, and texture (firmness of fresh pastas were evaluated. The fresh pastas elaborated with at least 60% of durum wheat semolina, showed the best characteristics for cooking-time, firmness and intensity of yellow color. The three days of storage did not affect (p < 0.05 the quality characteristics of pastas.

  13. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  14. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Deshpande

    Full Text Available Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear.Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene, and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase, and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement.At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  15. Resistance of durum wheat cultivars to Fusarium culmorum and the difficulty or bringing greenhouse data into agreement with field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piglionica, V.

    1977-01-01

    Foot-rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum is becoming a more and more serious problem in durum wheat. Therefore, resistance breeding has to be considered and tests were started to assess whether available durum wheat germplasm contains lines or varieties with satisfactory levels of resistance. A wide range of susceptibility was observed among 192 cultivars and lines included in this preliminary test. However, considerable experimental problems were faced, which became evident by an obvious disagreement of results obtained under greenhouse versus field conditions. The paper describes some of the problems and indicates promising approaches to overcome them. The following difficulties have been overcome: (1) Avoiding seeds latently infected; (2) Eliminating possible interference with other pathogenic organisms; (3) Handling the pathogen so that low-pathogenicity mutants do not appear; (4) Standardization of the inoculum level to enable identification of partial resistance. (author)

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Rania; Khoudi, Habib

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) proteins have become the subject of intensive research activity due to their involvement in a variety of biological processes. This research led to the identification of AP2/ERF genes in many species; however, little is known about these genes in durum wheat, one of the most important cereal crops in the world. In this study, a new member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family, designated TdSHN1, was isolated from durum wheat using thermal asymetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method. Protein sequence analysis showed that TdSHN1 contained an AP2/ERF domain of 63 amino acids and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TdSHN1 belongs to a group Va protein in the ERF subfamily which contains the Arabidopsis ERF proteins (SHN1, SHN2, and SHN3). Expression of TdSHN1 was strongly induced by salt, drought, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold. In planta, TdSHN1 protein was able to activate the transcription of GUS reporter gene driven by the GCC box and DRE element sequences. In addition, TdSHN1 was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of TdSHN1 increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Taken together, the results showed that TdSHN1 encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress tolerance in yeast. TdSHN1 is therefore a promising candidate for improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in wheat as well as other crops.

  17. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  18. Effets de la vitesse et de la durée du remplissage du grain ainsi que de l'accumulation des assimilats de la tige dans l'élaboration du rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf. dans les conditions de culture des hautesplaines orientales d'Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmahammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of speed and the duration of grain filling and the accumulation of the assimilates of the stem in developing the durum wheat yield (Triticum durum Desf. in the culture conditions of the high plains of eastern Algeria. The present study was led on the experimental site of station ITGC in Setif. The objective is to determine the differences of duration and speed of filling and the contribution of the assimilates of the stems to the yield of 5 durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.. The year effect is significant, what explains the fluctuation of the conditions of one growth year to another. The grain yield is associated to the great quantity of assimilates stored and transferred from the stems to the grain filling. The Mbb genotype which has an important stem height transfers more assimilates. The genotypes ADS497 and Deraa present large standard leaves. The beginning of the active phase of the grain filling corresponds to the beginning of the foliar senescence. Mbb presents a slower foliar drying rate, the speed of drying stationary recorded by ADS497 is of -0.5957 cm2 per day. The speed of grain filling is negatively related to the duration of filling. The participation of the assimilates coming from the stem decreases when the environment allows the expression of a better grain yield.

  19. Application of DSSAT models for an agronomic adaptation strategy under climate change in Southern of Italy: optimum sowing and transplanting time for winter durum wheat and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many climate change studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to assess climate change vulnerability and adaptation capacity of agricultural crops for determined environments characterized from climatic, pedological and agronomical point of view. The objective of this study was to analyse the productive response of winter durum wheat and tomato to climate change and sowing/transplanting time in one of most productive areas of Italy (i.e. Capitanata, Puglia, using CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO cropping system models. Three climatic datasets were used: i a single dataset (50 km x 50 km provided by the JRC European centre for the period 1975-2005; two datasets from HadCM3 for the IPCC A2 GHG scenario for time slices with +2°C (centred over 2030-2060 and +5°C (centred over 2070-2099, respectively. All three datasets were used to generate synthetic climate series using a weather simulator (model LARS-WG. No negative yield effects of climate change were observed for winter durum wheat with delayed sowing (from 330 to 345 DOY increasing the average dry matter grain yield under forecasted scenarios. Instead, the warmer temperatures were primarily shown to accelerate the phenology, resulting in decreased yield for tomato under the + 5°C future climate scenario. In general, under global temperature increase by 5°C, early transplanting times could minimize the negative impact of climate change on crop productivity but the intensity of this effect was not sufficient to restore the current production levels of tomato cultivated in southern Italy.

  20. Durum Wheat Cover Analysis in the Scope of Policy and Market Price Changes: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Mokrane Siad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment, and subjective evidence of socio-economic and environmental interactions has been demonstrated. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to analyze empirically the link between agricultural market and policy, as well as the environmental response due to changes in crop management by local stakeholders. In this study, we propose a cross investigation and analysis to bring the link between vegetation cover, policy, market and farmer’s behavior to light. Our methodology is a combination of a rational positive and analogical approach between the quantifiable and non-quantifiable agents on a temporal basis. The method is applied to a dominant mono-crop agricultural watershed in Southern Italy that has been dedicated to durum wheat cultivation. In this region, we studied the relationship between the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, durum wheat market price, vegetation cover and land allocation. As a first step, we conducted a separate analysis for each factor, exploiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite observed Leaf Area Index (LAI to analyze the land vegetation space–time distribution over the period 2000–2014 and three Land Satellite (Landsat validated images as check-points for the agricultural pattern and CAP’s reforms. We used the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN and Eurostat data to investigate the on-farm accountancy and the durum wheat market price changes, respectively. Based on the study period, we developed a storyline of the major relevant CAP’s policy changes. In a second step, we conducted a comparative analysis where the CAP’s reforms were used as interpretational support, the land allocation and the on-farm accountability for CAP’s implementation, the price of durum wheat and the LAI for analytical comparison. We found interesting insights regarding the non-agronomic driving forces of LAI dynamics. The

  1. The Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Canopy Temperature Depression, Chlorophyll Content, and Water Use Efficiency in Three Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. Varieties Grown in Dry Regions of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One critical challenge facing the world is the need to satisfy the food requirements of the dramatically growing population. Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in the wheat-producing regions; therefore, wheat yield stability is a major objective of wheat-breeding programs in Jordan, which experience fluctuating climatic conditions in the context of global climate change. In the current study, a two-year field experiment was conducted for exploring the effect of four different water regimes on the yield, yield components, and stability of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; T. durum Desf. Jordanian cultivars as related to Canopy Temperature Depression (CTD, and Chlorophyll Content (measured by Soil-Plant Analysis Development, SPAD. A split plot design was used in this experiment with four replicates. Water treatment was applied as the main factor: with and without supplemental irrigation; 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity were applied. Two durum wheat cultivars and one bread wheat cultivar were split over irrigation treatments as a sub factor. In both growing seasons, supplemental irrigation showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to the rain-fed conditions. This increase in grain yield was due to the significantly positive effect of water availability on yield components. Values of CTD, SPAD, harvest index, and water use efficiency (WUE were increased significantly with an increase in soil moisture and highly correlated with grain yield. Ammon variety produced the highest grain yield across the four water regimes used in this study. This variety was characterized by the least thermal time to maturity and the highest values of CTD and SPAD. It was concluded that Ammon had the highest stability among the cultivars tested. Furthermore, CTD and SPAD can be used as important selection parameters in breeding programs in Jordan to assist in developing high-yielding genotypes under drought and heat stress conditions.

  2. A possible model of growth and production of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in relation to meteorological parameters in Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttobene, R.; Cosentino, S.; Cavallaro, V.

    1993-01-01

    This research aimed at studying a simulation model to describe the growth and yield of durum wheat in relation to meterological parameters in Mediterranean environment, using data of trials carried out by the Institute of Agronomy and filed crops of the University of Catania in two years and three localities of the Eastern Sicily. The model is divided into four modules which determine separately main phenological phases, leaf area index, total biomass and yield and soil water balance. The model uses air maximum and minimum temperature, photoperiod, solar radiation, rainfall and evaporation from a class A pan. Simulation carried out on the data of the trials showed a good interpretation of the variability of the actual data in relation to meteorological parameters. The model could simulate the variation due to plant density and sowing date. The model should be verified using independent data [it

  3. Fructan biosynthesis and degradation as part of plant metabolism controlling sugar fluxes during durum wheat kernel maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eCimini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat kernels contain fructans, fructose based oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties, in levels between 2 and 35 weight % depending on the developmental stage of the kernel. To improve knowledge on the metabolic pathways leading to fructan storage and degradation, carbohydrate fluxes occurring during durum wheat kernel development were analyzed. Kernels were collected at various developmental stages and quali-quantitative analysis of carbohydrates (mono- and di-saccharides, fructans, starch was performed, alongside analysis of the activities and gene expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and hydrolysis. High resolution HPAEC-PAD of fructan contained in durum wheat kernels revealed that fructan content is higher at the beginning of kernel development, when fructans with higher DP, such as bifurcose and 1,1-nystose, were mainly found. The changes in fructan pool observed during kernel maturation might be part of the signaling pathways influencing carbohydrate metabolism and storage in wheat kernels during development. During the first developmental stages fructan accumulation may contribute to make kernels more effective Suc sinks and to participate in osmotic regulation while the observed decrease in their content may mark the transition to later developmental stages, transition that is also orchestrated by changes in redox balance.

  4. Dilatometric measurement of the partial molar volume of water sorbed to durum wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ayako; Ogawa, Takenobu; Adachi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms were measured at 25 °C for untreated, dry-heated and pre-gelatinized durum wheat flour samples. The isotherms could be expressed by the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. The amount of water sorbed to the untreated flour was highest for low water activity, with water sorbed to the pre-gelatinized and dry-heated flour samples following. The dry-heated and pregelatinized flour samples exhibited the same dependence of the moisture content on the partial molar volume of water at 25 °C as the untreated flour. The partial molar volume of water was ca. 9 cm(3)/mol at a moisture content of 0.03 kg-H2O/kg-d.m. The volume increased with increasing moisture content, and reached a constant value of ca. 17.5 cm(3)/mol at a moisture content of 0.2 kg-H2O/kg-d.m. or higher.

  5. Drying of Durum Wheat Pasta and Enriched Pasta: A Review of Modeling Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Samuel; Mondor, Martin; Moresoli, Christine; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Marcos, Bernard

    2016-05-18

    Models on drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta were reviewed to identify avenues for improvement according to consumer needs, product formulation and processing conditions. This review first summarized the fundamental phenomena of pasta drying, mass transfer, heat transfer, momentum, chemical changes, shrinkage and crack formation. The basic equations of the current models were then presented, along with methods for the estimation of pasta transport and thermodynamic properties. The experimental validation of these models was also presented and highlighted the need for further model validation for drying at high temperatures (>-100°C) and for more accurate estimation of the pasta diffusion and mass transfer coefficients. This review indicates the need for the development of mechanistic models to improve our understanding of the mass and heat transfer mechanisms involved in pasta drying, and to consider the local changes in pasta transport properties and relaxation time for more accurate description of the moisture transport near glass transition conditions. The ability of current models to describe dried pasta quality according to the consumers expectations or to predict the impact of incorporating ingredients high in nutritional value on the drying of these enriched pasta was also discussed.

  6. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, a w and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic assessments of climate change impacts on durum wheat in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ferrise

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the availability of multi-model ensemble prediction methods has permitted a shift from a scenario-based approach to a risk-based approach in assessing the effects of climate change. This provides more useful information to decision-makers who need probability estimates to assess the seriousness of the projected impacts.

    In this study, a probabilistic framework for evaluating the risk of durum wheat yield shortfall over the Mediterranean Basin has been exploited. An artificial neural network, trained to emulate the outputs of a process-based crop growth model, has been adopted to create yield response surfaces which are then overlaid with probabilistic projections of future temperature and precipitation changes in order to estimate probabilistic projections of future yields. The risk is calculated as the relative frequency of projected yields below a selected threshold.

    In contrast to previous studies, which suggest that the beneficial effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration over the next few decades would outweigh the detrimental effects of the early stages of climatic warming and drying, the results of this study are of greater concern.

  8. Hydration kinetics of some durum and bread wheat varieties grown in south-eastern region of turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirm, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of wheat varieties grown in South-Eastern Region of Turkey, covering a temperature range from 25 to 50 degree C was examined. Peleg's model together with Arrhenius relationship were successfully used to evaluate water uptake of some Durum (Local names; Zenit and BurgosBurgos) and Bread (Local names; Dariyel and Karatopak) wheat varieties during soaking at a temperature range of 25-50 degree C. Model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking behaviour of wheat kernels with a coefficient of determination (R2) and Root mean square error (RMSE) greater than 0.9805, and less than 0.051, respectively. The Peleg rate and capacity constants, K1 and K2, were affected by temperature and wheat varieties. Activation energy values of Zenit, BurgosBurgos, Dariyel and Karatopak wheats were found as 39.94, 38.03, 36.25 and 29.54 kJ mol-1, respectively. Zenit wheat was the least hydrated while Karatopak was the most hydrated one due to kernel size and protein content. General equations to describe the water uptake of wheat varieties as a function of soaking time, temperature and initial moisture content were developed. These derived equations can be used for wheat operations such as tempering, mixing, knedding etc. (author)

  9. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance of the transformants yeast cells and the transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a novel durum wheat catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feki, Kaouthar; Kamoun, Yosra; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Gargouri, Ali; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-12-01

    Catalases are reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes involved in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, we described the isolation and functional characterization of a novel catalase from durum wheat, designed TdCAT1. Molecular Phylogeny analyses showed that wheat TdCAT1 exhibited high amino acids sequence identity to other plant catalases. Sequence homology analysis showed that TdCAT1 protein contained the putative calmodulin binding domain and a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif around its C-terminus. Predicted three-dimensional structural model revealed the presence of four putative distinct structural regions which are the N-terminal arm, the β-barrel, the wrapping and the α-helical domains. TdCAT1 protein had the heme pocket that was composed by five essential residues. TdCAT1 gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdCAT1 in yeast cells and Arabidopsis plants conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Compared with the non-transformed plants, the transgenic lines maintained their growth and accumulated more proline under stress treatments. Furthermore, the amount of H2O2 was lower in transgenic lines, which was due to the high CAT and POD activities. Taken together, these data provide the evidence for the involvement of durum wheat catalase TdCAT1 in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  11. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  12. Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In cereal seeds mutations in one or more starch synthases lead to decreased amylopectin and increased amylose content. Here, the impact of starch synthase IIa (SSIIa or SGP-1) mutations upon durum starch was investigated. A screen of durum accessions identified two lines lacking SGP-A1, the A geno...

