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Sample records for durissus terrificus cascavel

  1. Transferência do Hepatozoon tupinambis, parasita do lagarto Tupinambis teguixin, para a serpente cascavel (Crotalus durissus terrificus, por intermédio do mosquito Culex fatigans

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    Samuel B. Pessôa

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores obtiveram a transferência do Hepatozoon tupinambis (Laveran e Salibeni, 1909 parasita do lagarto Teiidae, Tupinambis teguixin, L., para a serpente cascavel, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laur., alimentando-a com mosquitos experimentalmente infectados. o parasita mantém os seus caracteres morfológicos no animal receptor, nos limites do tempo observado (cerca de 100 dias. O ofídio receptor apresentou cistos esquizogônicos do fígado.The authors achieved a transfer of the Hepatozoon tupinambis (Laveran and Salibeni, 1909, a parasite of the Sauria: Tupinambis teguixin, L., to a rattlesnake of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus, feeding the latter with experimentally infected mosquitoes. The parasite maintained its morphological characteristics in the recepting animal throughout the whole observation period (about 100 days. Schizogonic cysts were found in the liver of the rattlesnake.

  2. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro Serum protein electrophoresis profile of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus kept in captivity

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    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total sérica (g/dL de 4,51±0,50 para machos e de 4,82±0,72 para fêmeas, e para machos e fêmeas de 4,64±0,61. Foram identificadas pela eletroforese quatro frações protéicas (g/dL: albumina, a, b, g-globulinas e calculada a relação albumina:globulina. As serpentes fêmeas apresentaram maiores valores para as variáveis, albumina e para a relação albumina/globulina (AG diferindo significativamente (PThe poisonous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Bothrops have been kept in captivity with the purpose of extracting poison for the production of immunobiological. Knowledge of the physiology of these animals and serum proteins concentration changes are important for early identification of major diseases which lead to states of hypoproteinemia and hyperproteinemia. The objective was to determine the concentration of total protein and serum protein electrophoresis profile of Crotalus durissus terrificus (rattlesnake in captivity. Blood samples were taken from

  3. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  4. Toxins from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Phospholipase A, crotapotin and crotamine were purified from the venom of crotalus durissus terrificus. Molecular weigths were respectively estimated in 13400, 8300 and 4880. By sephadex gel filtration, stable complex is formed by interaction (1:1 molar ratio) of Phospholipase A (LD=0,55mg/Kg, in mice) and crotapotin, obtaining an increase in the toxicity of Phospholipase A in 10 fold to LD 50 =0,05mg/Kg. These facts indicate crotoxin as a product of 1:1 molar ratio interaction of crotapotin and Phospholipase A. By sephadex gel filtration an unstable complex is formed by interaction of crotapotin and crotamine (LD 50 =0,8mg/Kg, in mice), increasing the toxicity of crotamine approximately 4 fold to LD 50 =0,2mg/Kg. In tritium-hydrogen exchange experiments, the back exchange kinetic of these tritium labelled proteins were measured in gel filtration columns of sephadex G 25 'coarse' showing for Phospholipase A two clearly distinguishable kinetic classes of exchangeable hydrogens. From the exchangeable hydrogens only 68% were rapidly exchanged and the occurrence of hydrogens envolved in alpha-helix was practically absent. Crotapotin has no hydrogens of alpha-helix and 83% of exchangeable hydrogens were rapidly exchanged with solvent. Crotamine, after a initial heating in tritiated water showed that 31% of exchangeable hydrogens were slowly exchanged with solvent. After 18 hours of heating, that number diminished for 11%. Crotoxin showed three exponential classes of exchangeable hydrogens and about 26 protons have alpha-helix characteristic exchange rate. A possible conformational change after Phospholipase A - crotapotin interaction is suggested. (Author) [pt

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A poll of crotomine positive Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0.15 M NaCl and the supernatant irradiated using 60 CO. Doses of 100,250,750,1000,1500 and 2000 Cy were used at a dose rate of 1.190Gy/h. The presence of free SH, casein hydrolytic degradation, SDS-PAGE and molecular exclusion chromatography analysis together with LD 50 determination in mice were studied. The antigenic properties of samples were investigated by immunodiffision and immunoprecipitation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from 60 Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  7. DSC analysis of irradiated proteins from Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Silva, Monica Nascimento da; Goncalves, Karina de Oliveira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. It is known that ionizing radiation effects - direct and indirect - can modify the molecular structure, affecting the biological properties of proteins. Ionizing radiation has been employed to attenuate the toxicity of snake venoms, aiming to generate an improved antigen with low toxicity. Two proteins, purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom were tested in this work: crotoxin and crotamine. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound of Cdt venom, is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A2. Crotamine is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed to investigate the effects of radiation on crotoxin and crotamine using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). After isolation of the toxins by chromatographic techniques, they were irradiated with 2.0 kGy from {sup 60}Co source. The thermodynamics analysis, carried out in a METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e calorimeter, showed that irradiation promoted changes of the calorimetric profile. These changes suggest that, although radiation induced structural modifications of the protein, denaturation was only partial, since transition states could still be detected, suggesting that some structural elements were still present after irradiation. Taken together, our data suggest that following irradiation, the molecules underwent conformational changes, and that the remaining structural elements displayed a lower enthalpy, clearly indicating that the previously described loss of toxicity of irradiated toxins can be mostly ascribed to structural changes

  8. Partial characterization of the venom of the Peruvian rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    César Remuzgo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus from the region of Sandia, Puno, has been investigated for its protein content and some enzymatic activities, using for it the whole venom as well as the fractions obtained by gel filtration chromatography in Sephadex G-100. The protein percentage calculated by the method of Lowry was of 68,6% for the whole venom; 3 peaks were obtained during the fractionation; the first showed proteolytic activity, the second, amidolytic, clotting and phospholipase A2 activities, while the third, another proteolytic activity. Acetylcholinesterase activity was not found while L-aminoacid oxidase activity was found only in the whole venom.

  9. Studies of agregates produced during venom irradiation of Crotalus durissus terrificus with gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clissa, Patricia B.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 Co source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venon, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was laos reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates(compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradied with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogeneic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular ateration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGg dose was confirmed to be most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768 (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae.

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    Marcovan Porto

    Full Text Available Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.

  11. Gamma radiation effects on crotoxin (toxin of crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The crotoxin is a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMA-CELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 10 3 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author) [pt

  12. Purification and radiodination of gyroxin, toxin like trombin, of crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camillo, Maria A.P.; Paes, Paulo C.A.; Ribela, Maria T.C.P.; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Snake's venoms have attracted special interest in research because they are rich in bioactive compounds, which are scientific tools to study many physiological processes and are also important source of new therapeutic agents. Some thrombin-like enzymes are used as a reagent in laboratorial assays as well as in medical drugs. However, a neurotoxic syndrome called gyroxin syndrome or barrel rotation seems to be related to those enzymes. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies of these toxins can contribute to clarifly this mechanisms and consequently, it will help to elaborate safer clinical prescriptions giving more information about possible nocive effects. This paper describes the first step of these studies with the thrombin-like enzyme (or gyroxin) from Crotalus durissus terrificus's venom. The purification and radioiodination methods as well as electrophoretic analysis and biological assay are presented. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    The crotoxin in a great neurotoxin found on Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. This protein was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatrography with Sephadex G-75 and irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMACELL in the concentration of 2 mg/ml 0.85% NaCl with dose rate of 1.19 x 10 3 Gy/hr. The doses used were 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration, the diffusion immunoassay using crotalic antiserum and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed some changes on the irradiated toxin. Preliminary results with doses of radiation of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 Gy showed that the letal dose 50% (LD50) in mice increase greatly with the increase of radiation's dose. (author) [pt

  14. Effects of radiolysis products on crotamine (toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A. da; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations are able to change the biological properties of the biomolecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in a concentration of 1 mg/ml in aqueous solution with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (dose rate = 1,14 x 10 3 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: proteic concentration, SDS-PAGE and immunodiffusion. Preliminary results showed a reduction of 55% in proteic concentration; with dose of 5000 Gy; an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearance of protein aggregates that was proportional as the dose increases. The immunodifusion data showed a reduction of the immunochemical activity against the Butantan antisera. (author) [pt

  15. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  16. Geographic distribution and apparent decline of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) in Uruguay

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    Prigioni, Carlos M.; Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; Colina, Marcelo; González, Enrique M.

    2013-01-01

    The rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) is a rare species in Uruguay, where it reaches the southern boundaries of its distribution. The most recent distribution map available for this species in Uruguay is based on a few specimens that were collected during the 1950s and 1960s. Herein, we make a comprehensive account of rattlesnake records in this country obtained from herpetological literature and other bibliographic sources, specimens accessioned ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus; Isolamento e caracterizacao da delta toxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  18. Biochemical and biological evaluation of gyroxin isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    LC Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin, presents coagulant and neurotoxic activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate such coagulant and toxic properties. Gyroxin was isolated using only two chromatographic steps - namely gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 and affinity (Benzamidine Sepharose 6B - resulting in a sample of high purity, as evaluated by RP-HPLC C2/C18 and electrophoretic analysis that showed a molecular mass of 30 kDa. Gyroxin hydrolyzed specific chromogenic substrates, which caused it to be classified as a serine proteinase and thrombin-like enzyme. It was stable from pH 5.5 to 8.5 and inhibited by Mn²+, Cu²+, PMSF and benzamidine. Human plasma coagulation was more efficient at pH 6.0. An in vivo toxicity test showed that only behavioral alterations occurred, with no barrel rotation. Gyroxin was not able to block neuromuscular contraction in vitro, which suggests that its action, at the studied concentrations, has no effect on the peripheral nervous system.

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

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    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  20. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Release in Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

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    A. Hernández Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt were analyzed with respect to the susceptibility and the inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of severe envenomation. BALB/c female mice injected intraperitoneally presented sensibility to Cdt, with changes in specific signs, blood biochemical and inflammatory mediators. The venom induced reduction of glucose and urea levels and an increment of creatinine levels in serum from mice. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of mediator levels in sera from mice injected with Cdt. The maximum levels of IL-6, NO, IL-5, TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-injection, respectively. No difference was observed for levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, these data indicate that the envenomation by Cdt is regulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses at time-dependent manner. In serum from mice injected with Cdt at the two first hours revealed of pro-inflammatory dominance. However, with an increment of time an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed and the balance toward to anti-inflammatory dominance. In conclusion, the observation that Cdt affects the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines provides further evidence for the role played by Cdt in modulating pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

  1. Isolation and characterization of delta toxin from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Lucelia de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has been so far described as being of low complexity, with four major components described: convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine. In recent studies, other components of this venom were characterized as, for example, an analgesic factor. In 1980, Vital Brazil predicted the existence of a toxin which could be involved in platelet aggregation, and named it delta toxin. However, this toxin has never been isolated or characterized. The aim of the present work was to purify and characterize this toxin. After FPLC size exclusion chromatography followed by reverse phase HPLC, an homogeneous fraction was obtained, with a molecular weight of 14,074.92 Da. When analyzed by SOS-PAGE, this toxin presented an anomalous behavior, with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, while in 2D gels, spots around 40 kDa and with an isoelectrical point between 4 and 5 were observed suggesting isoforms with glicosilation microheterogeneity. After trypsin digestion, the fragments were submitted to the swissprot databank showing high homology (43% coverage, 15 matching peptides) with trocarin, a prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. These data were further confirmed by aminoacid analysis. The toxin was tested for its ability to activate factor II and X using synthetic substrates. Our data indicate a direct activation of factor X. The same toxin also behaved as a potent direct platelet aggregation activator on washed platelets. Assays with specific inhibitors indicate that neither metalloproteinase, nor serinoproteinase or t lectin domains are involved in the aggregating activity, since EDTA, benzamidin and D-galactose did not inhibit the toxin. In the present work, we were able to identify, purify and characterize a new toxin from the brazilian rattlesnake. It behaved as predicted by Vital-Brazil and displayed direct factor X activating properties, also inducing platelet aggregation, even at low concentrations. Our data also indicate that it is

  2. Interaction study of water radiolysis products with Crotalus durissus terrificus miotoxin; Estudo das interacoes dos produtos de radiolise da agua com a miotoxina do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2008-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on the Crotamine, toxin purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, circular dichroism, fluorescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, amino acids analysis and intravital microscopy were employed. Our results indicate that ionizing radiation caused structure alterations, mainly, in secondary and tertiary structure of crotamine. In the irradiated crotamine, was not possible to determine tridimensional structure. And the crotamine toxic effect was removed by ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in dogs treated with antiophidic serum - part II: laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology

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    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology results during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with antiophidic serum. Twenty-one dogs were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom (sc; Group II received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution (iv; and Group III received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution containing sodium bicarbonate diluted to the dose of 4mEq/kg. Urinalysis showed brown urine, proteinuria, occult blood and myoglobinuria. Respiratory acidosis and hypotension were also observed. At the venom inoculation site, there was discreet edema, popliteal lymph node response, musculature presenting whitish areas and necrotic myositis with myoregenerative activity. There was not evidence of electrocardiographical and biochemical alterations.

  4. Clinical and hematological alterations in dogs during experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and treated with antiophidic serum

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    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with different antiophidic serum doses. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 30mg antiophidic serum intravenously; Group II received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 60mg antiophidic serum intravenously. In the clinical evaluation, we observed ataxia, moderate sedation, dilated pupils, sialorrhea, flaccid paralysis of mandibular muscles, and discreet edema at the site of venom inoculation. Evaluating red and white blood cells, we observed a decrease of hemoglobins, globular volume and erythrocytes, and an increase of plasmatic proteins, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Clotting time increased and there was blood incoagulability with return to normal clotting time six hours after antiophidic serum administration. Animals treated with six antiophidic serum flasks had a faster recovery than the animals that received three serum flasks.

  5. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus microbiota Comparação da microbiota de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus terrificus de vida-livre e cativeiro

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    Rui S. Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ, individual captivity (IC and collective captivity (CC. Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% and 21 (42.86% microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% and 25 (51.02% microorganisms from the oral cavity; and, 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% and 3 (6.12% microorganisms from venom. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii, with sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfazotrin and tobramycin. Snakes kept in semi-open captivity exhibited the fewest microorganisms in oral cavities, perhaps due to the environment in captivity, with different temperature gradients, running water, absence of daily handling, circulating air, possibility of moving around, daily cleaning, and sunlight access.Este estudo avaliou e comparou a microflora aeróbica da cavidade oral, cloaca e veneno de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus recém-capturadas da natureza e mantidas sob quarentena (WQ, mantidas em cativeiro coletivo (CC e em cativeiro individual (IC. A eficácia de drogas antimicrobianas de agentes isolados foi também avaliada. Foram isolados microorganismos dos grupos I, II e III respectivamente: 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% e 21 (42.86% da cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% e 25 (51.02% da cavidade oral, e finalmente 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% e 3 (6.12% do veneno. As bactérias mais frequentes foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris e Morganella morganii, com sensibilidade para amikacina, gentamicina, norfloxacina, sulfazotrina e tobramicina. Serpentes mantidas no cativeiro semi-aberto mostraram menor número de agentes infecciosos em cavidade oral, talvez devido ao ambiente de cativeiro com diferentes

  6. Crotoxin, the major toxin from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, inhibits ³H-choline uptake in guinea pig ileum

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    L.S. Kattah

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of crotoxin, the neurotoxic complex from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, on the uptake of ³H-choline in minces of smooth muscle myenteric plexus from guinea pig ileum. In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. Higher concentrations of crotoxin or more extensive incubation times with this toxin resulted in elevation of LDH activity detected in the assay supernatant. The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM. We suggest that this inhibition could explain, at least in part, the blocking effect of crotoxin on neurotransmission.

  7. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

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    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  8. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768

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    D. P. Netto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural (NV and Cobalto60-irradiated (IrV Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 mM, pH 3.0 and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV and the other natural venom (NV. Three antigen doses (venom were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count (CBC, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD50 for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/ml indicates that slight leukocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the NV group, showing its greater toxicity.

  9. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Balarim, M.R.S.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2004-01-01

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt 60 -irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/μl indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  10. Description of three new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) from Rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus) based on molecular, morphometric and morphologic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Moço, Tatiana Cristina; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Spenassatto, Carine; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2013-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. are commonly found infecting snakes. Since the latter are parasitized by diverse forms and data in the literature show divergence, we studied Hepatozoon spp. diversity on Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes using both molecular and morphological approaches. Naturally infected animals were employed. Blood was collected, blood smears were prepared and an aliquot was stored at -20°C for DNA extraction. Five specimens of C. durissus terrificus were selected, each of them infected with one gamont type. Morphological and morphometric analyses of the found gamonts led to their grouping into three populations. For molecular characterization, seven oligonucleotide pairs that amplify distinct regions of rDNA gene were tested by adopting the PCR technique. Only the oligonucleotide pairs HepF300/Hep900 and HEMO1/HEMO2 were efficient in amplifying and distinguishing different isolates of Hepatozoon spp. from snakes. The better results were obtained when both oligonucleotide pairs were used in association. Based on the molecular and morphologic differences, three new species were proposed: Hepatozoon cuestensis sp. nov.; Hepatozoon cevapii sp. nov. and Hepatozoon massardii sp. nov. This is the first description of new Hepatozoon species from snakes, based on molecular characterization and morphological data, in South America. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation in crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A. da.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic and able to cleave any chemical bond. Molecules of substances present in solution have been shown either by direct or indirect action of ionizing radiations loss of biological activity. Crotamine obtained from C. d. terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography was irradiated in aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml by gamma rays produced on a 60 Co source. Doses of 100 Gy, 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy (Dose rate = 1,14 x 10 3 Gy/h) in presence of O 2 were used for the comparison of properties of irradiated and non irradiated samples; the following assays were performed: determination of protein concentration, presence of free SH groups, SDS-Page and Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion. The Ellman's reaction for free SH groups was positive in the irradiated protein and negative one. The protein concentration was not altered up to the dose of 2000 Gy in relation to the native protein: at the dose of 5000 Gy was observed a loss of 55% of the proteic material. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the formation of protein aggregates in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy. A loss of the antigenic activity was observed both in the dose of 2000 Gy and 5000 Gy againt sera anticrotalic. Further studies was perfomed with crotamine irradiated at the dose of 2000 Gy in aqueous solution, O 2 absence and in presence of different concentrations of radioprotectors such as: cystein, sodium nitrate and tert-butanol. The level of the radioprotection to the toxin was estimated through the simple radical immunodiffusion technique. According to the technique the best radioprotective agent was cysteine. Since the antigenic determinants were preserved and in the SDS-PAGE analysis the crotamine structure was maintained entire like the non irradiated toxin. (author) [pt

  12. Aspectos morfológicos e ultraestruturais de células sanguíneas de Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Lívia M. Kindlovits

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A avaliação hematológica, de importância comprovada como um meio auxiliar de diagnóstico ao clínico de pequenos animais domésticos, vem se tornando comum em animais selvagens não apenas para a clínica, mas para a avaliação do manejo e como estudo auxiliar para a fisiologia das várias espécies. Tendo em vista o aumento da demanda para a produção de várias drogas de importância farmacêutica, a criação de serpentes peçonhentas vem se tornando comum a ponto destes animais já serem reconhecidos como sendo de produção. O conhecimento do manejo e da clínica destes animais ainda é escasso e a mortalidade é elevada nos criatórios, tornando urgente a ampliação destes. Embora alguns estudos hematológicos já tenham sido realizados em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus os dados analisados ainda são insipientes, notadamente em relação à caracterização das células do sangue e poucos estudos em microscopia eletrônica foram realizados em serpentes. Com o objetivo de caracterizar as células sanguíneas morfologicamente, sob microscopia óptica e ultraestrutural, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 52 de indivíduos da subespécie Crotalus durissus terrificus para a realização de esfregaços sanguíneos e avaliação ultraestrutural. Concluiu-se que a coloração hematológica de Giemsa permite a avaliação morfológica e a diferenciação das células sanguíneas em serpentes assim como a visualização de hemoparasitos. A avaliação ultraestrutural permite evidenciar as organelas celulares e a diferenciação entre as células, inclusive entre os tipos leucocitários, porém ainda são necessários outros estudos para que seja elucidada a hipótese da existência dos eosinófilos na espécie estudada assim como é necessária melhor caracterização dos grânulos dos azurófilos para que se confirme uma possível diferença entre os monócitos típicos e os azurófilos.

  13. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

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    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  14. Hematological changes in sheep inoculated with natural and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

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    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Balarim, M.R.S. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: rnetto@uel.br; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia

    2004-07-01

    Natural (NV) and Cobalt{sub 60}-irradiated (IrV) Crotalus durissus terrificus venom were used to evaluate serum production capacity of sheep and possible hematological and biochemical effects. Freeze-dried venom aliquots were diluted in acidified saline solution (NaCl 150 m M, p H 3.0) and irradiated by a Cobalt 60 source at a dose of 5.54 x 102 Gy/h and a concentration of 2.000 Gy. Twelve sheep were divided into two groups of six animals. One group received irradiated venom (IrV) and the other natural venom (NV). Three antigen doses (venom) were administered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were collected weekly for analysis of serum neutralization potency and capacity, complete blood count, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, albumin, and globulin. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD{sub 50} for sheep and showed no signs of envenoming. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. Results of the total leukocyte count did not present interaction or time factor effect for both groups, but there was a different action between them, with the NV group presenting more cells than the IrV group. The leukocyte increase to 13,000/{mu}l indicates that slight leucocytosis occurred in the week after the first inoculation in the NV group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in the absolute count of segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes but there were statistically significant oscillations in values at the different collecting times. The NV group presented an increase in the absolute neutrophil count after the first inoculation that persisted for 5 weeks. In the IrV group, the increase in neutrophils occurred only in the first week returning to normal in the following weeks. The alterations in the neutrophil count are indicative of systemic inflammatory response related to cytokine release; response was more marked in the N V group, showing its greater toxicity. (author)

  15. Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos H M; Simão, Anderson A; Trento, Marcus V C; César, Pedro H S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom. The vitamins were responsible for reducing 100% of breaking azocasein by C.d.t. venom, thrombolysis induced by B. atrox and fibrinogenolysis induced by both venoms. It is suggested the presence of interactions between vitamin and the active site of enzymes, for example the interactions between hydrophobic regions present in the enzymes and vitamin E, as well as the inhibitions exercised by antioxidant mechanism.

  16. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co 60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD 50 , without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  17. Rabdomióilise secundária a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus terrificus

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    Renato Almeida Magalhães

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se dois casos de rabdomiólise secundária a envenenamento produzido por Crotalus durissus terrificus. O diagnóstico da rabdomiólise baseou-se na mialgia intensa e generalizada apresentada pelos pacientes e na constatação de níveis séricos elevados de CPK, TGO e DHL. A confirmação do diagnóstico foi obtida no caso n.° 2 pela detecção de mioglobina no soro através de imunoeletroforese contra soro antimioglobina humana e por biópsia muscular. Esse paciente desenvolveu também, como complicação do envenenamento ofídico, quadro clínico e laboratorial de insuficiência renal aguda. Essa complicação foi atribuída à ação nefrotóxica e hemolítica do veneno crotálico e à hipotensão arterial apresentada pelo paciente, não se afastando a possibilidade de que a rabdomiólise tenha sido um fator contribuinte para a sua instalação. Foram constatadas hipocalcemla, hiperuricemia e hiperfosfatemia grave na fase oligúria da insuficiência renal aguda, alterações peculiares quando essa condição está associada à rabdomiólise.

  18. Direct organogenesis of Mandevilla illustris (Vell) Woodson and effects of its aqueous extract on the enzymatic and toxic activities of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, R; Soares, A M; Bertoni, B W; França, S C; Pereira, A M S

    2004-03-01

    In order to produce explants of Mandevilla illustris (Vell) Woodson for the "Cerrado in vitro", the Germplasm Bank of UNAERP, we carried out a micropropagation protocol using MS or MS/3 medium supplemented with different concentrations of 6-benzyladeninepurine (BA), Zeatin or 2-isopentenyladenine for nodal segment growth, and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1,4 dithiothreitol for rooting. For nodal segments, all the cytokinins tested yielded similar results. However, 2.22 micro M BA is more economical to use. MS/3 medium supplemented with 0.49 micro M IBA was the most appropriate medium for rooting, resulting in 29% rooted explants. The crude aqueous extract from the subterranean system (SS) of M. illustris was assayed for its inhibitory action on the enzymatic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, isolated basic phospholipase A2 (CB) and crotoxin. It totally inhibited the phospholipase activity of crude Cdt venom and CB toxin and inhibited the phospholipase activity of crotoxin by 49%. The toxic action of both the crude venom and crotoxin was partially inhibited-there was a prolonged survival time and a 40.0% decrease in lethality.

  19. Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.

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    Vanessa Danielle Muller

    Full Text Available The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

  20. Humoral response and neutralization capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural and Cobalt 60-irradiated Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.; Alfieri, A.A.; Chiacchio, S.B.; Bicudo, P.L.; Nascimento, N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate antigen irradiation on crotalic antivenom and the capacity of sheep as serum producers. Twelve sheep in two groups of six were inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. One group was inoculated with natural venom (N V) and the other with Cobalt 60 gamma-irradiated venom (Ir V). Three antigen doses were given to the animals at monthly intervals for immunization. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 determination in mice. Blood samples were collected weekly analyses of serum neutralization capacity and potency. At the end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with a LD 50 for sheep showed no signs of envenoming. These results showed that toxicity of the irradiated venom was 4.4 times less than the natural venom. The sera from the irradiated group neutralized LD 50 14.6 times, and the sera from the natural group 4.4 times. Sera from the irradiated group were five times more potent. The two groups did not present clinical alterations. The results of this study show the potential for using sheep in crotalic antivenom production. The use of irradiated venom in sheep immunization induces a powerful and lasting humoral immune response shown by both the in vitro neutralization and potency tests and by the indirect ELISA antibody level detection technique. (author)

  1. Rabbit IgG antibodies against Phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralize the lethal activity of the venom Los anticuerpos IgG de conejos anti-fosfolipasa A2 de Crotalus durissus terrificus neutralizan la actividad letal del veneno

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    Juan P. Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (South American rattlesnake venom possesses myotoxic and neurotoxic activities, both of which are also expressed by crotoxin, the principal toxin of this venom. Crotoxin contains a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and a non toxic acidic protein, crotapotin. We have produced and investigated the ability of IgG antibodies raised in rabbits against PLA2 to neutralize the lethality of the whole venom. PLA2 was isolated by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-75. Specific antibodies were obtained by subcutaneous and intramuscular inoculation of PLA2 (700 µg with Freund adjuvant. Groups of six mice (20 + 2 g were inoculated with 0.5 ml i.p. of C. d. t. venom (4 µg or a mixture of venom that had been preincubated with the desired volume of IgG antibodies. Mortality, recorded 24 and 48 h after inoculation, showed that IgG anti-PLA2 were more effective than anticrotalic serum in neutralizing the lethal activity. These results demonstrate that it could be possible to obtain an anti-venom made by specific antibodies with a high level of protection against the lethal component of C.d.t. venom, and/or the inclusion of these antibodies as a supplement in heterologous anti-venoms.El veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (C.d.t. (Cascabel de Sud América posee actividad miotóxica y neurotóxica, actividades que también exhibe el complejo crotoxina, principal componente tóxico de este veneno. El complejo crotoxina está constituido por una fosfolipasa A2 básica (PLA2 y una proteína acídica no tóxica, el crotapotín. En este trabajo se estudió la capacidad neutralizante de anticuerpos IgG anti-PLA2 sobre la letalidad inducida por el veneno entero. El antígeno PLA2, fue aislado por cromatografía de filtración en gel (Sephadex G-75. Se inocularon conejos machos por vía subcutánea e intramuscular, con 700 µg de PLA2 y adyuvante para la obtención de anticuerpos específicos. La capacidad neutralizante del

  2. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co{sup 60} irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netto, D.P. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva]. E-mail: mnetto@uel.br

    2000-07-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co{sup 60} to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD{sub 50} in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD{sub 50}, without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  3. Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão dos quadros clínico-patológicos causados pelos venenos de Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em bovinos, búfalos, ovinos equinos e suínos. Foram compilados os dados obtidos pela experimentação em animais de produção encontrados na literatura e os obtidos através de experimentação realizada por nossa equipe. Também foram revisados os casos naturais de envenenamento ofídico comunicados. Em dois Quadros foram lançados os mais importantes dados dessas revisões, que revelou diversos aspectos interessantes: 1 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus, quando injetado por via subcutânea em cavalos, causou um edema acentuado no local da aplicação, ao contrário do que tem sido observado em todas as outras espécies animais, aspecto não relatado na literatura; 2 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de diversas espécies de Bothrops, quando injetado por via subcutânea em bovinos, ovinos e equinos, não causou edema como em geral é relatado na literatura, e sim hemorragias subcutâneas acentuadas no local da aplicação. Nos casos não fatais este sangue era reabsorvido em poucos dias sem deixar sequelas. Exceção foi a reação ao veneno de Bothrops jararacussu, que causou edema nos ovinos experimentais, e tumefação acentuada que resultou em fístula com eliminação de líquido seroso nos equinos experimentais. O objetivo do presente estudo visa contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico de acidentes ofídicos em animais de produção.