  13. Size exclusion HPLC of proteins for evaluation of durum wheat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present research aimed to assess size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) in protein molecular weight distribution determination for quality evaluation of durum semolina. Semolina samples were milled from 13 durum genotypes grown at 7 locations in 2009 and 2010 in ND. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer ...

  14. Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Raffaella; de Angelis, Maria; Alfonsi, Giuditta; de Vincenzi, Massimo; Silano, Marco; Vincentini, Olimpia; Gobbetti, Marco

    2005-06-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used to ferment durum wheat semolina under liquid conditions. After fermentation, the dough was freeze-dried, mixed with buckwheat flour at a ratio of 3:7, and used to produce the "fusilli" type Italian pasta. Pasta without prefermentation was used as the control. Ingredients and pastas were characterized for compositional analysis. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis, 92 of the 130 durum wheat gliadin spots were hydrolyzed almost totally during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Mass spectrometry matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the hydrolysis of gliadins. As shown by immunological analysis by R5-Western blot, the concentration of gluten decreased from 6280 ppm in the control pasta to 1045 ppm in the pasta fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Gliadins were extracted from fermented and nonfermented durum wheat dough semolina and used to produce a peptic-tryptic (PT) digest for in vitro agglutination tests on cells of human origin. The whole PT digests did not cause agglutination. Affinity chromatography on Sepharose-6-B mannan column separated the PT digests in three fractions. Fraction C showed agglutination activity. The minimal agglutinating activity of fraction C from the PT digest of fermented durum wheat semolina was ca. 80 times higher than that of durum wheat semolina. Pasta was subjected to sensory analysis: The scores for stickiness and firmness were slightly lower than those found for the pasta control. Odor and flavor did not differ between the two types of pasta. These results showed that a pasta biotechnology that uses a prefermentation of durum wheat semolina by selected lactic acid bacteria and tolerated buckwheat flour could be considered as a novel tool to potentially decrease gluten intolerance and the risk of gluten contamination in gluten-free products.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 5-15 kGy on the quality properties of durum wheat semolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Semolina purified from four durum wheat varieties were gamma-irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy, i.e., dose levels expected to improve the colour of pasta products, suitable for reduction of microbial contamination, and high doses required for insect disinfestation. The irradiation resulted in significant losses in carotenoid content and oxidative enzyme activities. Gamma irradiation slightly affected the mixing properties, greatly reduced the gluten strength and adversely affected firmness of cooked pasta. Consequently, preservative gamma irradiation of durum wheat semolina should be limited to a maximum dose of 5 kGy. (author) 39 refs.; 3 tabs

  16. SDS-PAGE For Glutenins Protein of Some Durum Wheat Cultivars coming from Different Agro-Ecological Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salih Khalaf

    Full Text Available Ten durum wheat cultivars of different agro-ecological resources were involved, and subjected to electrophoresis for their glutenin subunits. Glutenin subunits resolution and coding based on relative mobility. Cultivars shown differences in migration patterns and categorized into different groups in accordance to possessing a particular subunits. Caronia and Haurani were similar as they possess subunits 6 + 15, while ACSAD 65, Simeto, and Waha possess subunits 7 + 8; but Korifla and Gidara 2 and Creso possess subunits 6 + 8 with an additional subunit 20 for the Creso. Lastly, Cham 5 and Om rabi 5 possess subunits 20.

  17. Trigo duro: comportamento de genótipos no estado de São Paulo Durum wheat: evaluation of genotypes for the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 25 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., um cultivar de triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack e quatro cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L. em seis experimentos em condição de irrigação por aspersão, analisando-se a produção de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. As linhagens de trigo duro 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" e 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", de porte baixo a médio, foram resistentes às ferrugens-do-colmo (com exceção da 21 e da-folha, moderadamente resistentes ao oídio, suscetíveis à mancha foliar, e destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos em solos com baixa acidez, não diferindo nem do trigo comum IAC-60, o mais cultivado atualmente no Estado de São Paulo, nem do triticale Álamos. Em condições de campo, a linhagem de trigo duro 19 (Mindum/Kingfisher "S"//Sandpiper apresentou imunidade às ferrugens-do-colmo e da-folha e foi moderadamente resistente ao oídio. O triticale Álamos e o trigo comum IAC-29 foram imunes ao oídio. Todos os genótipos avaliados foram altamente suscetíveis à mancha foliar, com exceção da linhagem 6 (Dackiye/Gerardo Vezio 394, moderadamente resistente.Twenty-five durum wheat (Triticum durum L. lines, one triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar and four wheat (T aestivum L. cultivars were evaluated in six trials under sprinkler irrigation taking into account the grain yield, agronomic characteristics and disease resistance. The durum wheat lines 14 (61150/Leeds//Gallo "S"/3/Garza "S"/4/Mexicali "S"/5/S-15-Crane "S", 21 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane "S"/Ganso "S"//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/Memo "S", 25 (Gallareta "S" and 8 (Gediz "S"/Yavaros "S", showed the following traites: resistant to stem and leaf rusts; moderately resistant to powdery mildew; susceptible to leaf spot, and short to

  18. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  19. Genome wide identification of wheat and Brachypodium type one protein phosphatases and functional characterization of durum wheat TdPP1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Bradai

    Full Text Available Reversible phosphorylation is an essential mechanism regulating signal transduction during development and environmental stress responses. An important number of dephosphorylation events in the cell are catalyzed by type one protein phosphatases (PP1, which catalytic activity is driven by the binding of regulatory proteins that control their substrate specificity or subcellular localization. Plants harbor several PP1 isoforms accounting for large functional redundancies. While animal PP1s were reported to play relevant roles in controlling multiple cellular processes, plant orthologs remain poorly studied. To decipher the role of plant PP1s, we compared PP1 genes from three monocot species, Brachypodium, common wheat and rice at the genomic and transcriptomic levels. To gain more insight into the wheat PP1 proteins, we identified and characterized TdPP1a, the first wheat type one protein phosphatase from a Tunisian durum wheat variety Oum Rabiaa3. TdPP1a is highly conserved in sequence and structure when compared to mammalian, yeast and other plant PP1s. We demonstrate that TdPP1a is an active, metallo-dependent phosphatase in vitro and is able to interact with AtI2, a typical regulator of PP1 functions. Also, TdPP1a is capable to complement the heat stress sensitivity of the yeast mutant indicating that TdPP1a is functional also in vivo. Moreover, transient expression of TdPP1a::GFP in tobacco leaves revealed that it is ubiquitously distributed within the cell, with a strong accumulation in the nucleus. Finally, transcriptional analyses showed similar expression levels in roots and leaves of durum wheat seedlings. Interestingly, the expression in leaves is significantly induced following salinity stress, suggesting a potential role of TdPP1a in wheat salt stress response.

  20. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  1. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 2. The Celiac Disease Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study was to compare immunogenic and toxic gluten peptides related to celiac disease (CD). 100 accessions of genotypes selected during the 20th century in Tunisia were in vitro digested and then analyzed by UPLC/ESI-MS technique using an isotopically labeled internal standard. The first MANOVA confirmed a high variability in the content of immunogenic and toxic peptides reflecting high genetic diversity in the germplasm released during the past century in Tunisia, consistently with PCA and clustering analysis results. Our finding showed also important variability in CD epitopes due to growing season's climate scenarios. Moreover, the second MANOVA revealed significant differences between abandoned and modern cultivars' CD-related peptide amounts. Although we could not conclude that there was an augment of allergens in newly selected durum wheat lines compared to abandoned ones, we demonstrated that modern genotype peptides were less sensitive to climate variation, which is a useful indicator for wheat breeders.

  2. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 1. The Baker's Asthma Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat protein CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated with baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on a UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification. Combined data analysis of variance revealed an important effect of genotype, crop year, and their interaction. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to significantly vary among studied genotypes, as confirmed by genetic variability, coefficient of variance, heritability, and genetic advance.

  3. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  4. Estimation of color of durum wheat. Comparison of WSB, HPLC, and reflectance colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Irano, Mario; Panfili, Gianfranco; Acquistucci, Rita

    2005-04-06

    Color is an important parameter involved in the definition of semolina and pasta quality. This character is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in cereals and cereal products, due to botanical origin, growing conditions, distribution in the kernel, and technological processes. In food industries, color measurements are usually performed by means of automatic instruments that are rapid and safe, as alternatives to the chemical extraction methods. In this study, automatic measurements (CIE, color-space system L, a, b), water-saturated butanol (WSB), and HPLC determinations have been applied to evaluate the carotenoid content in whole meals and respective semolina samples produced from wheat cultivated in the years 2001 and 2002. In whole meals, total carotenoids, determined by HPLC, were about 3.0 microg/g (2001) and 3.5 microg/g (2002) calculated on dry weight (dw) and about 3.0 and 3.2 microg/g dw in corresponding semolina samples. The b values for the same period were 19.78 and 15.75, respectively, in raw materials and 20.03-21.67 in semolina. Results have confirmed lutein and beta-carotene as the main components mainly responsible for the yellow color in wheat grains. The ability of the index b to express natural dyeing was dependent on sample characteristics as demonstrated by the relationships found between this index and pigments, although the best correlation resulted between HPLC and WSB.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of durum wheat Dittaino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) bread and quality of re-milled semolina used for its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Spina, Alfio; Todaro, Aldo; Pecorino, Biagio; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-02-15

    To help future quality checks, we characterized the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Dittaino bread, a sourdough-based durum wheat bread recently awarded with Protected Designation of Origin mark, along with the quality features of re-milled semolina used for its production. Semolina was checked for Falling Number (533-644s), protein content (12.0-12.3g/100gd.m.), gluten content (9.7-10.5g/100gd.m.), yellow index (18.0-21.0), water absorption (59.3-62.3g/100g), farinograph dough stability (171-327s), softening index (46-66B.U.), alveograph W (193×10 -4 -223×10 -4 J) and P/L (2.2-2.7). Accordingly, bread crumb was yellow, moderately hard (16.4-27.1N) and chewy (88.2-109.2N×mm), with low specific volume (2.28-3.03mL/g). Bread aroma profile showed ethanol and acetic acid, followed by hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, and furfural. The sensory features were dominated by a thick brown crust, with marked toasted odor, coupled to yellow and consistent crumb, with coarse grain and well-perceivable sour taste and odor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of a wheat-Leymus mollis alien multiple substitution line from octoploid Tritileymus x Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y H; Zhao, J X; Du, W L; Li, Y L; Wang, J; Wang, L M; Wu, J; Cheng, X N; Yang, Q H; Chen, X H

    2014-05-23

    Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (NsNsXmXm, 2n = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many traits that are potentially valuable for wheat improvement. In order to exploit and utilize the useful genes of L. mollis, we developed a multiple alien substitution line, 10DM50, from the progenies of octoploid Tritileymus M842-16 x Triticum durum cv. D4286. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of mitosis and meiosis (metaphase I), using labeled total DNA of Psathyrostachys huashanica as probe, showed that the substitution line 10DM50 was a cytogenetically stable alien substitution line with 36 chromosomes from wheat and three pairs of Ns genome chromosomes from L. mollis. Simple sequence repeat analysis showed that the chromosomes 3D, 6D, and 7D were absent in 10DM50. Expressed sequence tag-sequence tagged sites analysis showed that new chromatin from 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns of L. mollis were detected in 10DM50. We deduced that the substitution line 10DM50 was a multiple alien substitution line with the 3D, 6D, and 7D chromosomes replaced by 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns from L. mollis. 10DM50 showed high resistance to leaf rust and significantly improved spike length, spikes per plant, and kernels per spike, which are correlated with higher wheat yield. These results suggest that line 10DM50 could be used as intermediate material for transferring desirable traits from L. mollis into common wheat in breeding programs.

  7. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulating Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Response to Root Zone Salinity based on Statistics and Macroscopic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Jalali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity as an abiotic stress can cause excessive disturbance for seed germination and plant sustainable production. Salinity with three different mechanisms of osmotic potential reduction, ionic toxicity and disturbance of plant nutritional balance, can reduce performance of the final product. Planning for optimal use of available water and saline water with poor quality in agricultural activities is of great importance. Wheat is one of the eight main food sources including rice, corn, sugar beet, cattle, sorghum, millet and cassava which provide 70-90% of all calories and 66-90% of the protein consumed in developing countries. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. is an important crop grows in some arid and semi-arid areas of the world such as Middle East and North Africa. In these regions, in addition to soil salinity, sharp decline in rainfall and a sharp drop in groundwater levels in recent years has emphasized on the efficient use of limited soil and water resources. Consequently, in order to use brackish water for agricultural productions, it is required to analyze its quantitative response to salinity stress by simulation models in those regions. The objective of this study is to assess the capability of statistics and macro-simulation models of yield in saline conditions. Materials and methods In this study, two general approach of simulation includes process-physical models and statistical-experimental models were investigated. For this purpose, in order to quantify the salinity effect on seed relative yield of durum wheat (Behrang Variety at different levels of soil salinity, process-physical models of Maas & Hoffman, van Genuchten & Hoffman, Dirksen et al. and Homaee et al. models were used. Also, statistical-experimental models of Modified Gompertz Function, Bi-Exponential Function and Modified Weibull Function were used too. In order to get closer to real conditions of growth circumstances in saline soils, a natural saline

  9. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  10. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Key words: Thysanoptera, Haplothrips tritici, population density, bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, cultivars. INTRODUCTION. Some thrips types of the order Thysanoptera constitute one of the harmful groups found on grains (Minaei and. Mound, 2008). The most common species observed on grains in ...

  11. What influences the composition of fungi in wheat grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are inhabited by different fungi, including plant pathogens and fungi – mycotoxin producers. The composition of seed mycobiota can be influenced by different factors, including agronomic practices, but the results are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobiota of wheat grains depending on agroecological conditions. Wheat grains were obtained from a two-factorial field trial: A – tillage system (A1 – ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm; A2 – harrowing at a depth of up to 10 cm; B – crop rotation (B1 – continuous wheat; B2 – oilseed rape and wheat; B3 – crop rotation. The mycobiota of grain were determined by mycological and molecular methods. The most abundant and widespread of the mycobiota were Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Alternaria spp., Arthrinium spp., and Fusarium avenaceum. Higher amounts of precipitation increased the infection of grains with Fusarium fungi. Seven species of Fusarium were identified in the grain samples: F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. acuminatum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum. The soil tillage method and crop rotation did not influence the total incidence of Fusarium spp., but the abundance of a particular species differed depending on agronomic practice. The research suggests that continuous wheat sowing under conditions of reduced soil tillage can increase the level of risk of grain infection with F. graminearum and, consequently, the accumulation of mycotoxins.

  12. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  13. Identification of water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat from shoot phenotyping and physiological measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA NAKHFOROOSH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. 12 durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well watered (75 % plant available water, PAW and drought (25 % PAW conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration and physiological (stomata conductance factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types. All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types. Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments.

  14. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  15. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  16. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  17. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  18. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  1. Td4IN2: A drought-responsive durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene coding for a resistance like protein with serine/threonine protein kinase, nucleotide binding site and leucine rich domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Patrizia; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; De Caroli, Monica; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla

    2017-11-01

    Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of a drought-related durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene, identified in a previous study, coding for a protein combining features of NBS-LRR type resistance protein with a S/TPK domain, involved in drought stress response. This is one of the few examples reported where all three domains are present in a single protein and, to our knowledge, it is the first report on a gene specifically induced by drought stress and drought-related conditions, with this particular structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of root para-nodules formation in wheat (Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    djemel

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... formed when wheat roots were inoculated with Frankia and the root length was enhanced. When the .... are modified lateral roots with structure enhanced by rhizobial.

  3. Role of the durum wheat dehydrin in the function of proteases conferring salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Zouari, Nabil; Masmoudi, Khaled; Brini, Faiçal

    2016-04-01

    Dehydrins are claimed to stabilize macromolecules against freezing damage, dehydration, ionic or osmotic stresses, thermal stress and re-folding yield. However, their precise function remains unknown. In this context, we report the behavior of protease activities in dehydrin transgenic Arabidopsis lines against the wild type plant under salt stress (100mM NaCl). Indeed, proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. We proved that durum wheat DHN-5 modulates the activity of some proteases, summarized on the promotion of the Cysteinyl protease and the decrease of the Aspartyl protease activity. This fact is also upgraded in salt stress conditions. We conclude that the dehydrin transgenic context encodes salinity tolerance in transgenic lines through the modulation of the interaction not only at transcriptional level but also at protein level and also with the impact of salt stress as an endogenous and exogenous effector on some biocatalysts like proteases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular mapping of the novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm36 introgressed from Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, A; Cenci, A; Carluccio, A V; Abdelbacki, A M M; Simeone, R

    2008-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (2n=4x=AABB), the progenitor of cultivated wheats, shows particular promises as a donor of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances. The wild emmer accession MG29896, resistant to powdery mildew, was backcrossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivar Latino, and a set of backcross inbred lines (BC(5)F(5)) was produced. Genetic analysis of F(3) populations from two resistant introgression lines (5BIL-29 x Latino and 5BIL-42 x Latino) indicated that the powdery mildew resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Molecular markers and the bulked segregant analysis were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance. Five AFLP markers (XP43M32((250)), XP46M31((410)), XP41M37((100)), XP41M39((250)), XP39M32((120))), three genomic SSR markers (Xcfd07, Xwmc75, Xgwm408) and one EST-derived SSR marker (BJ261635) were found to be linked to the resistance gene in 5BIL-29 and only the BJ261635 marker in 5BIL-42. By means of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome bin 5BL6-0.29-0.76. These results indicated that the two lines had the same resistance gene and that the introgressed dicoccoides chromosome segment was longer (35.5 cM) in 5BIL-29 than that introgressed in 5BIL-42 (less than 1.5 cM). As no powdery mildew resistance gene has been reported on chromosome arm 5BL, the novel resistance gene derived from var. dicoccoides was designated Pm36. The 244 bp allele of BJ261635 in 5BIL-42 can be used for marker-assisted selection during the wheat resistance breeding process for facilitating gene pyramiding.

  5. Endophytic fungi isolated from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): evaluation of their antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and host growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, Daoud; Sadrati, Nouari; Zerroug, Amina; Dahamna, Saliha; Bouharati, Saddek

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms calls for inventive research and development strategies. The screening for antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. Endophytes may be defined as "microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects". Endophytes are relatively unstudied as potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several isolated fungi from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Mohamed Ben Bachir variety and to select endophytic fungi for further evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and host growth promotion. A total of 20 endophytic fungi have been isolated. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated for crude ethyl acetate extracts using an agar diffusion assay. All extracts showed inhibitory activity on at least one or more pathogenic microorganism, with an average zone of inhibition varied between 7 mm to 25 mm, a large zone of 23 and 25mm against candida albicans and Escherichia coli respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by beta-carotene/linoleic acid assay. Results showed that 70% of these extracts have antioxidant activity, exhibiting 50, 57% to 78, 96% inhibitions. While 30% from them, their inhibitory activity for oxidation of linoleic acid Were less than 50%. Growth promotion ability of these endophytes was tested on seed germination among ten isolates tested, two isolates showed significant growth promotion effects on wheat seeds. From the present work we can conclude that these microorganisms could be promising source of bioactive compounds, growth promotion and warrant further study.

  6. Evaluation of Salt Stress Effect on the Agro-Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. at the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Golkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of salt stress on some agro-physiological traits in ten varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L. and durum (Triticum turgidum L. wheats in seedling stage. A greenhouse experiment was carried out as a split plot experiment based on a completely randomized design with four replications in hydroponic condition. Different agronomic and physiological traits (such as Na+, K+, Ca+2 contents and relative water content (RWC were studied. Salinity showed significant effect on all of the studied traits, except for root dry weight and the ratio of Na+/Ca+2. Increase in NaCl level led to significant reductions in all studied traits. The studied genotypes showed significant difference for radicle length, leaf length, seedling dry weight, leaf dry weight, root dry weight, RWC and Na+, K+, Ca+2 concentrations and Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca+2 ratios. The genotype × salinity interaction was significant for RWC, Na+, Ca+2 and Na+/Ca+2. The salt stress increased the leaf Na+ while it decreased the K+ and Ca2+ concentrations. The greatest shoot dry weight (0.035 g, root dry weight (0.024 g and Na+/Ca+2 ratio (1.71 were found in genotype Alamot (bread wheat and the greatest plantlet length (12 cm was observed in genotype Verinak. The greatest rootlet length (14.63 cm, dry weight of seedlings (0.057 g, RWC (82.20%, membrane stability (0.59, K+ (3.38 mg/g dry weight and the smallest Na+/K+ ratio (0.17 were detected in genotype Toos (bread wheat. The genotype Toos was identified as the most tolerant genotype to salt stress.

  7. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum strains on irradiated wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Monge, María Del Pilar; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Ramirez, María Laura

    2018-02-02

    Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (a W ; 0.995, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.88), on mycelial growth and fumonisin biosynthesis were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from wheat grains in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest a W (0.995) and 25°C, with growth decreasing as the a W of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) were produced at 0.995 a W and 15°C for 2 strains, and at 25°C and 0.995 a W for the third one. Fumonisins concentrations varied considerably depending on the a W and temperature interactions assayed. Studied strains showed different fumonisin production profiles. Two-dimensional profiles of a W by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk of fumonisins accumulation on wheat. As a result, temperature and a W conditions that resulted in fumonisins production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This is the first study made using irradiated wheat grains and provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for fumonisins contamination of wheat grains which is of concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Protein patterns of wheat grains with phylogenetic inferences | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I> separated earlier in evolutionary history, and can be recognized from the rest of the cultivars which belong to species T. durum. KEY WORDS: Triticum aestivum,Triticum durum, protein polymorphism, electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, cladistic ...

  9. Drought and Heat Differentially Affect XTH Expression and XET Activity and Action in 3-Day-Old Seedlings of Durum Wheat Cultivars with Different Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Andrea; De Caroli, Monica; Sabella, Erika; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; Rampino, Patrizia; De Bellis, Luigi; Perrotta, Carla; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Piro, Gabriella; Fry, Stephen C; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2016-01-01

    Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance. Dehydration and heat stress differentially influence the XTH expression profiles and the activity and action of XET in the wheat seedlings, depending on the degree of susceptibility/tolerance of the cultivars, the organ, the topological region of the root and, within the root, on the gradient of cell differentiation. The root apical region was the zone mainly affected by both treatments in all assayed cultivars, while no change in XET activity was observed at shoot level, irrespective of susceptibility/tolerance, confirming the pivotal role of the root in stress perception, signaling, and response. Conflicting effects were observed depending on stress type: dehydration evoked an overall increase, at least in the apical region of the root, of XET activity and action, while a significant inhibition was caused by heat treatment in most cultivars. The data suggest that differential changes in XET action in defined portions of the root of young durum wheat seedlings may have a role as a response to drought and heat stress, thus contributing to seedling survival and crop establishment. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the 5DS-5BS chromosome translocation conditioning soft kernel texture in durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivar ‘Soft Svevo’, a new non-GMO soft durum cultivar with soft kernel texture, was developed through a 5DS(5BS) chromosomal translocation from event. cv. Chinese Spring, and subsequently used to create new soft durum germplasm. The development of Soft Svevo featured the Ph1b-mediated homoeologou...

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. Variations in yield and gluten proteins in durum wheat varieties under late-season foliar versus soil application of nitrogen fertilizer in a northern Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Bonas, Urbana; Dal Cortivo, Cristian; Pasini, Gabriella; Marmiroli, Nelson; Mosca, Giuliano; Vamerali, Teofilo

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand for high-quality foodstuffs and concern for environmental sustainability, late-season nitrogen (N) foliar fertilization of common wheat is now an important and widespread practice. This study investigated the effects of late-season foliar versus soil N fertilization on yield and protein content of four varieties of durum wheat, Aureo, Ariosto, Biensur and Liberdur, in a three-year field trial in northern Italy. Variations in low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS), high-molecular-weight glutenins (HMW-GS) and gliadins were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found that N applied to the canopy did not improve protein rate compared with N application to the soil (general mean 138 mg g -1 ), but moderately increased productivity in the high-yielding varieties Liberdur and Biensur (three-year means 7.23 vs 7.13 and 7.53 vs 7.09 t ha -1 respectively). Technological quality was mainly related to variety choice, Aureo and Ariosto having higher protein rates and glutenin/gliadin ratios. Also found was a strong 'variety × N application method' interaction in the proportions of protein subunits within each class, particularly LMW-GS and gliadins. A promising result was the higher N uptake efficiency, although as apparent balance, combined with higher HMW/LMW-GS ratio in var. Biensur. Late-season foliar N fertilization allows N fertilizer saving, potentially providing environmental benefits in the rainy climate of the northern Mediterranean area, and also leads to variety-dependent up-regulation of essential LMW-GS and gliadins. Variety choice is a key factor in obtaining high technological quality, although it is currently associated with modest grain yield. This study provides evidence of high quality in the specific high-yielding variety Biensur, suggesting its potential as a mono-varietal semolina for pasta production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  15. Aminoacid composition of wheat grain gluten under microbe impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova М. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on characteristics of gluten, protein and aminoacids content in wheat grain under the impact of microbe preparations including bacteria of Azotobacter and Bacillus geni, which inhabit plant rhizosphere. The increase of aminoacids leveland particularly the level of essential aminoacids in wheat grain under bacterization was demonstrated, this fact accounting for the quality of grain as an important protein source. Increase of aminoacids content with the use of biopreparations on low-fertile soil ensures acquisition of biologically valuable grain with the decrease of mineral fertilizers dosage and emphasizes the role of biopreparations in the production of ecologically pure high quality products. The latter is due to introdcution of environmentally safe agricultural methods.