  4. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri;Dosimetria interna de radiofarmacos derivados de polipeptideos antitumorais isolados dos venenos de: Crotalus durissus terrificus e Scorpaena plumieri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-07-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, {sup 125}I-Crtx and {sup 125}I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of {sup 131}I-Crtx {sup l31}I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of {sup 131}I-Crtx and {sup 131}I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of {sup 131}I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the

  5. Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Noronha-Matos, José B; Timóteo, Maria A; Fontes, Marcos R M; Gallacci, Márcia; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye. Experiments were conducted using mice phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Real-time fluorescence video microscopy and liquid scintillation spectrometry techniques were used to detect transmitter exocytosis and nerve-evoked [ 3 H]-acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh) release, respectively. Nerve-evoked myographic recordings were also carried out for comparison purposes. Both CTX (5μg/mL) and its basic PLA 2 subunit (CB, 20μg/mL) had biphasic effects on nerve-evoked transmitter exocytosis characterized by a transient initial facilitation followed by a sustained decay. CTX and CB reduced nerve-evoked [ 3 H]ACh release by 60% and 69%, respectively, but only the heterodimer, CTX, decreased the amplitude of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. Data show that CTX exerts a presynaptic inhibitory action on ACh release that is highly dependent on its intrinsic PLA 2 activity. Given the high safety margin of the neuromuscular transmission, one may argue that the presynaptic block caused by the toxin is not enough to produce muscle paralysis unless a concurrent postsynaptic inhibitory action is also exerted by the CTX heterodimer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  7. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV

  8. Discovery of human scFvs that cross-neutralize the toxic effects of B. jararacussu and C. d. terrificus venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciano C; Pucca, Manuela B; Pessenda, Gabriela; Campos, Lucas B; Martinez, Edson Z; Cerni, Felipe A; Barbosa, José E

    2018-01-01

    Accidents involving venomous snakes are a public health problem worldwide, causing a large number of deaths per year. In Brazil, the majority of accidents are caused by the Bothrops and Crotalus genera, which are responsible for approximately 80% of severe envenoming cases. The cross-neutralization of snake venoms by antibodies is an important issue for development of more effective treatments. Our group has previously reported the construction of human monoclonal antibody fragments towards Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus' venoms. This study aimed to select human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) that recognize both bothropic and crotalic crude venoms following venoms neutralizing capacity in vitro and in vivo. The cross-reactivity of Cro-Bothrumabs were demonstrated by ELISA and in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that a combination of scFvs neutralizes in vitro toxic activities (e.g. indirect hemolysis and plasma-clotting) of crotalic and bothropic venoms as well as prolonged survival time of envenomed animals. Our results may contribute to the development of the first human polyvalent antivenom against Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, overcoming some undesirable effects caused by conventional serotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin (toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom): molecular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N. de.

    1988-01-01

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic response of a toxin depending of the dose and irradiation's conditions, probable by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this work, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the South American rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion chromatography with Sephadex G-75 and follwed by precipitation on the isoelectric point. Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg of protein/m1 0.85% NaCl were irradiated in a source of sup(60)Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/h using doses of 250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for these samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the content sulphydryl (Ellman's method), the profile electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE), the toxicity by lethal dose 50% in mice and the antigenic response using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouchterlony's method). The results showed the formation of aggregates and loss of protein in solution by precipitation. In the dose of 1000 Gy and higher it was possible to observe the presence of sulphydryl groups indicating the breakage of S-S bridges. The lethal dose 50% increased 2 times for the dose of 1000 Gy and 3.5 times for 1500 Gy shoding a detoxication. By the other hand, the antigenic response seems to be still intact at doses up to 1000 Gy. (author)

  10. Geographic distribution and apparent decline of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti 1768; Serpentes, Viperidae) in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Prigioni, Carlos M.; Borteiro, Claudio; Kolenc, Francisco; González, Enrique M.; Colina, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we make a comprehensive account of rattlesnake records in this country obtained from herpetological literature and other bibliographic sources, specimens accessioned in herpetological and non-specialized local collections, and new information gathered during field surveys. Asociación Herpetológica Argentina

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on isolated toxin of Crotalus durissus terrificus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.N.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    It is know that the ionizing radiation is able to change significantly the biological and antigenic behaviour of a toxin depending of the dose and radiation's conditions, probably by structural alterations caused by radiation. In this paper, the crotoxin, principal neurotoxin of the south american rattlesnake venom, was isolated using molecular exclusion cromatography with Sephadex G-75 and followed by precipitation of the isoeletric point. (pI 4.7.). Fractions in the concentration of 2 mg toxin/ml 0.85 % NaCl were irradiated in a source of 60 Co GAMMACELL with dose rate of 1100 Gy/hr using doses of 250,500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Gy. It was determinated for this samples, the proteic concentration (Lowry's method), the antigenic capability using crotalic antiserum by the diffusion imunoassay (Ouch - terlony's method), the DL50 in mice and eletrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that the antigenic capability seems to be intact until dose of 1000 Gy. By the other hand, the LD50 in the same radiation dose increases more than two times when compared with the native sample. As the radiation dose increases, the solutions became turbid showing loss of protein probably by the presence of aggregates as can be seen by the determination of the proteic concentration and the eletrophoretic control. Other important changs were observed with the irrdiated samples in comparison with the native crotoxin that can given us additional information about dose-effect event. (author) [pt

  12. Projeto "Viver em Cascavel": análise do fluxo de informações Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel": análisis del flujo de informaciones Project "To live in Cascavel": analysis of the information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelsi Salete Tonini Paiva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo estimou e analisou o tempo (em dias do fluxo das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNV de risco atendidos no Projeto "Viver em Cascavel"- Paraná, 1996 a 1998, segundo os espaços organizativos (hospital, vigilância epidemiológica, unidade básica de saúde. Foram analisadas 303 declarações. Para análise do tempo de fluxo da DNV, foram construídos intervalos de 95% de confiança para os tempos médios populacionais (em dias. Os resultados apontam que a DNV demorou para fluir do hospital até o momento de realização da visita domiciliária, de 25 a 30 dias. A atenção ao recém nascido de risco deve acontecer nos prazos mais breves possíveis. Nesse sentido, o tempo de fluxo da DNV encontrado neste estudo, do nascimento à visita domiciliária, pode comprometer um dos objetivos do Projeto em questão, qual seja, a redução da morbimortalidade infantil no município.El presente estudio estimó y analizó el tiempo (en días de flujo de los certificados de nacimiento de niños con riesgo, atendidos en el Proyecto "Vivir en Cascavel" - Paraná, 1996 hasta 1998, según los espacios organizacionales (hospital, vigilancia epidemiológica, unidad básica de salud. Fueron analizados 303 certificados. Para el análisis del tiempo de flujo del certificado fueron construidos intervalos de 95% de confianza para los tiempos medios poblacionales (en días. Los resultados muestran que el tiempo promedio de flujo es largo, entre 25 y 30 días. La atención al recién nacido de riesgo debe acontecer en plazos lo más breves posibles y, en este sentido, el tiempo de flujo del certificado, desde el nacimiento hasta la visita domiciliaria, puede estar comprometiendo uno de los objetivos del proyecto analizado, o sea, la reducción de la morbi-mortalidad infantil en el municipio.This study estimated and evaluated the time period (in days concerning the flow of Live Birth Declarations (DNV for high-risk newborns assisted by the Project

  13. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae envenomation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Stuani Floriano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control; Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant linical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 929-937. Epub 2009 December 01.El envenamiento crotálico representa el número más alto de muertes cuando es comparado con envenenamientos por mordeduras de otras serpientes de interés médico. El veneno crotálico tiene importantes características de acción neurotóxica, miotoxicidad, nefrotoxicidad, coagulación y acción hemolítica. Este trabajo evaluó los aspectos clínicos y de laboratorio del envenenamiento experimental con el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus durissus terrificus en las ratas Wistar tratadas con suero antiofídico y extracto acuoso de M

  14. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Marcelo Ribeiro; Menezes, Frederico Alcântara

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of B...

  15. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chernaki-Leffer,AM.; Almeida,LM.; Sosa-Gómez,DR.; Anjos,A.; Vogado,KM.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter a...

  16. Virulence potential of filamentous fungi isolated from poultry barns in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleison Ledesma Taira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are those that normally would not cause diseases in otherwise healthy people, but are able to cause problems under some circumstances, and for this they need to possess a certain virulence potential. The objective of this study was to identify samples of filamentous fungi isolated from poultry barns in Cascavel, Paraná, and also to evaluate their virulence potential by assessing proteinase production, hemolytic activity, urease production, and growth rate at 37 ºC. We have evaluated the following samples: Acremonium hyalinulum (1 sample, Aspergillus sp. (12, Beauveria bassiana (1, Curvularia brachyspora (1, Paecilomyces variotti (1, and Penicillium sp. (2. Out of the 18 samples analyzed, 44.4% showed proteolytic activity using albumin as the substrate versus 66.7% when using casein; 66.7% showed hemolytic activity, 83.3% were positive for urea, and 88.9% grew at a temperature of 37 ºC. The results demonstrated that the majority of the isolates expressed virulence factors. Therefore, these isolates have the potential to harm human hosts, such as those working at poultry barns, especially predisposed or susceptible individuals.Fungos oportunistas são aqueles que normalmente não causariam doenças em pessoas saudáveis, mas eles são capazes de causar problemas sob certas circunstâncias e, para isso, eles necessitam possuir algum potencial de virulência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar amostras de fungos filamentosos isolados de granjas de aves em Cascavel, Paraná, e também avaliar o seu potencial de virulência, verificando a produção de proteinase, atividade hemolítica, produção de urease e crescimento a 37 ºC. Foram avaliados Acremonium hyalinulum (01, Aspergillus sp (12, Beauveria bassiana (01, Curvularia brachyspora (01, Paecylomices variotti (01 e Penicillium sp (02. Das 18 amostras, 44,4% apresentaram atividade proteolítica usando como substrato a albumina e 66,7% com caseína; 66,7% demonstraram

  17. Irradiação global, direta e difusa, para a região de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Global, direct and diffuse irradiation in the region of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Aparecida de Oliveira Drechmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os níveis das irradiações global, direta e difusa incidentes na superfície terrestre, a irradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera e a insolação relativa mensal, para a cidade de Cascavel-PR. As componentes da radiação solar foram monitoradas entre janeiro de 2001 e fevereiro de 2003 na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Unioeste, Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Na medição da radiação global foi utilizado um piranômetro KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 e para medir a componente direta foiutilizado um pireliômetro EPPLEY-NIP acoplado a um rastreador solar. A radiação difusa foi calculada pela diferença entre as radiações global e direta. Os níveis médios mensais das irradiações global, direta e difusa, foram respectivamente, 51,8%, 31,7% e 20,17% dairradiação incidente no topo da atmosfera. O índice de insolação relativa apresentou valor máximo em agosto (61,43% e mínimo em fevereiro (34,35%, períodos caracterizados respectivamente por dias de céu limpo e nublados no hemisfério sul.This paper reports a study about the diffuse, direct and global radiation levels on surface of earth, the irradiation over the top of atmosphere and the monthly relative sunstroke in the city of Cascavel, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The solar radiation components were monitored from January, 2001 to February, 2003 at Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica of Unioeste, Cascavel, Parana State. Global radiation was monitored by a pyranometer KIPP & ZONEN-CM3 and direct radiation was monitored by a pyrheliometer EPPLEY-NIP coupled to a solar tracer. The diffuse radiation wasmonitored through the difference between global and direct radiation. Monthly average levels of global, direct and diffuse irradiations were 51.8%, 31.7% and 20.17% of the irradiation in the top of atmosphere. The relative isolation index showed the maximum value in August (61.43% and the minimum in February (34.35%. These

  18. Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals derived of antitumor polypeptide isolated from venoms: Crotalus durissus terrifucus and Scorpaena plumieri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de

    2009-01-01

    The identification of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents capable of inhibiting tumor growth is essential for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from malignant tumors (glioma, breast and others). In this context, natural products (plants and animals) are a rich source of substances with potential antitumor. Despite knowledge of the etiology and pathology of tumors little progress has been observed in the area of diagnosis. Molecules of snake venoms have been shown to play an important role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the process of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Polypeptides isolated from the venom of the snake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crtx, and Scorpaena plumieri fish, SPGP, have antitumor activity against malignant tumors. It was shown that similar radio iodines Crtx and SPGP, 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-SPGP, can interact specifically with malignant tumors and induce cell death. Prototype-based radiopharmaceuticals Crtx and SPGP containing radioiodine 1311 were able to produce diagnostic images to accumulate specifically in the tumor site. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential radiological safety and diagnostic/therapeutic efficacy of 131 I-Crtx l31 I-SPGP and (evaluated from the biokinetic data in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor) were treated by the MIRD formalism to carry out internal dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the uptake of 131 I-Crtx and 131 I-SPGP were determined in various organs of mice and implanted into the tumor. The results obtained for the animal model were extrapolated to humans by assuming a similar concentration ratio among the various tissues between mice and humans. In extrapolation, we used the masses of human organs of the phantom of Cristy/Eckerman. Both radiation penetrating and non penetrating of 131 I on the tissue were considered in dose calculations. The absorbed dose in the bone marrow due to the administration of 131 I-Crtx was 0.01 mGy/370

  19. Evidência sorológica da infecção aguda pelo Toxoplasma gondii em gestantes de Cascavel, Paraná Serological evidence of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Cascavel, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Lucena Mioranza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a ocorrência da toxoplasmose em Cascavel, Paraná, cidade próxima a região onde ocorreu o maior surto epidêmico descrito mundialmente, 334 amostras de soros de gestantes foram triadas pelo ensaio imunoenzimático comercial IgG no Laboratório Municipal de Cascavel, e confirmadas no Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo por imunofluorescência IgG, ensaio imunoenzimático e avidez de IgG in house. A soropositividade pelo IgG comercial foi 54,2%, pela imunofluorescência 54,8% e pelo IgG in house 53,9%, com boa concordância entre imunofluorescência/IgG comercial (Kappa=0,963781; co-positividade=97,8%; co-negatividade=98,7% e imunofluorescência/IgG in house (Kappa=0,975857; co-positividade=97,8%; co-negatividade=100%. A evidência de infecção aguda nas gestantes foi similar tanto pela avidez de IgG (2,4% ao ano como pela análise estatística de tendência (teste χ2 por faixa etária (2% ao ano, sugerindo que a triagem sorológica pré-natal e a vigilância epidemiológica são imprescindíveis para redução do risco da toxoplasmose na região, embora sem evidência de surto epidêmico.In order to investigate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in Cascavel, Paraná, a city near the region where the largest reported epidemic outbreak in the world occurred, 334 serum samples from pregnant women were screened using a commercial IgG immunoenzymatic assay at the Municipal Laboratory in Cascavel and were confirmed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in São Paulo, by means of IgG immunofluorescence, immunoenzymatic assaying and the in-house IgG avidity test. The IgG seropositivity from the commercial test was 54.2%, from immunofluorescence 54.8% and from the in-house IgG 53.9%, with good agreement between immunofluorescence and the commercial IgG test (kappa = 0.963781; co-positivity = 97.8%; co-negativity = 98,7% and between immunofluorescence and the in-house IgG (kappa = 0.975857; co-positivity = 97.8%; co

  20. A ESTRUTURA URBANA NO OESTE DO PARANÁ: A INFLUÊNCIA DA CIDADE DE CASCAVEL NO SEU ENTORNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iandra de Souza Maldaner

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com Milton Santos, o espaço se estrutura pela presençade capital e recebe sua influência em todos os setores.O capital influi na centralidade das cidades, com a presençade bens e serviços especializados gerando um poder deatração nos espaços geográficos ao seu redor. Esse poder deatratividade, exercido por alguns centros, é analisado atravésda centralidade exercida pela cidade de Cascavel – PR e adisponibilidade e variedade de seus serviços, que polariza asdemais cidades da região, como Toledo, Assis Chateaubriand,Marechal Cândido Rondon, Foz do Iguaçu, Medianeira eGuaraniaçu.

  1. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  2. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Chernaki-Leffer

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22 for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week. Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points. There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  3. Avaliação socioeconômica e de fatores que levam a violência com detentos de Cascavel/PR Evaluación socio-económica y de factores que levan a la violencia com detenidos de Cascavel/PR Socioeconomic and factor evaluation that lead to violence with inmates of Cascavel/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Eugênio Armani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência não é caracterizada apenas por sequestros, roubos, assaltos, mas também por se destruir a identidade social, cultural e econômica de um povo. A violência aprisiona a capacidade de um país evoluir, porque coloca seus jovens no mundo das drogas, da prostituição, do analfabetismo, enfim na marginalização social, pois todo o desenvolvimento de um povo só acontece graças a uma evolução social, cultural, econômica, psíquica e biológica, que é ditada principalmente pela educação empregada nas escolas. Baseado nisto este trabalho analisou as características sociais, educacionais e econômicas de sujeitos entre 18 e 60 anos que se encontram em cárcere privado na cidade de Cascavel/PR. Através da aplicação de um questionário com perguntas e respostas objetivas, que a partir do seu preenchimento forneceu ideia de quais são os possíveis fatores geradores de violência, com a pesquisa sendo realizada diretamente com os detentos. Foi constatado que há problema educacional, social e econômico com os detentos cascavelenses, porque os mesmos possuem pouca escolaridade, sofrem com desemprego, baixa renda, entre outros problemas, que influenciam a entrada para a criminalidade.La violencia no sólo se caracteriza por los secuestros, robos, asaltos, sino también por la destrucción de la identidad social, cultural y económica de las personas. La violencia aprisiona la capacidad de un país evolucionar por que coloca sus jóvenes en el mundo de las drogas, de la prostitución, del analfabetismo, en fin en la marginalización social, pues todo el desarrollo de un pueblo sólo pasa a través de la evolución social, cultural, económica, psicológica y biológica, que es dictada principalmente por la educación en las escuelas. Este trabajo analizó las características sociales, educacionales y económicas de sujetos entre 18 y 60 años que están en una casa de detención en la ciudad de Cascavel/PR. Mediante la aplicaci

  4. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná = Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo da Cruz-Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dosentrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  5. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel = Efficiency of the photovoltaic systems under real work conditions on region of Cascavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24º59’ Sul, Longitude de 53º26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reaisde campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado pararealizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão ecorrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.The purpose of the present work was to develop a study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with energy storage, installed at the Experimental Agrometeorological Station of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel Campus, located at 24º59’S 53º26’W, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year of 2002. The efficiency of the photovoltaic modules was evaluated underreal field conditions and its characteristic linear fit was determined. A Campbell Scientific CR10X micrologger was used to acquire data, programmed to conduct one reading per second from each channel and store the five-minute arithmetic data average from thereadings of the incidence of global direct solar radiation horizontal and global on the panel, as well as area

  6. Topônimos: enunciação e memória da identidade italiana em Cascavel, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia Cristiane Beloni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos onomásticos, ao se integrarem à lexicologia, evidenciam que, por meio do nome próprio, o homem expressa ideias, sentimentos e transmite valores e práticas discursivas. Observando a comunidade de Cascavel, Paraná, percebemos que o contexto da cultura italiana no município pode ser visualizado não apenas em movimentos étnicos e pelos cursos de língua, mas também por meio de nomes de lugares públicos, residenciais e comerciais. Para analisar os nomes próprios de alguns logradouros cascavelenses em relação a essa etnia, foi realizado um levantamento classificatório das designações nominais de espaços públicos, por meio do site da Prefeitura de Cascavel, com complementações de outros sites. Desenvolveu-se a pesquisa, identificando os nomes de origem étnica italiana e observando a taxonomia dos topônimos, para refletir sobre as nomeações que se relacionam de alguma forma com os italodescendentes.

  7. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  8. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

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    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  9. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  10. Características dos doadores de córneas do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel: impacto do exame anti-HBc para hepatite B

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    Cesar Nobuo Shiratori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na região de atuação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel - Paraná (PR e verificar o impacto da positividade da sorologia positiva para hepatite B (anti-HBc no descartes dos tecidos oculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal de dados do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel do período de março de 2006 a abril de 2007. Informações como idade, sexo, causa de óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação e resultados sorológicos de doadores foram coletadas. Dados foram agrupados para caracterização da população de estudo e distribuídos segundo positividade da sorologia para hepatite B (anti-HBc. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos doadores foi de 54,2 ± 20,6 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino (64,7%. Tempo médio entre óbito e enucleação foi de 3,8 ± 2,4 horas, a principal causa de óbito foram doenças cardiovasculares (34,5%. Positividade para os marcadores anti-HBc e HBsAg foi de 47,4% e 1,5%, respectivamente, sendo os exames sorológicos para hepatite B a maior causa de descarte dos tecidos oculares doados. Doadores com sorologia positiva para anti-HBc apresentaram maior média de idade comparados com doadores com sorologia negativa (p<0,001. Somente 0,8% das doações apresentaram sorologia positiva para hepatite C. Não houve doações com sorologia para HIV positiva no período do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Implementação do Banco de Olhos de Cascavel aumentou significativamente a disponibilização de córneas para transplante no Estado do Paraná. A principal contraindicação para disponibilização de tecidos oculares foi a positividade na sorologia para anti-HBc. Estudos de biosegurança devem ser realizados a fim de investigar o potencial de transmissão da hepatite B de doadores positivos para esse marcador. A inclusão desses doadores como doações efetivas acarretaria maior disponibilização de tecidos para transplantes.

  11. Pulmonary mechanic and lung histology induced by Crotalus durissus cascavella snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Neto, Joselito de; Silveira, João Alison de Moraes; Serra, Daniel Silveira; Viana, Daniel de Araújo; Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria; Sampaio, Célia Maria Souza; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul; Cavalcante, Francisco Sales Ávila; Evangelista, Janaina Serra Azul Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    This study have analyzed the pulmonary function in an experimental model of acute lung injury, induced by the Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (C. d. cascavella) (3.0 μg/kg - i.p), in pulmonary mechanic and histology at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. The C. d. cascavella venom led to an increase in Newtonian Resistance (R N ), Tissue Resistance (G) and Tissue Elastance (H) in all groups when compared to the control, particularly at 12 h and 24 h. The Histeresivity (η) increased 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after inoculation. There was a decrease in Static Compliance (C ST ) at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h and inspiratory capacity (IC) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. d. cascavella venom showed significant morphological changes such as atelectasis, emphysema, hemorrhage, polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate, edema and congestion. After a challenge with methacholine (MCh), R N demonstrated significant changes at 6, 12 and 24 h. This venom caused mechanical and histopathological changes in the lung tissue; however, its mechanisms of action need further studies in order to better elucidate the morphofunctional lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gross and histologic features of gastritis due to Ophidascaris arndti in tropical rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus

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    É.M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus is a snake of great importance for biomedical industry since its poison is used for the production of antiophidic serum and researches. Several conditions related to animal health, such as diseases and parasites, which can promote the reduction of poison production by these snakes should be investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gross and microscopic lesions related to the presence of Ophidascaris arndti in stomachs of tropical rattlesnakes. The gastrointestinal tract of thirty-five South American rattlesnakes captured in Southeastern region of Brazil were analyzed and nineteen animals showed infestation by the parasites, found in the small intestine and, especially, in the stomach of the hosts. Grossly, lesions were characterized by mucosal ulcers occasionally associated with hemorrhage. Microscopic alterations included histiocytic granulomas, fibrosis, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of a parasitic granulomatous disease was made. The lesions may be related to the cause of death in captivity snakes, since the lesions can promote secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria. Moreover, the intense inflammatory response accompanied by fibrosis may be related to poor functioning of the gastric snakes, which it may exhibit frequent regurgitation of the food.

  13. Comprometimento respiratório secundário a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus Respiratory abnormalities following Crotalus durissus snakebite

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    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available São analisados três pacientes que apresentaram comprometimento da função respiratória após acidente por Crotalus durissus. As manifestações respiratórias surgiram nas primeiras 48 horas após a picada do ofídio e consistiram de dispnéia, taquipnéia, uso da musculatura acessória da respiração (casos 1 e 2 e batimento das aletas nasais (caso 2. Dois pacientes (casos 1 e 2 apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda. O diagnóstico desta complicação no caso 1 foi clínico pois o paciente apresentou apnéia. O paciente do caso 2, 24 horas após o acidente ofídico apresentou dificuldade respiratória intensa e períodos de apnéia sendo intubado, permanecendo em respiração espontânea. Houve agravamento dos sinais clínicos de insuficiência respiratória e a determinação de pH e gases do sangue arterial mostrou em relação ao exame inicial elevação da pressão parcial de gás carbônico (40 mmHg para 50,3 mm Hg caracterizando insuficiência ventilatória aguda. Ambos foram tratados com emprego de ventilação artificial mecânica, tendo o paciente do caso 1 permanecido no ventilador durante 33 dias e o do caso 2 durante 15 dias. Ambos desenvolveram insuficiência renal aguda, necessitaram de diálise peritoneal e recuperaram a função renal. A paciente do caso 3, apesar dos sintomas e sinais de comprometimento respiratório não apresentou alterações do pH e gases arteriais. Espirometria realizada 58 horas após o acidente mostrou capacidade vital forçada (CVF e volume espirado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 abaixo do previsto (60 e 67% respectivamente. As espirometrias realizadas nos dias subseqüentes evidenciaram melhora progressiva destes parâmetros. No 10º dia após o acidente constatou-se aumento de 20% da CVF e de 17% do VEF1 comparativamente ao exame inicial. A relação entre VEF1 e a CVF manteve-se praticamente inalterada e em valores próximos ao previsto, caracterizando distúrbio ventilatório do tipo

  14. A escola enquanto organização burocrática: A Gestão Escolar na perspectiva dos Diretores Escolares de Cascavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alvarez Estrada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado da pesquisa “Organização burocrática e gestão escolar: a perspectiva dos diretores da rede municipal de ensino de Cascavel”, financiada pela Fundação Araucária, que buscou compreender a concepção vigente que os diretores da rede municipal de ensino possuem acerca de gestão e sua relação com a burocracia escolar. Para tanto, identificamos as principais matrizes teóricas acerca da organização burocrática bem como sua inserção no âmbito das organizações educativas. Realizamos ainda uma pesquisa de campo, por meio de questionários, com os diretores de escolas da rede municipal de Cascavel, para identificar o grau de burocratização das unidades escolares, e a forma como os diretores percebem e agem diante dessa realidade.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO NUTRICIONAL DE PRATICANTES DE MUSCULAÇÃO COM OBJETIVO DE HIPERTROFIA MUSCULAR DO MUNICÍPIO DE CASCAVEL, PR

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    Ana Flávia de Oliveira1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess diet and investigate the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids in practicing workout. Eleven male gender individuals were evaluated for who practice workout with the objective of muscle hypertrophy of the municipality of Cascavel – Paraná. The dietary evaluation was carried out through dietary investigators. The micronutrients intake, macronutrients and dietary fibers were analyzed according to the Recommended Dietary Allowances. It was collected information about the use of nutritional supplements and anabolic steroids. In regard to the nutritional orientation only four (36.4% individuals have received this type of service. Regarding the use of food supplements, five (45.5% make use, and cited seven different types. Regarding the use of anabolic steroids three of the individuals (27.3% reported using or have already made use Eight (72.7% had energy consumption more than 3000 kcal/d and the average of micronutrients intake presented a non balanced diet, low in carbohydrates (40.2 ± 8.4% and high in fat (36.0 ± 5.9%. Through this study, it was observed that the individuals evaluated are conscious about the appropriate food to obtain muscle hypertrophy, there is erroneous eating habits, indicating possible risks to health in the long term and even decrease in athletic performance.

  16. DETERMINAÇÃO E ESPACIALIZAÇÃO DA PERDA DE SOLO DA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO CÓRREGO CASCAVEL, GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Souza Rodrigues Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O modelo de predição de erosão hídrica baseado na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (USLE, bem como suas variações, tem sido amplamente empregado no Brasil e no mundo devido sua robustez e eficiência. Assim, este estudo tem por objetivos, identificar as áreas mais susceptíveis à erosão hídrica laminar e quantificar os processos erosivos na Bacia Hidrográfica do Córrego Cascavel, tributário do Ribeirão Anicuns. Para tanto, foram identificadas as pedologias existentes, necessárias para a definição do Fator de Erodibilidade (k, realizado cálculo das precipitações para obtenção do Fator de Erosovidade (R, classificação supervisionada de imagem satélite do Landsat 8 composição 4-5-3 (RGB, por meio do programa ArcGis, para compor uma correlação entre os fatores Uso e Manejo do Solo (C e Práticas Conservacionistas (P e, por fim, o Fator Topográfico (LS foi obtido por meio do programa SAGA, que realiza um cruzamento entre o comprimento da rampa e a declividade da região. Dessa forma, foi realizada a interpolação de todos os fatores que compõem a USLE em um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG. Este estudo consiste no primeiro trabalho dessa natureza realizado para a área com tais ferramentas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram-se coerentes em relação aos dados de entrada. O produto final, Mapa de Estimativa de Perda Anual de Solo, demonstrou taxas que variam de 0 - 10 t/ha.a, divididos em seis classes de perdas de solo. As classes predominantes de perdas foram de 0 - 3,2 t/ha.a, sendo o valor máximo de 10 t/ha.a considerado normal para essa região.

  17. Formas de uso medicinal da babosa e camomila pela população urbana de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6446 Medicinal use of the Aloe and Chamomile for the urban population of Cascavel, Paraná State - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.6446

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tatiana Araujo Cruz-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A etnobotânica se caracteriza por buscar entender a relação entre as plantas e o homem, podendo-se através desta conhecer a utilização das plantas medicinais como forma de tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento sobre as formas de utilização da Babosa (Aloe vera L. e da Camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.. A coleta de dados envolveu entrevistas de forma aleatória a 400 pessoas, através de um questionário semi-estruturado, no município de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Observou-se que 65% da população utilizam à babosa ou a camomila na cura ou alívio de doenças. A maioria dos entrevistados possui renda de 2 a 4 salários mínimos (60,25%, idade entre 28 a 38 anos (30,75%, tendo concluído o ensino médio (33,75%. O principal motivo pelo qual a população se utiliza de plantas medicinais é por ser natural (71,84%. A forma de preparo mais freqüente da camomila foi por infusão (63,38%, utilizando as flores (92%. Para a babosa 100% utilizam suas folhas na forma de cataplasma (43,88%. Apenas 3% da população relataram ter apresentado algum tipo de reação adversa, durante o período de utilização. Conclui-se que o uso destas plantas pela população é freqüente, sendo um recurso adicional ao uso de medicamentos.The ethnobotany, which is characterized by look for to understand the relationship between the plants and the man, being been able through this to know the use of the medicinal plants as treatment. The objective of this work was to accomplish a rising on the forms of use of the Aloe (Aloe vera L. and of the Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.. The collection of data involved interviews in a random way to a sample of 400 people through a semi-structured questionnaire, in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State. It was observed that 65% of the population use to aloe or the chamomile in the cure or relief of diseases. Most of the interviewees possesses income from 2 to 4 minimum wages (60.25%, age

  18. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Paulo Roman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003. Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003 questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age

  19. Influência da temperatura corporal de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus submetidas à anestesia com cetamina Influence of body temperature on rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus anesthetized with ketamine

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    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou verificar a influência da temperatura corporal nos parâmetros fisiológicos e nos períodos de indução e recuperação anestésicos de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus anestesiadas com cetamina. Os animais foram previamente submetidos à hipotermia (HIPO (The aim of the study was to verify the influence of the body temperature under physiological values and latency and recovery times on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were previously submitted to hypothermia (HYPO (<22°C and normothermia (30°C (NORMO and then, anesthetized with 80 mg/kg IM of ketamine. Latency and recovery times were evaluated by head tonus, muscular tonus and righting reflex. Heart rate (HR, time of apnea and body temperature were measured before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ketamine administration. Blood gases parameters were measured before, 30 and 60 minutes. It was not observed difference on latency time in both groups. The recovery time was higher on HYPO (5,5 hours compared to NORMO (3,5 hours. HR was higher on NORMO compared to HYPO. Time of apnea was the same pattern on both groups. Compared to basal levels, time of apnea was shorter between 5 to 30 min on both groups. Respiratory acidosis was observed only at 0 min in NORMO. SvO2 was higher after 30 min, the same as with PvO2 in both groups. PvCO2 reduced after 30 min in both groups. It was evident that body temperature exerts intense influence on the recovery time on rattlesnakes anesthetized with ketamine.

  20. A novel peptide from the ACEI/BPP-CNP precursor in the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Shigesada; Murayama, Nobuhiro; Saguchi, Ken-ichi; Ohi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Yoshiaki; da Silva, Nelson Jorge; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Lahlou, Saad; Aird, Steven D

    2006-10-01

    In crotaline venoms, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs, also known as bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs)], are products of a gene coding for an ACEI/BPP-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor. In the genes from Bothrops jararaca and Gloydius blomhoffii, ACEI/BPP sequences are repeated. Sequencing of a cDNA clone from venom glands of Crotalus durissus collilineatus showed that two ACEIs/BPPs are located together at the N-terminus, but without repeats. An additional sequence for CNP was unexpectedly found at the C-terminus. Homologous genes for the ACEI/BPP-CNP precursor suggest that most crotaline venoms contain both ACEIs/BPPs and CNP. The sequence of ACEIs/BPPs is separated from the CNP sequence by a long spacer sequence. Previously, there was no evidence that this spacer actually coded any expressed peptides. Aird and Kaiser (1986, unpublished) previously isolated and sequenced a peptide of 11 residues (TPPAGPDVGPR) from Crotalus viridis viridis venom. In the present study, analysis of the cDNA clone from C. d. collilineatus revealed a nearly identical sequence in the ACEI/BPP-CNP spacer. Fractionation of the crude venom by reverse phase HPLC (C(18)), and analysis of the fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) indicated a component of 1020.5 Da. Amino acid sequencing by MS/MS confirmed that C. d. collilineatus venom contains the peptide TPPAGPDGGPR. Its high proline content and paired proline residues are typical of venom hypotensive peptides, although it lacks the usual N-terminal pyroglutamate. It has no demonstrable hypotensive activity when injected intravenously in rats; however, its occurrence in the venoms of dissimilar species suggests that its presence is not accidental. Evidence suggests that these novel toxins probably activate anaphylatoxin C3a receptors.

  1. EFECTO DEL AZUL DE METILENO EN LA HIPOTENSIÓN Y BRADICARDIA ASOCIADAS A LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE UNA DOSIS LETAL DEL VENENO TOTAL DE CASCABEL VENEZOLANA (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) EN RATAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Elena; Zerpa, Hector; Ascanio, Elias

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pre treatment with methylene blue (MB) on the cardiovascular effect caused by the administration of total venom (TV) of Crotalus durissus cumanensis was studied in adult rats, allocated into two groups: group I, six rats treated with TV (single dose: 1.5 mg/kg, IV) and group II, si...

  2. A new structurally atypical bradykinin-potentiating peptide isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom (South American rattlesnake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denise M; Junior, Norberto E G; Costa, Paula P C; Martins, Patrícia L; Santos, Cláudia F; Carvalho, Ellaine D F; Carvalho, Maria D F; Pimenta, Daniel C; Cardi, Bruno A; Fonteles, Manassés C; Nascimento, Nilberto R F; Carvalho, Krishnamurti M

    2014-11-01

    Venom glands of some snakes synthesize bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPP's) which increase bradykinin-induced hypotensive effect and decrease angiotensin I vasopressor effect by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The present study shows a new BPP (BPP-Cdc) isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom: Pro-Asn-Leu-Pro-Asn-Tyr-Leu-Gly-Ile-Pro-Pro. Although BPP-Cdc presents the classical sequence IPP in the C-terminus, it has a completely atypical N-terminal sequence, which shows very low homology with all other BPPs isolated to date. The pharmacological effects of BPP-Cdc were compared to BBP9a from Bothrops jararaca and captopril. BPP-Cdc (1 μM) significantly increased BK-induced contractions (BK; 1 μM) on the guinea pig ileum by 267.8% and decreased angiotensin I-induced contractions (AngI; 10 nM) by 62.4% and these effects were not significantly different from those of BPP9a (1 μM) or captopril (200 nM). Experiments with 4-week hypertensive 2K-1C rats show that the vasopressor effect of AngI (10 ng) was decreased by 50 μg BPP-Cdc (69.7%), and this result was similar to that obtained with 50 μg BPP9a (69.8%). However, the action duration of BPP-Cdc (60 min) was 2 times greater than that of BPP-9a (30 min). On the other hand, the hypotensive effect of BK (250 ng) was significantly increased by 176.6% after BPP-Cdc (50 μg) administration, value 2.5 times greater than that obtained with BPP9a administered at the same doses (71.4%). In addition, the duration of the action of BPP-Cdc (120 min) was also at least 4 times greater than that of BPP-9a (30 min). Taken together, these results suggest that BPP-Cdc presents more selective action on arterial blood system than BPP9a. Besides the inhibition of ACE, it may present other mechanisms of action yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e

  4. Eficiência de um conjunto fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho na região de Cascavel - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5496

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistema fotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma Latitude 24°59' Sul, Longitude de 53°26' Oeste, com altitude de 682 m, em condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi avaliada a eficiência dos painéis fotovoltaicos em condições reais de campo, sua curva característica foi determinada utilizando, na aquisição de dados, um micrologger da Campbell Scientific-Inc, modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de 5 minutos dos dados das componentes de radiação solar global no plano horizontal e global na incidência do painel; temperatura ambiente e temperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Os resultados mostram que a eficiência média mensal registrou valores na faixa de 8,65 a 9,17%, com uma média de 8,84%, com variação percentual entre o índice máximo e mínimo de 5,67%. Pode, assim, representar fornecimento médio mensal de energia de 5,57 kWh por painel.

  5. Avaliação da interação de compostos ativos hidratantes com modelo de biomembrana de Crotalus durissus por meio de calorimetria exploratória diferencial e espectroscopia RAMAN

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    Telma Kaneko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar as alterações no estrato córneo em modelos alternativos de membrana após a aplicação de ativos hidratantes envolvendo métodos biofísicos. O modelo de biomembrana utilizado foi a muda de pele de Crotalus durissus e os ativos hidratantes foram: uréia, silício orgânico, extrato vegetal de Imperata cylindrica, reação de xilitol e glicose e componentes de NMF. Os resultados da avaliação das alterações do modelo por meio de Espectroscopia Raman com Transformada de Fourier sugerem que os ativos hidratantes confirmam segurança necessária, pois não alteraram de forma acentuada a estrutura do estrato córneo. Utilizando-se Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial pode-se indicar que a solução de silício orgânico e o gel hidrofílico com uréia apresentaram melhor poder hidratante. Palavras-chave: Estrato córneo. Hidratação. Métodos biofísicos. Crotalus durissus. FT-Raman, DSC. ABSTRACT Study of the interaction of moisturizers with a Crotalus durissus biomembrane by differential scanning calorimetry and RAMAN spectroscopy The objective of this research was to use biophysical techniques to investigate the alterations induced in a biomembrane model of the stratum corneum by the application of moisturizers. The biomembrane was obtained from the skin shed by the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus and the active moisturizing compounds were: urea, dimethylsilanol hyaluronate, Imperata cylindrical plant extract, carbohydrates and natural moisturizing factors (NMF components. Results from FT-Raman spectroscopy suggested that the moisturizers were safe, since they did not promote modifications in the structure of the stratum corneum. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the solution containing the organic silicon compound and the gel with urea showed the best hydrating effects on the stratum corneum. Keywords: Stratum corneum. Hydration. Biophysical techniques. Crotalus durissus. FT-Raman, DSC.

  6. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

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    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  7. Comparison of the effect of Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima venoms on the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom: implications for the production of polyspecific snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Alvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    Antivenoms are preparations of immunoglobulins purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Depending on the number of venoms used during the immunization, antivenoms can be monospecific (if venom from a single species is used) or polyspecific (if venoms from several species are used). In turn, polyspecific antivenoms can be prepared by purifying antibodies from the plasma of animals immunized with a mixture of venoms, or by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. The suitability of these strategies to produce polyspecific antibothropic-crotalic antivenoms was assessed using as models the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima. It was demonstrated that, when used as co-immunogen, C. simus and C. durissus ruruima venoms exert a deleterious effect on the antibody response towards different components of B. asper venom and in the neutralization of hemorrhagic and coagulant effect of this venom when compared with a monospecific B. asper antivenom. Polyspecific antivenoms produced by purifying immunoglobulins from the plasma of animals immunized with venom mixtures showed higher antibody titers and neutralizing capacity than those produced by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. Thus, despite the deleterious effect of Crotalus sp venoms on the immune response against B. asper venom, the use of venom mixtures is more effective than the immunization with separate venoms for the preparation of polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impactos ambientais decorrentes da ocupação de áreas reguladoras do aporte de areia: a planície Costeira da Caponga, município de Cascavel, litoral leste cearense.

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    Antonio Jeovah de Andrade Meireles

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pour définir les impacts environnementaux associés à l'occupation humaine dans des secteurs caractérisés par l'apport de sédiments (bypass sur la plage, via des champ de dunes et l’estuaire, ont été réalisées des études géo-environnementales dans la plaine côtière du Caponga, en y incluant un promontoire, une bande littorale et l’embouchure du canal estuarien de même nom. Les résultats ont été représentés dans des modèles évolutifs, intégrés à partir de la définition des flux de matière et d'énergie qui transitent dans la zone côtière. Les conséquences de l'expansion urbaine sur le promontoire, les dunes, la plage et le canal estuarien ont été caractérisées afin de définir des mesures adaptées de planification et de gestion.Environmental impacts caused by the occupation of areas regulating the sand input to the coast line in the coastal plain of Caponga, Cascavel town, East Coast of Ceará. To determine the environmental impacts related to human occupation in areas characterized by the input of sediments (bypass to the coastal line, through dunes and estuary, we carried out geoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of Caponga. They included sections represented by a headland, coastal line and river mouth of the estuarine channel of Caponga. The results were represented in integrated evolutionary models based on the definition of flows of matter and energy that occur in the coastal area. The effects of urban expansion on the headland, dunes, shore and estuarine channel were characterized so as to define adequate measures of planning and management.Para definir os impactos ambientais associados à ocupação humana em áreas caracterizadas pelo aporte de sedimentos (bypass para a faixa de praia, via campo de dunas e estuário, foram realizados estudos geoambientais na planície costeira da Caponga, abrangendo setores representados por um promontório, faixa litorânea e desembocadura do canal estuarino

  9. Estabilidad de la actividad neutralizante del antiveneno ofídico conservado a 4°C y a 16°C contra el veneno de Cascabel (Crotalus durissus cumanensis de Colombia

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    Jaime Ramírez

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad neutralizante de la letalidad de varios lotes de antiveneno polivalente (no liofilizado, producidos por el Instituto Nacional de Salud, los cuales fueron retados contra una mezcla de venenos de cascabel (Crotalus durissus cumanensis de Colombia. Se compara la actividad de los diferentes lotes almacenados en oscuridad a las temperaturas de 4°C y 16°C. Se estableció el porcentaje remanente de la potencia de cada lote para cada temperatura en los diferentes años a lo largo del período del estudio. Se concluye que el antiveneno almacenando en las condiciones recomendadas, mantiene casi la totalidad de la capacidad de neutralización (97.9% luego de tres años de almacenamiento, lo quecorresponde a lafechade expiración del producto. En cambio, el antiveneno almacenado a 16°C y oscuridad, luego de dos años de almacenamiento, mantiene el 87.9% de su capacidad protectora contra veneno de cascabel, protección similara la encontrada bajo las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento, paraveneno de Taya X, pasados dos años de almacenamiento (l, sustentando la recomendación de descartar el producto, transcurridos dos años de almacenamiento en estas condiciones.

  10. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Rogero, J.R.; Cruz, M.C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of Brazilian snake venoms from the species: Bothrops jararacussu, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca. Concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn have been determined in lyophilized venoms by using short and long irradiations in the IEA-RI nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 to 10 13 n · cm -2 · s -1 . The reference materials NIST Bovine Liver 1577 and IUPAC Bowen's Kale were also analyzed simultaneously with the venoms to evaluate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The concentrations of the elements found in snake venoms from different species were compared. The Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms presented high concentration of Se but low concentrations of Zn when these results are compared with those obtained from genera Bothrops venoms. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Snakebites by Crotalus durissus ssp in children in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Acidentes por serpentes Crotalus durisssus ssp em crianças em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Fábio BUCARETCHI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From January, 1984 to March, 1999, 31 children under 15 y old (ages 1-14 y, median 8 y were admitted after being bitten by rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus ssp. One patient was classified as "dry-bite", 3 as mild envenoming, 9 as moderate envenoming and 18 as severe envenoming. Most patients had neuromuscular manifestations, such as palpebral ptosis (27/31, myalgia (23/31 and weakness (20/31. Laboratory tests suggesting rhabdomyolysis included an increase in total blood creatine kinase (CK, 28/29 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 25/25 levels and myoglobinuria (14/15. The main local signs and symptoms were slight edema (20/31 and erythema (19/31. Before antivenom (AV administration, blood coagulation disorders were observed in 20/25 children that received AV only at our hospital (incoagulable blood in 17/25. AV early reactions were observed in 20 of these 25 cases (9/9 patients not pretreated and 11/16 patients pretreated with hydrocortisone and histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. There were no significant differences in the frequency of patients with AV early reactions between the groups that were and were not pretreated (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.12. Patients admitted less than and more than 6 h after the bite showed the same risk of developing severe envenoming (Fisher's exact test, p = 1. No children of the first group (De janeiro de 1984 a março de 1999, 31 crianças com menos de 15 anos de idade (1 a 14 anos, mediana = 8 anos foram admitidas após terem sido picadas por Crotalus durissus ssp. Uma criança não apresentou manifestações clínicas de envenenamento, enquanto 3 foram classificadas como acidente leve, 9 como moderado e 18 como grave. A maioria das crianças apresentou envolvimento neuromuscular, tais como ptose palpebral (27/31, mialgia (23/31 e fraqueza (20/31. Alterações laboratoriais sugerindo rabdomiólise também foram observadas, como aumento das enzimas séricas CK (28/29 e LDH (25/25 e mioglobinúria (14/15. As

  12. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

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    L.H. O'Dwyer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7% were venomous and 103 (43.3% non-venomous snakes. The more numerous venomous species sampled were Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 and Bothrops jararaca (n=17 and non-venomous snakes were Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18, and Waglerophis merremi (n=13. Hepatozoon spp. infection was detected in 39 (16.4% snakes. The prevalence in venomous and non-venomous snakes was 20.0% and 11.7%, respectively. The highest prevalences observed were 38.9% for Boa constrictor amarali, 35.3% for Bothrops jararaca, and 19.4% for Crotalus durissus terrificus.O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência da infecção por Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes recém-capturadas da região de Botucatu, São Paulo. O sangue foi coletado de todas as serpentes por punção da veia caudal. Os esfregaços foram secos ao ar, fixados com metanol e corados com solução de Giemsa a 10%. Examinaram-se 238 serpentes pertencentes a 23 espécies, das quais 135 (56,7% eram venenosas e 103 (43,3% não venenosas. As espécies venenosas mais representativas foram Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 e Bothrops jararaca (n=17 e as não venenosas foram Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18 e Waglerophis merremi (n=13. A infecção por Hepatozoon spp. foi detectada em 39 (16,4% serpentes. As prevalências em serpentes venenosas e não venenosas foram 20,0% e 11,7%, respectivamente. As maiores prevalências foram 38,9% para Boa constrictor amarali, 35

  13. Crotacetin, a novel snake venom C-type lectin, is homolog of convulxin

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    G. Rádis-Baptista

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom (sv C-type lectins encompass a group of hemorrhagic toxins, which are able to interfere with hemostasis. They share significant similarity in their primary structures with C-type lectins of other animals, and also present a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD. A very well studied sv C-type lectin is the heterodimeric toxin, convulxin (CVX, from the venoms of South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus terrificus and C. d. cascavella. It consists of two subunits, alfa (CVXalpha , 13.9 kDa and beta (CVXbeta , 12.6 kDa, joined by inter and intra-chain disulfide bounds, and is arranged in a tetrameric alpha4beta4 conformation. Convulxin is able to activate platelet and induce their aggregation by acting via p62/GPVI collagen receptor. Several cDNA precursors, homolog of CVX subunits, were cloned by PCR homology screening. As determined by computational analysis, one of them, named crotacetin beta subunit, was predicted as a polypeptide with a tridimensional conformation very similar to other subunits of convulxin-like snake toxins. Crotacetin was purified from C. durissus venoms by gel permeation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The heterodimeric crotacetin is expressed in the venoms of several C. durissus subspecies, but it is prevalent in the venom of C. durissus cascavella. As inferred from homology modeling, crotacetin induces platelet aggregation but noticeably exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.OBJETIVO: A crotoxina é a principal neurotoxina da cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e sua ação neurotóxica caracteriza-se por um bloqueio pr

  15. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model Estudo da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extraocular em modelo animal

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    crotoxina é a principal toxina do veneno da cobra cascavel sul-americana Crotalus durissus terrificus e causa bloqueio da neurotransmissão na junção neuromuscular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação e aplicabilidade da crotoxina na indução de paralisia da musculatura extrínseca ocular, e comparar seus efeitos com os da toxina botulínica do tipo A (TB-A. MÉTODOS: A crotoxina, com DL50 de 1,5 µg, foi aplicada no músculo reto superior direito de dez coelhos da raça neozelandesa, em concentrações que variaram de 0,015 µg a 150 µg. Em dois coelhos, utilizou-se 2 unidades de toxina botulínica do tipo A para análise comparativa. A avaliação da paralisia foi realizada através de eletromiografia seriada. Após a recuperação, que ocorreu em dois meses, seis coelhos foram sacrificados para estudo anátomopatológico. RESULTADOS: Os animais não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação sistêmica. Ptose palpebral transitória foi observada em quase todos os animais e permaneceu por até 14 dias. As toxinas causaram um bloqueio imediato da captação dos potenciais elétricos. A recuperação foi gradativa no período aproximado de um mês, observando-se sinais evidentes de regeneração no registro eletromiográfico. Os efeitos da crotoxina na paralização do músculo injetado foram proporcionais à concentração. A crotoxina, na concentração de 1,5 µg, induziu alterações semelhantes às da toxina botulínica do tipo A. Os achados anátomo-patológicos foram localizados somente na região em que se aplicou as toxinas, não havendo necrose de fibras musculares em nenhuma amostra analisada. As alterações causadas pela crotoxina também foram proporcionais à concentração utilizada e similares a toxina botulínica do tipo A na concentração de 1,5 µg. CONCLUSÃO: A crotoxina foi capaz de induzir paralisia transitória do músculo reto superior. Este efeito foi caracterizado pela redução na amplitude dos potenciais de ação e sinais inespec

  16. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bovinos Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental Crotalus poisoning in cattle

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    Flávio A.S. Graça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproduziu-se experimentalmente o envenenamento crotálico, através da inoculação, por via subcutânea, do veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel sul-americana em dez bovinos mestiços. Dois animais foram utilizados como controle. O bovino que recebeu dose de 0,03mg/kg de peso corporal, morreu 7h40min após a inoculação. A dose de 0,015mg/kg causou a morte em quatro de sete bovinos inoculados, enquanto os dois animais que receberam 0,0075mg/kg adoeceram discretamente e se recuperaram. Os sintomas tiveram início entre 1h30min e 13h45min após a inoculação. A evolução oscilou entre 5h25min e 45h para os animais que morreram e entre 33h15min e 17 dias entre os animais que se recuperaram. Os principais sinais nervosos observados foram diminuição da resposta aos estímulos externos, reflexos hipotônicos, arrastar dos cascos no solo, aparente apatia, paralisia do globo ocular e da língua, decúbito esternal e lateral. Verificaram-se também adipsia e, por vezes, petéquias nas mucosas vaginal e conjuntival. Houve discreto a moderado aumento do tempo de sangramento e moderado aumento do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada. Houve moderada leucocitose com neutrofilia, linfopenia relativa, eosinopenia, monocitose e discreto aumento do número de bastões. Foi evidenciado significativo aumento dos níveis séricos de creatinaquinase, contudo, não foram observadas alterações significativas através da urinálise. À necropsia constataram-se edema quase imperceptível no local da inoculação, discretas petéquias e sufusões no epicárdio, omento, vesícula biliar e mucosa da bexiga em alguns dos animais envenenados experimentalmente. Os exames histopatológicos revelaram necrose (hialinização de grupos de miócitos ou em miócitos isolados em dez diferentes músculos esqueléticos examinados, próximos ou distantes do local de inoculação em todos os animais necropsiados. Concluí-se que o envenenamento por Crotalus Sul

  17. Crotamine and crotoxin interact with tumor cells and trigger cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Dias, Consuelo Latorre Fortes; Chavez Olortegui, Carlos Delfin; Santos, Wagner Gouvea dos

    2007-01-01

    Crotoxin (Crtx) and Crotamine (Crota) are polypeptides isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CV). Previous reports have been shown therapeutic effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and Crtx on skin, breast and lung tumours, although, the mechanisms of this antitumoral effect are still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the antitumoral effect of Crtx and Crota on brain tumours cells (GH3 and RT2) in vitro and their capacity of interaction with these tumour cells membranes. Cell survival after Crtx and Crota treatment was evaluated by MTT assay in different times post-treatment and apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining. In order to evaluate the specific interaction of Crtx and Crota, these polypeptides were radiolabelled, using 125 I as radiotracer and binding assays were performed. The results were compared with the binding in nontumoral brain tissue. Crtx and Crota induced apoptosis on both tumour cells lineages but, Crota was more powerful than Crtx 90% and 20% cell death for RT2 cells; 80% and 20% cell death for GH3 cells, respectively). Both 125 I-Crtx and 125 I-Crota bound specifically in glioblastoma membranes. Nonetheless, CV polypeptides recognised glioblastoma cells with higher specificity than normal brain tissue. These results suggest that the Crtx and Crota interactions with the plasmatic membrane of tumour cells may be the first step of the cascade of signalling that trigger their antitumoral effect. (author)

  18. Toxicity attenuation optimization of crotalic venom by gamma radiation and studies of its immunogenic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clissa, Patricia Bianca

    1997-01-01

    Literature data show that 2.0 kGy dose of gamma radiation, generated by 60 source, reduces the toxic activity of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, without altering its immunogenic capacity. When crotoxin, main toxin from crotalic venom, was irradiated with the same dose, toxicity was also reduced and the immunogenicity was maintained. This fact was attributed to aggregates (compounds with high molecular weight generated during irradiation), that showed no toxicity but were able to induce the antibodies formation against native venom. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy doses and submitted to molecular exclusion chromatography, in order to find an efficient dose that produces large amounts of non toxic but still immunogenic aggregates. After being isolated, the products of irradiation were evaluated for the amount produced, molecular alteration, and toxic and immunogenic activities. These parameters were also analyzed for the whole venom irradiated. The results from different doses irradiated venom were compared with native one, and 2.0 kGy dose was confirmed to be the most efficient in the association of toxicity attenuation with maintenance of immunogenicity of the crotalic venom, while other doses, in spite of being efficient in the toxicity attenuation, they were not able to keep the immunogenicity property. So, the dose of 2.0 kGy could be used to immunize animals in order to improve anticrotalic sera production. (author)

  19. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  20. Gamma radiation damage in crotamine (venom of Brazilian rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.A.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing Radiations changes the molecular structure due to chemical bond destruction. These chemical alterations is able to change the biological properties of the macro-molecules. Crotamine was obtained from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion cromatography and irradiated in concentration of 2 mg/ml of NaCl 0,85% with gamma radiation produced by a 60 Co source. We used doses of 100 Gy, 250 Gy, 500 Gy, 1000 Gy and 2000 Gy (dose rate = 1,19.10 3 Gy/h). We performed the following experiments: presence of free SH groups, proteic concentration,SDS-PAGE and immunodifusion. Preliminary results showed an increase of the number of bands in SDS-PAGE suggesting the appearence of protein aggregates that proportional to the dose increasing. The immunodiffusion data showed no modification of the immunochemical activity against theButantan anti - sera. (author) [pt

  1. Influence of the main reactive species formed during the detoxication process of toxins by ionizing radiation; Influencia das principais especies reativas formadas durante o processo de destoxicacao de toxinas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2003-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on two toxins (Crotoxin and Crotamine) purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, UV spectra, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activity were employed. In addition, biochemical techniques were employed to evaluate the decrease of toxicity and the immunogenicity of toxins before and after the irradiation. Our results indicate that the irradiation promotes structural damages, even at low doses. These modifications lead to a gradual decrease in toxicity, however, the immunogenic properties of the toxins are preserved. (author)

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P.J.; Andrade, H.F.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Rogero, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, subsequently submitted to irradiation. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocurred in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain)

  3. Influence of the main reactive species formed during the detoxication process of toxins by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Casare da

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been satisfactorily employed for venoms detoxification. In this report, the radiation was employed to verify the effects caused by the radiolysis products of water on two toxins (Crotoxin and Crotamine) purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. These effects were analyzed using some substances called 'scavengers', those substances competes for specific reactive species hindering them to act on the toxins molecules. In order to study the possible structural damages caused on the toxins, UV spectra, fluorescence, mass spectrometry, enzymatic activity were employed. In addition, biochemical techniques were employed to evaluate the decrease of toxicity and the immunogenicity of toxins before and after the irradiation. Our results indicate that the irradiation promotes structural damages, even at low doses. These modifications lead to a gradual decrease in toxicity, however, the immunogenic properties of the toxins are preserved. (author)

  4. Evaluation of snake venom phospholipase A{sub 2}: hydrolysis of non-natural esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirolla, Renan A.S.; Baldasso, Paulo A.; Marangoni, Sergio; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto R., E-mail: jaugusto@iqm.unicamp.b [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry. Dept. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Phospholipase A2 from the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus was employed for the first time to test its enantioselectivity on the hydrolysis of different non-natural esters. It was observed that the structure of this small enzyme is restrictive in the choice of its lipase action with non-natural substrates. Two forms of the enzyme were used; free and as its cross-linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA). With all substrates, the free enzyme showed activity similar to the CLEA preparation. The advantage of the CLEA phospholipase is the possibility to reuse it in several consecutive reactions without a decrease of activity and selectivity with good but higher yields and ee than with the free enzyme. (author)

  5. Molecular exclusion chromatographic analysis on 60Co irradiated rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.; Rogero, J.R.