  16. Gamma rays effect on inducing semidwarf mutants with good quality in the local durum wheat variety (Hamari)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, Nizar

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to test, under our field conditions, some promising M4-M5 mutant lines that were selected under green house conditions (U.K) from a Ph.D. project aimed at improving protein content in a local Syrian durum wheat variety Hamari. The study lasted 3 years, in the first year there were not enough seeds available for replications, thus, about 90 lines were grown in one location after which many unsatisfactory lines were discarded. In the second and third years 3 recently released varieties and 4 advanced lines from ICARDA were included in the trials with 4 replications and 2 and 3 locations in 1989 and 1990 respectively. Nearest Neighbour Analysis was used to estimate the lines yield performance. The results indicated that, in all locations, there were some mutant lines that surpassed the varieties Sham 3 and Bhuth 1. Moreover, in the dry location (Izraa) 3 mutant lines have out yielded the OM-Al Rabi lines which were produced by ICARDA and described as being suitable in dry areas. The employment of ANOFT and FTAB programme was effective in selecting some lines of interest depending on multiple character selection with variable selection pressure. Such selections resulted in short mutant lines that were better in their yield and quality than the recently released varieties (except for variety Daki in the driest location, Izraa). These results need confirmation for three more years with increasing plot size and locations before sending the superior lines to the national testing and multiplication authorities. (author). 10 refs., 14 tabs

  17. Effects of sprouting and salt stress on polyphenol composition and antiradical activity of einkorn, emmer and durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stagnari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination is related with improvements of nutritional value of seeds, since it promotes accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals. However, only few studies have investigated on phytochemicals accumulation during sprouting under sub-optimal conditions. Thus, we investigated the effect of salinity during germination of an einkorn (TMoM, an emmer (TDiZ and a durum wheat (TDuC genotype on the total polyphenols (TPC, free- and bound-phenolic acids [PAs; i.e. caffeic acid, syringic acid, Pcoumaric acid, trans-ferulic acid, and salicylic acid] contents and antiradical activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC of sprouts and wheatgrass. The following NaCl treatments were applied: 0 (control, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl concentration throughout the whole experiment, or 50 and 100 mM NaCl until sprout stage and then 0 mM until wheatgrass stage (recovery treatments. TMoM showed higher total bound-PAs both in sprouts and wheatgrass with respect to the other Triticum genotypes (+25% and 24%, respectively as well as of total bound-PAs and bound-SA in the recovery treatments. Moderate salt stress significantly increased all the investigated variables in TDiZ. Salt stress induced higher TPC and TEAC as well as total free-PAs values till 50 mM NaCl in TDuC, whilst significantly lowered total bound-PAs due to the negative variation of both P-CA (-84% and trans-FA (-81% acids. Results indicate that salinity during germination could be efficiently modulated to improve the nutritional quality of sprouts, wheatgrass and cereal-based products.

  18. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Angelino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  19. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Ruggiero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  20. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  1. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  2. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  3. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Rafique, Q.; Rahman, A.U.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  4. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  5. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  6. Study of different herbicide molecules for the control of durum wheat weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Filì

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the chances to rotate the herbicide molecules, the effectiveness of a new molecule, pinoxaden, was tested, comparing it with other herbicides used in wheat weed control. The trial was carried out comparing the following herbicide mixtures: 1 no weed control treatment; 2 Tribenuron Methyl (TM; 3 Clodinafop (C; 4 Tribenuron Methyl + Clodinafop (TM+C; 5 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile (PCP; 6 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + Triasulfuron (PCP+T; 7 Pinoxaden + clodinafop + propargile + absolute Ioxinil and Mecoprop (PCP+IM. The new PCP+T herbicides mixture didn’t differ statistically from the traditional TMC treatment in terms of effectiveness, but the agronomic result of the new mixture was totally satisfactory, even taking into account that the marketing of this mixture is not aimed to compete with other existing herbicides but to widen the chance to rotate active principles in time and space, in order to control the onset of resistance phenomena.

  7. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbagoury, O.H.; Rizk, T.Y.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Hammad, A.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs

  8. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbagoury, O H; Rizk, T Y [Agron Dept., Fac. of Agric., Ain shams University, Cairo, (Egypt); Sharabash, M T.M.; Hammad, A H.A. [National Center for Research and Radiation Tech. Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs.

  9. Potencial de genótipos de trigo duro para produtividade e caracteres agronômicos no Estado de São Paulo Potential of durum wheat genotypes for productivity and agronomic traits in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Henrique da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trigo duro produz a semolina que, extraída dos grãos, é a matéria-prima empregada na elaboração de macarrão. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo e comportamento agronômico de 17 linhagens de trigo duro (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 oriundas do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC e três cultivares-controle: IAC-1001, IAC-1002 e IAC-1003, originárias de introduções do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, México. Os experimentos foram instalados em Capão Bonito (sequeiro e em Mococa (irrigado, em 2007 e 2008. Foram avaliados os seguintes caracteres: produtividade (kg ha-1, altura das plantas, comprimento da espiga e comprimento do internódio da raque (cm, número de grãos por espiga e massa de cem grãos (g. A tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio foi realizada empregando soluções nutritivas, no laboratório. As cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1003 destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos nos dois locais. As linhagens 2, 9 e 13 possuem porte semianão mais baixo; as linhagens 4, 15 e a cultivar IAC-1001 exibiram espigas mais compridas; as cultivares IAC-1001 e IAC-1002 sobressaíram-se pelo grande número de grãos por espiga; a 'IAC-1003' pelos grãos mais pesados e as linhagens 1, 4, 15 e 17 revelaram maior comprimento do internódio da raque. Houve tendência dos genótipos de porte semianão mais alto serem mais produtivos, com maior número de grãos por espiga e grãos mais pesados. As linhagens obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento do IAC foram tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio e as cultivares-controle sensíveis.Semolina extracted from grains of durum wheat is used for manufacturing pastas. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the yield potential and agronomic behavior of seventeen durum wheat inbred lines (BH-1146/LGN//2*IAC-1003 originated from Instituto Agronômico (IAC breeding program and three check cultivars IAC-1001, IAC-1002 and IAC-1003

  10. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  11. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  12. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  14. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  16. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  17. Genetic analysis for grain quality traits in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, N.M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Munir, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman's analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters. (author)

  18. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  19. Recovery of leaf elongation during short term osmotic stress correlates with osmotic adjustment and cell turgor restoration in different durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdid, M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the responses of leaf elongation rate (LER), turgor and osmotic adjustment (OA) during a short-term stress (7 hours) imposed by PEG6000 and a recovery phase, three durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) varieties (Inrat; MBB; and OZ ) were grown in aerated nutrient solutions. Leaf elongation kinetics of leaf 3 was estimated using LVDT. Turgor was estimated using a cell pressure probe; osmotic potential as well as total sugars and potassium (K+) concentrations were estimated from expressed sap of elongation zone. Growth recovered rapidly and then stabilised at a lower value. A significant difference was found in % recovery of LER between the varieties. The cessation of growth after stress coincided with a decrease in turgor followed by a recovery period reaching control values in MBB and Inrat. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.83) between the reduction in turgor (turgor) and % recovery of LER was found at 7 hours after stress. The difference in the partial recovery of LER between varieties was thus related to the capacity of partial turgor recovery. Partial turgor recovery is associated with sugar or K+ based OA which indicates its importance in maintaining high LER values under water deficit. (author)

  20. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  1. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... cuboid in appearance and smaller than wheat or maize. (figure 3; Kaur et al. 2007). ..... gaps in our knowledge. Due to the hexaploid ...... Makino A 2011 Photosynthesis, grain yield, and nitrogen utilization in rice and wheat.

  2. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  3. Effect of the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1 on bread and pasta quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain protein concentration (GPC) affects wheat nutritional value and several critical parameters for bread and pasta quality. A gene designated Gpc-B1, which is not functional in common and durum wheat cultivars, was recently identified in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The functional allele o...

  4. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  5. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  6. et de blé dur (Triticum durum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... Study of the genetic diversity of some varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat. (Triticum durum Desf.) ...... Crop adaptation to climate change,1e éd. Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 595 p. Zeven AC,1998. Landraces: a review of definitions and classifications. Euphytica 104(2) : 127-139.

  7. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  9. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  11. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    reducing the amount of content, they have also been more effective than being applied separately (between 7 and 12 present. Conclusion: Generally associated with most of the measured elements, the treatment of seed inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum and usage of Glomus mosseae in Dena cultivar that was a durum wheat, showed the highest concentration of the mentioned elements in the roots and seeds. Probably this has been due to the smaller grains in Dena than the other cultivars, which led to an increase in the ratio of the elements in the grain. Therefore, it seems that the use of the biofertilizers can be the perfect solution to eliminate the nutritional requirements of wheat. Moreover, it has the very important effect of the enrichment of this crucial product in the people’s dietary patterns in this country with the required elements. Keywords: Azospirillum, Nutrition, Wheat, Root, Elements concentration, Mycorrhiza

  12. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  13. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  14. Durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) confers salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants through the regulation of proline metabolism and ROS scavenging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Ben Mahmoud, Rihem; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-11-01

    The wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) gives birth to salinity tolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants by the regulation of proline metabolism and the ROS scavenging system. Dehydrins (DHNs) are involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we reported that salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing durum wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) was closely related to the activation of the proline metabolism enzyme (P5CS) and some antioxidant biocatalysts. Indeed, DHN-5 improved P5CS activity in the transgenic plants generating a significant proline accumulation. Moreover, salt tolerance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants was accompanied by an excellent activation of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxide dismutase (POD) and generation of a lower level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaves compared to the wild-type plants. The enzyme activities were enhanced in these transgenic plants in the presence of exogenous proline. Nevertheless, proline accumulation was slightly reduced in transgenic plants promoting chlorophyll levels. All these results suggest the crucial role of DHN-5 in response to salt stress through the activation of enzymes implicated in proline metabolism and in ROS scavenging enzymes.

  15. Sequence and properties of HMW subunit 1Bx20 from pasta wheat (Triticum durum) which is associated with poor end use properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, P R; Gilbert, S M; Savage, A W J; Tatham, A S; Wan, Y-F; Belton, P S; Wellner, N; D'Ovidio, R; Békés, F; Halford, N G

    2003-02-01

    The gene encoding high-molecular-weight (HMW) subunit 1Bx20 was isolated from durum wheat cv. Lira. It encodes a mature protein of 774 amino acid residues with an M(r) of 83,913. Comparison with the sequence of subunit 1Bx7 showed over 96% identity, the main difference being the substitution of two cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain of subunit 1Bx7 with tyrosine residues in 1Bx20. Comparison of the structures and stabilities of the two subunits purified from wheat using Fourier-transform infra-red and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed no significant differences. However, incorporation of subunit 1Bx7 into a base flour gave increased dough strength and stability measured by Mixograph analysis, while incorporation of subunit 1Bx20 resulted in small positive or negative effects on the parameters measured. It is concluded that the different effects of the two subunits could relate to the differences in their cysteine contents, thereby affecting the cross-linking and hence properties of the glutenin polymers.

  16. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  17. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  18. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue

  19. Water and nitrogen conditions affect the relationships of Delta13C and Delta18O to gas exchange and growth in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Molero, Gemma; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the effects of water and nitrogen (N) on plant Delta(13)C have been reported previously, these factors have scarcely been studied for Delta(18)O. Here the combined effect of different water and N regimes on Delta(13)C, Delta(18)O, gas exchange, water-use efficiency (WUE), and growth of four genotypes of durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] cultured in pots was studied. Water and N supply significantly increased plant growth. However, a reduction in water supply did not lead to a significant decrease in gas exchange parameters, and consequently Delta(13)C was only slightly modified by water input. Conversely, N fertilizer significantly decreased Delta(13)C. On the other hand, water supply decreased Delta(18)O values, whereas N did not affect this parameter. Delta(18)O variation was mainly determined by the amount of transpired water throughout plant growth (T(cum)), whereas Delta(13)C variation was explained in part by a combination of leaf N and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Even though the four genotypes showed significant differences in cumulative transpiration rates and biomass, this was not translated into significant differences in Delta(18)O(s). However, genotypic differences in Delta(13)C were observed. Moreover, approximately 80% of the variation in biomass across growing conditions and genotypes was explained by a combination of both isotopes, with Delta(18)O alone accounting for approximately 50%. This illustrates the usefulness of combining Delta(18)O and Delta(13)C in order to assess differences in plant growth and total transpiration, and also to provide a time-integrated record of the photosynthetic and evaporative performance of the plant during the course of crop growth.

  20. Short communication: Emergence of a new race of leaf rust with combined virulence to Lr14a and Lr72 genes on durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleiman, N.H; Solis, I.; Soliman, M.H.; Sillero, J.C.; Villegas, D.; Alvaro, F.; Royo, C.; Serra, J.; Ammar, K.; Martínez-Moreno, F.

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. (Author)

  1. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  2. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  3. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability.

  4. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  5. Characterization and glutenin diversity in tetraploid wheat varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Important methods applied for the breeding of bread-quality wheat (Triticum durum L.) consist of small- scale bread-quality tests for the determination of the grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, thousand weight kernel and ... marked as a x and y – type subunits, based on their electrophoretic ...

  6. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  8. Assessment of annual effective dose from natural radioactivity intake through wheat grain produced in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, M.; Sabiha-Javied; Akhtar, N.; Akhter, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat is staple food of the people of Pakistan. Phosphate fertilizers, used to increase the yield of wheat, enhance the natural radioactivity in the agricultural fields from where radionuclides are transferred to wheat grain. A study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the uptake of radioactivity by wheat grain and to determine radiation doses received by human beings from the intake of foodstuffs made of wheat grain. Wheat was grown in a highly fertilized agricultural research farm at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The activity concentration of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th was measured in soil, single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer, and wheat grain using an HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil to wheat grain transfer factors determined for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were 0.118 ± 0.021, 0.022 ± 0.004 and 0.036 ± 0.007, respectively, and the annual effective dose received by an adult person from the intake of wheat products was estimated to be 217 μSv. (author)

  9. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  10. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of N fertilisation, year and prolamin alleles on gluten quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum) landraces from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiriano, E.; Ruiz, M.; Fite, R.; Carrillo, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    A subset of durum wheat Spanish land races, previously evaluated for yield at low and high nitrogen (N) levels, was analysed for quality, protein content (P) and sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (SDSS) test. The evaluation was carried out at the two N rates and in two years. The influence of prolamine alleles at the Glu-1, Glu-3, Glu-B2 and Gli- 1 loci on quality parameters was also studied. The non significant Variety-by-Year or Variety-by-N interactions suggested that year and N affected all the varieties in a similar manner. Year and N effects were larger than variety effect for P, which increased with N. In contrast, variety genotype exhibited a stronger influence on SDSS test, which was not affected by year and fertilizer. Variety effects on P did not reflect the variety differences for SDSS test. A high positive influence of some prolamin alleles on quality parameters was detected, mainly for SDSS values. No correlation between yield and P was detected in the landraces adapted to low N. Based on the results of yield and quality evaluations, four landraces with high yield and high gluten strength were pre-selected for low N production. (Author)

  12. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  13. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  14. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  15. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  16. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  17. The Mathematical Modeling Effective Viscosity of Whole Minced Wheat Grain Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the change of rheological properties of whole minced wheat grain dough during fermentation with additives. Retrieving dependencies to predict and manage effective viscosity of dough fermentation.

  18. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  19. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  20. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum wheat Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring resistance to stem rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust is a serious disease of wheat that has caused historical epidemics, but it has not been a threat in recent decades in North America due to the eradication of the alternate host and deployment of resistant cultivars. However, the recent emergence of Ug99 (or race TTKS) poses a threat to glo...

  1. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  2. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  3. Combined use of δ¹³C, δ18O and δ15N tracks nitrogen metabolism and genotypic adaptation of durum wheat to salinity and water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolores; Márquez, Antonio José; Voltas, Jordi; Araus, José Luis

    2012-04-01

    • Accurate phenotyping remains a bottleneck in breeding for salinity and drought resistance. Here the combined use of stable isotope compositions of carbon (δ¹³C), oxygen (δ¹⁸O) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) in dry matter is aimed at assessing genotypic responses of durum wheat under different combinations of these stresses. • Two tolerant and two susceptible genotypes to salinity were grown under five combinations of salinity and irrigation regimes. Plant biomass, δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O and δ¹⁵N, gas-exchange parameters, ion and N concentrations, and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities were measured. • Stresses significantly affected all traits studied. However, only δ¹³C, δ¹⁸O, δ¹⁵N, GS and NR activities, and N concentration allowed for clear differentiation between tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Further, a conceptual model explaining differences in biomass based on such traits was developed for each growing condition. • Differences in acclimation responses among durum wheat genotypes under different stress treatments were associated with δ¹³C. However, except for the most severe stress, δ¹³C did not have a direct (negative) relationship to biomass, being mediated through factors affecting δ¹⁸O or N metabolism. Based upon these results, the key role of N metabolism in durum wheat adaptation to salinity and water stress is highlighted. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghirardo, A.; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable...... data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later....

  5. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  6. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  8. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  9. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Characterizing bread wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Hashmi, Khalid S; Nadeem, Faisal; Ullah, Aman

    2018-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application increased the concentration of Zn in wheat grain (32.1%), embryo (19.8%), aleurone (47%) and endosperm (23.7%), with an increase in bioavailable Zn (22.2%) and a reduction in phytate concentration (6.8%). Application of Zn also enhanced grain protein and Ca concentrations. Among wheat genotypes, Blue Silver had the highest concentration of Zn in grain, embryo, aleurone and endosperm, with high bioavailable Zn, while Kohinoor-83 had low phytate concentration. Wheat genotypes of Pakistan are genetically less diverse owing to continuous focus on the development of high-yielding varieties only. Therefore genetically diverse wheat genotypes with high endospermic Zn concentration and better grain yield should be used in breeding programs approaches, aiming at improving Zn bioavailability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  12. Studies on the Effects of Climatic Factors on Dryland Wheat Grain Yield in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of climate variables on rainfed wheat grain yield, climate data and wheat yield for 10 years (1995-2005 collected from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI in Maragheh as the main station in cold and semi-cold areas. Collected data were analyzed by correlation coefficient, simple regression, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that relationships between grain yield with average relative humidity and total rainfall of growing season was positive and significant at 5% and 1% probabilities, respectively. However, evaluation between grain yield with sunny hours and class A pan evaporation was negative and significant (p

  13. Constitutive expression of the xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III delays Fusarium head blight symptoms in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Tundo, Silvio; Janni, Michela; Sella, Luca; Gazzetti, Katia; Tauzin, Alexandra; Giardina, Thierry; Masci, Stefania; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Cereals contain xylanase inhibitor (XI) proteins which inhibit microbial xylanases and are considered part of the defense mechanisms to counteract microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, in planta evidence for this role has not been reported yet. Therefore, we produced a number of transgenic plants constitutively overexpressing TAXI-III, a member of the TAXI type XI that is induced by pathogen infection. Results showed that TAXI-III endows the transgenic wheat with new inhibition capacities. We also showed that TAXI-III is correctly secreted into the apoplast and possesses the expected inhibition parameters against microbial xylanases. The new inhibition properties of the transgenic plants correlate with a significant delay of Fusarium head blight disease symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum but do not significantly influence leaf spot symptoms caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. We showed that this contrasting result can be due to the different capacity of TAXI-III to inhibit the xylanase activity of these two fungal pathogens. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence in planta that XI are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens and show the potential to manipulate TAXI-III accumulation to improve wheat resistance against F. graminearum.

  14. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  15. Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat, tritordeum and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jaromír; Hejtmánková, Alena; Orsák, Matyáš; Popov, Marek; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content. Tocol content was significantly affected by genotype and in a lesser extent in some varieties and lines also by rainfall and temperatures during crop year. Higher rainfall and lower temperatures caused in most varieties higher tocol contents. Purple- and blue-grained wheat lines with higher tocol, anthocyanin and phenolic acids with health benefits may be useful for breeding new varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  17. Increased pericarp cell length underlies a major quantitative trait locus for grain weight in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Jemima; Simmonds, James; Minter, Francesca; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Snape, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-08-01

    Crop yields must increase to address food insecurity. Grain weight, determined by grain length and width, is an important yield component, but our understanding of the underlying genes and mechanisms is limited. We used genetic mapping and near isogenic lines (NILs) to identify, validate and fine-map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 5A associated with grain weight. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of developing and mature grains from the NILs was performed. We identified a stable and robust QTL associated with a 6.9% increase in grain weight. The positive interval leads to 4.0% longer grains, with differences first visible 12 d after fertilization. This grain length effect was fine-mapped to a 4.3 cM interval. The locus also has a pleiotropic effect on grain width (1.5%) during late grain development that determines the relative magnitude of the grain weight increase. Positive NILs have increased maternal pericarp cell length, an effect which is independent of absolute grain length. These results provide direct genetic evidence that pericarp cell length affects final grain size and weight in polyploid wheat. We propose that combining genes that control distinct biological mechanisms, such as cell expansion and proliferation, will enhance crop yields. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine. (45.8%), lysine ... especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat ...... or Triticale, low-protein diets for growing-finishing swine. Anim. Sci.

  20. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  2. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about fifteen years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP. Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous and tissues/organs (etiolated and green have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane towards the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ, the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate

  3. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in fractions of wheat grains and in selected bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Elzbieta; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Smoczyński, S S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of synthetic aromatic chemical compounds, commonly occurring in the environment as a result of industrialisation. Despite the ban on PCBs production, their wide application in the past resulted in their common occurrence in all elements of the environment. The lipophilic nature of the compounds resulting in their accumulation in live organisms and in the human body may trigger many harmful effects. The aim of this study was to determine the PCBs content in the selected species of wheat and in bakery products. The studies aiming at confirming possible correlation between the size of the grain of the selected species of wheat and the content of polychlorinated biphenyls were presented in this paper. Moreover, PCBs concentration in cereals' grains and in bread was compared. The PCBs content was defined in different sizes of grains species of wheat i.e. Opatka, Zyta, Elena and Almari. The study included also two kinds of wheat bread. PCBs were determined after the extraction with n-hexane followed by sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis was conducted on a PU 4600 Unicam apparatus with an electron capture detector. The large variations in PCBs content depending on the grain size were confirmed. In the Opatka species the increase in the content of all determined congeners and the size of grain was confirmed. The lowest PCBs concentrations were in smallest grains (0,0090 mg/kg of fat), and the highest in the largest grains (0,0264 mg/kg of fat). In Zyta species PCBs content was also lowest in the smallest grains, however these results were not statistically significant. In the Elena species the increase in the PCBs content together with the increase in the grain size was confirmed. Basing on the determination coefficient it was found that the concentration of PCBs depends on the size of grains in 24%. The highest concentration of PCBs (0,0366 mg/kg of fat) was found in the largest grains, however differences

  4. Free and esterified carotenoids in pigmented wheat, tritordeum and barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paznocht, Luboš; Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Orsák, Matyáš; Eliášová, Marie; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoids are important phytonutrients responsible for the yellow endosperm color in cereal grains. Five carotenoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS in fourteen genotypes of wheat, barley and tritordeum harvested in Czechia in 2014 and 2015. The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-grained tritordeum HT 439 (12.16μg/gDW), followed by blue-grained wheat V1-131-15 (7.46μg/gDW), and yellow-grained wheat TA 4024 (7.04μg/gDW). Comparing carotenoid contents, blue varieties had lower whereas purple ones had the same or higher levels than conventional bread wheat. Lutein was the main carotenoid found in wheat and tritordeum while zeaxanthin dominated in barley. The majority of cereals contained considerable levels of esterified forms (up to 61%) of which lutein esters prevailed. It was assessed that cereal genotype determines the proportion of free and esterified forms. High temperatures and drought during the growing season promoted carotenoid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  6. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  7. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rossi Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.

  8. Maternal effects of the English grain aphids feeding on the wheat varieties with different resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Yi; Song, Yue; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2018-05-09

    The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, r m , net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.

  9. Evaluation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To study drought stress effect on grain quality properties of wheat, an experiment was conductedusing 169 recombinant inbreed lines (RILS under water stress and non-stress condition and with two separated lattice designs. Grain yield, protein yield, protein content, volume of Zeleny sediment, grain hardness, water absorption, grain moisture content and grain dry matter were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for all traits. Moreover, comparison between two lines in two environmental conditions showed, the quality in bread wheat under drought stress conditions due to increment of protein yield is improved. Protein yield in both irrigation regimes has a significant and negative correlation with grain moisture and in the other hand, significant and positive correlation with the grain hardiness dry matter, Zeleny sedimentation and water intake in both conditions. The results showed that the identification of favorable quality characteristics in optimum and stressed conditions were possible and the lines with high grain quality can be used in breeding programs for improving of baking quality. Although some drought sensitive genotypes possessed a favorable baking quality but their grain yield was low.

  10. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  11. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  12. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22 were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils.

  13. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  14. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  15. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges; Langin, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains.

  16. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  17. In vitro gas production of wheat grain flour coated with different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas production (GP) is a rapid method for feedstuffs assessment. A study was done to investigate wheat grain coated with hydrogenated tallow (HT) and hydrogenated palm oil (HP) of different fatty acids types and levels to study total gas production. Approximately, 200 mg (DM basis) of sample was weighed and inserted in ...

  18. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  19. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  20. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  2. Metabolomics Suggests That Soil Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Decreased Free Amino Acid Content in Roots of Durum Wheat Grown under N-Limited, P-Rich Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Ruisi, Paolo; Fileccia, Veronica; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Amato, Gaetano; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a major impact on plant nutrition, defence against pathogens, a plant's reaction to stressful environments, soil fertility, and a plant's relationship with other microorganisms. Such effects imply a broad reprogramming of the plant's metabolic activity. However, little information is available regarding the role of AMF and their relation to other soil plant growth-promoting microorganisms in the plant metabolome, especially under realistic field conditions. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of inoculation with AMF, either alone or in combination with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), on the metabolome and changes in metabolic pathways in the roots of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) grown under N-limited agronomic conditions in a P-rich environment. These two treatments were compared to infection by the natural AMF population (NAT). Soil inoculation with AMF almost doubled wheat root colonization by AMF and decreased the root concentrations of most compounds in all metabolic pathways, especially amino acids (AA) and saturated fatty acids, whereas inoculation with AMF+PGPR increased the concentrations of such compounds compared to inoculation with AMF alone. Enrichment metabolomics analyses showed that AA metabolic pathways were mostly changed by the treatments, with reduced amination activity in roots most likely due to a shift from the biosynthesis of common AA to γ-amino butyric acid. The root metabolome differed between AMF and NAT but not AMF+PGPR and AMF or NAT. Because the PGPR used were potent mineralisers, and AMF can retain most nitrogen (N) taken as organic compounds for their own growth, it is likely that this result was due to an increased concentration of mineral N in soil inoculated with AMF+PGPR compared to AMF alone.

  3. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL 50 , showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor) [es

  4. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  6. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  7. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  8. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  9. Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and health of wheat consumers. In this study, sequence analyses of conserved DNA regions of fungi and bacteria combined with determination of trichothecenes and aflatoxins revealed the microbiome and mycotoxins of wheat from different silo positions (top, middle, and bottom and storage times (3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The fungal community in wheat on the first day of storage (T0 included 105 classified species (81 genera and 41 unclassified species. Four species had over 10% of the relative abundance: Alternaria alternata (12%, Filobasidium floriforme (27%, Fusarium graminearum (12%, and Wallemia sebi (12%. Fungal diversity and relative abundance of Fusarium in wheat from top silo positions were significantly lower than at other silo positions during storage. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in wheat were 13–34% higher in all positions at 3 months compared to T0, and mycotoxins in wheat from middle and bottom positions at 6 to 12 months were 24–57% higher than at T0. The relative abundance of toxigenic Aspergillus and aflatoxins were low at T0 and during storage. This study provides information on implementation and design of fungus and mycotoxin management strategies as well as prediction models.