    1988-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are sufficiently energetic to be able of breaking chemical bonds and as result of that molecules of substances present in the irradiated will be chemically changed and their biological properties affected also. In this paper the effects of gamma radiation of Co-60 on the rattlesnake venom were studied. A pool of positive crotamina Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was dissolved in 0,15 M NaCl and irradiated with Co-60. Doses of 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 and 2000 Gy were applied at the dose rate of 1190 Gy/h. With doses over 500 Gy the solutions became turbid, suggesting the presence of aggregates and structural changes of the proteins. The concentration of proteins from the filtered solution was measured by the Lowry method. One ml samples were measured at 230 nm. The partition coefficients and the areas of the three main fraction obtained were calculated. (author) [pt

  6. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

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    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  7. 131I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos

    2009-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, 125 I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for 131 I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from 131 I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  8. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on crotamine

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    Boni-Mitake M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide (pI 10.3 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of the present study was to carry out a biochemical study and a toxic activity assay on native and irradiated crotamine. Crotamine was purified from C.d. terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography, and irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60Co source. The native and irradiated toxins were evaluated in terms of structure and toxic activity (LD50. Irradiation did not change the protein concentration, the electrophoretic profile or the primary structure of the protein although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity by 48.3%, but did not eliminate it.

  9. Effects of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni-Mitake, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioprotecao Ocupacional; Costa, H.; Spencer, P.J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia; Rogero, J.R [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Materiais; Vassilieff, V.S. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Ceatox - Centro de Assistencia Toxicologica]. E-mail: mbmitake@net.ipen.br

    2001-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide (p I 10.3) from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of the present study was to carry out a biochemical study and a toxic activity assay on native and irradiated crotamine. Crotamine was purified from C.d. terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography, and irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated toxins were evaluated in terms of structure and toxic activity (Ld50). Irradiation did not change the protein concentration, the electrophoretic profile or the primary structure of the protein although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity by 48.3%, but did not eliminate it. (author)

  10. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  11. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of 125/131I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with 125/131 I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. 125 I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while 131 I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 = 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). 131 I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  12. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions

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    David Gitirana da Rocha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017 [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR sequences are variable antibody (Ab sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  13. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae of snakes

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    Moço Tatiana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  14. Comparative study of native and irradiated crotoxin. Biochemical and pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N. do.

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venom, without affecting significantly their antigenic and immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative biochemical and pharmacological study between native and gamma irradiated (2000Gy) crotoxin, main toxin of south american rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified from crude venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and then irradiated. Immunodiffusion, electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that the molecular integrity was preserved after irradiation with some higher molecular weight aggregate formation and maintenance of its antigenic capacity. The antibodies induced by irradiated toxin had a similar titer to the antibodies induced by native crotoxin; however with higher protective effects in mice. Crotoxin toxicity became 15 times lower after irradiation, as determined by LD sub(50) in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution occurred with a similar general pattern, with renal elimination. In contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native crotoxin is initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3hs) occurs in phagocyticmononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junctions rich organs (muscle and brain). (author)

  15. Structural aspects of crotoxin modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais da crotoxina modificada pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Albero, Felipe Guimaraes; Zezell, Denise Maria; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation of venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize the crotoxin, a venom protein of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus by Circular Dichroism (CD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. After chromatographic techniques, crotoxin was irradiated with 2.0 kGy ({sup 60}Co source). The CD spectra obtained of native and irradiated crotoxin solutions showed changes between the samples in characteristic regions of -sheet and-helix . The Infrared analyse showed expressive changes in the spectra of the native and irradiated crotoxin (amide I band region). These tests showed that crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary structure and may explain its neurotoxic activity loss. (author)

  16. Identification and functional analysis of a novel bradykinin inhibitory peptide in the venoms of New World Crotalinae pit vipers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Graham, Robert Leslie; Graham, Ciaren; McClean, Stephen; Chen, Tianbao; O'Rourke, Martin; Hirst, David; Theakston, David; Shaw, Chris

    2005-01-01

    A novel undecapeptide has been isolated and structurally characterized from the venoms of three species of New World pit vipers from the subfamily, Crotalinae. These include the Mexican moccasin (Agkistrodon bilineatus), the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis), and the South American bushmaster (Lachesis muta). The peptide was purified from all three venoms using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Automated Edman degradation sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established its peptide primary structure as: Thr-Pro-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Asp-Val-Gly-Pro-Arg-OH, with a non-protonated molecular mass of 1063.18 Da. A synthetic replicate of the peptide was found to be an antagonist of bradykinin action at the rat vascular B2 receptor. This is the first bradykinin inhibitory peptide isolated from snake venom. Database searching revealed the peptide to be highly structurally related (10/11 residues) with a domain residing between the bradykinin-potentiating peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide domains of a recently cloned precursor from tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom gland. BIP thus represents a novel biological entity from snake venom

  17. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation; Aspectos estruturais de proteinas do veneno crotalico modificadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  18. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  19. Structural aspects of crotalic venom proteins modified by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de

    2010-01-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the Ministry of Health notified around 26 000 accidents in 2008. The genus Crotalus (rattlesnakes) accounts for approximately 7% of the total, with a high mortality rate of 72% when untreated with the specific serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites. In Brazil, the serum is produced in horses which, despite the large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool for reducing the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins, resulting in better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum producing animals. Since the action of gamma radiation on venoms and toxins has not been yet fully clarified from the structural point of view, we proposed in this paper, to characterize two toxins of the species Crotalus durissus terrificus: crotoxin and crotamine. After isolation of the toxins of interest by chromatographic techniques, they were subjected to structural analysis with the application of the following methods: Fluorescence, Circular Dichroism, Differential Calorimetry and Infrared Spectroscopy. These tests showed that both crotamine as crotoxin when subjected to gamma radiation, showed changes in their structural conformation compared with the samples in the native state. Such changes probably occur in the secondary and tertiary structure and may explain the changes on the biological activity of these toxins. (author)

  20. Microhabitat use by species of the genera Bothrops and Crotalus (Viperidae in semi-extensive captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence microhabitat including climate and the occurrence of predators, prey and suitable shelters. The influence of predators in a semi-extensive breeding system is minimized due to frequent monitoring of the area. This situation enables the independent analysis of such other variables as refuges and temperature. Some specimens of the Viperidae family are kept in a semi-extensive breeding system at the Butantan Institute for display and study. These animals are widely distributed in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, two biomes with distinct climatic characteristics. We compared the daily activity pattern and microhabitat use of the species Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. Our main questions were whether rattlesnakes and lancehead snakes respond to habitat selection differently in similar climatic conditions and if they choose similar microhabitats. Species of the genus Bothrops were frequently found under shelters regardless of the time of day. On the other hand, snakes of the genus Crotalus were frequently found sheltered during the early morning, then migrated to sunnier areas and returned to shelters in late afternoon.

  1. Biodistribution and SPECT imaging of {sup 125/131}I-crotoxin on mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcellaaraugio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: santosr@cdtn.br; Silveira, Marina B.; Simal, Carlos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The search of specific radiopharmaceuticals to be used in breast tumour diagnosis is relevant to complement the techniques applied in conventional medicine. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CV) and its main polypeptide, Crotoxin (Crtx), are natural source of several bioactive substances with therapeutical potential. The aim of this work was to evaluate the binding of Crtx with tumour targets in vivo, as well as, evaluate its applicability for breast tumours diagnosis. Crtx was labelled with {sup 125/131}I using lactoperoxidase method and radiochemical analysis was performed by chromatography. {sup 125}I-Crtx was used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumour, while {sup 131}I-Crtx was used for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Crtx presented specific binding sites on Ehrlich tumour cells and had a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}= 201.1 min.). Intratumoral administration increased significantly the activity delivered into the tumour site (128-fold higher) and reduced the kidney burden (7.2-fold lower). {sup 131}I-Crxt demonstrated to interact with tumour cells for until 72 hours allowing good quality images of tumour. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of Crtx as template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  2. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity; Mediacao dos receptores ativados por proteases (PARs) em atividades biologicas da giroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-07-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH{sub 2}, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  3. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kcorleto@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a {sup 60}Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  4. Immunochemical aspects of crotoxim and its subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Crotamine and crotoxin with the subunits - phospholipase A and crotapotin - were obtained by purification from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Interaction studies of the subunits using crotalic antiserum, indicated that: crotoxin is formed of crotapotin and phospholipase A with the molar ratio of 1 to 1; using crotapotin 125 I the presence of a soluble complex was shown with the same antiserum. Immunological precipitation reactions demonstrated that crotapotin is antigenic: crotapotin and phospholipase A presented similar antigenic determinants; crotoxin antiserum reacted with each one of the submits; when the subunits are mixed to form synthetic crotoxin some antigenic determinants are masked in the process of interaction. Crotamine, interacted with crotapotin 1:1, without hidden antigenic determinants crotapotin antigenic site seems to be formed by, at least, one lysine. Enzimatical activity of phospholipase A apreared to be dependent on some reaction conditions when its arginine residues are blocked. Tyrosines of phospholipase A are more susceptible to labelling with 131 I than crotapotin. Gama irradiation of aqueous solutions of the subunits produced modifications in the ultraviolet spectra. A decrease of the enzymatic activity occured as a function of radiation dosis. Immunological activities of crotapotin and phospholipase A were not altered [pt

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of gamma rays irradiated crotamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto de; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. It has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine, a toxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a highly basic polypeptide (pI - 10.3), with myotoxic activity and molecular weight of 4882 Da. It is composed of 42 amino acids residues and reticulated by three disulfide bonds. This study aimed the characterization of irradiated crotamine using Circular Dichroism (CD), Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. We used size exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography to purify it from Cdt crude venom. The pure crotamine was irradiated with 2.0 kGy from a 60 Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were analyzed in a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-4500), under excitation wavelength at 275 nm and the emission was scanned from 300 to 500 nm. The analysis of fluorescence quenching showed that the irradiated form displayed a lower quantum yield when compared to the native form. CD spectra, obtained from a Jasco, J-180 spectropolarimeter, of native and irradiated crotamine solutions, showed a discrete change between the samples, from apparently ordered conformation to a random coil. Finally, the thermodynamics analysis, realized in a calorimeter METTLER TOLEDO, DSC 822e, showed that irradiation promoted changes in the calorimetric profile. Our results indicate that irradiation leads to progressive changes in the structure of the toxin, which could explain the decrease in myotoxic activity. (author)

  6. Novo método de dosagem de soros antipeçonhentos em camundongos lactentes: I - dosagem do soro anticrotálico New method for dosage of antivenoms sera in baby mice: I-Anticrotalic serum's dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Soerensen

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica dos soros antipeçonhentos pode ser determinada "in vivo" em pombos, coelhos, cobaios e camundongos adultos, não existindo, entretanto, nenhum método que possa ser recomendado internacionalmente. Estudou-se comparativamente aos métodos tradicionais de dosagem de soros em pombos e camundongos adultos, a validade do uso de camundongos lactentes de 6 a 7 dias, pesando 4 a 5g, inoculados pela via subcutânea. Inicialmente foi determinada a toxidez do veneno de Crotalus durissus terríficus através do estudo da sintomatologia do envenenamento e da atividade letal. O estudo comparativo dos três métodos forneceu maior concordância de resultados em DE100 entre as dosagens realizadas com camundongos lactentes e adultos. A DE100 e DL50 determinadas em camundongos lactentes forneceu resultados mais constantes que os dos métodos de camundongos adultos e pombos. O uso deste novo método permite eliminar a dificuldade de obtenção do atual animal de prova; a utilização de um maior número de animais por ponto de avaliação biológica, possibilitando uma maior precisão e conseguindo-se uma uniformidade nas características exigidas neste tipo de dosagem como peso, idade e linhagem, visando a reprodução sistemática dos resultados.The biological activity of antiserum against venoms can be assessed by "in vivo" tests using pigeons, rabbits, guinea-pigs and adult mice although there is no International standardized reaction for it. The traditional methods using pigeons and adult mice were comparatively studied with those using mice of 4-5 g (6-7 days of age, inoculated by subcutaneous injection. The toxicity of the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was initially determined by studying the symptomatology after administration of venom and lethal activity. The comparative study of these three methods showed that the best concordance in the results of the ED100 was obtained using adult and baby mice. The most homogeneous ED100

  7. Alterações hematológicas em bovinos submetidos ao envenenamento crotálico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O quadro clínico observado ao exame do animal acidentado pela cascavél sul americana (Crotalus durissus terrificus , portadora de veneno contendo quantidades significativas da toxina crotamina, é de difícil diferenciação clínica com outras doenças. Com o objetivo de se estabelecer alterações hematológicas que auxiliem o diagnóstico desta condição mórbida, cinco fêmeas bovinas mestiças, com idade variando entre dois e três anos, foram inoculadas com veneno crotálico do tipo crotamina positivo, utilizando a dose de 0,03 mg por quilo de pêso vivo, na região glútea, por via intramuscular. Colheu-se amostras de sangue para realizar os exames laboratoriais antes e a cada duas horas após a inoculação, até a morte dos animais. Verificou-se que: o número de hemácias, o volume corpuscular médio ( VCM , a hemoglobina corpuscular média ( HCM , os números de leucócitos totais, de linfócitos, de neutrófilos e de monócitos, tiveram aumentos significativos e que os números de leucócitos totais apresentaram comportamento atípico, caracterizado por leucocitoses com valores atingindo até 60.000 celulas/mm,3 a cada seis horas, alternadas por quedas para em torno de 13.000 células/mm3. Pelo exposto, concluiu-se que a observação destas alterações poderá auxiliar o estabelecimento do diagnóstico desta afecção nos bovinos. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Envenenamento crotálico; hemograma; bovinos. SUMMARY: The clinical findings observed at examination of an animal attacked by South American rattle snake (Crotalus durissus terrificus , that has poison containing significative crotamine toxin quantites are difficult to distinguish from other diseases. With the aim of establishing haematological parameters of diagnostic value for this condition diagnosis, five crossbred female cattle, from two to three years old, were inoculated with

  8. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. METHODS: Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U, each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. RESULTS: No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD. When the dose was 4U (2 applications the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  9. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}. Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm{sup -1}), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  10. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-01-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective in

  11. Obtained and evaluation of antisera raised against irradiated crotalic whole venom or crotoxin in 60 Co source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Regina A. de.

    1995-01-01

    Snake bite is a great Public Health problem in our country. The accidents with snakes from Crotalus genus are the most severe. About 1% of the victims die without seratherapy. The antivenons are obtained from hyper immune horse plasma. During the production these animals present signs of envenoming that result in a decrease of organic resistance besides the horses maintenance is very expensive and the producers are fewer, so the sera production is restrict. Many techniques which could reduce the venoms toxicity and increase the sera production using chemical and physical agents have been studied. The gamma rays are excellent tool to detoxify venoms and toxins. It is able to modify protein structures that decrease lethally, toxic and enzymatic activities without modifying the immunogenicity. So, it is important evaluate the sera production in rabbits using gamma rays detoxified venom and crotoxin as immunogen and their power as reagents in immuno assays. In order to obtain the antisera, Crotalus durissus terrificus whole venom or isolated crotoxin was irradiated with 2.000 Gy in 60 Co source, in a 150 mM NaCl solution, and inoculated in rabbits. The sera production were screened by immunoprecipitation, immuno enzymatic (ELISA) and immunoradiometric (IRMA) assays. The specificity was studied by immuno-electrophoresis, ELISA and western blot techniques. The neutralizing power was evaluated by neutralization of phospholipase A 2 activity of toxin in vitro. The antisera were used as reagents in antigen capture assays ELISA and IRMA immuno assays to detect circulant antigens in sera of mice experimentally inoculated with crotalic venom or crotoxin. The results showed that both detoxified venom or crotoxin were good immunogens, and they were able to induce antibodies that could recognize non-irradiated venom or isolated crotoxin. The data suggest that those antibodies present more specificity and higher in vitro neutralizing power, when compared with commercial

  12. A snake venom group IIA PLA2 with immunomodulatory activity induces formation of lipid droplets containing 15-d-PGJ2 in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Leiguez, Elbio; Carvalho, Ana Eduarda Zulim de; Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Matsubara, Márcio Hideki; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Moreira, Vanessa; Teixeira, Catarina

    2017-06-22

    Crotoxin B (CB) is a catalytically active group IIA sPLA 2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In contrast to most GIIA sPLA 2 s, CB exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, including the ability to inhibit leukocyte functions. Lipid droplets (LDs) are lipid-rich organelles associated with inflammation and recognized as a site for the synthesis of inflammatory lipid mediators. Here, the ability of CB to induce formation of LDs and the mechanisms involved in this effect were investigated in isolated macrophages. The profile of CB-induced 15-d-PGJ 2 (15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-prostaglandin J 2 ) production and involvement of LDs in 15-d-PGJ 2 biosynthesis were also investigated. Stimulation of murine macrophages with CB induced increased number of LDs and release of 15-d-PGJ 2 . LDs induced by CB were associated to PLIN2 recruitment and expression and required activation of PKC, PI3K, MEK1/2, JNK, iPLA 2 and PLD. Both 15-d-PGJ 2 and COX-1 were found in CB-induced LDs indicating that LDs contribute to the inhibitory effects of CB by acting as platform for synthesis of 15-d-PGJ 2 , a pro-resolving lipid mediator. Together, our data indicate that an immunomodulatory GIIA sPLA 2 can directly induce LD formation and production of a pro-resolving mediator in an inflammatory cell and afford new insights into the roles of LDs in resolution of inflammatory processes.

  13. Study of crotoxin on the induction of paralysis in extraocular muscle in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Crotoxin is the major toxin of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, capable of causing a blockade of the neurotransmitters at the neuromuscular junction. The objective of this study was to appraise the action and effectiveness of the crotoxin induced paralysis of the extraocular muscle and to compare its effects with the botulinum toxin type A (BT-A. METHODS: The crotoxin, with LD50 of 1.5 µg, was injected into the superior rectus muscle in ten New Zealand rabbits. The concentration variance was 0.015 up to 150 µg. Two rabbits received 2 units of botulinum toxin type A for comparative analysis. The evaluation of the paralysis was performed using serial electromyography. After the functional recovery of the muscles, which occurred after two months, six rabbits were sacrificed for anatomopathology study. RESULTS: The animals did not show any evidence of systemic toxicity. Transitory ptosis was observed in almost every animal and remained up to fourteen days. These toxins caused immediate blockade of the electrical potentials. The recovery was gradual in the average of one month with regeneration signs evident on the electromyography. The paralysis effect of the crotoxin on the muscle was proportional to its concentration. The changes with 1.5 µg crotoxin were similar to those produced by the botulinum toxin type A. The histopathology findings were localized to the site of the injection. No signs of muscle fiber's necrosis were seen in any sample. The alterations induced by crotoxin were also proportional to the concentration and similar to botulinum toxin type A in concentration of 1.5 µg. CONCLUSION: Crotoxin was able to induce transitory paralysis of the superior rectus muscle. This effect was characterized by reduction of action potentials and non-specific signs of fibrillation. Crotoxin, in concentration of 1.5 µg was able to induce similar effects as botulinum toxin type A.

  14. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2013-01-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A 2 . Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm -1 ), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  15. Crotoxin stimulates an M1 activation profile in murine macrophages during Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, L H S; Rodrigues, A P D; Coêlho, E C; Santos, M F; Sampaio, S C; Silva, E O

    2017-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage - Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL-1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.

  16. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  17. Microbiological evaluation of different strategies for management of snakes in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagner, M V; Bosco, S M G; Bagagli, E; Cunha, M L R S; Jeronimo, B C; Saad, E; Biscola, N P; Ferreira, R S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    Keeping snakes in captivity to produce venom for scientific research and production of inputs is now a worldwide practice. Maintaining snakes in captivity involves capture, infrastructure investments, management techniques, and appropriate qualified personnel. Further, the success of the project requires knowledge of habitat, nutrition, and reproduction, and control of opportunistic infections. This study evaluated the management of snakes in three types of captivity (quarantine, intensive, and semiextensive) and diagnosed bacterial and fungal contaminants. A bacteriological profile was obtained by swabbing the oral and cloacal cavities, scales, and venoms of healthy adult snakes from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt). There was predominance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli excluding Pseudomonas spp and Gram- positive bacteria. Statistically, intensive captivity resulted in the highest number of bacterial isolates, followed by recent capture (quarantine) and by semiextensive captivity. No statistical difference was found between Bj and Cdt bacterial frequency. In vitro bacterial susceptibility testing found the highest resistance against the semisynthetic penicillins (amoxicillin and ampicillin) and highest sensitivity to amicacin and tobramycin aminoglycosides. To evaluate mycological profile of snakes from intensive captivity, samples were obtained from two healthy Bj and one B. moojeni, one B. pauloensis, and one Cdt showing whitish lesions on the scales suggestive of ringworm. Using conventional methods and DNA-based molecular procedures, five samples of Trichosporon asahii were identified. Despite the traditional role of intense captivity in ophidian venom production, semiextensive captivity was more effective in the present study by virtue of presenting superior control of bacterial and fungal transmission, easier management, lowest cost, and decreased rate of mortality; therefore, it should be

  18. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos; Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes; Cassali, Geovanni D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  19. Ação neuro-muscular do veneno crotálico: dados preliminares Neuromuscular action of crotalid venom: preliminar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorvalina Silva

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos 6 pacientes, 2 cães e um coelho com intoxicação crotálica. Avaliamos a condução nervosa periférica sensitiva e motora, a transmissão neuromuscular e eletromiografias. As biópsias de músculo foram processadas por histoquímica. Os 6 pacientes apresentaram mononeuropatia sensitiva no nervo periférico adjacente ao local da inoculação do veneno e encontramos evidências histoquímicas de miopatia mitocondrial. Os defeitos da transmissão neuromuscular foram mínimos. A maioria dos autores admite que veneno crotálico determina síndrome miastênica. Nossos achados indicam que ptose palpebral, facies miastênico e fraqueza muscular observados após acidente crotálico, correspondem provavelmente a miopatia mitocondrial, muitas vezes transitória e reversível.We studied 6 patients and 2 dogs that have been bitten by South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus and one rabbit inoculated with crotalid venom. We analized sensory and motor peripheral nerve conduction, repetitive stimulation for studying neuromuscular transmission and electromyographies. Muscle biopsies were processed by histochemistry. All patients had peripheral mononeuropathy of the closest sensitive nerve to the area of snakebite. The neuromuscular transmission alterations were minimal. Muscle histochemistry of 4 patients, 2 dogs and 1 rabbit showed findings of mitochondrial myopathy. The majority of authors admit that crotalid venom causes myastenic syndrome. Our findings suggest that palpebral ptosis, myastenic facies and muscular weakness observed after crotalid poisoning are, probably, due to transient and reversible mitochondrial myopathy. As far as we know, this is the first report on the ability of the venom of this rattlesnake to cause local sensitive mononeuropathy and the first muscle histochemistry showing mitochondrial myopathy in humans poisoned by crotalid venom.

  20. Binding studies of the antitumoral radiopharmaceutical 125I-Crotoxin to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina B.; Santos, Raquel G. dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, Consuelo L. Fortes [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: consuelo@pq.cnpq.br; Cassali, Geovanni D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada], e-mail: cassalig@icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The development of tools for functional diagnostic imaging is mainly based on radiopharmaceuticals that specifically target membrane receptors. Crotoxin (Crtx), a polypeptide isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, has been shown to have an antitumoral activity and is a promising bioactive tracer for tumor detection. More specific radiopharmaceuticals are being studied to complement the techniques applied in the conventional medicine against breast cancer, the most frequent cause of death from malignant disease in women. Crtx's effect has been shown to be related with the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), present in high levels in 30 to 60% of breast tumor cells. Our objective was to evaluate Crtx as a tracer for cancer diagnosis, investigating its properties as an EGFR-targeting agent. Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT cells) were used due to its origin and similar characteristics to breast tumor cells, specially the presence of EGFR. Crtx was labeled with 125I and binding experiments were performed. To evaluate the specific binding in vitro of Crtx, competition binding assay was carried out in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-labelled crotoxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Specific binding of 125I-Crtx to EAT cells was determined and the binding was considered saturable, with approximately 70% of specificity, high affinity (Kd = 19.7 nM) and IC50 = 1.6 x 10-11 M. Our results indicate that Crtx's interaction with EAT cells is partially related with EGFR and increases the biotechnological potential of Crtx as a template for radiopharmaceutical design for cancer diagnosis. (author)

  1. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of irradiated crotamine by gamma rays of {sup 60}Co; Caracterizacao bioquimica e farmacologica da crotamina irradiada por raios gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina Corleto

    2014-07-01

    The serum production in Brazil, the only effective treatment in cases of snakebites, uses horses that although large size, have reduced l lifespan compared with horses not immunized. Ionizing radiation has been shown as an excellent tool in reducing the toxicity of venoms and toxins isolated, and promote the achievement of better immunogens for serum production, and contributing to the welfare of serum-producing animals. It is known, however, that the effects of ionizing radiation on protein are characterized by various chemical modifications, such as fragmentation, cross-linking due to aggregation and oxidation products generated by water radiolysis. However, the action of gamma radiation on toxins is not yet fully understood structurally and pharmacologically, a fact that prevents the application of this methodology in the serum production process. So we proposed in this paper the characterization of crotamine, an important protein from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus species, irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. After isolating the toxin by chromatographic techniques and testing to prove the obtaining of pure crotamine, it was irradiated with gamma rays and subjected to structural analysis, Fluorescence and Circular Dichroism. Using high hydrostatic pressure tests were also conducted in order to verify that the conformational changes caused by radiation suffer modifications under high pressures. From the pharmacological point of view, muscle contraction tests were conducted with the objective of limiting the action of crotamine in smooth muscle as well as the change in the action of toxin caused structural changes to the front. Analysis of Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence showed changes in structural conformation of crotamine when subjected to gamma radiation and that such changes possibly occurring in the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein. The observed in pharmacological tests showed that the irradiated crotamine was less effective

  2. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Geraldo de Barros; Almeida, Henderson Celestino de; Velarde, David Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Crotoxin is the main neurotoxin of South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. The neurotoxic action is characterized by a presynaptic blockade. The purpose of this research is to assess the ability of crotoxin to induce temporary paralysis of extraocular and facial muscles in humans. Doses of crotoxin used ranged from 2 to 5 units (U), each unit corresponding to one LD50. We first applied 2U of crotoxin in one of the extraocular muscles of 3 amaurotic individuals to be submitted to ocular evisceration. In the second stage, we applied crotoxin in 12 extraocular muscles of 9 patients with strabismic amblyopia. In the last stage, crotoxin was used in the treatment of blepharospasm in another 3 patients. No patient showed any systemic side effect or change in vision or any eye structure problem after the procedure. The only local side effects observed were slight conjunctival hyperemia, which recovered spontaneously. In 2 patients there was no change in ocular deviation after 2U crotoxin application. Limitation of the muscle action was observed in 8 of the 12 applications. The change in ocular deviation after application of 2U of crotoxin (9 injections) was in average 15.7 prism diopters (PD). When the dose was 4U (2 applications) the change was in average 37.5 PD and a single application of 5U produced a change of 16 PD in ocular deviation. This effect lasted from 1 to 3 months. Two of the 3 patients with blepharospasm had the hemifacial spasm improved with crotoxin, which returned after 2 months. This study provides data suggesting that crotoxin may be a useful new therapeutic option for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm. We expect that with further studies crotoxin could be an option for many other medical areas.