  10. Elasticities for U.S. Wheat Food Use by Class

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    We conceptualize wheat for food use as an input into flour production and derive demand functions to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Cost, price, and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter, and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring wheat varieties are much more responsive to their own price than are soft wheat varieties and durum wheat. Morishima elasticitie...

  11. Combined Effect of Infrared and Gamma Radiation on Certain Insects in Stored Wheat Grains and Wheat Flour *

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage mortality studies on the infrared radiation and combined effects with 1500 Gy gamma irradiation, which calculated to kill about 50% of adults, were applied to samples of 50 and 100 grams of wheat grains and flour containing newly emerged adults of T. granarium, T. castaneum, S. granarius and R. dominica. The time required to obtain thermal energy from infrared radiation that were lethal to those adults depends not only on the insect species but also on the heat retention characteristics of the grain or flour and the distances from source of radiation to materials. The dose of infrared (180 sec) at which the temperature attained to 64.8 degree C and 54.3 degree C on 50 and 100 g of wheat flour gave about 60.0 and 44.67% adult mortality for T. granarium and 58.67% and 39.33% adult mortality for T. castaneum on distance 4 cm, respectively. The combined gamma radiation (1500 Gy) with the same doses of infrared gave 96.0% and 86.0%, 90.0% and 78.0% adult mortalities for T. granarium and T. castaneum, respectively. At dose 240 sec infrared on 50 and 100 g of wheat grains which received 77 degree C and 69.7 degree C gave about 60.0% and 46.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 56.67% and 42.67% for R. dominica on distance 4 cm, respectively, but the combination of 1500 Gy with the same dose of infrared gave 98.0% and 90.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 94.0% and 88.0% adult mortality for R. dominica, respectively. By rising the time of exposure and reducing distance from IR source, the temperatures were gradually increased causing high adult mortalities. Finally, T. granarium, T. castaneum, and S. granarius were more sensitive than R. dominica.

  12. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M.M.; Alsahli A.A.; Al-Ghamdi A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gua...

  13. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  14. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  15. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking......We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells...... of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain....

  16. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  17. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  18. Trigo duro: tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em soluções nutritivas Durum wheat: tolerance to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento diferencial de 23 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. em compraração com os seguintes cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L.: IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros e IAC-60, quanto aos níveis de Al3+ (0;0,2;0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 mg/L, de Mn2+ (0,11; 300; 600 c 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56; 5; 10 e 20 mg/L em solução nutritiva. Os cultivares de trigo Siete Cerros (sensível à toxicidade de Al3+, BH-1146, IAC-60 e IAC-24 (tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exibiram crescimento das raízes na presença de 1 mg/L de Al3+, e todas as linhagens de trigo duro avaliadas foram totalmente sensíveis a 0,4 mg/L de Al3+, com paralisação irreversível do crescimento das raízes. O aumento das concentrações de Mn2+(0,11 a 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56 a 20 mg/L nas soluções causou uma redução significativa no comprimento das raízes dos genótipos em estudo. As linhagens de trigo duro I (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Purcell "S"/D.67.2, 2 (Cando - Yavaros "S", 6 (Chen "S" e 8 (Carcomum "S" apresentaram-se muito tolerantes à toxicidade de Mn2+ em relação ao controle 'Siete Cerros'. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens de trigo duro 1, 6, 12 (CI 14955 x Yavaros "S"- Gediz "S"/Tropic Bird, 16 e 21 (Swan "S" c 20 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane/Ganso//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/ Memo "S" exibiram tolerância à presença de elevadas quantidades de Fe2+ nas soluções nutritivas.Twenty three durum wheat inbred lines were evaluated with four bread wheat cultivars (IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros and IAC-60 in three experiments, using nutrient solutions. In the first experiment, the following levels of Al3+ were used: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L; in the second experiment, the following levels of Mn2+ were used: 0.11; 300; 600 and 1.200 mg/L; and in the third experiment, Fe2+ was used at: 0.56; 5; 10 and 1.200 mg/L. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros (sensitive to Al3+ toxicity and BH-1146, IAC-24 and IAC-60 (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity

  19. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  20. Effect of replacing maize grain and soybean meal with a xylose-treated wheat grain on feed intake and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Hamann, Gregor; Steingaß, Herbert; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Landfried, Karl; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated wheat grain which was treated with xylose in aqueous Ca-Mg lignosulphonate solution at elevated temperatures (WeiPass®) in order to reduce ruminal degradation of starch and crude protein. The two tested isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets contained on dry matter (DM) basis either 16% maize grain and 6.4% soybean meal (Diet CON) or 17.8% xylose-treated wheat and 4.6% soybean meal (Diet Wheat). Thirty-six German Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two groups according to parity, body weight after calving, and milk yield during the previous lactation. Data collection started at 21 d before the expected calving date until 120 d in milk. The average of DM intake, energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, and milk fat and protein yields (all given as kg/d) were 18.9, 28.7, 1.25, and 1.02 for Diet CON and 19.3, 32.5, 1.36, and 1.11 for Diet Wheat, respectively. Only ECM and milk protein yields were greater (p < 0.05) for cows receiving Diet Wheat. In conclusion, the xylose-treated wheat grain can replace maize grain and part of soybean meal in diets for lactating dairy cows and may be an alternative feedstuff depending on overall ration composition and availability and costs of grain sources.

  1. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal strategy for zinc mycoremediation and diminished translocation to shoots and grains in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants. The concentrations of Zn also had an inhibitory effect on the yield of dry root and shoot of non-mycorrhizal wheat. The photosynthetic pigment fractions were significantly affected by Zn treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation, where in all treatments, the content of the photosynthetic pigment fractions decreased as the Zn concentration increased in the soil. However, the level of minerals of shoots, roots, and grains was greatly influenced by Zn-treatment and by inoculation with F. geosporum. Treatment with Zn in the soil increased Cu and Zn concentrations in the root, shoot and grains, however, other minerals (P, S, K, Ca and Fe) concentration was decreased. Inoculation of wheat with AM fungi significantly reduced the accumulation of Zn and depressed its translocation in shoots and grains of wheat. In conclusion, inoculation with a native F. geosporum-improves yields of wheat under higher levels of Zn and is possible to be applied for the improvement of zinc contaminated soil. PMID:29145471

  3. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  4. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006-2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 10(1) CFU/g to over 10(3) CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 µg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006-2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.

  5. Canopy temperature depression at grain filling correlates to winter wheat yield in the U.S. southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat breeding has improved drought tolerance over the years. However, our knowledge on drought tolerance in relation to the canopy temperature (CT) and grain yield is limited. A three-season wheat field study ending 2012, 2015, and 2016 was conducted at Bushland, Texas to investigate the relationsh...

  6. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  7. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  8. Residual efficacy of cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier in wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pražić-Golić Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual efficacy of EC formulations of two insecticides: cypermethrin supplemented with the synergist piperonyl butoxide, and pirimiphos-methyl, against adults of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, was investigated in the laboratory (at 25±1°C and 55-60% r.h. by applying water solutions of products based either on cypermethrin (1.6 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain or pirimiphos-methyl (4 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain to wheat grain. Insect mortality on deposits of different age: 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days was estimated after 2, 7 and 14 days of insect exposure to treated wheat. After 2 day exposure, cypermethrin caused mortality of up to 46% on all deposits (age 0-180 days. After 7 days of exposure, high efficacy (94-100% was found only on deposits that were up to 90 days old, while the mortality of S. cerealella adults on all deposits following 14 days of exposure was 98-100%, and it was probably additionally enhanced by natural mortality. Pirimiphos-methyl was 98-100% effective after 2 days of exposure to deposits that were up to 30 days old, while it achieved maximum efficacy (100% after 7 days of insect exposure to deposits aging for up to 150 days, and 94% efficacy on 180 days old deposits. After 14 days of adult exposure to all deposit ages, there were no surviving insects (efficacy 100%. The results show that pirimiphos-methyl was more effective against S. cerealella adults and had a longer residual activity than cypermethrin.

  9. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving......). The nutritional impact of increasing mineral content accordingly has to be seen in the context of mineral bioavailability. Finally, we will briefly report on recent data from barley, where laser capture microdissection of the different grain tissues combined with gene expression profiling has provided some...

  10. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  11. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins.

  12. Characterization of the Wheat Leaf Metabolome during Grain Filling and under Varied N-Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien Heyneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha−1. Four lines from a segregating doubled haploid population derived of a cross of the wheat elite cvs. Avalon and Cadenza were chosen as they showed pairwise differences in either N utilization efficiency (NUtE or senescence timing. 108 annotated metabolites of primary metabolism and ions were determined. The analysis did not provide genotype specific markers because of a remarkable stability of the metabolome between lines. We speculate that the reason for failing to identify genotypic markers might be due to insufficient genetic diversity of the wheat parents and/or the known tendency of plants to keep metabolome homeostasis even under adverse conditions through multiple adaptations and rescue mechanism. The data, however, provided a consistent catalogue of metabolites and their respective responses to environmental and developmental factors and may bode well for future systems biology approaches, and support plant breeding and crop improvement.

  13. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cryopreservation at -75 °C of Agaricus subrufescens on wheat grains with sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

  15. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C. Broberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn, and starch. The analysis was performed by (i deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.

  17. Identifying loci influencing grain number by microsatellite screening in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2012-11-01

    Grain number (GN) is one of three major yield-related components in wheat. We used the Chinese wheat mini core collection to undertake a genome-wide association analysis of grain number using 531 SSR markers randomly located on all 21 chromosomes. Grain numbers of all accessions were measured in four trials, i.e. two environments in four growing seasons. Association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM) revealed that 27 SSR loci were significantly associated with mean GN (MGN) estimated by the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) method. These included numerous breeder favorable alleles with strong positive effects at 23 loci. Significant or extremely significant differences were detected on MGN between varieties conveying favored allele and varieties with other alleles. Moreover, statistical simulation showed that the favored alleles have additive genetic effects. Although modern varieties combined larger numbers of favored alleles, the numbers of favored alleles were not significantly different from those in landraces, especially those alleles contributing mostly to the phenotypic variation. These results indicate that there is still considerable genetic potential for use of markers for genome selection of GN for high yield in wheat.

  18. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  19. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Calcium Accumulation in Grains of European Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Alomari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for people who depend mainly on consuming cereal diet. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS of calcium concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains using a European wheat diversity panel of 353 varieties [339 winter wheat (WW plus 14 of spring wheat (SW] and phenotypic data based on two field seasons. High genotyping densities of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were obtained from the application of the 90k iSELECT ILLUMINA chip and a 35k Affymetrix chip. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to measure the calcium concentrations of the wheat grains. Best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs for calcium were calculated across the seasons and ranged from 288.20 to 647.50 among the varieties (μg g-1 DW with a mean equaling 438.102 (μg g-1 DW, and the heritability was 0.73. A total of 485 SNP marker–trait associations (MTAs were detected in data obtained from grains cultivated in both of the two seasons and BLUE values by considering associations with a -log10 (P-value ≥3.0. Among these SNP markers, we detected 276 markers with a positive allele effect and 209 markers with a negative allele effect. These MTAs were found on all chromosomes except chromosomes 3D, 4B, and 4D. The most significant association was located on chromosome 5A (114.5 cM and was linked to a gene encoding cation/sugar symporter activity as a potential candidate gene. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of calcium were located near significantly associated SNPs. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally variable traits in genetically highly diverse variety panels. The research demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for illuminating the genetic architecture of

  1. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  2. The evaluation of wheat grain odor and color after gamma and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.; Gralik, J.; Kusnierz, R.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Zabielski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat grain was exposed to gamma ionising irradiation at selected doses between 0.05-10 kGy and microwave radiation from 45 to 180 sec. The sensory evaluation of a grain odor proved that both applied treatments, gamma and microwave irradiation, did not cause significant changes in the grain odor in comparison to control samples of grain with the exclusion of maximum irradiation dose 10 kGy, and maximum microwave heating time 180 sec. The results obtained after measurement of the grain reflected-light showed that gamma 60 Co irradiation did not cause any changes in grain color. The grain after microwave heating at 90, 120, 180 sec was characterised by significantly higher lightness (L*) value. The total colour difference (δE) between microwave irradiated samples and the control ones was increasing gradually, with the increase in temperature. The yellowness (b*) and the redness (a*) values were statistically significantly higher in the case of 120 and 180 sec of irradiation time comparing to the control sample. (author)

  3. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  4. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  5. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...... of the RAF bread, with an intermediary degree of substitution, were mainly fermented in the caecum. The WFL bread, rich in cellulose, was fermented more distally. Fermentation of experimental breads in the large intestine had no effect (P.005) on the production of metabolites, except for butyrate which...

  6. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  7. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  8. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  10. Effects of high NH4+ on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan eKong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that a high external NH4+ concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH4+ are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m-2 and high (30 g N m-2 supplies of NH4+ in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m-2 to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH4+ significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH4+. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH4+, resulting in a 19.41%-26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH4+. This study indicates that the effects of high NH4+ on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat.

  11. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  12. Implicitly defined criteria for vector optimization in technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugaets, N. A.; Tereshchenko, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    To reduce the duration of the process and to ensure the microbiological purity of the germinated material, an improved method of germination has been developed based on the complex use of physical factors: electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water), electromagnetic field of extremely low frequencies (EMF ELF) with round-the-clock artificial illumination by LED lamps. The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. A solution algorithm is offered without the construction of a Pareto set in which a relatively small number of elements of a set of alternatives is used to obtain a linear convolution of the criteria with given weights, normalized to their "ideal" values from the solution of the problems of single-criterion private optimizations. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic germination of wheat grains made it possible to intensify the germination process and to shorten the time of obtaining wheat sprouts "Altayskaya 105" for 27 hours.

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Salleh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1 could be detected in 56 (68.2% samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2 in 35 (42.6% samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3 in 26 (31.7% samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg.

  14. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  15. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  16. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T 3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  17. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  19. A kinetic and microautoradiographic study of 14C-sucrose translocation into developing wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Wang; Fisher, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of 14 C-photosynthate import by developing wheat grains was followed after pulse-labeling the flag leaf with 14 CO 2 . Samples were collected from four successive points along the transport pathway to and within the grain: exuding aphid stylets on the peduncle, exuding grain pedicels, the grain crease tissues, and the liquid contents of the endosperm cavity. In addition, microautoradiographs were prepared of the grain crease tissues during movement of the 14 C pulse into the grain. At all times, sucrose accounted for 93 to 97% of the total 14 C present at all four sampling sites. The main features of the 14 C kinetics could be accounted for by a simple compartmental model consisting of sucrose pools in series. Microautoradiographs of the crease tissues showed fairly uniform labeling of vascular parenchyma at all times, with a sharp gradient in labeling across the chalaza to the nucellus. Thus the principal resistance to post-phloem solute transport through the maternal tissues appears to be in the symplastic pathway across the chalaza

  20. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  1. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  2. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  3. Enriching and understanding the wheat B genome by meiotic homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, including common wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) and durum wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum, 2n=4x=28, AABB), contains three homoeologous subgenomes (A, B, and D) originated from three diploid ancestors. The wild einkorn wheat T. urartu (2n=2x=14, AA) contributed subgenome A and wild...

  4. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops; wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. Horani) and broad beans field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author)

  5. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  6. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  7. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa eBorrill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  8. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  9. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3499 ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  10. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  11. Application of calibrations to hyperspectral images of food grains: example for wheat falling number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caporaso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a few kernels with sprouting problems in a batch of wheat can result in enzymatic activity sufficient to compromise flour functionality and bread quality. This is commonly assessed using the Hagberg Falling Number (HFN method, which is a batch analysis. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI can provide analysis at the single grain level with potential for improved performance. The present paper deals with the development and application of calibrations obtained using an HSI system working in the near infrared (NIR region (~900–2500 nm and reference measurements of HFN. A partial least squares regression calibration has been built using 425 wheat samples with a HFN range of 62–318 s, including field and laboratory pre-germinated samples placed under wet conditions. Two different approaches were tested to apply calibrations: i application of the calibration to each pixel, followed by calculation of the average of the resulting values for each object (kernel; ii calculation of the average spectrum for each object, followed by application of the calibration to the mean spectrum. The calibration performance achieved for HFN (R2 = 0.6; RMSEC ~ 50 s; RMSEP ~ 63 s compares favourably with other studies using NIR spectroscopy. Linear spectral pre-treatments lead to similar results when applying the two methods, while non-linear treatments such as standard normal variate showed obvious differences between these approaches. A classification model based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA was also applied to segregate wheat kernels into low (250 s HFN groups. LDA correctly classified 86.4% of the samples, with a classification accuracy of 97.9% when using an HFN threshold of 150 s. These results are promising in terms of wheat quality assessment using a rapid and non-destructive technique which is able to analyse wheat properties on a single-kernel basis, and to classify samples as acceptable or unacceptable for flour production.

  12. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  13. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Chuan

    Full Text Available In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (PFP-N, P (PFP-P and K (PFP-K were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (AEN, P (AEP and K (AEK were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Ponomareva; N. N. Alekhinа; I. A. Bakayeva

    2014-01-01

    Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour), which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objective...

  15. Physiology and biochemistry of source-regulated protein accumulation in the wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneix, Atilio J

    2007-05-01

    Wheat is unique among cereals for the baking qualities of its flour, which are dependent upon the type and concentration of its proteins. As a consequence, the grain protein concentration (GPC) is one of the main determinants of wheat international market price. More than 50-70% of the final grain N is accumulated before flowering and later remobilized to the grain, N fertilization being the common practice used to produce high GPC. However, after incremental additions of N fertilizer, GPC reaches a maximum and then remains constant, without any increase in N uptake or remobilization by the crop, thus decreasing the efficiency of N fertilizer. Although, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate N uptake by the roots are being clarified quickly, the regulation and physiology of N transport from the leaves to the grain remains less clear. In this review, the possible regulatory points involved in N transport to the grain and the difficulties for increasing GPC are discussed. It has been demonstrated that protein synthesis in the grain is source-limited, and that the grain can accumulate protein limited only by the amino acids provided by the phloem. It has also been shown that there is no limitation in the amino acid/sugar ratios that can be exported to the phloem. On the other hand, NO(3)(-) uptake transporters are depressed when the plant concentration of some amino acids, such as glutamine, is high. It has also been shown that a high N supply increases cytokinins concentration, preventing leaf senescence and proteolysis. Based on this information, it is postulated that there are two main regulatory points during grain filling when plant N status is ample. On the one hand, the N uptake transporters in the roots are depressed due to the high amino acids concentration in the tissues, and N uptake is low. On the other, a high amino acids concentration keeps the cytokinins level high, repressing leaf protein degradation and decreasing amino acid export to the

  16. Chemical compositions as quality parameters of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the analysis of chemical characteristics of ZP soybean and wheat genotypes, as well as, on nutritional differences between this two complementary plant species. The experimental material consisted of two bread (ZP 96/I and ZP 87/Ip, two durum (ZP 34/I ZP and ZP DSP/01-66M wheat genotypes and four soybean varieties (Nena, Lidija, Lana and Bosa of different genetic background. All ZP soybean genotypes, except the Lana, had over 40% of total proteins by dry matter. Lana and Lidija, variety of recent creation, developed as a result of selection for specific traits, had high oil content. Wheat genotypes had much a lower content of ash, oil, total and water soluble proteins than soybean cultivars. The highest oil, total and water soluble proteins content was detected in grain of durum genotype ZP DSP/01-66M. Lignin content varies much more among soybean than among the wheat genotypes. Generally, contents of total phenolics, carotenes and tocopherol were more abundant in ZP soybean than bread and durum wheat genotypes.

  17. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  18. The influence of irradiated wheat on longevity and reproduction of the grain weevil sitophilus granarius LINNE 1758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Franco, S.S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to determine the influence of gamma irradiations on wheat, the diet of the grain weevil, using as parameters of the longevity and reproduction of this insect. The doses of 60 Co γ-rays applied to wheat grains were 0(control), 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Gy, at a dose rate of 3000 Gy per hour. The longevity, expressed as life-expectancy in days, and the reproduction expressed as the number of F 1 adults, showed no differences up to the dose of 2000 Gy. The wheat irradiated with the dose of 4000 Gy induced a lower life-expectancy of the insects fed with irradiated wheat and a smaller number of insects of the F 1 generation

  19. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  20. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  1. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  2. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  3. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Miche, Hélène; Keller, Catherine

    2012-03-30

    Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha(-1). ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  5. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  6. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R.; Bouchet, B.; Saulnier, L.; Dumas, P.; Guillon, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of Β-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of Β-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  7. A Proteomics Approach to Discover Drought Tolerance Proteins in Wheat Pollen Grain at Meiosis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotovat, Reza; Alikhani, Mehdi; Valizadeh, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Salekdeh, Ghasem H

    2017-01-01

    Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis. Our results demonstrated that short-term stress at meiosis stage reduced plant seed-setting compared to well-watered plants. This reduction was more pronounced in the susceptible genotype, Shiraz, by 51%, compared to the drought tolerant Darab by 14.3%. Proteome analysis revealed that 60 protein spots were drought responsive, out of which 44 were identified using a mass spectrometer. We observed a dramatic up-regulation of several heat shock proteins, as well as induction of Bet v I allergen family proteins, peroxiredoxin-5, and glutathione transferase with similar abundance in both genotypes. However, the abundance of proteins such as several stress response related proteins, including glutaredoxin, proteasome subunit alpha type 5, and ribosomal proteins showed a different response to drought stress in two genotypes. The differential abundance of proteins in two genotypes may suggest mechanisms by which tolerant genotype cope with drought stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteome analysis of plant reproductive tissue response to drought stress in wheat and could broaden our insight into plant adaptation to drought stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Effects of Cd2+ on chlorophyll content in flag and grain yield of wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Li Youjun; Liu Yingjie; Duan Youqiang; Li Qiang; Hao Yufen; Guo Jia

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with wheat cultivars Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 to investigate the effects of Cd 2+ stress on chlorophyll contents in flag leaves, flag leave area, thousand kernel weight, kernel filling velocity and yield of wheat. Results indicated that, under low Cd 2+ stress (10 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b of Luohan 6 reduced by 1.6%, however, its average area of flag leave and yield increased by 3.8% and 1.6%, respectively. At the same time, the average content of chlorophyll a + b, area of flag leave yield of Yumai 18 reduced 8.0%, 9.6% and 5.4%. Under high Cd 2+ stress (100 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b, areas of flag leaves and yields of Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 reduced by 29.2% and 30.5%, 6.3% and 17.4%, 16.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Cd 2+ restrained synthesis and accumulation of chlorophyll and its components. This study even showed that within a range of Cd 2+ concentration could promote the growth of flag leaves, and it also had an equal positive effect on yield of wheat if the Cd 2+ concentration in grains were not out of limit. The growth of flag leave and yield of wheat would be limited when Cd 2+ concentration exceed that range. Overall, Yumai 18 bore more poison from Cd 2+ than Luohan 6. (authors)

  9. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, were determined. Heat and UV-B irradiation alone caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigment content, radical scavenging activity and super oxide radical scavenging activity in the two studied plants. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were stimulated in response to UV and/or heat stresses. The elevation of enzyme activities was higher under heat than under UV-B, especially in T. aestivum. According to our findings, it can be concluded that combined heat and UV-B provided cross-tolerance; otherwise, single stress was found to aggravate the responses.

  10. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  11. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metal stress alleviation in wheat supplemented with amorphous Si (ASi). ► Pot experiment with a metal-contaminated soil and increased doses of ASi. ► Effects are observed both at the soil and the plant levels. ► ASi increases plant biomass and Cd content in roots and decreases Cd in shoots. ► ASi decreases soil-available Cd but is limiting for Si uptake. - Abstract: Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha −1 . ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat.

  12. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, APR (2015), s. 139-143 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  13. Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, Muhammad, E-mail: rizwan@cerege.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut pour la Recherche et le Developpement, College de France, CEREGE (Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement en Geosciences de l' Environnement), Europole mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP 80, 13454 Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); Meunier, Jean-Dominique, E-mail: meunier@cerege.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut pour la Recherche et le Developpement, College de France, CEREGE (Centre Europeen de Recherche et d' Enseignement en Geosciences de l' Environnement), Europole mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP 80, 13454 Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal stress alleviation in wheat supplemented with amorphous Si (ASi). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pot experiment with a metal-contaminated soil and increased doses of ASi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects are observed both at the soil and the plant levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASi increases plant biomass and Cd content in roots and decreases Cd in shoots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASi decreases soil-available Cd but is limiting for Si uptake. - Abstract: Agricultural soil contamination and subsequently crops still require alternative solutions to reduce associated environmental risks. The effects of silica application on alleviating cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in wheat plants were investigated in a 71-day pot experiment conducted with a historically contaminated agricultural soil. We used amorphous silica (ASi) that had been extracted from a diatomite mine for Si distribution at 0, 1, 10 and 15 ton ASi ha{sup -1}. ASi applications increased plant biomass and plant Si concentrations, reduced the available Cd in the soil and the Cd translocation to shoots, while Cd was more efficiently sequestrated in roots. But ASi is limiting for Si uptake by plants. We conclude that significant plant-available Si in soil contributes to decreased Cd concentrations in wheat shoots and could be implemented in a general scheme aiming at controlling Cd concentrations in wheat.

  14. Effect of spray volume on the moisture of stored corn and wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alberto Vásquez-Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray volume on the moisture of the stored grains of the corn and wheat. Two kg of each type of the grain were placed into the plastic bags and sprayed with the theoretical doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 liters of water / ton of the grain. The grain moisture content was evaluated 24 h after the spray operation by the oven method. The increase in the grain moisture was quadratic and showed the same trend in both the corn and wheat. The grain moisture after spraying 10 L.t-1 showed little increase (0.8 % as compared to the initial moisture content. Thus, the application of any spray volume as used in this study made no difference for a possible better uniformity in the distribution of insecticide throughout the sprayed material.A pulverização de inseticidas é o principal método de controle preventivo das pragas dos grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do volume de pulverização na umidade de grãos de milho e trigo armazenados. Foram acondicionados 2 kg de grãos em sacos plásticos e pulverizados com doses teóricas de zero, 1, 3, 5, 8 e 10 litros de água / tonelada de grão. A avaliação do teor de umidade dos grãos foi feita 24 horas após a pulverização mediante o método da estufa. O acréscimo na umidade dos grãos em função do volume de água pulverizado, foi quadrático e teve a mesma tendência tanto para o milho como para o trigo. A umidade dos grãos após a pulverização de 10 L.t-1 teve pequeno acréscimo (0,8 % quando comparado com o teor inicial. Desse modo, é indiferente o uso de qualquer volume estudado, visando a maior uniformidade de distribuição do inseticida na massa de grãos.