  3. The unequal influences of the left and right vagi on the control of the heart and pulmonary artery in the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, E.W.; Andrade, Denis V.; Abe, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in reptiles includes sympathetic components but heart rate (fH), pulmonary blood flow ( pul) and cardiac shunt patterns are primarily controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus innervates both the heart and a sphincter on the pulmona....... This paves the way for an investigation of the role of the cardiac shunt in regulating metabolic rate, as chronic left vagotomy will cause a pronounced left–right shunt in recovered animals, whilst leaving intact control of the heart, via the right vagus....... artery. The present study reveals that whereas both the left and right vagi influence fH, it is only the left vagus that influences pulmonary vascular resistance. This is associated with the fact that rattlesnakes, in common with some other species of snakes, have a single functional lung, as the other...... lung regresses during development. Stimulation of the left cervical vagus in anaesthetised snakes slowed the heart and markedly reduced blood flow in the pulmonary artery whereas stimulation of the right cervical vagus slowed the heart and caused a small increase in stroke volume (VS) in both...

  4. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  5. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with 60 Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD 50 and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of 125 I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35± 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 6 cpm/mouse) of 125 I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal muscle and they did not pass the blood - brain

  6. Obtainment of crotoxin/phema-g-LDPE and crotoxin/PCL systems;Obtencao dos sistemas bioconjugados crotoxina/PEBD-g-phema e crotoxina/PCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, Solange Gubbelini

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the work was the obtainment of polymeric matrices immobilized with crotoxin purified from crude venom of rattle snake. A matrix was processed by gamma irradiation by the grafting of a hydrogel onto a polymeric film which resulted in a copolymer for the chemical immobilization of crotoxin. The second matrix was attained by the entrapment of crotoxin in microspheres of epsilon-polycaprolactone. After the purification, the crotoxin proceeding from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus was evaluated biochemical and biologically. The lethal dose (LD50%) of the toxin was 0.09/kg animal. The test of cytotoxicity not revealed any significant difference between the tumoral cells and the respective normal control cells in culture. Grafting copolymers were used as scaffold for the chemical immobilization of the purified crotoxin. For this purpose the low density polyethylene (LDPE) and the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) were copolymerized in a {sup 60}Co source. The copolymers (LDPE-g-PHEMA) showed grafting levels in the range of 2 and 50 %. In the infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR-ATR) it was observed in the copolymer, carbonyl groups (C=O) and hydroxyl groups -OH due to the grafting of PHEMA. The MEV micrographs showed a smooth surface for the virgin LDPE and a rough surface for the LDPE-g-PHEMA, owing to the presence of grafted PHEMA. The hydrophilicity was observed by the determination of water content in the copolymer after immersion in water. By the diffusion coefficient it was noted that from 30 % grafting degree, the copolymers become less hydrophilic due to the crosslinking increase among the chains in PHEMA. The biocompatibility of the LDPE-g-PHEMA was proved by the cytotoxicity test. At the end, the immobilized copolymer, the entrapped crotoxin and the free crotoxin was tested 'in vivo'. During 20 days, C3H strain mice were observed in their weight, behavior and motor changes. The results demonstrated that the group

  7. Use of I-131- CRTX for targeting malignant adenocarcinoma in mice: biodistribution and radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Santos, Marcos Antonio da Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumour cells but also in the processes of tumour cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. We have shown that 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a protein derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (Cdt), specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic death. This study reports the biokinetic profile of 99m Tc-Cdt and 125/131 I-Crtx in Swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumor and MIRD formulation was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation doses for various organs and tumor site. Biokinetic evaluations were performed up to 24 h after intravenous (i.v) or intratumor (i.tu.) injection of 99m Tc-Cdt or 125/131 I-Crtx. Time-activity curves were generated for the main organs by fitting the organ specific mass mean counts. The radiation dose from 131 I-Crtx was calculated based on non penetrating radiation in the mouse model. Biokinetics data from 99m Tc-Cdt after i.v. injection in mice tumor model showed rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 = 36.1 ± 2.4 min.), slow tumor clearance (T 1/2 : 108.3 ± 19.5 min.) and indicated the kidneys as the main excretion pathway. Interaction studies in vitro demonstrated that 125 I-Crtx recognize specific sites on Erlich tumor cell membrane. Upon intravenous and intratumor administration of 131 I-Crtx in mice bearing Erlich tumor, it was observed high uptake in tumor site in vivo (Ã =72kBq x h/g) resulting in a high absorbed dose radiation to tumor site. Distributions of 125/131 I-Crtx i.v. were only significant in tumor, stomach, liver and kidneys, reflecting non-specific uptake of Crtx in normal excretion tissues in vivo. Intratumoral administration reduced significantly the radiation dose to the kidneys (42-fold lower) and increased the uptake by the tumor site (128- fold higher). 131 I control was run in a parallel experiment and showed no significant tumor uptake. In conclusion, 131 I-Crtx had a high concentration in

  8. DNA-interactive properties of crotamine, a cell-penetrating polypeptide and a potential drug carrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Crotamine, a 42-residue polypeptide derived from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been shown to be a cell-penetrating protein that targets chromosomes, carries plasmid DNA into cells, and shows specificity for actively proliferating cells. Given this potential role as a nucleic acid-delivery vector, we have studied in detail the binding of crotamine to single- and double-stranded DNAs of different lengths and base compositions over a range of ionic conditions. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry analysis indicate that complexes of crotamine with long-chain DNAs readily aggregate and precipitate at low ionic strength. This aggregation, which may be important for cellular uptake of DNA, becomes less likely with shorter chain length. 25-mer oligonucleotides do not show any evidence of such aggregation, permitting the determination of affinities and size via fluorescence quenching experiments. The polypeptide binds non-cooperatively to DNA, covering about 5 nucleotide residues when it binds to single (ss or (ds double stranded molecules. The affinities of the protein for ss- vs. ds-DNA are comparable, and inversely proportional to salt levels. Analysis of the dependence of affinity on [NaCl] indicates that there are a maximum of ∼3 ionic interactions between the protein and DNA, with some of the binding affinity attributable to non-ionic interactions. Inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the protein suggests that residues 31 to 35, Arg-Trp-Arg-Trp-Lys, could serve as a potential DNA-binding site. A hexapeptide containing this sequence displayed a lower DNA binding affinity and salt dependence as compared to the full-length protein, likely indicative of a more suitable 3D structure and the presence of accessory binding sites in the native crotamine. Taken together, the data presented here describing crotamine-DNA interactions may lend support to the design of more

  9. Obtainment of crotoxin/phema-g-LDPE and crotoxin/PCL systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzetti, Solange Gubbelini

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was the obtainment of polymeric matrices immobilized with crotoxin purified from crude venom of rattle snake. A matrix was processed by gamma irradiation by the grafting of a hydrogel onto a polymeric film which resulted in a copolymer for the chemical immobilization of crotoxin. The second matrix was attained by the entrapment of crotoxin in microspheres of epsilon-polycaprolactone. After the purification, the crotoxin proceeding from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus was evaluated biochemical and biologically. The lethal dose (LD50%) of the toxin was 0.09/kg animal. The test of cytotoxicity not revealed any significant difference between the tumoral cells and the respective normal control cells in culture. Grafting copolymers were used as scaffold for the chemical immobilization of the purified crotoxin. For this purpose the low density polyethylene (LDPE) and the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) were copolymerized in a 60 Co source. The copolymers (LDPE-g-PHEMA) showed grafting levels in the range of 2 and 50 %. In the infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR-ATR) it was observed in the copolymer, carbonyl groups (C=O) and hydroxyl groups -OH due to the grafting of PHEMA. The MEV micrographs showed a smooth surface for the virgin LDPE and a rough surface for the LDPE-g-PHEMA, owing to the presence of grafted PHEMA. The hydrophilicity was observed by the determination of water content in the copolymer after immersion in water. By the diffusion coefficient it was noted that from 30 % grafting degree, the copolymers become less hydrophilic due to the crosslinking increase among the chains in PHEMA. The biocompatibility of the LDPE-g-PHEMA was proved by the cytotoxicity test. At the end, the immobilized copolymer, the entrapped crotoxin and the free crotoxin was tested 'in vivo'. During 20 days, C3H strain mice were observed in their weight, behavior and motor changes. The results demonstrated that the group injected with

  10. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co; Estudo bioquimico e farmacologico das crotaminas nativa e irradiada com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni

    2000-07-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective of this thesis was carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with {sup 60} Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast Performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 M Na Cl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60} Co source. The native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD{sub 50} and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labelled with 29.6 MBq of {sup 125} I using chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35{+-} 5 g), were injected i.p. with o.1 mL (2.4 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10{sup 6} cpm/mouse) of {sup 125} I irradiated crotamine. At 0.08; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 12 and 24 hours the animal were killed by ether inhalation. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change the protein concentration, the electroforetic profile or the primary structure of the protein, although differences were shown by spectroscopic techniques. The gamma radiation diminished the toxicity of crotamine, but it did not abolish bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. The native and irradiated crotamine have affinity by skeletal

  11. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  12. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-01-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ( 125 I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ( 131 I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL 50 in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. 125 I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K d =24.98 nmol/L and B max =16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K d =0.06 nmol/L and B max =210 sites/cell high affinity binding sites

  13. Mice plasma fibrinogen consumption by thrombin-like enzyme present in rattlesnake venom from the North-East region of Argentina Consumo de fibrinógeno plasmático en ratones por acción de enzima con actividad trombínica presente en el veneno de cascabel del nordeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana L. Maruñak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to variability of venom components from the same species of snakes that inhabit different regions, particular properties of the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus that inhabits the North-East of Argentina were studied. Gyroxin, a thrombin-like enzyme, was isolated from this venom by gel filtration and affinity chromatography, it was found to be homogeneous according to SDS-PAGE, with a molecular weight of 33 kDa. "Gyroxin syndrome" in mice was tested and it showed changes in the animal behavior, confirming that the isolated thrombin-like enzyme is gyroxin. Effects of this enzyme and the crude venom on mice plasmatic fibrinogen levels were determined. The mice plasma fibrinogen decreased rapidly until incoagulability during the first hour after thrombin-Iike enzyme injection, then reaching its normal level 10 hours after injection; whereas crude venom resulted in a 60% decrease of the mice plasma fibrinogen, reaching its normal level after the same period of time. After 1 hour of gyroxin inoculation, intravascular coagulation was observed in histological cuttings of lung, cardiac muscle and liver. The isolated enzyme showed strong hydrolyzing activity on fibrinogen and fibrin in vitro, whereas the crude venom exhibited weak hydrolyzing activity on both substrates. It is probable that this very low activity is due to the low percentage of the enzyme in the crude venom. Decreasing of plasmatic fibrinogen levels may be due to either the coagulant or hydrolyzing actions of the enzyme.Teniendo en cuenta la variabilidad de los componentes del veneno de serpientes de una misma especie que habitan regiones diferentes, se decidió estudiar las propiedades particulares del veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus que habita el nordeste de Argentina, Giroxina, una enzima con actividad trombínica, fue aislada del veneno por cromatografía de filtración por gel y de afinidad; se comprobó su homogeneidad y se determinó su peso molecular, 33 kDa, por

  14. Intraspecific venom variation in the medically significant Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): biodiscovery, clinical and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Scheib, Holger; Gren, Eric C K; Cochran, Chip; Person, Carl E; Koludarov, Ivan; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K; King, Glenn F; Antunes, Agosthino; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2014-03-17

    Due to the extreme variation of venom, which consequently results in drastically variable degrees of neutralization by CroFab antivenom, the management and treatment of envenoming by Crotalus oreganus helleri (the Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), one of the most medically significant snake species in all of North America, has been a clinician's nightmare. This snake has also been the subject of sensational news stories regarding supposed rapid (within the last few decades) evolution of its venom. This research demonstrates for the first time that variable evolutionary selection pressures sculpt the intraspecific molecular diversity of venom components in C. o. helleri. We show that myotoxic β-defensin peptides (aka: crotamines/small basic myotoxic peptides) are secreted in large amounts by all populations. However, the mature toxin-encoding nucleotide regions evolve under the constraints of negative selection, likely as a result of their non-specific mode of action which doesn't enforce them to follow the regime of the classic predator-prey chemical arms race. The hemorrhagic and tissue destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) were secreted in larger amounts by the Catalina Island and Phelan rattlesnake populations, in moderate amounts in the Loma Linda population and in only trace levels by the Idyllwild population. Only the Idyllwild population in the San Jacinto Mountains contained potent presynaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex characteristic of Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) and Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). The derived heterodimeric lectin toxins characteristic of viper venoms, which exhibit a diversity of biological activities, including anticoagulation, agonism/antagonism of platelet activation, or procoagulation, appear to have evolved under extremely variable selection pressures. While most lectin α- and β-chains evolved rapidly under the influence of positive Darwinian selection, the β-chain lectin of

  15. Study of crotoxin mechanism of action to mammary carcinomas and evaluation of its potential as a radiopharmaceutical; Estudo do mecanismo de acao da crotoxina em tumores mamarios e avaliacao do seu potenctial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marina Bicalho

    2010-07-01

    Crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, has been studied since 1938. It is a natural polypeptidic complex with pharmacological potential because of its antitumoral properties which has attracted great interest for diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases. However, Crotoxin mechanism of action and sites of specific interaction on tumor cells are still misunderstood. Breast cancer is the second most frequent type in the world and the most common cancer in women. About 30 to 60% of mammary tumors overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a transmembrane protein related to cell proliferation. Since literature has reported that Crotoxin antitumoral effect is more potent on cells with EGFR overexpression the objectives of this work were to evaluate Crotoxin cytotoxic effects on mammary tumor cells human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and Ehrlich tumor cells (murine ascitics carcinoma), and to investigate the specific molecular interaction of Crotoxin on Ehrlich tumor cells. Initially, Crotoxin was radiolabelled with iodine-125 ({sup 125}I-Crotoxin) and iodine-131 ({sup 131}I-Crotoxin). Saturation and competition assay were carried out to characterize Crotoxin in vitro interaction; Crotoxin biodistribution studies and singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) of mice bearing Ehrlich tumor have been evaluated to describe in vivo interaction. Our results showed that Crotoxin presented cytotoxic effect against Ehrlich with DL{sub 50} in vitro (concentration of compound which is lethal for 50% of cells) of about one micromolar, but did not present significant effect against MCF-7. Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis suggests programmed cell death. {sup 125}I-Crotoxin interaction with Ehrlich tumor cells was saturable with approximately 70% specificity, and presented K{sub d}=24.98 nmol/L and B{sub max}=16,570 sites/cell for low affinity binding sites and K{sub d}=0.06 nmol/L and B{sub max}=210 sites

  16. Energy inputs and outputs in the wheat production at different localizations; Balanco de energia na producao de trigo em diferentes locais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollmann, Pedro; Greco, Marcelo; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: jefersonklein@yahoo.com.br; Klein, Jeferson [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil); Palagi, Celso A.; Jurach, Jorge J. [Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agricola Tecnologia da Nossa Terra (COODETEC), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The intensifying and modernization of agriculture, in spite of improving the productivity, it caused a complete petroleum derived dependence, so much in the form of fuels, lubricants and machinery, as in the form of inputs for the production. This work had as objective to esteem the energy inputs and outputs and the energy conversion, in two different local, in the west of Parana State/Brazil. The largest consumption was observed for the direct energy category, with 95.6% and 95.28% in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. In the direct energy flow, the Palotina production spent 5,0% more. The consumption of fossil energy was of 22.32% for the Palotina farm and of 23.84% for the Cascavel farm. The energy conversion was of 3.2 and 1.8, for the wheat productions in Cascavel and Palotina, respectively. (author)

  17. Energetic evaluation and performance of broilers in an aviary with a gas and burning wood1 automatic heating system

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Ricardo Funck

    2006-01-01

    This work had as objective the assembly of a system automated for evaluation of the consumption of fuel in agricultural tractors, in the utilization of biodiesel in diverse mixtures diesel/biodiesel for the accomplishment of testing, without the utilization of the tank of the tractor. The system was projected and mounted on the UNIOESTE Cascavel - PR in partnership with the UTFPR Medianeira â PR. The system is composed for two auxiliary tanks confectioned in stainless steel ...

  18. System automated for evaluation of the consuption of biodiesel in agricola tractor

    OpenAIRE

    Ivair Marchetti

    2006-01-01

    This work had as objective the assembly of a system automated for evaluation of the consumption of fuel in agricultural tractors, in the utilization of biodiesel in diverse mixtures diesel/biodiesel for the accomplishment of testing, without the utilization of the tank of the tractor. The system was projected and mounted on the UNIOESTE Cascavel - PR in partnership with the UTFPR Medianeira â PR. The system is composed for two auxiliary tanks confectioned in stainless steel ...

  19. NURSING PROCESS, ACCORDING TO THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF WANDA HORTA, APPLIED TO A FAMILY MET BY THE REGIONAL CORE OF HOME CARE, DISTRITO FEDERAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima; Ana Karoliny Couto Nascimento; Hellen Cristina Seganfredo; Isabella Cristina Ribeiro; Anne Caroline Coelho Leal Árias Amorim; Elioenai Dornelles Alves

    2014-01-01

    The case report describes the nursing care, systematized according to the conceptual model of Wanda Horta, who was dismissed to a family accompanied by a core team of Regional home care, an administrative region of the Federal District through prioritization, based on the scale of Cascavel, a member of this for such a public service. The context part according to reports from the Discipline community health nursing in ' 02 and ' Stage, mandatory mode sold to students from the undergraduat...

  20. Mathematical models for photovoltaic solar panel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Airton A. dos; Gnoatto, Estor; Fischborn, Marcos; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], Emails: airton@utfpr.edu.br, gnoatto@utfpr.edu.br, fisch@utfpr.edu.br, kavanagh@utfpr.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    A photovoltaic generator is subject to several variations of solar intensity, ambient temperature or load, that change your point of operation. This way, your behavior should be analyzed by such alterations, to optimize your operation. The present work sought to simulate a photovoltaic generator, of polycrystalline silicon, by characteristics supplied by the manufacturer, and to compare the results of two mathematical models with obtained values of field, in the city of Cascavel, for a period of one year. (author)

  1. 78 FR 73877 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., Division of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 212... (Tragopan blythii) Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) Applicant: The Living...: Bali starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) Aruba Island rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus unicolor) Applicant...

  2. Morfologia de Osteodermos de Crocodilomorfos do Sítio Paleontológico de Peirópolis (Bacia Bauru, Cretáceo Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Marinho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoderms are dermal bony plates situated over the epiderm andcovered by queratin layer. Until now are recognized at the Paleontological Site of Peirópolis three distinct crocodylomorph species, the Peirosauridae Peirosaurus termini Price, 1955 and Uberabasuchus terrificus Carvalho; Ribeiro & Ávilla, 2004 and the Trematochampsidae Itasuchus jesuinoi Price, 1955. The peirosaurids have nostrils frontally positioned within the skull and are regarded as terrestrial crocodylomorphs. The trematochampsids differentlyfrom the peirosaurids have the nostrils positioned at the dorsal portion of the skull, similar to the extant crocodiles with aquatic habits. The osteoderms morphological analysis of P. tormini, U. terrificus and I. jesuinoi corroborate, with the cranial evidences, for the terrestrial or aquatic lifestyle of these animals.

  3. Caracterização morfológica de espécies de Hemerobius Linnaeus, 1758 (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae associadas a cultivos de café (Coffea arabica L., milho (Zea mays L. e erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Rogéria Inês Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The predators were collected in mate crop in Cascavel and São Mateus do Sul, Paraná, Brazil and some other additional specimens in coffee and maize crops in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Illustrations obtained by SEM are given by the first time to the principal structures. Three species of Hemerobius were identified: H. bolivari Banks, 1910; H. domingensis Banks, 1941 and H. gaitoi Monserrat, 1996. H. domingensis is recorded for the first time to Brazil.

  4. ASPECTOS HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIOS DE ESTABELECIMENTO COMERCIAL DO TIPO SUPERMERCADO DE GRANDE PORTE.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Kátia Rejane Pereira de Queiroga; Bernardino, Priscilla Diniz Lima da Silva

    2016-01-01

    RESUMOOs supermercados são locais aonde o consumidor pode encontrar vários produtos indispensáveis ao seu dia-a-dia, principalmente os produtos alimentícios. Este tipo de comércio deve oferecer um serviço de qualidade capaz de assegurar a saúde do consumidor, por meio dos preceitos higiênico- sanitários, conforme a legislação vigente determina. Objetivou-se neste trabalho a avaliação da qualidade dos serviços oferecidos ao consumidor por três supermercados da rede Y, em Cascavel, PR. A metodo...

  5. Sistemas de custos para pequenas empresas industriais

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, João Vicente de

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Este trabalho define um sistema de custos para pequenas empresas industriais, o qual permite identificar o custo, resultado e margem de contribuição por produto e ponto de equilíbrio , considerando o período de apuração do resultado. O sistema proposto é aplicado em um caso prático, em uma empresa estabelecida na cidade de Cascavel-PR., que produz rodas ...

  6. Workplace health promotion: analysis of actions proposed by graduates of a training course (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Bertusso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the workers knowledge in the actions of health promotion and prevention can strengthen the search for better working conditions and the protection of workers' health. This bibliographic study aimed to analyze, from the theoretical framework of occupational health, the actions proposed by graduates of a training course for health promotion for healthcare workers in 2012. Of the 221 projects analyzed, 1Enfermeira, aluna especial do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel. E-mail: franbertusso@hotmail.com 2 Doutora em Saúde Coletiva, Professora adjunta do Curso de Enfermagem do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel, Pr. 3 Enfermeiro da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná - SESA. Aluno especial do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus de Cascavel, Pr. 4 Doutora em Enfermargem pela Universidade de São Paulo. Professora do Programa de Mestrado em Biociências e Saúde do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, campus de Cascavel health workers were the priority target audience (84%, as well as managers (12%, from various regions of the country with a predominance of proposals from the southeast region (107 projects and northeast region (55 projects, and in several workplace activities. Program proposals attempted to solve or minimize three sets of problems: a related to the work environment, b labor management and c the workers' health. Examination of the proposals pointed to a working reality permeated by incidents of accidents by exposure to biological material, ionizing radiation, needlestick and sharps injuries, and injuries related to musculoskeletal overload, mental health and mental and behavioral disorder such as depression, alcoholism, stress, burnout and moral

  7. Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae) to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Renato Cassol de; Alves, Luis Francisco Angeli; Neves, Pedro Manuel Oliveira Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliare...

  8. Incidência e aspectos clínico-laboratoriais do Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em cidade do Sul do Brasil Incidence and clinical-laboratory aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Southern brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Kenji Nakashima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES são bastante escassos e os dados existentes hoje são praticamente todos de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com LES em Cascavel, Paraná - Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimentos na especialidade de Reumatologia: um hospital universitário, um ambulatório público e três clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 4,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,5 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi a de 30 - 39 anos e 92,8% apresentaram quatro ou mais dos 11 critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR para o diagnóstico de LES. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o Consenso Brasileiro para o tratamento de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência obtida em Cascavel/PR está próxima das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are scarce, and currently available data originate almost entirely from international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with SLE in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from August 2007 to July 2008 in all health services of Cascavel providing health care in rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic, and three private clinics. RESULTS: The study identified 14 patients diagnosed with SLE, which resulted in an estimated incidence of 4

  9. Structural studies of the oligomeric formation crotoxin and their complexes; Estudos estruturais da formacao oligomerica da crotoxina e seus complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Fernandes, Carlos A.H.; Magro, Angelo J.; Fontes, Marcos R.M.; Fernandez, Roberto M., E-mail: rmorato@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Bicev, Renata N.; Oliveira, Cristiano L.P. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Experimental; Barioni, Marina B.; Ito, Amando S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2013-08-15

    The crotoxin is a phospholipase A{sub 2} that is the mainly responsible for the neurotoxic effect of the snakes' venom of the species Crotalus durissus, popularly known as rattlesnakes. In the crotoxin there are two subunits: an acidic, non-toxic and devoid of enzymatic action, (called crotoxin A or CA); and a basic, toxic with enzymatic activity (called crotoxin B or CB). The main objective of this work is to study the CA, CB and the complex CA + CB using the Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Optical absorption spectrometry and static fluorescence techniques. (author)

  10. Contribuição à biologia de serpentes da Bahia, Brasil: I. vivíparas Contribution to reproductive biology of snakes in Bahia, Brazil: I. viviparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Great part of lhe avaiable data about snakes reprodution refers to species coming from subtropical and temperate regions. In Brazil, the data is rather rare and can be found in various works where information is restricted. Results from studies developed with five viviparous snakes - Crotalus durissus cascavella (Wagler, 1824. Bothrops erythromelas(Amaral, 1923, B. leucurus (Wagler, 1824, Helicops leopardinus (Schlegel, 1873 and Thamnodynastes strigilis (Thiinberg, 1787 - which come from the Northeast of Brazil (Bahia are described. Data about pregnancy and birth, number, sex ratio, length and weight of neonates is given and discussed.

  11. Microscopic agglutination test on captive rattlesnakes : Data on serovars and titers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic agglutination test (MAT is considered the “golden standard” leptospirosis serodiagnostic test, but there is little information about it as it pertains to snakes. To fill this information gap, we provide data on serovars and titers of fifty-six Crotalus durissus collilineatus sera samples that tested positive by MAT (10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.02.006 (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [5]. These data are presented in a table, along with a description of the methodology used for sample collection and serologic testing.

  12. Acompanhamento de enfermagem em saúde pública, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola numa comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural: relato de experiência Acompañamiento de enfermería en salud pública, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural: relato de experiencia Public health nursing, pedagogical and agricultural ad vice in a rural community of settled landless people: an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacó Fernando Schneider

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo relata uma experiência no acompanhamento de Enfermagem, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola desenvolvido em uma comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural da cidade de Cascavel, estado do Paraná, que teve como premissa básica a integração docente/discente, oferecendo oportunidade de socialização do saber, integração teoria e prática e contato direto com a comunidade. Aponta para a necessidade da enfermagem compreender melhor este tipo de realidade buscando, através da observação e vivência, uma visão crítica com possibilidades de intervenção.El estudio relata una experiencia en el acompañamiento de enfermería, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola desarrollado en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural perteneciente al municipio de Cascavel, estado del Paraná, que tuvo como principio básico la integración docente/alumno, ofreciendo oportunidad de socialización del saber, integración teoría y práctica y contacto directo con la comunidad. Señala la necessidad de la enfermería comprender mejor este tipo de realidad, buscando por medio de la observación y vivencia, una visión crítica con posibilidades de intervención.This study reports an experience in nursing accompaniment, pedagogical and agricultural advice in a community of settled people without land in the countryside of Cascavel, state of Paraná. The basic premise was student/teacher integration offering the opportunity of knowledge socialization, integration of theory and practice and direct contact with the community. It points out that nursing needs a better understanding of this type of reality seeking, by observation and living, a critical vision with the possibility of intervention.

  13. Ação de venenos de serpentes brasileiras sôbre a alexina ou complemento

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    F. da Rocha Lagôa

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor estudou a ação inativante, sôbre o complemento de cobaia, alguns venenos de serpentes brasileiras pertencentes às famílias dos Elapideos e Crotalideos. Da primeira, foi utilizado veneno de Micrurus frontalis, da segunda, foram usados venenos de espécies pertencentes aos gêneros Crotalus (C. terrificus e Bothrops (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. ja-raracussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata. O venenos de M. frontalis e C. terri¬ficus se revelaram incapazes de inativar o complemento, ao passo que os diversos de Bothrops empregados se mostraram altamente inativantes, destruindo sempre o 4.° componente do complemento (C4, fração idêntica à afetada pela ação da amônea.The author shows in this paper the results of the inactivation of com¬plement or alexin by some Brazilian snakes venoms of the Elapideae and Cro¬talideae families. The venom of Micrurus frontalis (Elapideae family and of Crotalus terrificus (Crotalideae family did not destroy the complement; but the venoms of Bothrops generus (B. atrox, B. neuwiedii, B. jararaca, B. jararacussú, B. cotiara e B. alternata, (Crotalideae family are highly active in the inactivation complement, always destroing the fourth component, whichis exactly the same component that is detroyed by ammonia.

  14. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  15. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

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    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  16. Análise comparativa entre duas bacias hidrográficas utilizando um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats / Comparative analysis between two hydrographic basin using a rapid habitats diversity evaluation protocol

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    Rogério Antonio Krupek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo utilizar um protocolo de avaliação rápida da diversidade de habitats como ferramenta para comparar duas bacias de drenagem localizadas no município de Guarapuava, estado do Paraná: a bacia hidrográfica do rio Cascavel (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W e a bacia hidrográfica do rio das Pedras (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, que se encontram relativamente próximas e estão sob diferentes intensidades de influências antrópicas. Este protocolo tem como finalidade avaliar características da água e do entorno de ecossistemas aquáticos a partir da atribuição de pontuação a cada um dos parâmetros com base na observação das condições do habitat. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período de 10 de junho a 30 de julho de 2007 em vinte pontos de amostragem estabelecidos em cada uma das bacias de drenagem estudadas. Comparativamente, a grande maioria dos parâmetros apresentou diferenças significativas entre os dois sistemas, sendo que os rios e riachos da bacia do rio das Pedras encontram-se nitidamente em melhores condições que a bacia do rio Cascavel, onde seus ecossistemas aquáticos apresentam visíveis sinais de degradação. O uso de avaliações rápidas como este protocolo é uma importante ferramenta no desenvolvimento de programas de monitoramento ecológico e na restauração de ambientes lóticos. AbstractThe main object of the present work was to use a protocol of rapid habitat diversity evaluation as tool to compare two drainage basin located in the municipality of Guarapuava, mid-southern region of Paraná state: Cascavel river basin (25º23’03”S-51º28’12”W and Pedras river basin (25º13’10”S-51º28’40”W, which meets relatively near and under different intensities of entropic influences. This protocol has the purpose of evaluating water and riparian characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems from the attribution of values to each parameter through observation of

  17. THE ISSUE OF EDUCATION IN MARX: SOME NOTES

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    João Carlos da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available : Article as a result of readability and reflections carried out in the study group on the works of Marx and Engels, within the group of search HISTEDOPR - GT, Cascavel, PR. The question educational not received a specific treatment in the work of Marx, even if many seek in their formulations, theoreticalmethodological principles for the process of teaching-learning. Its educational thinking must be observed in the whole production marxist. This text to understand, in the light of historical change, the question educational, based on some of his writings. Their conception of education is immersed in horizon of socioeconomic relations, central object of discussion. We will see that education, in Marx, presents a politicalideological perspective, even before the determinant economic. Understand the analysis of Marx about the educative phenomenon does without to observe its way to understand the society.

  18. The Defense of Socio-Educational Internment: Feature of the Hygienist Principles

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    Juliana Biazze Feitosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth violence and interventions to affront it are the focus of our scientific research. The aim of this study is evaluate the existence of the aspects contained in the justifications of hygienism judgments of teenagers who meet admission youth work. In this sense, we 21 sentences that determined the internment and its supporting materials which makes up the judicial process of teenagers that have entered the year 2010 in the Center of Socio-education II in Cascavel Paraná State. The results led us to conclude that nowadays, notwithstanding the Children and Adolescent, we are still, by judicial determination, removing the Teen Delinquency situation and closed the judicial term returning it to the same context from which it was withdrawn. Enshrined due differences in shape and time note this routing aspects of the ideology of mental hygiene and the minor doctrine.

  19. Aspectos morfológicos de frutos e sementes e caracterização citogenética de Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae Morphological aspects of fruits and seeds and cytogenetic characterization of Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Papilionoideae - Fabaceae

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    Débora Aparecida Verde de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos, sementes e plântulas de Crotalaria lanceolata, conhecida popularmente como guizo-de-cascavel, chocalho-de-cobra, xique-xique ou feijão-de-guizo, planta tóxica infestante que ocorre no Estado de São Paulo, foram estudadas morfologicamente e citogeneticamente. Os frutos são secos, deiscentes, polispérmicos e do tipo legume. As sementes são reniformes e o embrião é constituído de eixo embrionário e dois cotilédones. A testa pode apresentar variadas tonalidades de castanhos. A germinação é epígea e fanerocotiledonar. A espécie apresenta número cromossômico diplóide 2n = 16 com formulação cariotípica 12M + 4SM e comprimento cromossômico médio geral de 3,340 ± 0,689.Crotalaria lanceolata, known popularly as "guizo-de-cascavel", "xique-xique" or "feijão-de-guizo", is a toxic weed that occurs in the state of Sao Paulo. Fruits, seeds and seedlings were studied morphologically and cytogenetically. The fruits are dry, dehiscent, polyspermic legumes. The seeds are kidney shaped and the embryo consists of an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. The seed tegument comes in various chestnut tones. Germination is phanerocotylar and epigeal. The species has a mitotic chromosome number 2n = 16 with karyotype formula 12M + 4SM; overall mean chromosome length is 3.340 ± 0.689.

  20. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  2. Immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae venom and its evaluation by immunoenzymatic methods Inmunogenicidad del veneno de Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae y su evaluación por métodos inmunoenzimáticos

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    Gustavo A. Sandoval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, venom was studied using ELISA and Western Blot methods, as well as cross-reactivity patterns against venoms of Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta and Crotalus durissus. For this purpose, New Zealand white rabbits (2 kg aprox were immunized with four 500 μg doses of B. atrox venom in a period of 90 days. Antibody production was followed using ELISA technique, and title of hiper-immune serum was determined at the end of immunization protocol. Additionally, electrophoretic patterns of venoms were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and venom reactivity against obtained serum by ELISA and Western Blot. Immunization schedule allowed a pronounced antibody production since day 20 of protocol. At the end of process, serum title was 256000, which demonstrated both efficacy and usefulness of the developed procedure. On the other hand, studied venoms showed a heterogenic protein composition according to their electrophoretic patterns, whereas cross-reactivity values of 23,7%, 4,0% and 1,8% were obtained between B. atrox venom and B. brazili, L. muta and C. durissus venoms, respectively, using immunoenzymatic methods. According to our results, this procedure constitutes an initial step for further assays directed to optimization in immunoserum production for envenoming treatment and development of kits for diagnosis and species identification of snakes.Se estudió la inmunogenicidad del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, utilizando los métodos inmunoenzimáticos de ELISA y Western Blot, así como los patrones de reactividad cruzada empleando los venenos de las serpientes Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Crotalus durissus. Para este fin se inmunizaron conejos albinos Nueva Zelanda (2 kg aprox con cuatro dosis de 500 μg del veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de 90 días. La producción de anticuerpos fue monitoreada mediante la técnica de ELISA, determinándose el título del suero hiperinmune obtenido

  3. O tornar-se cuidadora na senescência Conviertendo cuidador en la vejez Becoming caregiver in the old age

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    Elizabeth Braz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, desenvolvido no município de Cascavel PR, com senescentes cuidadoras domiciliares de idosos dependentes, teve como objetivo verificar os motivos que as levaram a executarem esse papel. A metodologia utilizada foi a qualitativa, e a Representação Social foi eleita como caminho teórico. Foram critérios de inclusão: sexo feminino; idade superior ou igual a 60 anos; cuidadores domiciliares principais de idosos dependentes por um período igual ou superior a três meses. A coleta de dados deu-se entre novembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. A população constituiu-se de 13 senescentes, sendo 46,1% esposas, o que atribuímos a própria representação social construída. A representação social também está relacionada à figura da mulher, geralmente a mais velha da família, viúva ou solteira. Sem recursos e tratados com desigualdade pelo sistema, o idoso cuidador e, nesse caso, a idosa cuidadora senescente tornam-se mais um ponto vulnerável em nossa sociedade.Estudio, desarrollado en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR, con los cuidadoras ancianas domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, tenía como el objetivo, verificar las razones para ejecutar este papel. La metodología usada era cualitativa y como camino teórico la representación social. Los criterios de inclusión fueran: sexo femenino, edad igual o superior a los sesenta años, cuidadores principales domiciliarios de dependientes envejecidos, por un período igual o superior los tres meses. La recogida de datos fue hecha desde noviembre de 2006 hasta enero de 2007. La población consistió en 13 envejecido, siendo 46.1% esposas, qué atribuimos la representación social construida. La representación social también está relacionada, a la figura de la mujer, generalmente más vieja de la familia, viuda o soltera. Tratados sin recursos, el cuidador envejecido y en este caso, la cuidadora envejecida, se convierte en más un punto vulnerable en nuestra sociedad.The present study

  4. Mudanças no trabalho e na vida de bancários portadores de Lesões por Esforços Repetitivos: LER Cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de bancarios portadores de Lesiones por Esfuerzos Repetitivos: LER Changes in the work and life of bank employees with Repetitive Strain Injury: RSI

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    Neide Tiemi Murofuse

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A LER constitui-se num dos graves problemas de saúde dos trabalhadores na atualidade. Com o objetivo de analisar as principais mudanças no trabalho e na vida dos portadores de LER de membros de uma Associação de Portadores de LER de Cascavel-PR, foi desenvolvido o estudo, de natureza qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com nove bancários. Os primeiros sintomas surgiram no período coincidente com a automação e a introdução de novas tecnologias no sistema financeiro brasileiro e as mudanças na organização do trabalho. Aumento do volume de trabalho e da digitação, horas-extra, ausências de pausas, monotonia, repetitividade, ritmo intenso e controle da produtividade e tensão constituíram os principais elementos. O agravamento das lesões afetou a capacidade produtiva e implicou na dependência para execução de atividades no trabalho e fora dele. O desafio está em garantir os direitos desses trabalhadores.Las LER constituyen uno de los grandes problemas de salud de los trabajadores en la actualidad. Con el objetivo de analizar los principales cambios en el trabajo y en la vida de los portadores de LER de los miembros de una Asociación de Portadores de LER de la ciudad de Cascavel-Paraná, fue desarrollado el estudio, de naturaleza cualitativa. Fueron realizadas entrevistas semi-estructuradas, con nueve bancarios. Los primeros síntomas surgieron en el periodo coincidente con la automatización y la introducción de nuevas tecnologías en el sistema financiero brasileño y los cambios en la organización del trabajo. Aumento del volumen de trabajo y de la digitación, horas extras, ausencia de pausas, monotonía, repetición, ritmo intenso y control de la productividad, tensión y presión constituyeron los principales elementos. El agravamiento de las lesiones limitó físicamente afectando la capacidad productiva y tuvo implicaciones en la dependencia para la ejecución de actividades en el trabajo y

  5. Estudo da morbidade em uma população idosa Estudio de la morbilidad en la población de ancianos Morbidity study in an elder population

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    Elizabeth Aparecida de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar os agravos que mais acometeram os idosos no período de 1998 a 2005 e a capacidade funcional dos residentes na área de abrangência de quatro unidades básicas de saúde de diferentes regiões, no Município de Cascavel, Paraná, em 2007. Os dados de morbidade foram pesquisados no Sistema de Informações Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde, e foram realizadas entrevistas com 141 idosos. No período estudado, a morbidade pouco variou: as doenças do aparelho circulatório foram responsáveis pelo maior número de internamentos. A média geral de doenças referidas pelos idosos foi de 2, com destaque para as cardiovasculares. Dentre os entrevistados, 136 (96,5% afirmaram realizar todas as atividades cotidianas, sem o auxílio de outras pessoas. O estudo mostra que é necessário implantar serviços voltados para as doenças crônicas, com foco na manutenção da máxima capacidade funcional pelo maior tempo possível, valorizando a autonomia e a autodeterminação dos idosos.El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las enfermedades que más afectaron a los ancianos en el período entre 1998 y 2005 y la capacidad funcional de los residentes en el área de cobertura de cuatro unidades básicas de salud de diferentes regiones en la cuidad de Cascavel, Paraná, en 2007. Los datos de morbilidad fueron investigados en el Sistema de Información Hospitalario del Sistema Único de Salud, e se realizaron encuestas con 141 ancianos. En el periodo estudiado, la morbilidad ha variado poco, las enfermedades del sistema circulatorio fueron responsables por el mayor número de internamientos. El promedio general de las enfermedades referidas por los mayores fue de 2, con relieve para las cardiovasculares. Entre los encuestados, 136 (o sea el 96,5% afirmaron realizar todas las actividades cotidianas sin la ayuda de los demás. El estudio muestra la necesidad de implementar servicios dirigidos a las enfermedades crónicas, con

  6. RÁDIO COMUNITÁRIA NA TRÍPLICE FRONTEIRA: participação étnica e de gênero na Rádio Norte FM

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    Maria Inês Amarante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta um recorte da pesquisa “Radiofonia Comunitária na Tríplice Fronteira: gênero, etnia e inclusão social midiática”, cuja proposta é um estudo aprofundado sobre a participação desses grupos nas rádios comunitárias das regiões das fronteiras entre o Paraná, o Paraguai e a Argentina e o modo como estas emissoras têm favorecido a cidadania comunicativa. Em destaque, o caso da Rádio Norte FM da cidade de Cascavel, na região oeste do Paraná. Atualmente, a emissora emite 24 horas e também pode ser ouvida online. Ela abre espaço para as manifestações culturais locais e procura dar vez e voz às reivindicações de diversos movimentos sociais, cedendo-lhes espaço ao longo da programação. Este trabalho foi realizado a partir de pesquisas bibliográfica e documental, visita de campo, entrevistas e questionários dirigidos a diretores e comunicadores.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Radiodifusão Comunitária; Gênero; Etnia; Participação. ABSTRACT This article presents part of the research “Community Radiophonic in the Triple Border: gender, ethnicity and social inclusion media”, whose proposal is a thorough study of this groups participation in community radio stations, in the regions of the borders, between the State of Parana, Paraguay and Argentina and how these vehicles have favored the communicative citizenship. Highlighting the case of Radio North FM, in the city of Cascavel, western region of Parana. Currently, the radio remains 24 hours on the air and is present online. It makes room for cultural events in all its expressions and it seeks to give time and voice to the demands of social movements giving them spaces along with the schedule of the programs. This work is based on bibliographic and documentary research, field visits, interviews and questionnaires addressed to directors and communicators.   KEY WORDS: Community Radios, gender, ethnicity and social participation.     RESUMEN El artículo presenta

  7. Estabilidade e estudo de penetração cutânea in vitro da rutina veiculada em uma emulsão cosmética através de um modelo de biomembrana alternativo Stability and in vitro penetration study of rutin incorporated in a cosmetic emulsion through an alternative model biomembrane

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    André Rolim Baby

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é empregada como antioxidante e na prevenção da fragilidade capilar. Estudos de penetração in vitro através da pele humana seria a situação ideal, entretanto, há dificuldades de sua obtenção e manutenção de sua viabilidade. Entre os demais modelos de membrana, a muda de pele de cobra se apresenta como estrato córneo puro, fornecendo barreira similar ao humano e é obtida sem a morte do animal. Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade de uma emulsão cosmética contendo rutina e, como promotor de penetração cutânea, o propilenoglicol; e avaliar a penetração e a retenção cutânea in vitro da referida substância ativa da formulação, empregando um modelo de biomembrana alternativo. A emulsão foi desenvolvida com rutina e propilenoglicol, ambos a 5,0% p/p. Quantificou-se a rutina das emulsões por espectrofotometria a 361,0 nm, método previamente validado. A penetração e retenção cutânea in vitro foram realizadas em células de difusão vertical com muda de pele de cobra de Crotalus durissus, como modelo de biomembrana alternativo, e água destilada e álcool etílico absoluto 99,5% (1:1, como fluido receptor. O experimento foi conduzido em um período de seis horas, a 37,0 ± 0,5 ºC e agitação constante de 300 rpm. Empregou-se o método espectrofotométrico validado a 410,0 nm para a quantificação da rutina após penetração e retenção cutânea. A emulsão não promoveu a penetração cutânea da rutina através da muda de pele de C. durissus, retendo 0,931 ± 0,0391 mg de rutina/mg de muda de pele de cobra. Nas condições de armazenamento a 25,0 ± 2,0 ºC; 5,0 ± 0,5 ºC e 45,0 ± 0,5 ºC, a emulsão apresentou-se quimicamente estável durante 30 dias. De acordo com os resultados, a emulsão não favoreceu a penetração cutânea da rutina, mas apenas sua retenção no estrato córneo de C. durissus, condição considerada estável no período de 30 dias.Rutin is

  8. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  9. Influência do espaçamento e população de plantas sobre doenças de final de ciclo e oídio e caracteres agronômicos em soja = Influence of row spacing and plant population on late season disease severity, powdery mildew and agronomic characters in soybean

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    Jorge Luiz Knebel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, na safra de2004/2005, utilizando a cultivar de soja CD 202, para avaliar a influência do espaçamento e da população de plantas sobre a severidade de (DFC doenças de final de ciclo (Septoria glycines e Cercospora kikuchii e oídio da soja (Microsphaera diffusa e caracteres agronômicos da cultura. Os tratamentos foram 3 espaçamentos (22,5; 45,0 e 67,5 cm e 3 populações (200; 400; e 600 mil plantas ha-1. As DFC tiveram menor severidade no espaçamento reduzido e na população mais baixa, enquanto a ocorrência de oídio não se alterou. Em todos os espa��amentos, quanto maior a população de plantas, maior a altura final e, conseqüentemente, maior o acamamento de plantas. O número de legumes/planta foi superior no maior espaçamento e reduziu com o aumento da população; o número de grãos/planta diminuiu com o aumento da população; e a produtividade foi superior no menor espaçamento.This study was carried out in Cascavel, Paraná State, during the growing season 2004/2005, using soybean cultivar CD 202. The aim was to evaluate the influence of row-spacing and plant population on lateseason disease severity (Septoria glycines and Cercospora kikuchii, soybean powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa and agronomic characters of the culture. The treatments were three row spacing (22.5; 45.0 and 67.5 cm and three plant populations (200; 400; and 600 thousand plants ha-1. Late season disease had smaller severity in the reduced spacing and in the lowest population, while the powdery mildew occurrence did not modify with these factors. In all spacing, as larger the plants density, larger the plants height and consequently larger the plants fallen. The number pods per plant was higher with the largest spacing and it decreased with the population increase; the number of grains per plant decreased with the population increase; and the productivity was higher in the smallest spacing.

  10. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

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    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  11. Determinação da curva característica de um painel fotovoltaico em condições reais de trabalho = Determination of the characteristic curve of a photovoltaic panel in real conditions of work

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    Estor Gnoatto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi desenvolvido um estudo sobre um sistemafotovoltaico autônomo, com armazenamento de energia, instalado na Estação Experimental Agrometeorológica da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Campus Cascavel, a uma latitude 24º 59’ Sul, longitude de 53º 26’ Oeste, com altitude de 682 metros, sob condições reais de campo, durante o ano de 2002. Foi determinada a curva característica do painel, utilizando uma aquisição de dados um "micrologger" da Campbell Scientific-INC modelo CR10X, programado para realizar uma leitura por segundo de cada canal e armazenar a média aritmética de cinco minutos dos dados das componentes detemperatura de operação do painel; tensão e corrente do sistema fotovoltaico. Baseando-se nesses dados pode-se determinar que a curva característica do painel em condições reais de campo apresenta uma perda de 24% em seu rendimento em relação ao padrão STC (condições padrão de teste.The purpose of the present work was to develop the study of anautonomous photovoltaic system, with storage of energy, installed in the Agrometeorological Experimental Station of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, State of Paraná, Campus Cascavel, at 24º 59’ latitude south, 53º26 longitude west, 682 meters of altitude, under real field conditions, during the year 2002. Efficacy of the photovoltaic panels has been evaluated under real field conditions, as well as to determine its characteristic linear fit. A 'micrologger' Campbell Scientific-INC model CR10X was used to acquire data, and it was programmed to accomplish a reading per second in each channel and to store the arithmetic average of data from five minutes of operational temperature of the panel, photovoltaic system tension and current. According to results, it could determined that the panel characteristic linear fit in real field conditions shows 24% less field than standard STC (Standard Test Conditions.

  12. A INCUBADORA COMO INTERMEDIÁRIA DE RELACIONAMENTOS NA PERCEPÇÃO DOS EMPREENDEDORES: UM ESTUDO MULTICASO EM INCUBADORAS PARANAENSES

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    Jaiane Aparecida Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar de que maneira a incubadora, a partir da percepção dos empreendedores, atua como intermediária das empresas incubadas no acesso a informação para o desenvolvimento de inovação. Para alcançá-lo, discute-se no quadro teórico sobre redes sociais, inovação, incubadoras e empresas incubadas. Foi realizado um estudo multicaso, em três incubadoras localizadas no interior do estado do Paraná: (1 Incubadora Tecnológica de Maringá, (2 Incubadora do Parque Tecnológico Itaipu (PTI e (3 Centro Incubador Tecnológico de Cascavel (CIT/FUNDETEC. Entre os achados destaca-se que os empreendedores percebem mais os benefícios tangíveis proporcionados pela incubadora, como o espaço físico, equipamentos e cursos ofertados. Entretanto, constata-se que existem benefícios indiretos, como a contribuição para o reconhecimento de mercado e o apoio para intermediar relacionamentos benéficos à incubada, como o acesso a editais. Pode-se observar ainda que a intermediação da incubadora para desenvolvimento da inovação é secundária.

  13. EXISTENCIAL DE SUAS VIVÊNCIAS

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    Elionésia Marta dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentimientos de las personas que sufren dolor por la muerte de un ser querido con cáncer. Se trata de una investigación de carácter cualitativo, a la luz de la fenomenología existencial de Martin Heidegger, realizada entre abril y junio de 2009. Los seis participantes entrevistados se seleccionaron de los archivos del Programa de Asistencia y Cuidado en el Hogar, en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR. A los familiares se les hizo la siguiente pregunta: "¿Cómo se está sintiendo por la muerte de su ser querido?" Del análisis surgieron tres temáticas existenciales: Angustia ante la posibilidad de una muerte inminente, el descubrimiento de la propia finitud, y, experimentar la temporalidad de estar en duelo. Se concluye que el enfermero debe caminar al lado de la persona que está de luto, ya que él necesita sentirse apoyado en todo el proceso, pues vivir el duelo significa transitar un camino para sobrevivir a la ausencia de un ser querido y encontrar un nuevo sentido para la existencia

  14. O seguimento da saúde da criança pré-termo e de baixo peso egressa da terapia intensiva neonatal

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    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir cómo ocurre el cuidado del niño prematuro y de bajo peso después de ser dado de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal, en lo que se refiere a su seguimiento y el de su familia en el hogar. Es un estudio descriptivo, con abordaje hermenéutico y comprensión de los datos a partir del análisis temático. La investigación se realizó en la ciudad de Cascavel-PR, con seis familias cuyos hijos fueron dados de alta de la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatal, siendo acompañados por medio de visitas domiciliarias en los tres primeros meses después de haber sido dados de alta. Los relatos señalan aspectos del cuidado del niño en el hogar y las experiencias con los servicios de salud en la atención basica y especializada. Las familias mostraron su itinerario en los servicios de salud disponibles, en busca de la continuidad del cuidado del niño después de ser dado de alta. Ese itinerario se caracterizó por barreras de acceso, vínculo frágil y vulnerabilidad institucional, produciendo inseguridad, insatisfacción y falta de afecto en el seguimiento del niño.

  15. Acesso ao cuidado à saúde da criança em serviços de atenção primária

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    Rosane Meire Munhak da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa com base no referencial metodológico da hermenêutica dialética, com o objetivo de identificar o atributo acesso da atenção primária para a resolução dos problemas de saúde de crianças menores de um ano a partir dos relatos de pais e cuidadores. Envolveram-se 16 cuidadores de crianças atendidas em unidades de pronto atendimento de Cascavel-PR, em 2010. Foram reconhecidas quatro categorias temáticas: Aconselhamento familiar ao buscar atenção à saúde da criança; Ausência de acolhimento ao primeiro contato; Presença de classificação de risco para atenção à saúde da criança; Barreiras que impedem o acesso à atenção à saúde. Concluiu-se que as famílias exibiram dificuldades para alcançar resolutividade aos problemas de saúde dos filhos, mediante a falta de acesso aos serviços de atenção primária.

  16. Models in the estimate of the diffuse solar radiation; Modelos de estimativa da radiacao solar difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Ferruzzi, Yuri; Silva, Suedemio de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Agricola; Quallio, Silvana [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Biologia; Batista, Vitor Roberto Lourenco [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2004-07-01

    In this work we evaluate, by means of polynomial regression analysis, several models that relate the diffuse fraction of the global radiation (K{sub d}) with the clearness index (K{sub t}). The experiment was conducted in the Solar Radiometry Station of Cascavel/PR from the first of January to the 31st of December, in the year of 2001. The solar radiation components were monitored by the following manufactured instruments: pyranometer (KIPP and ZONEN CM3) and pirheliometer (EPPLEY NIP) connected in a sun tracker (ST-1 model). A datalogger CR10X from the CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC was used in the data acquisition. This datalogger was programmed in the frequency of 1 Hz storing an average of 5 minutes of collected data. Among the equations the best values of RMSE an MBE were find in the fourth and third degrees, respectively. We also find that the fourth degree polynomial equation (K{sub d}=1,172-1,001K{sub t}+3,992K{sub t}{sup 2}-11,742K{sub t}{sup 3}+7,698K{sub t}{sup 4}) generalizes the utilization of equations for diffuse solar radiation estimation. This means that this equation probably can be applied for any place and climatic conditions. (author)

  17. Analysis of absorbed energy and efficiency of a solar flat plate collector

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    Anderson Miguel Lenz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highest percentage in home electricity demands in Brazil lies with the water heating systems, where the electric shower has a great contribution in consumption. The use of solar thermal panels is an alternative to minimize the strain on the electrical system by heating water. Current study evaluates a water heating system built with materials commonly used in home constructions. The tested collector is a 1 m² flat plate. Experiments were conducted at the State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE, campus Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil. Temperature data were collected by PT100 sensors and solar radiation was measured with a pyranometer, coupled to a CR-1000 datalogger, with readings and collection every 5 minutes for 1 year. Data collection and analysis showed that the system presented monthly efficiency ranging between 33.7 and 53.54%, and energy absorbed between 30.79 and 75.29 kWh m-².month. Results show the system is a good option for use in residential or rural water heating due to decrease in the electric bill.

  18. The Civil Liability of Accountants: a study focusing the new Brazilian civil code of 2002 from the perspective of professional ethics

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    Ketlyn da Silva Pasquali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the trends in the development of accountancy is the alignment of accounting principles, ethics and civil liability. In this context, this study analyzes the perception of accountants with respect to professional ethics and liability in view of the new Brazilian civil code adopted in 2002. To examine professional ethics, we investigated the perception of accountants as to civil liability, the hypotheses of incidence, and preventive measures for protecting rights and interests in light of the new civil code, using a descriptive and quantitative approach.  Data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to a sample of 52 accountants belonging to the Accountants Union of Cascavel and Region.  Comparisons were made of the responses using graphical analysis and consensus analysis.  On the basis of the results obtained, we can conclude that the accountants  attribute importance to the use of ethics in their professional practice and that there is very strong consensus on the obligation to carry out the accounting profession zealously and with technical expertise. With regard to the degree of knowledge concerning civil responsibility and liability in the execution of their activities, we observed that these professionals know the penalties for malicious and intentional unethical acts in the exercise of the profession. Future research could explore self-assessment for further investigation with the purpose of developing a sense of individual responsibility and critical spirit.