  15. The prevalence of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in the spring wheat grain from different agricultural production systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaviciene, Sigita; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Suproniene, Skaidre; Kochiieru, Yuliia; Keriene, Ilona

    2018-02-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON). The samples were classified according to the production system-organic, sustainable and intensive. Mycotoxin levels in the spring wheat grain samples were determined by the HPLC method with UV detection. The type-B trichothecenes were found to be present at higher concentrations in the grain from the intensive production system. Eighty-one percent of the spring wheat grain samples from the intensive production system were co-contaminated with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON, 1% with DON+3-ADON. Additionally, DON+15-ADON and DON were found in 5% and 10% of the tested samples, respectively. Two percent of the samples were free from mycotoxins. In the grain samples from the sustainable production system, DON and a combination of DON+3-ADON showed a higher incidence - 47% and 23%, respectively. The samples with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON accounted for 18%. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of organic grain samples. A large number of the organic spring wheat grain samples were contaminated with DON+3-ADON (55%) or DON (36%). The combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON was not present, while DON+15-ADON was present in 9% of the samples tested. The production systems did not lead to significant differences in mycotoxin levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and higher contamination was observed for the samples from the intensive and sustainable production systems.

  16. Effects of different depth of grain colour on antioxidant capacity during water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Oon Ha; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesised that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain colour group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity was reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups. These findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple colouring. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  18. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  19. Non-destructive, high-content analysis of wheat grain traits using X-ray micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hughes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is one of the most widely grown crop in temperate climates for food and animal feed. In order to meet the demands of the predicted population increase in an ever-changing climate, wheat production needs to dramatically increase. Spike and grain traits are critical determinants of final yield and grain uniformity a commercially desired trait, but their analysis is laborious and often requires destructive harvest. One of the current challenges is to develop an accurate, non-destructive method for spike and grain trait analysis capable of handling large populations. Results In this study we describe the development of a robust method for the accurate extraction and measurement of spike and grain morphometric parameters from images acquired by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. The image analysis pipeline developed automatically identifies plant material of interest in μCT images, performs image analysis, and extracts morphometric data. As a proof of principle, this integrated methodology was used to analyse the spikes from a population of wheat plants subjected to high temperatures under two different water regimes. Temperature has a negative effect on spike height and grain number with the middle of the spike being the most affected region. The data also confirmed that increased grain volume was correlated with the decrease in grain number under mild stress. Conclusions Being able to quickly measure plant phenotypes in a non-destructive manner is crucial to advance our understanding of gene function and the effects of the environment. We report on the development of an image analysis pipeline capable of accurately and reliably extracting spike and grain traits from crops without the loss of positional information. This methodology was applied to the analysis of wheat spikes can be readily applied to other economically important crop species.

  20. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  1. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  2. Interactive effects of high temperature and drought stress during stem elongation, anthesis and early grain filling on the yield formation and photosynthesis of winter wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčová, Marcela; Klem, Karel; Rapantová, Barbora; Novotná, Kateřina; Urban, Otmar; Hlavinka, Petr; Smutná, P.; Horáková, V.; Škarpa, P.; Pohanková, Eva; Wimmerová, Markéta; Orság, Matěj; Jurečka, František; Trnka, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 221, MAY (2018), s. 182-195 ISSN 0378-4290 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : carbon-isotope discrimination * triticum-aestivum-l. * heat-stress * climate-change * reproductive growth * leaf senescence * gas-exchange * water -stress * durum-wheat * responses * Drought stress * Heat stress * Photosynthesis * Triticum aestivum * Yield formation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2016

  3. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research[X-radiation]; Podatnosc ziarna pszenicy na uszkodzenia mechaniczne w swietle dotychczasowych badan agrofizycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundas, S [Instytut Agrofizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Lublin (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  4. Investigation of Zn Use Efficiency and Zn Fertilization Efficiency in Some Genotypes of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keshavarz

    2016-09-01

    , and C75-5 respectively, two species of wheat known as Thriticosecale and Durum. The plot size was 9*3.6 (32.4 m2. Soil fertility status showed 0.05% nitrogen, 7.2 mgkg-1 phosphorus, 180 mgkg-1 potassium and 0.52 mgkg-1 DTPA extractable zinc. At defined phonological stage (SG6 based on Fix’s Index Zn concentration in shrub was measured. Also grain yield and Zn uptake by grain were determined at the end of ripening stage. Zinc use efficiency, agronomic efficiency and apparent recovery efficiency were calculated according to “Graham, et al.”, “Craswell and Godwin” and “Raun and Johnson” respectively. Zinc use efficiency can be defined as the ratio of grain yield or shoot dry matter yield produced under Zn deficiency to that produced under Zn fertilization. Results and Discussion: Grain yield is the most integrative trait of a particular genotype. The results showed that Zn application increased significantly grain yield by 12.61% in comparison with control. This result is supported by Ziayeian and Malakouti (1999. Who reported that Zn application significantly increased the wheat yield (17%. In our research the highest grain yield increase due to Zn application was found in durum wheat (23.5%, and the lowest grain yield increase, were found in Toos cultivar (1.3% yield increase. Cakmak and et al (1997 also obtained more yield with the application of zinc in durum wheat. Application of Zn increased Zn concentration and uptake in grain, 8.6% and 21.5% respectively. Also, application of Zn significantly increased Zn concentration in shoot (36.5% over the control. Similarly, Moshiri et al (2010 reported increase of Zn concentration in shoot with application of Zn fertilizer. Zn use efficiency in bread wheat genotype, Durum and Thriticosecale wheat was ranked as: Durum < C75-5 < Alvand < Falat < Triticale ~ Toos. The findings of Khoshgoftarmanesh et al (2004 showed that, Durum wheat is Zn inefficient genotype. According to our research results, Toos and Falat

  5. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Sociocultural Differences in Translating Euphemistic Expressions from English into Arabic in "A Grain of Wheat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Sameerah Jabbar; Swear, Muna Abdual Hussein

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the sociocultural differences in translating Euphemistic expressions from English into Arabic. Particularly, the study took the novel "A Grain of Wheat" to show the differences of these expressions usage by two translators from different cultures. The study adapts a qualitative approach applied in Leppihalme's…

  7. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  8. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G.; Strzalka, K.

    1994-01-01

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T 2 ∼100 μs and T 2 ∼1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding

  9. All About the Grains Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equivalents Oatmeal (WG**) ½ cup, cooked 1 packet instant 1 ounce (1/3 cup), dry (regular or ... cup, cooked = 2 ounce-equivalents Pasta-- spaghetti, macaroni, noodles WG**: whole wheat RG**: enriched, durum ½ cup, ...

  10. Comparison of wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility by feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, L J; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; He, M; McKinnon, J J

    2012-04-01

    A 5 × 5 Latin square design trial was conducted to evaluate rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in 5 rumen-cannulated heifers (420 ± 6 kg) fed a barley-based finishing diet supplemented with 20 or 40% wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The composition of the control diet was 88.7% rolled barley grain, 5.5% supplement, and 5.8% barley silage (DM basis). Increasing the quantity of corn DDGS in the ration resulted in a quadratic decrease in DMI (P = 0.04) and OM intake (P = 0.05). Rumen pH, pH duration, and area under rumen pH thresholds of 5.8 or 5.5 were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Inclusion of wheat DDGS resulted in a quadratic increase (P = 0.05) in pH area below the cutoff value of 5.2, with the most pronounced effect at 20% inclusion. Wheat DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) rumen NH(3)-N concentrations. Increasing the inclusion rate of wheat and corn DDGS resulted in quadratic (P = 0.05) and linear (P = 0.04) decreases in rumen propionate, whereas butyrate increased quadratically (P content of the diet. Feeding both wheat and corn DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) the excretion of N and P. In summary, replacement of barley grain with up to 40% wheat or corn DDGS did not mitigate rumen pH conditions associated with mild to moderate acidosis in heifers fed a barley-based finishing diet. Supplementing corn DDGS increased nutrient digestibility of all nutrients and, as a result, led to greater DE content. Supplementation of wheat DDGS reduced DM and OM digestibility values, with no effect on DE content. Increased N and P excretion by heifers fed DDGS at 20 or 40% of dietary DM presents a challenge for cattle feeders with respect to nutrient management.

  11. Allergen relative abundance in several wheat varieties as revealed via a targeted quantitative approach using MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogniaux, Hélène; Pavlovic, Marija; Lupi, Roberta; Lollier, Virginie; Joint, Mathilde; Mameri, Hamza; Denery, Sandra; Larré, Colette

    2015-05-01

    Food allergy has become a major health issue in developed countries, therefore there is an urgent need to develop analytical methods able to detect and quantify with a good sensitivity and reliability some specific allergens in complex food matrices. In this paper, we present a targeted MS/MS approach to compare the relative abundance of the major recognized wheat allergens in the salt-soluble (albumin/globulin) fraction of wheat grains. Twelve allergens were quantified in seven wheat varieties, selected from three Triticum species: T. aestivum (bread wheat), T. durum (durum wheat), and T. monococcum. The allergens were monitored from one or two proteotypic peptides and their relative abundance was deduced from the intensity of one fragment measured in MS/MS. Whereas the abundance of some of the targeted allergens was quite stable across the genotypes, others like alpha-amylase inhibitors showed clear differences according to the wheat species, in accordance with the results of earlier functional studies. This study enriches the scarce knowledge available on allergens content in wheat genotypes, and brings new perspectives for food safety and plant breeding. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt). Soil and Water Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olga Kokornaczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  15. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  16. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'.

  17. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  18. Root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield response of winter wheat to supplemental irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Man

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Thus, we investigated the effect of supplemental irrigation (SI on the root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield of winter wheat in this region by measuring the moisture content in different soil layers. Prior to SI, the soil water content (SWC at given soil depths was monitored to calculate amount of irritation water that can rehydrate the soil to target SWC. The SWC before SI was monitored to depths of 20, 40, and 60 cm in treatments of W20, W40, and W60, respectively. Rainfed treatment with no irrigation as the control (W0. The mean root weight density (RWD, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction activity (TTC reduction activity, soluble protein (SP concentrations as well as catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in W40 and W60 treatments were significantly higher than those in W20. The RWD in 60–100 cm soil layers and the root activity, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities in 40–60 cm soil layers in W40 treatment were significantly higher than those in W20 and W60. W40 treatment is characterized by higher SWC in the upper soil layers but lower SWC in the 60–100-cm soil layers during grain filling. The soil water consumption (SWU in the 60–100 cm soil layers from anthesis after SI to maturity was the highest in W40. The grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE, and irrigation water productivity were the highest in W40, with corresponding mean values of 9169 kg ha−1, 20.8 kg ha−1 mm−1, and 35.5 kg ha−1 mm−1. The RWD, root activities, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities, and SWU were strongly positively correlated with grain yield and WUE. Therefore, the optimum soil layer for SI of winter wheat after jointing is 0–40 cm.

  19. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  20. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diferentes épocas de colheita, secagem e armazenamento na qualidade de grãos de trigo comum e duro Harvest timing, drying and storage effects in the grain quality of common and hard wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Terra Alves Carneiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a influência da época de colheita, secagem e período de armazenamento na qualidade de grãos de trigo comum e duro. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo do Núcleo Experimental de Campinas, IAC, usando DOIS genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L, um com dormência na espiga (IAC 24, colhido com 30,0%; 21,4% e 12,2% de água e um sem dormência na espiga (IAC 289, colhido com 35,0%; 23,4% e 12,5% de água; além deum genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. sem dormência (IAC 1003, colhido com 31,6%; 22,2% e 11,7% de água. A secagem foi realizada a 40, 60 e 80 ºC e um fluxo de ar de 20 m³ min-1.m-2. Após a secagem, os grãos foram armazenados em embalagens de polietileno por um período de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 meses a 20 ± 2 ºC. Os parâmetros de qualidade de grãos analisados no Laboratório de cereais, raízes e tubérculos na FEA/UNICAMP foram os testes de número de queda, viscosidade, força geral do glúten e peso hectolitro. Observou-se no genótipo IAC 289 um aumento significativo da atividade da enzima alfa-amilase, com o atraso da colheita. Com antecipação da colheita e da secagem não foi reduzida a qualidade dos grãos e, com a armazenagem, houve melhora na qualidade tecnológica da farinha do trigo.The objective of the present work was to analyse the effects of initial moisture content, drying parameters and storage period in grain quality. The experiment was installed in Campinas Agronomic Institute (IAC, using two genotypes of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L, one with spike dormancy (IAC 24, harvested with 30.0%; 21.4% and 12.2% moisture content and the other without it (IAC 289, harvested with 35.0%; 23.4% and 12.5% moisture content; additionally, one hard wheat genotype (Triticum durum L. without dormancy (IAC 1003, harvested with 31.6%, 22.2% and 11.7% moisture content was also analysed. Drying operations were performed at 40, 60 and 80 ºC under an air flow of 20m

  2. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  3. Mining centuries old in-situ conserved Turkish wheat landraces for grain yield and stripe rust resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive five-year (2009-2014 effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, led to the collection and documentation of around 2,000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260 and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm.

  4. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  6. Effects of Whole Grain Wheat Bread on Visceral Fat Obesity in Japanese Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Nozaki, Satomi; Makita, Miki; Yokozuka, Shoji; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Aoe, Seiichiro

    2018-04-18

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (-4 cm 2 ) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.

  7. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Post-Anthesis Drought and Waterlogging on Accumulation of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Glutenin Macropolymers Content in Wheat Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, D; Yue, H; Wollenweber, B

    2009-01-01

    Drought and flooding during grain filling have become major constraints to wheat quality and yield. The impacts of water deficits and waterlogging during the grain filling on contents of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) in grains of the winter w...

  9. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  12. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  13. An Optimized Protocol for DNA Extraction from Wheat Seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP to Detect Fusarium graminearum Contamination of Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moslem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  14. An optimized protocol for DNA extraction from wheat seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to detect Fusarium graminearum contamination of wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Bahkali, Ali; Moslem, Mohamed; Amin, Osama E; Niessen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  15. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  17. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  18. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...