  19. Comportamento sexual de risco entre estudantes universitárias dos cursos de ciências da saúde Risky sexual behavior among university students in health science courses

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    Angela Maria Moser

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento sexual de estudantes do sexo feminino do Setor de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Paraná e do Setor de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Campus Cascavel. MÉTODOS: Participaram todas as estudantes matriculadas nos referidos setores, no mês de junho de 2001, com idade entre 18 e 24 anos completos, sendo que a amostra final foi constituída por 572 estudantes em Curitiba e 395 em Cascavel. Foram avaliados a idade, relacionamento familiar, religiosidade, participação em aulas de educação sexual, idade de início de atividade sexual, uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e preservativos, e número de parceiros para avaliar a conduta sexual. Sexo seguro foi definido pelo uso de preservativo em todas ou na maioria das relações sexuais pelas estudantes monogâmicas, incluindo as estudantes poligâmicas com uso de preservativo em todas as relações sexuais. Sexo inseguro foi definido pelo uso ocasional de preservativo pelas estudantes monogâmicas, e pelo não uso sistemático entre as estudantes poligâmicas. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário auto-respondido. A análise dos dados foi feita no SPSS, utilizando o teste do Qui-quadrado de Pearson e Yates, teste do p de Wilcoxon-Gehan, análise bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa na conduta sexual de risco entre as estudantes e a cidade de estudo. Cerca de 50% das estudantes de 18 a 20 anos e 70% das de 21 a 24 anos tinham vida sexual ativa. A abstinência esteve associada a menor idade, maior freqüência a culto religioso e ao bom relacionamento das estudantes com os pais. A prática de sexo seguro esteve diretamente associada a menor idade e a morar fora da residência da família. Ter participado de aulas de educação sexual esteve associada a maior abstinência, mas não a sexo seguro, e a relação não se manteve na an

  20. Aerobic fitness and biological and sociodemographic indicators in female school children

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    Roberto Régis Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic fitness is an important health-related fitness component. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of age, growth, body composition, sexual maturation and socioeconomic status on the aerobic fitness of female school children attending public schools in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Across-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 2006 on 1,317 school children aged 8 to17 years. Body mass, height and triceps and medial calf skinfold thickness were measured and relative body fat (%BF was calculated. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using a breast development scale (M1 to M5. The questionnaire proposed by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies was used to assess socioeconomic status. Aerobic fitness was estimated by the 20-m shuttle runtest. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression with 95% confidence intervals. Three variables (age, %BF and socioeconomic status showed an interaction (p<0.05 in the prediction of VO2peakrel (R2=0.73. All independent variables (body mass, height, age, %BF, socioeconomic status, and sexual maturation were significant predictors (p<0.05 of VO2picoabs (R2=0.88. In conclusion, chronological age and sexual maturation were the best predictors of VO2peakabs (positive and VO2peakrel (negative.

  1. NURSING PROCESS, ACCORDING TO THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF WANDA HORTA, APPLIED TO A FAMILY MET BY THE REGIONAL CORE OF HOME CARE, DISTRITO FEDERAL.

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    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case report describes the nursing care, systematized according to the conceptual model of Wanda Horta, who was dismissed to a family accompanied by a core team of Regional home care, an administrative region of the Federal District through prioritization, based on the scale of Cascavel, a member of this for such a public service. The context part according to reports from the Discipline community health nursing in ' 02 and ' Stage, mandatory mode sold to students from the undergraduate program in nursing, University of Brasilia. At this juncture, described the history and nursing diagnoses, a welfare plan, as well as the prescription, the evolution and prognosis of nursing. In the residence there was the importance of specific health care provided not only by the nurse, but for the entire multidisciplinary team, customers with chronic clinical pictures and aggravated, but stable, that demand care that exceed those offered by primary health care. Seeking the completeness of the care, professionals and students involved started for the opportunity to visualize and better understand the patterns of relationships established between the client, family and healthcare professionals, with an emphasis on how the actors involved in this scenario mobilized in support of ailing client.

  2. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  3. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  4. O (DESINTERESSE DOS PROFESSORES FRENTE ÀS ATIVIDADES EM CONTRATURNO

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    Juliana Alves Da Silva Ubinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación a tiempo completo ha sido un tema tratado en la investigación educativa y en la elaboración de políticas educativas brasileñas. Algunos cambios en estas políticas han posibilitado innovaciones con respecto a una mayor permanencia del alumnado en el centro educativo, atendiendo algunas demandas sociales al respecto. La motivación de los profesores responsables de las actividades extra curriculares es esencial para el desarrollo efectivo de los estudiantes. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar las percepciones de los profesores con respecto a las actividades curriculares complementadas con un horario extraclase. La investigación se llevó a cabo con profesores de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil, mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de buscar un mayor compromiso de los profesores en relación con las actividades extracurriculares en las escuelas donde trabajan, para que así se sientan motivados a fomentar esta práctica.

  5. Methemoglobinemia associated with loxoscelism Meta-hemoglobinemia associada ao loxoscelismo

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    Orlando C. de O. Barreto

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available In twenty five patients who presented the cutaneous form of loxoscelism, serum haptoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase, erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, bilirubin and reticulocytes were investigated after bite. No hemolysis was detected but an increase in methemoglobin was found in 54% of the cases; in 7% it was between 1.1% and 2%, in 27% it ranged from 2.1% to 4%, and in 20% from 4.1% to 8%. Blood samples of a normal, blood group 0 individual and of a patient who exhibited methemoglobinemia after Loxosceles bite were incubated separately with antisera against Loxosceles gaucho, Crotalus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, with Loxosceles gaucho venom and 0.3% phenol. No methemoglobin was found after 1, 4,8 and 15 days in both sets of samples. At the 25th day all the samples, including the controls, exhibited similar methemoglobin reductase decrease. The data suggest that the methemoglobinemia which occurs in 50% of the patients probably arises from in vivo venom metabolism, inasmuch as the crude venom does not induce methemoglobinemia.Vinte e cinco pacientes que apresentaram a forma cutânea do loxoscelismo foram estudados após a picada, determinando-se a glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase eritrocitárias, haptoglobina e latico desidrogenase séricas, bilirrubina, reticulócitos e meta-hemoglobina. Não foi observada hemólise aumentada, mas foi detectado aumento da meta-hemoglobina em 54% dos casos: em 7% entre 1,1% e 2%, em 27% variou de 2,1% a 4%, e em 20% de 4,1 a 8%. Amostras de sangue de um indivíduo normal do grupo 0 de uma paciente que exibiu meta-hemoglobina após picada por Loxosceles foram incubadas separadamente com anti-soros contra Loxosceles gancho, Crotalus terrificus e Bothrops jararaca, com veneno de Loxosceles gaucho e fenol a 3%, e não se detectou aumento de meta-hemoglobina depois de 1, 4, 8 e 15 dias em todas

  6. A STUDY OF THE COMPETITION OF LECITHIN AND ANTITOXIN FOR CL. WELCHII LECITHINASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamecnik, Paul C.; Lipmann, Fritz

    1947-01-01

    Lecithin has been found to interfere with the combining reaction of Cl. welchii alpha toxin (lecithinase) and its antitoxin. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with lecithin, and the antitoxin is then added, the antitoxin fails to stop the enzymatic reaction, but gradually decelerates it. If the lecithinase is brought into contact with both lecithin and antitoxin at the same instant, it appears to combine in part with each, and the enzymatic process takes place at a reduced rate, which gradually declines further. If the lecithinase is first brought into contact with antitoxin, before the lecithin is added, the enzymatic reaction is completely inhibited. This ability of lecithin to inhibit the antitoxin-toxin combination cannot be explained adequately as a non-specific coating of the toxin-enzyme by the lecithin. It is rather suggested that lecithin and antitoxin compete specifically for combination with the same regions on the enzyme molecule. Lecithin has similarly been found to interfere with the combination of Crotalus terrificus venom and its antiserum. The above findings provide a partial explanation for the lack of effectiveness of antitoxin when given late in the course of Cl. welchii infection. PMID:19871624

  7. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huaco, Frank Denis; Werneck, Cláudio C.; Vicente, Cristina Pontes; Vassequi-Silva, Talita; Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia Coelho; Mendes, Camila B.; Antunes, Edson; Marangoni, Sérgio; Damico, Daniela C. S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47) from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10) and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta) and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus). Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC). PMID:24058917

  8. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom

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    Frank Denis Torres-Huaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47 from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10 and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus. Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC.

  9. O cuidado nos centros municipais educacionais infantis em relação às infecções respiratórias agudas = The care in the municipal centers for children education about acute respiratory infections

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    Eloeth Kaliska Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA são causa de morbidade e mortalidade na infância, e sua crescente manifestação e transmissão nos centros educacionais infantis têm sugestionado maior atenção aos cuidados prestados nesses locais as crianças. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer as atitudes preventivas e curativas do cuidado proporcionado pelos monitores educacionais dos Centros Municipais Educacionais Infantis da Cidade de Cascavel - PR diante das IRA. Para tanto, realizamos entre novembro a dezembro de 2008, uma pesquisa qualitativa com 12 monitores educacionais, por meio da entrevista semi-estruturada gravada. Os aspectos emergentes das entrevistas foram pontuados e orientado na ótica do cuidado integral de José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres. As ações das monitoras educacionais em relação as IRA têm caráter curativo, sendo fundamentadas no cuidado técnico e entendimentos causais. Nessas ações faltam elementos que compõem o cuidado integral como o movimento, a interação, a reconstrução de identidades e alteridades, a não-causalidade, a plasticidade, a temporalidade e a responsabilidade. Diante disso, enfatiza-se a necessidade de preparar os monitores e as instituições para o cuidado integral. E, sobretudo, a articulação dos centros educacionais aos setores de saúde promovendo a aplicação de estratégias para o controle, prevenção e promoção da saúde das crianças.Acute respiratory infections are the causes of morbidity and mortality during infancy and childhood. Their increasing manifestation and transmission in day-care centers have demanded greater attention for children’ care in such institutions. Current research investigates prevention and care activities provided by educational monitors of day-care center in Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, with regard to acute respiratory infections. A qualitative research was undertaken with 12 educational monitors between November and December 2008

  10. Avaliação genética em erva-mate pelo procedimento BLUP individual multivariado sob interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic evaluation in Ilex paraguariensis by the multivariate individual BLUP procedure with genotype-environment interaction

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    Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizar a predição de valores genéticos de matrizes e procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis. Foram avaliadas 164 progênies de oito procedências, em três locais (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR e Rio Azul, PR, em relação ao caráter produção de massa foliar (PMF. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros genéticos e valores genéticos foram estimados pelo procedimento REML/BLUP individual (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada, realizando a análise multivariada para os três locais. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade individual, no sentido restrito, para o caráter PMF foram 0,15 em Ivaí, 0,62 em Guarapuava e 0,23 em Rio Azul. A baixa magnitude desses coeficientes em Ivaí e Rio Azul demanda a utilização de métodos de seleção que utilizem todos os efeitos aleatórios do modelo estatístico. O efeito de procedências foi significativo em Ivaí e Rio Azul, com correlação fenotípica intraclasse de 0,13 em Ivaí e de 0,09 em Rio Azul. As procedências apresentaram correlação genética de 0,95 entre os locais Ivaí e Rio Azul. Nesses locais, as procedências foram mais estáveis nos diferentes ambientes do que as progênies. Foram preditos os valores genéticos em relação a todas as procedências e matrizes em todos os locais quanto ao caráter avaliado. As melhores procedências são Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, Cascavel e Ivaí.The objectives of this paper were to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict breeding values for parents and provenances of Ilex paraguariensis. Eight provenances with 164 progenies were evaluated on three sites (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR and Rio Azul, PR for the trait leaf weight (LW. All the variance components, parameters and breeding values were obtained by REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure at the

  11. Suscetibilidade de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae ao fungo Beauveria bassiana Susceptibility of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae to the fungus Beauveria bassiana

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    Renato Cassol de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis é uma importante atividade econômica no Sul do Brasil. Com o aumento de consumo nos anos oitenta, cresceram também as áreas de monocultura, gerando condições favoráveis para o aumento populacional de insetos e ácaros fitófagos, entre eles o ácaro vermelho Oligonychus yothersi. Este estudo avaliou a suscetibilidade do ácaro vermelho O. yothersi a vários isolados do fungo Beauveria bassiana. O experimento foi conduzido em Cascavel, PR. Discos foliares de erva-mate (2,2 cm² foram previamente infestados com 20 fêmeas adultas. Alíquotas de 1 mL de cada suspensão de conídios dos diferentes isolados de B. bassiana, ajustadas na concentração de 1,0x10(8 conídios mL-1 foram pulverizadas, separadamente, sobre um conjunto de 5 discos. Os discos foliares foram mantidos flutuando em água destilada, em caixas plásticas (3 cm de diâmetro, sob condições controladas. Diariamente, os ácaros mortos foram transferidos para câmara úmida, para confirmação de mortalidade causada pelo fungo. A mortalidade total variou entre 77 e 98% (6 dias após a aplicação, não permitindo diferenciar os isolados quanto à virulência (P>0,05. Já a mortalidade confirmada variou entre 19 e 75%, permitindo diferenciá-los (PThe Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis crop is an important economical activity in Southern Brazil. With the increase of tea consumption in the 80s, the number of monoculture crops also increased, creating favorable conditions for the development of phytophagous insect and mite populations, such as the red mite Oligonychus yothersi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of the red mite O. yothersi to the several strains of the Beauveria bassiana fungus. The experiments were carried out in Cascavel, PR, Brazil. Leaf disks of Paraguay tea (2.2 cm² were previously infested with 20 adult females. Five disks were inoculated with 1 mL of each conidial suspension of B

  12. Efeito do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e no teor de acidez da farinha de trigo Effect of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC in the color and acidity content of wheat flour

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    Fernanda Ortolan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante o armazenamento de farinha de trigo, podem ocorrer mudanças bioquímicas que resultam em alterações nutricionais e tecnológicas, sendo que em baixa temperatura estas mudanças ocorrem mais lentamente. Entre as alterações, pode-se citar o aumento da acidez, a redução do pH e as modificações na sua cor. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do armazenamento à baixa temperatura (-4 ºC na cor e na acidez da farinha de trigo durante seis meses e correlacionar os resultados obtidos para investigar se a acidez tem relação com a cor da farinha. Foram utilizadas farinhas provenientes de dez genótipos de trigo cultivados em Cascavel, no Estado do Paraná. A cor foi determinada no sistema CIEL*a*b* através dos parâmetros de cor: L* (luminosidade, a* e b* (coordenadas de cromaticidade. Usou-se procedimento da AOAC para determinação da acidez de lipídios. As farinhas apresentaram tendência ao branqueamento durante o período de seis meses de armazenamento, com ocorrência de leve aumento da acidez, mas dentro dos teores aceitáveis. A acidez não foi considerada um fator envolvido na alteração da cor das farinhas no armazenamento à baixa temperatura, pois não houve correlação entre estes dois parâmetros.During wheat flour storage, biochemical changes can occur which lead to nutritional and technological alterations, but in low temperature these changes can occur more slowly. Among the reactions, we may note are an increase in acidity, reduction of pH and modifications to its color. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of storage at low temperature (-4 ºC on the color and acidity of wheat flour over six months and to correlate the results obtained to discover whether the acidity has any relationship with the color of the flour. Flours of ten wheat genotypes, cultivated in Cascavel, in Paraná State were used. The color was determined via the CIEL*a*b* system using the color parameters: L

  13. Effectiveness of treatment using fecal incontinence biofeedback isolated or associated with electrical stimulation

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    Suelen Melão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI has increased in recent decades, due to an aging population; and result in negative impacts on quality of life. Therefore, it is essential to search for an effective treatment in order to minimize the morbidity caused by incontinence. Objective: To evaluate the effect of perineal training in the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence by biofeedback. Method: This is a prospective study which evaluated 85 patients with FI from January 2009 to January 2014, at the Coloproctology outpatient clinic of the Hospital São Lucas/Cascavel, Paraná. Results: Mean age was 47 years and the duration of treatment ranged from 5 to 25 sessions (mean, 13 sessions. From the women involved in the study, 70% (50 had vaginal deliveries and 34 (40% participants were submitted to some orificial surgery. The FI score at baseline was 10.79 (6–17 and post-treatment FI was 2 (0–14 (p < 0.001. In the population studied, 49.4% (42 of the patients had an associated pre-BFT UI; and only 8.2% (7 had post-BFT UI (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The data presented in this study confirm that perineal training through biofeedback was effective in the treatment of patients with fecal incontinence without immediate indication for surgery, still ensuring for this technique the advantages of being effective, painless and of low cost. Resumo: Introdução: A prevalência de incontinência fecal (IF vem aumentando nas últimas décadas devido ao envelhecimento da população; e resulta em impactos negativos na qualidade de vida. Logo, torna-se fundamental a busca de um tratamento efetivo, a fim de minimizar a morbidade ocasionada pela incontinência. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do treinamento perineal no tratamento de pacientes portadores de incontinência fecal através do biofeedback. Método: Estudo prospectivo, que avaliou 85 pacientes com IF no período de janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2014, no ambulatório de

  14. A eficiência de um programa de reabilitação audiológica em idosos com presbiacusia e seus familiares The efficiency of an auditory rehabilitation program in elderly people with presbycusis and their family

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    Christine Vieira Ruschel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi desenvolver um programa de treinamento de estratégias de comunicação para indivíduos idosos, portadores de deficiência auditiva, usuários de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e seus familiares. Além disso, objetivamos verificar a contribuição da participação de familiares no processo de reabilitação audiológica desses sujeitos e promover melhor adaptação dos mesmos em relação ao uso do aparelho auditivo. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte da pesquisa 30 indivíduos com presbiacusia da cidade de Cascavel (PR. A amostra foi divida em dois grupos, o grupo 1 (grupo controle foi constituído por 15 indivíduos que receberam uma única sessão de orientação e o grupo 2 (grupo experimental constituiu-se de 15 idosos que participaram de um programa de reabilitação fonoaudiológica fracionado em seis sessões. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos controle e experimental, quando comparadas as entrevistas dos pacientes e familiares, em aspectos como: manuseio da prótese auditiva, uso do telefone com a prótese auditiva e uso do diálogo em ambientes ruidosos. CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo constatou-se que os idosos tiveram necessidade de acompanhamento fonoaudiológico após a adaptação do aparelho auditivo, pois sozinhos, muitas vezes, não conseguiam manusear a prótese auditiva e utilizá-la de maneira adequada.PURPOSE: The aim of this research consisted on developing a training program of communicative strategies for elderly people with auditory problems, users of individual hearing aids, and their families. Additionally, we had the aim to verify the contribution of family intervention during the process of auditory rehabilitation and to promote better adaptation of these individuals regarding the use of their hearing aids. METHODS: Thirty elderly subjects with presbycusis from the city of Cascavel (PR - Brazil took part in this research

  15. Teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita Nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce in function of flow rate and post-harvest periods

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    Antonio Aprígio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de nitrato (NO3- presente em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. da cultivar Vera, conduzida por hidroponia, em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita. O experimento foi realizado no município de Cascavel, PR, em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. As plantas foram nutridas mediante utilização de uma solução nutritiva caracterizada por possuir condutividade elétrica média de 1,2 dS m-1 e que, ao percorrer toda a bancada de cultivo, retornava ao tanque de irrigação e reiniciava o processo, constituindo, desta forma, um sistema fechado. No experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições que foram representadas, individualmente, por duas plantas de alface, no esquema fatorial (3 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre três vazões (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 L min-1 e quatro períodos de armazenamento pós-colheita (0; 24; 48 e 72 h. A determinação do teor de nitrato foi realizada por meio do método colorimétrico e os valores obtidos foram inferiores ao limite máximo exigido pela Comunidade Europeia. Os fatores investigados influenciaram significativamente os teores médios de nitrato.The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate (NO3- content present in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. of the Vera cultivar, produced under hydroponic system, in function of different flow rates and post-harvest periods. The experiment was conducted in the city of Cascavel-PR, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. The plants were nourished by the use of a nutrient solution, characterized by mean electrical conductivity of 1.2 dS m-1 which after passing the entire growing bench, returned to the irrigation tank and restarted the process, forming a closed system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications, which were represented

  16. Quantitative genetic analysis of methylxanthines and phenolic compounds in mate progenies Análise genética quantitativa de metilxantinas e compostos fenólicos em progênies de erva-mate

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    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the contents of methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, and phenolic compounds, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, in 51 mate progenies (half-sib families and estimate the heritability of genetic parameters. Mate progenies were from five Brazilian municipalities: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, and Cascavel. The progenies were grown in the Ivaí locality. The contents of the compounds were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The estimation of genetic parameters by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML and the prediction of genotypic values via best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP were obtained by the Selegen - REML/BLUP software. Caffeine (0.248-1.663% and theobromine (0.106-0.807% contents were significantly different (p0.5. The two different progeny groups determined for chlorogenic (1.365-2.281% and caffeic (0.027-0.037% acid contents were not significantly different (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de metilxantinas, cafeína e teobromina, e de compostos fenólicos, ácido clorogênico e ácido cafeico, em 51 progênies de erva-mate e estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. As progênies de erva-mate eram oriundas de cinco municipios brasileiros: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão do Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu e Cascavel. Essas progênies foram cultivadas na localidade de Ivaí. O conteúdo dos compostos foi obtido por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Na estimativa dos componentes da variância e dos parâmetros genotípicos, utilizou-se a metodologia de modelos mistos para a obtenção da melhor predição linear não viciada (BLUP dos efeitos genotípicos e o processo da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, processados pelo programa Selegen - REML/BLUP. Os conteúdos de cafeína (0,248-1,663 % e teobromina (0,106-0.807% foram significativamente (p0,5. Foram determinados dois diferentes grupos de progênie para

  17. Propriedades físicas de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico sob sistemas de manejo na sucessão soja-milho no período de três anos = Physical properties in distrofic Red Latosol under management systems in the succession soybean-maize in three years

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    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou alterações das propriedades físicas teor de água, densidade e porosidade do solo em áreas sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional nas culturas de soja e milho em três anos agrícolas. O experimento foi instalado no NúcleoExperimental de Engenharia Agrícola da Unioeste (Cascavel, Estado do Paraná. Nos dois primeiros anos foi implantada a cultura de soja; no terceiro ano, milho, como cultura de verão, e aveia preta e nabo forrageiro, como cobertura de inverno. Durante os três anos,foram observados redução do teor de água e densidade do solo e aumento da porosidade. As variações nas propriedades físicas do solo mostraram relação diretamente proporcional entre teor de água e densidade do solo e inversamente para porosidade. O solo apresentoumelhorias nas condições físicas pelo acréscimo de porosidade e redução de densidade com as culturas de aveia preta+nabo forrageiro e milho. O manejo soja/milho em rotação com aveia preta+nabo forrageiro mostrou-se mais adequado na melhoria das condições físicas dosolo do que os sistemas de manejo, uma vez que nenhum dos sistemas teve maior destaque na melhoria das propriedades físicas avaliadas em todo o período.This study evaluated alterations in the physical properties water content, soil density and porosity in areas under no tillage and tillage systems in the cultures of soybean and maize in three agricultural years. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Nucleus of Agricultural Engineering of Unioeste (Cascavel, state of Paraná. Soybean culture occurred in the first two years and in the third year maize, as summer crop, black oats and forage turnip as winter cover crops. During these three years the study observed reduction of water content and soil density andincrease of porosity . The variations as regards the physical properties of the soil showed direct proportional relation between water content and soil density and was

  18. Caracterização físico-química do mel de abelhas proveniente da florada do cajueiro Physicochemical characterization of the bee honey originating in the cashew flowering

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    Juliana do Nascimento Bendini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos identificar e caracterizar o mel proveniente da florada do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. O estudo foi realizado a partir de 24 amostras de mel coletadas em apiários distribuídos num cajueiral de aproximadamente 1000 hectares, localizado no município de Cascavel, Estado do Ceará, Brasil. As mesmas foram submetidas a análises melissopalinológicas e físico-químicas (umidade, acidez total, cinzas, açúcares totais, Lund, pH, condutividade elétrica, HMF, atividade de água e densidade. Com base nas análises melissopalinológicas, o mel foi considerado monofloral, proveniente da floradado cajueiro. Os intervalos de variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos analisados foram: 16,5-19,2% (umidade, 22-40meq kg-1 (acidez total, 0,182-0,301% (cinzas, 80,8-83,5% (açúcares totais, 1,0-2,0mL (Lund, 3,48-3,83 (pH, 179-198µS cm-1 (condutividade elétrica, 9,6-30,91mg kg-1 (HMF, 0,62-0,76 (atividade de água e 1,33-1,43g mL-1 (densidade. As análises mostraram que o mel da florada do cajueiro apresenta características físico-químicas dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente.The present study was aimed at the identification and characterization of the bee honey (Apis mellifera derived from cashew flowers (Anacardium occidentale L.. The study was carried out through the analysis of 24 samples of honey collected from apiaries distributed in a cashew plantation of about 1000 hectares, located in the area around the town of Cascavel, in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The samples were submitted to melissopalinological and physicochemical analysis (humidity, total acidity, ashes, total sugars, Lund, pH, electrical conductivity, HMF, water activity, and density. On the basis of the melissopalinological analysis, the honey was considered unifloral, with its origin traced to the cashew flowering. The variation intervals of the physicochemical parameters under analysis were: 16

  19. Estudo retrospectivo das complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio

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    Ariana Rodrigues Silva Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As complicações intra-operatórias na cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM quando reconhecidas previamente podem guiar os cuidados prestados na sala operatória, dando continuidade na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e durante toda internação. Quando a equipe conhece essas complicações sofridas pelo indivíduo poderá prever e prover cuidados mais específicos na seqüência de sua evolução cirúrgica. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a freqüência e tipos de complicações observadas no intra-operatório da CRM. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, transversal, baseado em dados secundários, com amostra intencional de 123 sujeitos. A coleta de dados realizou-se por meio do acesso ao banco de dados do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares do Oeste do Paraná, em Cascavel. Os dados foram analisados no programa computadorizado Statistic, versão 6,0. Os tipos de complicações observadas nesse período foram: cardiovasculares, pulmonares, alteração nos vasos do enxerto e sangramento. Dentre essas, a que obteve maior freqüência foi “alteração nos vasos do enxerto”, em 33 (26,8% casos. As complicações no intra-operatório podem não ser passíveis de prevenção quando consideradas as características individuais de cada sujeito, entretanto, todos os esforços precisam ser direcionados para que o evento, quando ocorrer, seja bem atendido, evitando dessa forma, complicações adicionais maiores.

  20. Frequency of potential interactions between drugs in medical prescriptions in a city in southern Brazil

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    Genici Weyh Bleich

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Drug interactions form part of current clinical practice and they affect between 3 and 5% of polypharmacy patients. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions for adult and elderly patients. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological survey in the Parque Verde housing project, municipality of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil, between December 2006 and February 2007. METHODS: Stratified cluster sampling, proportional to the total number of homes in the housing project, was used. The sample consisted of 95 homes and 96 male or female patients aged 19 or over, with medical prescriptions for at least two pharmaceutical drugs. Interactions were identified using DrugDigest, Medscape and Micromedex softwares. RESULTS: Most of the patients were female (69.8%, married (59.4% and in the age group of 60 years or over (56.3%, with an income less than or equal to three minimum monthly salaries (81.3% and less than eight years of schooling (69.8%; 90.6% of the patients were living with another person. The total number of pharmaceutical drugs was 406 (average of 4.2 medications per patient. The drugs most prescribed were antihypertensives (47.5%. The frequency of drug interactions was 66.6%. Among the 154 potential drug interactions, 4.6% were classified as major, 65.6% as moderate and 20.1% as minor. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of drug prescriptions with a potential for differentiated interactions indicates a situation that has so far been little explored, albeit a reality in household surveys.

  1. Methodology for quantifying the technological level of energy in electric motors; Metodologia para quantificacao do nivel tecnologico energetico de motores eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopatzki, Evandro Andre; Bianchessi, Joel Marcos [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Konopatzki, Angelica da Silva Lima [Faculdade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Cascavel (FACIAP), PR (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Marim, Cesar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The market competition created in agricultural industry because of its insertion in the domestic and foreign markets, verified by the increase in GDP share of agribusiness in the Brazilian GDP, led us to have better control of costs and inputs. Thus the final value of products sold by these agribusinesses can download increasing the space in the consumer market. Electricity is one of the inputs now being studied and this paper presents a model for determining the coefficients that allow the comparison of different existing technologies for electric motors inserting an indicator of technological innovation called Technological Level Energy (NTE). The NTE was developed and tested in Storage Units of Grain (UAG) in the region of Cascavel - Parana where data were collected in six UAG, analyzed in medium weighted, had levels of different energy technology development. The main elements used to create the NTE are the number of engines installed in UAG, the lifetime of the engine considered from its manufacture and motor plate data such as income and the power factor. As a comparative process, each region can create your NTE and analyze your situation in a national context. The UAG will use the NTE to technological innovation and planning projects such as depreciation, financing and cross-examination of financial resources for the exchange of electric motors. Thus the NTE will aid in comparative indication of the timing for replacement of electric motors. Moment from which the energy demand, according to the obsolescence of equipment, are considered excessive compared to other more modern UAG. (author)

  2. terapêutica

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    Marisa Ines Tomazzoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnobotánico e investigación de opinión, que tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre el uso de las plantas medicinales en la comunidad de la Municipalidad de Cascavel-PR, con miras a apoyar en la implantación de los fitoterápicos en la red pública de la salud. La muestra correspondió a 50 familias del área de la jurisdicción de una Unidad Básica de Salud, seleccionadas mediante una muestra estratificada proporcional. Para la obtención de los datos se optó por una investigación de carácter exploratório-descriptivo, a través de la entrevista semiestructurada. Como resultado, se observo que el 96% de la población albo manifestó el uso de la plantas; fueron registradas 271 referencias etnobotánicas, englobando 75 etnoespecies; 40 propiedades terapéuticas estaban relacionadas al uso doméstico. El uso de las plantas es bastante difundido y la transferencia eel conocimiento etnobotánico sigue los padrones de las comunidades trradicionales, no existiendo bloqueos en éste proceso. Se constató también, que las plantas medicinales para la comunidad representan un factor importante para la manutención de las condiciones de la salud, formando parte de un saber local preservado.

  3. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  4. Interações medicamentosas potenciais entre medicamentos psicotrópicos dispensados

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    Eloise Balen

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a frequência e caracterizar as interações medicamentosas potenciais entre fármacos psicotrópicos sujeitos a controle especial pela portaria 344/98 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa, os quais foram prescritos e dispensados em uma farmácia pública do Município de Cascavel, Paraná. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com desenho seccional foi realizado em uma Farmácia Pública Municipal. A amostra foi composta por prescrições de medicamentos sujeitos a controle especial, dispensados entre primeiro de julho a 31 de agosto de 2010. As prescrições retidas na farmácia foram analisadas retrospectivamente e as informações, coletadas. As interações medicamentosas potenciais foram identificadas em 824 prescrições. Resultados As prescrições eram na maioria para pacientes do sexo feminino e com idade entre 19 e 59 anos. Em relação à especialidade do prescritor, 30,6% foram prescritas por psiquiatra. Em 77,9% das prescrições identificou-se pelo menos uma interação medicamentosa potencial. Foram descritas 54 diferentes interações medicamentosas potenciais, sendo 34 graves e 20 moderadas. Encontrou-se uma correlação linear entre medicamentos prescritos e interações medicamentosas potenciais (p valor < 0,001. Conclusão O presente estudo identificou uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas potenciais envolvendo fármacos de controle especial e uma associação positiva entre o número de fármacos prescritos com a maior frequência dessas interações.

  5. Impacto da Assimilação de Dados de Radar em Sistemas Convectivos de Mesoescala: Um Estudo de Caso

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    Rute Costa Ferreira

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de um sistema convectivo de mesoescala com base na assimilação de dados de radar. Diversas simulações foram realizadas a partir do uso de dados de refletividade e velocidade radial dos radares de Cascavel e Assunção. Foram feitas rodadas com o WRF sem assimilação, com assimilação de dados convencionais e com assimilação de dados de radar e comparadas com estimativa de precipitação combinada (CoSch3. A rodada com assimilação de dados de radar inseriu ao modelo a velocidade radial e a refletividade de maneira indireta, ou seja, assimilou a razão de mistura de água de chuva. As novas análises geradas a partir da assimilação de dados mostraram o impacto da assimilação de radar desde baixos a altos níveis da atmosfera, assim como no perfil vertical. A utilização de ciclos para inicialização do modelo mostrou-se imprescindível para melhoria na previsão do posicionamento da precipitação. Dentre as configurações de previsão de precipitação, a assimilação de dados de radar mostrou uma melhoria ao prever os núcleos de precipitação intensa. Os resultados deste trabalho podem contribuir para melhorar os sistemas de alerta deste tipo de evento com maior precisão espacial e temporal.

  6. AVALIAÇÃO E COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE KITS LABORATORIAIS “D-DÍMERO” COMO DIAGNÓSTICO DE TROMBOSE VENOSA PROFUNDA

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    Rafaela Natiéli LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivos realizar análise comparativa entre kits laboratoriais D-Dímero para Trombose Venosa Profunda (TVP pelos métodos de Imunoturbidimetria (metodologia 1 e Quimiluminescência (metodologia 2, ambos da marca Siemens, e comparar o resultado das análises realizadas, com o diagnóstico clínico confirmatório do paciente, analisando seus prontuários. A amostra foi constituída por uma população de 95 voluntários que realizaram o teste laboratorial D-Dímero, em um laboratório de análises clínicas da cidade de Cascavel-PR. Os resultados foram comparados através dos parâmetros para validação sorológica, através dos cálculos de especificidade, o qual foi de 33% em ambos os métodos, sensibilidade, o qual foi de 89% e 90%, e a eficiência de 68% e 69%, respectivamente para as metodologias 1 e 2. O valor preditivo positivo (VPP foi de 69% em ambos os testes, o valor preditivo negativo (VPN foi de 33%, a prevalência foi de 62%, e a prevalência sorológica foi de 81%. Conclui-se assim que, os testes analisados são pouco específicos para TVP, não podendo ser utilizados como método diagnóstico, mas sim para excluir prováveis suspeitas de tromboembolismo venoso.

  7. Energy cost simulations for heating in greenhouses for five cities in Brazil; Simulacoes do custo de energia para calefacao em casas de vegetacao para cinco cidades brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: celsooli@unioeste.br; La Plaza, Saturnino de; Garcia, Jose Luis [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos

    2004-07-01

    Using the values of the global heat loss coefficient (U) calculated with the equations of the lineal model developed by OLIVEIRA (2003), and with the 30 year-old values, the energy can be calculated by square meter that would be necessary to obtain a temperature set point of 15 deg C, to a greenhouse of 132 m{sup 2}. They were chosen the cities of Cascavel, Curitiba, Florianopolis, Porto Alegre and Sao Paulo. To each place the medium day of the months was used to determine the convenience of the heating that the minimum average went under 15 deg C. Observing the medium minimum temperatures is easy to verify that the support of alone heat would be justified for a crop with high energy need and excellent commercial value, as it can be the case of the crop of some ornamental species. The value of estimated energy was multiplied by the Euros cost for Kwh for fuel-oil, natural gas and diesel, being simulate the heating use for heat fan and radiant floor, combined or not with two techniques of energy saving: use a double layer or plastic tunnel over the crop. Should even consider that in all the chosen places frost risk exists, what can influence in the profitability of many crops. The city of Florianopolis went to that presented smaller thermal solicitations and, therefore smaller costs, the city of Curitiba already demonstrated the needs of a support system for eight months and, therefore, larger costs. The technical more efficient it is the use of combined radiant floor with plastic tunnel, being the combustible more economic is fuel-oil. (author)

  8. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

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    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  9. Substituted thiobenzoic acid S-benzyl esters as potential inhibitors of a snake venom phospholipase A2: Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Castañeda, I. C.; Pereañez, J. A.; Jios, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    4-Chlorothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (I), 3-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (II), 4-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (III) and 4-methylthiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (IV) were prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with Gaussian 09 to calculate the geometric parameters and vibrational spectra. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, followed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Two studies of the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity were performed using phosphatidilcholine and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoic acid as substrates, in both cases compound II showed the best inhibitory ability, with 74.89% and 69.91% of inhibition, respectively. Average percentage of inhibition was 52.49%. Molecular docking was carried out with Autodock Vina using as ligands the minimized structures of compounds (I-IV) and as protein PLA2 (PDB code 2QOG). The results suggest that compounds I-IV could interact with His48 at the active site of PLA2. In addition, all compounds showed Van der Waals interactions with residues from hydrophobic channel of the enzyme. This interaction would impede normal catalysis cycle of the PLA2.

  10. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute

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    Janaína Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardiasp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  11. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations, insects (7, and reptiles (5. The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations; Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations; Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations; Ovis aries sheep (31 citations; Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations; Boa constrictor (12 citations; and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations. A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna.

  12. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes.

  13. Reply to the commentary by Hillman et al. on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogonio, Renato; Costa Leite, Cléo Alcantara; Wang, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Our meta-analysis (Filogonio et al., 2017) on central vascular blood flows in a snake (Crotalus durissus) and a turtle (Trachemys scripta) was motivated by Hillman et al.'s (2014) analysis on amphibians to investigate whether cardiac shunt patterns depend on cardiac output and vascular distensibilities. In contrast to Hillman et al. (2014), we did not uncover a general trend that supports the notion that cardiac shunts in reptiles are dictated by vascular distensibilities. In addition to our response to the criticism raised by Hillman et al. (2017), we suggest that future experiments should consider (i) both compliance and distensibility of the major arteries; (ii) differences in volume of the systemic and pulmonary circuits to account for the accommodation of stroke volume; and (iii) an evaluation of the pulsatile pressures in both the ventricle and the major arteries to consider the timing of the ventricular ejection provided by opening of the ventricular valves. We hope these suggestions may help future clarification of the relative importance of passive arterial mechanical properties compared to autonomic regulation in determining intracardiac shunts in both amphibians and reptiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluación comparativa de dos métodos para determinar la actividad de fosfolipasa A en venenos de serpientes

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    Fanny Lazo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la actividad de fosfolipasa A en seis venenos de serpientes comparando las ventajas de un método espectrofotométrico, previamente adaptado a nuestras condiciones de laboratorio, frente al método macroscópico de retardo en la coagulación de una emulsión lipoproteica. En ambos casos, la actividad de fosfolipasa A estuvo presente en los venenos de Micrurus spixii, Crotalus durissus, Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox y la actividad decreció en orden. En cambio, la actividad de la enzima en el veneno de Micrurus surinamensis sólo fue detectada por el método espectrofotométrico. Así mismo, los resultados basados en la cantidad de veneno utilizado para medir la actividad, mostraron una mayor sensibilidad con el método espectrofotométrico en comparación con el método macroscópico ya que se requirieron cantidades menores en el orden de 2 a 10 veces.

  15. Acções phylacticas não especificas em relação aos venenos ophidicos: tratamento auxiliar dos accidentes ophidicos

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    J. Vellard

    1929-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans l'intoxication expérimentale du pigeon avec les venins de Crotalus terrificus, de Lachesis jararaca et de Naya tripudians, nous avons étudié l'action de 12 médicaments, possédant des affinités neurotropes plus ou moins accusées, arrivant aux conclusions suivantes: 1 - Quelques-uns des ces médicaments exercent une action protectrice spéciale contre ces venins, permettant, injectés une heure avant le vénin, d'eviter tout symptôme d'intoxication chez le pigeon. Certains n'agissent qu'injectés em même temps que le vénin. D'autres sont complètement inactifs. Aucun d'êntre eux ne possède de propriétés curatives. 2 - En plus de ce pouvoir protecteur, ou phylactique, un certain nombre d'entre eux possède sur les venins, une action neutralisante "in vitro", s'accentuant après une heure de contact. 3 - Les conditions dans lesquelles s'exercent ces deux actions, protectrice et neutralisante, sont très variables suivant les venins et les médicaments. Sur leur mécanisme très complexe, on ne peut actuellement formuler que des hypothèses. 4 - Au point de vue pratique, certains de ces médicaments, surtout la spartéine et l'adrénaline, peuvent être utilisés avec avantage comme complément du traitement sérotérapique spécifique dans les accidents déterminés par les animaux venimeux.

  16. Eficacia experimental de anticuerpos IgY producidos en huevos, contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox Experimental efficacy of IgY antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Julio C. Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Desarrollar un protocolo de inmunización para producir inmunoglobulinas IgY de origen aviar contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox y evaluar la capacidad neutralizante. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron seis gallinas de postura de la raza hy line brown con 500 μg/dosis de veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de dos meses. Cada semana, los huevos fueron colectados para el aislamiento de inmunoglobulinas IgY a partir de la yema, usando dos pasos consecutivos con αcido caprνlico y sulfato de amonio. La detecciσn de anticuerpos se realizσ por inmunodifusiσn doble mientras que el tνtulo y reactividad cruzada se determinaron por las técnicas de ELISA y Western blot. El cálculo de DL50 y de la DE50 del antiveneno IgY producido se realizó utilizando el método de Probits. Resultados. La masa de anticuerpos aislados fue de 8,5 ± 1,35 mg de IgY/mL de yema. Asimismo, la DE50 del antiveneno aviar fue calculada en 575 μL de antiveneno/mg de veneno. Adicionalmente, los ensayos de reactividad cruzada mostraron que el veneno de B. atrox comparte mas epνtopes comunes con el veneno de B. brazili (47% que con otros veneno del mismo género, en tanto que los venenos de Lachesis muta (19% y Crotalus durissus (12% mostraron una baja reactividad cruzada. Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido IgY purificada contra el veneno de B. atrox con capacidad neutralizante y se ha demostrado su utilidad como herramienta inmunoanalítica para evaluar la reactividad cruzada con venenos de otras especies.Objectives. To develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian IgY immunoglobulins against Bothrops atrox Peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity. Materials and methods. Six Hy Line Brown hens were immunized each two weeks using 500μg/doses of B. atrox venom in a period of two months. Each week, eggs were collected for IgY isolation from yolk using two consecutive steps with caprilic acid and ammonium sulfate

  17. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

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    Victor Corasolla Carregari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37∘C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12. The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  19. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in reptiles: a comparative study of four species with different lung structures and pulmonary blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2005-11-01

    Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts and is considered important for the local matching of ventilation to blood perfusion. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia on pulmonary and systemic blood flows and pressures were measured in four species of anesthetized reptiles with diverse lung structures and heart morphologies: varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus), caimans (Caiman latirostris), rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus), and tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). As previously shown in turtles, hypoxia causes a reversible constriction of the pulmonary vasculature in varanids and caimans, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 37 and 31%, respectively. These three species possess complex multicameral lungs, and it is likely that HPV would aid to secure ventilation-perfusion homogeneity. There was no HPV in rattlesnakes, which have structurally simple lungs where local ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneities are less likely to occur. However, tegu lizards, which also have simple unicameral lungs, did exhibit HPV, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 32%, albeit at a lower threshold than varanids and caimans (6.2 kPa oxygen in inspired air vs. 8.2 and 13.9 kPa, respectively). Although these observations suggest that HPV is more pronounced in species with complex lungs and functionally divided hearts, it is also clear that other components are involved.

  20. Proposta de um Mapa Estratégico para uma Universidade Pública

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    Vinicius Abilio Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A ferramenta de tradução da estratégia, medição e avaliação do desempenho organizacional chamado Balanced Scorecard (BSC vem sendo estudada de forma crescente desde a sua publicação em 1990. O formato inicialmente proposto é aplicado muito bem às empresas privadas. Porém, sua aplicação em organizações não pertencentes ao ramo privado não foi contemplado nos estudos iniciais. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma proposição de um mapa estratégico na forma do Balanced Scorecard para a Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE, localizada na região Oeste daquele estado. Foram utilizados dados secundários relacionados ao Plano de Desenvolvimento Institucional, dentre outros documentos relacionados com a estratégia da instituição. Este estudo de caso se classifica como exploratório e qualitativo. A UNIOESTE possui, além da Reitoria, 5 campis localizados nas cidades de Cascavel, Toledo, Foz do Iguaçu, Marechal Cândido Rondon e Francisco Beltrão, além do Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP. Conta com corpo docente composto por 1.229 docentes e 1.267 agentes universitários. Para o problema desta pesquisa, tem-se: é possível a criação de um Balanced Scorecard para uma Universidade Pública? Para o tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo, apoiado pelo software ATLAS.ti. Ao final do trabalho, propôs-se um total de 5 perspectivas: Educacional, Financeira, Sociedade, Aprendizado e Crescimento e Processos Internos, distribuídos nestas perspectivas, 16 objetivos estratégicos e 30 indicadores estratégicos. A contribuição deste artigo consiste em apresentar as especificidades não abordadas no modelo tradicional, proposto por Kaplan e Norton, a uma instituição que se apresenta nas características de instituição pública e voltada para o ensino superior.

  1. Insuficiência renal aguda secundária a acidentes ofídicos botrópico e crotálico. Análise de 63 casos

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    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta e três pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda secundária a acidente ofídico foram tratados no CTI do Hospital das Clínicas da UFMG. Em 32 pacientes (51% o acidente foi produzido por serpentes do gênero Bothrops (grupo bio-trópico e em 32 pacientes (49% pela cascavel sul-americana (grupo crotálico. As principais complicações apresentadas pelos pacientes foram a uremia (100% dos casos, hiperpotassemia (89% dos casos, anemia (78% dos casos, infecção urinária (37% dos casos, hiper-hidratação (17% dos casos, parada cardíaca (14% dos casos e edema agudo dos pulmões (11% dos casos. Cinco pacientes do grupo crotálico (16% tiveram insuficiência respiratória aguda atribuída à ação neurotóxica do veneno, quatro dos quais se recuperaram completamente. Sete pacientes do grupo botrópico (22% tiveram necrose cortical renal diagnosticada em cinco através da biópsia renal e em dois na necropsia. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (71% foram tratados com diálise peritoneal e a hemodiálise foi necessária em dois pacientes, um dos quais havia sido submetido a diálise peritoneal. Em 17 pacientes (27% o tratamento foi conservador. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes receberam alta hospitalar, quatro dos quais com insuficiência renal crônica secundária a necrose cortical renal e oito (13% faleceram. Os óbitos foram atribuídos a edema pulmonar agudo em quatro pacientes, a estado de choque em dois pacientes e a coma e infecção respiratória após parada cardíaca em dois pacientes.

  2. Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga

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    Nagano Celso S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2, isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella, to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex. Results This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa, its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity. The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm, but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap. PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm. PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48

  3. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

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    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  4. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    principais espécies citadas foram: o carneiro - Ovis aries (UV=0,89, a raposa - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0,79, o camaleão - Iguana iguana (UV=0,79 e a cascavel - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0,74. Os tratamentos mais freqüentemente citados relacionaram-se a doenças inflamatórias, dermatológicas e desordens obstetrícias. Semelhante a outros estudos, a etnoveterinária local estabelece conexões com a etnomedicina para humanos. Os resultados sugerem que similaridades no repertório de recursos medicinais escolhidos pelos moradores locais refletem a acessibilidade/disponbilidade dos recursos. Nosso resultados ajudam a preservar o conhecimento etnoveterinário, o qual é importante para aumentar nossa compreensão das relações entre seres humanos, a sociedades e a natureza, e também elaborar estratégias mais efetivas para conservar os recursos naturais. Outros estudos para validação científica da eficácia e efeitos colaterais destes produtos zooterapêuticos são necessários antes que possam ser recomendados ou não para o uso.

  5. Revascularização do miocárdio em pacientes após a oitava década de vida

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    ALMEIDA Rui Manuel Sequeira de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a morbi-mortalidade hospitalar e a qualidade de vida de pacientes, acima de 70 anos de vida, submetidos à operação de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: No período de julho de 1992 a fevereiro de 2000, foram realizadas 507 CRM, no Serviço de Cirurgia Cardiovascular do Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares de Cascavel. Em 70 destes casos os pacientes tinham idade igual ou superior a 70 anos. Neste grupo predominou o sexo masculino, em 57% dos casos, e a idade média foi de 72,9 anos (70-85 anos. Vinte e seis pacientes apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistêmica, 25 doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica importante, 17 diabete melito e 8 insuficiência renal crônica, no pré-operatório. Trinta e sete pacientes apresentavam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM pré-operatório, sete haviam sido submetidos à angioplastia transluminal percutânea, sete apresentavam lesão de tronco de artéria coronária esquerda e um havia sido submetido à CRM anteriormente. Foram realizados 2,8 enxertos/ paciente, sendo usados condutos arteriais em 53% dos casos. Foi realizada endarterectomia em sete artérias, aneurismectomia de ventrículo esquerdo em sete pacientes e ventriculectomia parcial esquerda em um. A operação foi realizada em caráter de emergência em nove casos. Houve necessidade de contrapulsação aórtica em quatro pacientes. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de permanência na UTI e no hospital foi de 4 (1-24 e 12,2 (3-34 dias, respectivamente. A mortalidade hospitalar geral foi de 7,1%. Quando analisada por subgrupos, a mortalidade dos pacientes de 70 a 74 anos (57 casos foi de 5,3%, e a dos últimos 35 casos de 2,8%. No pós-operatório imediato, as complicações mais freqüentes foram: insuficiência respiratória (10, arritmia atrial (7, alteração de conduta (6, infecção pulmonar (6, embolia pulmonar (5, síndrome de baixo débito (4, IAM (3, AVC (3, insuficiência renal aguda (4 e

  6. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

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    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  7. Evaluation of entrance skin air kerma in digital and conventional pediatric chest examinations performed in Parana-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana L.R.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Lunelli, Neuri; Paschuk, Sergei; Tilly Jr, Joao G.; Rogacheski, Enio; Khoury, Helen J.; Ferreira, Jose R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In pediatric radiology it is important to evaluate patient exposure due to the high sensitivity of his/her tissue and his/her relatively longer life expectancy, which may increase the chance of radiogenic cancer development. Special attention is necessary when digital systems are used since a high dosage level for the patient may go unnoticed because the resulting image is not overexposed. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK) in pediatric patients submitted to digital and conventional chest examinations performed in the State of Parana, located in the Southern region of Brazil. The survey was performed in two hospitals, one located in Curitiba, the Capital of the State (A) and the other in the city of Cascavel (B). Hospital A uses a conventional image system and Hospital B uses a CR digital system. The study group consisted of 50 patients (from 2 days to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination, the exposure parameters (kV, mAs, focal-film distance, etc) and the gender, height, weight and age of the patient were recorded. To evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK), two TLD-100 dosimeters were packaged in a polyethylene case, heat sealed and placed on the surface of each patient. The TLDs were calibrated the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of the Federal University of Pernambuco. The TLDs were processed on a Victoreen readout system model 2800M. The results showed that the kilovoltage values used in Hospital A are in the range of 46 to 65 kV with the average value of 51,7 kV, while the ones in Hospital B are in the range of 65 to 80 kV. On the other hand, even though hospital B uses the CR system, the mAs used for the chest exams are 4 times higher than the ones used in Hospital A. For Hospital A, the mean ESAK value was 0.044 mGy (min: 0.08 and max 0.146 mGy), and for Hospital B the mean ESAK value was 0.368 mGy (min: 0.021 and max 1.21mGy). The results made

  8. Quadro clínico-patológico do envenenamento crotálico experimental em bubalinos comparado com o de bovinos

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo verificar a sensibilidade dos bubalinos à peçonha de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, estudar o quadro clínico-patológico e laboratorial nessa espécie e estabelecer comparações com o verificado em bovinos. A inoculação do veneno liofilizado de Crotalus durissus terriiicus, diluído em 1ml de solução fisiológica, foi feita na região da articulação úmero-rádio-ulnar, por via subcutânea, em três bubalinos (doses de 0,015; 0,03; e 0,066mg/kg e em dois bovinos (doses de 0,03 e 0,066mg/kg. O bubalino que recebeu a dose de 0,03mg/ kg apresentou sinais clínicos graves recuperou-se seis dias após, e o bovino que recebeu a mesma dose morreu com evolução de 22h56min. A dose de 0,066mg/kg causou a morte tanto do bovino quanto do bubalino, com evolução clínica de 4h23min e 8h12min, respectivamente. O bubalino que recebeu a dose de 0,015mg/kg, recuperou-se com evolução de 48 horas. Os sinais clínicos tiveram início dentro de 3h58min no bubalino que morreu, e nos bubalinos que adoeceram mas se recuperaram, dentro de 17h25min e 24h00min após a inoculação do veneno. Nos dois bovinos que morreram (com doses de 0,03 e 0,066mg/kg, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados 6h10min e 6h31min após a inoculação do veneno. A inoculação do veneno produziu nos búfalos e bovinos um quadro nervoso de paralisia flácida. Os principais sinais observados tanto nos búfalos quanto nos bovinos, foram discreto aumento de volume no local da inoculação, dificuldade respiratória caracterizada por respiração predominantemente abdominal, apatia, sialorreia, dificuldade para se levantar quando estimulados, evolução para decúbito esternal permanente, seguido de decúbito lateral e movimentos de pedalagem, e diminuição dos reflexos relacionados aos pares de nervos cranianos. Nos bubalinos adicionalmente foi observado aumento da base de sustentação, arrastar das pinças dos membros posteriores, marcha lenta e

  9. Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae seeds in cattle

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    Murilo R. Boghossian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sementes moídas de Crotalaria mucronata Desv. (=Crotalaria striata DC., Crotalaria pallida Ait., Crotalaria saltiana, com nomes populares de "xique-xique" ou "guizo-de-cascavel", foram administradas por via oral a 9 bovinos. As doses diárias de 1g/kg, 2g/kg, 3g/kg cada uma a um bovino, e 5g/kg em dois de três bovinos, dadas durante 61 a 63 dias, não causaram intoxicação. A dose de 5g/kg em um bovino, 7,5g/kg em dois bovinos e 10g/kg em um bovino, dadas durante 47-61 dias, causaram sintomas entre 47 e 80 dias após o início da administração e a morte entre 3 horas e 5 dias após o início dos sintomas. Os principais sintomas foram pulso venoso positivo da veia jugular, respiração abdominal, taquicardia, inapetência, fezes ressequidas, edema sub-mandibular e fraqueza. Os achados de necropsia foram palidez pulmonar, hidropericárdio, hidrotórax, hidroperitôneo, edema de mesentério, aumento da consistência hepática, alterações de cor do fígado, dilatação de ventrículo cardíaco direito e edema da parede ruminal. As principais alterações histológicas concentraram-se nos pulmões, sob forma de espessamento das paredes alveolares e da parede das arteríolas com diminuição da luz e fibrose periarteriolar; havia também lesões hepáticas e cardíacas de menor importância. Pode-se concluir que as principais lesões causadas pela ingestão das sementes de C. mucronata durante períodos prolongados, devem-se à dificuldade de passagem do sangue pelos vasos pulmonares em função da hipertensão arterial decorrente de fibrose e espessamento arteriolar determinada pela ação pneumotóxica da planta.Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine

  10. Contribuição para o conhecimento da intoxicação pelo veneno dos "escorpiões"

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    Octavio de Magalhães

    1928-01-01

    0,gr.000.106.15. Pour 1.149 T. serrulatus, la moyenne pour une piqûre est.......0,gr.000.246.30. La quantité a varié, selon les individus, de 0,gr.000.035.71, à 0,gr.000.436.01 de venin pur, pour une piqûre. D'après ce qui vient d'étre dit, on peut voir combien la quantité de venin éjaculé varie, chaque fois, chez les scorpions. L'unité-piqûre ne peut done pas ètre utiliseé pour des expériences dèlicates. Le mieux est de se servir de venin pur, et c'est ce que nous avons fait pour les expériences minutieuses. Quand on n'en possède pas, on peut établir pour chaque série des expériences à tenter-la dose minima mortelle en poids (grammes et fractions de vésicules. D'après les bases ici consignées, et avec une trés petite erreur, on peut calculer la quantité de venin pur de cette dóse. Ce calcul est d'ailleurs dispensable. On peut s'en rapporter simplement au poids sec des vésicules totales et dire que la D. m. m. est de tant de milligr. secs. Comme le venin se conserve mal dans les vésicules, il faut, dans ce procédé, doser la D. m. m. toutes les fois que l'on veut procéder á une sériê d'expériences. Le venin desséché rappelle, d'après le temps de conservations au Laboratoire, celui de Crotatus terrificus et celui des Lachesis (quand il est vieux. Il est retenu au passage en partie, par les bougies Berkfeld et Chamberland. La conservation en état de dessication est la meilleure. Ainsi gardé, à l'abri de la lumierè, aux approches de 0,gr., pendant 8 mois, il perd à peine 1,2 à 1,4 de sa valeur primitive. L'echauffement à 100 gr. trouble une dissolution de venin dans l'eau distilleé; sans atteindre toutefois son pouvoir toxique, quand on l'injecte par la voie intra-cérébrale. Nous avons fait l'experience par 11 voies diverses. Sur des animaux sensibles, nous n'avons pas obtenu de phénomènes toxiques, apparemment, par les voies suivantes: 1 buccale; 2 gastrique; 3 rectale; 4 chambre oculaire antérieure; 5 cornéenne; 6