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Sample records for duree influence des

  1. Influence de la présence de contaminants lors du recyclage des thermoplastiques Influence of contaminants during the recycling of thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casetta Mathilde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le recyclage des matières plastiques constitue un enjeu environnemental majeur en raison de la diminution des ressources pétrolières et du problème de la gestion des déchets en fin de vie. Toutefois, ce recyclage est rendu difficile par la présence d'additifs ou de pollutions au sein des polymères. L'objectif de cette communication est de présenter et de commenter deux principaux exemples permettant d'illustrer l'influence de la présence de contaminants sur les propriétés du matériau recyclé. Dans un cas, on étudiera l'influence de la méthode de recyclage sur les propriétés finales du matériau et dans l'autre cas, on cherchera à remédier à la diminution des propriétés mécaniques du polymère recyclé en compatibilisant le contaminant au sein du matériau plastique. The recycling of plastic materials represents a major environmental challenge due to the decrease of petroleum resources and the problem of end-of-life products management. However, the presence of additives or pollutants inside polymers generally makes the recycling more difficult. The aim of the presentation is to describe two main examples illustrating the influence of the presence of contaminants on the properties of recycled polymers. First, the influence of the recycling method on the final properties of the material will be studied. Then, the decrease of the mechanical properties of the recycled polymer will be overcome by compatibilizing the contaminant inside the plastic material.

  2. Influence des facteurs agro-écologiques et des herbicides sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence des facteurs agro-écologiques et des herbicides sur le rendement et les caractéristiques technologiques des grains et farines de blés tendres ( Triticum aestivum L.) et durs ( Triticum durum Desf.)

  3. Influence du mode de pollinisation et des caracteristiques des fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La graine est l'organe principal de propagation du papayer (Carica papaya), chez qui les problèmes de germination sont récurrents. L'influence du mode de pollinisation et de la conservation des papayes sur la qualité de leurs semences est étudiée. Six cents fleurs hermaphrodites, de la lignée Solo n°8, sont marquées au ...

  4. Influence des herbicides sur les principaux paramètres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence des herbicides sur les principaux paramètres physiologiques de la productivité et les composantes essentielles de rendement des blés tendres ( Triticum aestivum L .) et durs ( Triticum durum Desf.)

  5. Influence des changements climatiques sur la distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif principal d'évaluer l'influence des changements climatiques sur la distribution spatiale de Chrysophyllum albidum, une espèce prioritaire et menacée au Bénin. La modélisation de la distribution géographique actuelle et future de l'espèce est basée sur le principe d'entropie maximale ...

  6. Influence des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols sur la flore et la végétation ligneuse de trois stations du tracé de la grande muraille verte du Tchad. Minda Mahamat-Saleh, Mariama Dalanda Diallo, Ousmane Ndiaye, Khoudia Niang, Seyni Sane, Goalbaye Touroumgaye, François Matty, Aliou Guisse ...

  7. Influence de l'occupation des terres sur la dynamique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de la présente étude est d'évaluer l'impact de mise en culture, des pâturages, des jachères et l'influence des villages sur la dynamique des communautés végétales de la commune de ..... mais il n'y a que peu de recrutement. Au-delà de cinq ans, taille et phytovolume diminuent, témoignant du vieillissement de la ...

  8. Studies of neo-formed phases occurring during spent nuclear fuel dissolution in geological repository: influence of silicate ions; Etude des phases neoformees lors de la dissolution du combustible nucleaire en condition de stockage geologique: influence des ions silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robit-Pointeau, V

    2005-12-15

    Spent nuclear fuel alteration in deep storage conditions may proceed by local oxidising conditions at the fuel / water interface under influence of alpha irradiation. However, due to the strong redox buffer capacity of the near-field materials (especially the canister and the geological media), most of the near-field environment will remain reducing. Due to the relative high concentration in silica in such system, coffinite USiO{sub 4}.n(H{sub 2}O) may be a relevant phase to consider as it has been suggested from the natural analogues observations (Oklo). The aim of this work was to assess the relevance of coffinitisation of the spent fuel phenomena. The results of the experimental work contest the thermodynamic predictions. Instead of coffinite, a new U(IV)-Si phase has been observed in water simulating storage conditions. The thermodynamic data on coffinite validated by OECD are based on the average concentration of dissolved silica present in natural system containing uraninite and quartz. As the silica concentration in natural groundwaters is more probably controlled by minerals like chalcedony or silica gel, the coffinite present with uraninite in such systems, is probably not in equilibrium even in 2-billion years- old geological sites. Based on the results of this study, coffinitisation of the spent nuclear fuel in deep geological disposal is not anticipated to be a dominant short term process. (author)

  9. INFLUENCE DES SYSTEMES AGRAIRES SUR LA DYNAMIQUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 212 p. Diarrassouba N. 2008. Caractérisation morphologique chez le karité : Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) et analyse de certains facteurs anthropiques affectant la structure de la diversité génétique des peuplements en Côte d'Ivoire. Thèse de Doctorat Unique ès sciences ...

  10. Influence des caracteristiques petro-structurales sur les proprietes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux variétés de quartzites de l'unité litho-tectonique de l'Atacora dans la chaîne panafricaine des Dahoméyides au Nord-Ouest du Bénin ont fait l'objet d'études pétrostructurales et mécaniques en vue de la détermination de l'influence de la minéralogie et de la déformation des roches sur leurs propriétés géotechniques.

  11. Influence des tanins sur la valeur nutritive des aliments des ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, N.; Cordesse, R.

    1996-01-01

    Les tanins sont des métabolites secondaires importants dans le règne végétal. Ils s’intègrent dans la défense des végétaux contre les herbivores, en particulier pour les plantes se développant dans les zones difficiles. La structure chimique de ces polyphénols leur confère une capacité très développée à se fixer sur toutes sortes de molécules, essentiellement les protéines. Ces interactions faisant intervenir les différents types de liaison possibles sont dépendantes de nombreux facteurs liés...

  12. Influence de trois types de semences sur le développement des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trois types de semences de papayer issues respectivement de l'autopollinisation contrôlée des fleurs hermaphrodites, de la pollinisation libre des fleurs femelles et de la pollinisation libre des fleurs hermaphrodites ont été étudiés dans le but de déterminer leur influence sur la croissance des plants et la répartition des ...

  13. Evaluation des facteurs pronostiques pouvant influencer les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But nasal obstruction can be caused by other conditions, such as turbinate hypertrophy, adenoid hypertrophy, and nasal polyposis. The surgeons' selection criteria for septoplasty largely rely on clinical judgment alone. The aim of our study was to evaluate if this clinical criteria and the demographics ones could influence the ...

  14. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l

  15. L'influence des relations sociales sur la performance des entreprises : Une analyse des conséquences économiques du fait syndical en France

    OpenAIRE

    Laroche , Patrice; Schmidt , Géraldine; Wechtler , Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Rapport de recherche pour la DARES (Ministère du travail); Ce travail de recherche vise à appréhender l'impact des syndicats de salariés sur les performances des entreprises françaises, en utilisant les données issues des enquêtes REPONSE 1998 et 2004. Ce travail a l'ambition d'apporter un éclairage sur un sujet encore peu abordé en France. Les aspects des relations de travail susceptibles d'influencer la performance de l'organisation incluent la présence syndicale mais ne s'y limitent pas : ...

  16. Influence des rejets des eaux usées sur la composition des eaux de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This depression which communicated with the subjacent ground water became currently a discharge site in which are poured domestic and industrial effluents without any preliminary treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the worn water on the lake water quality. In this way we have determined the ...

  17. La formation des granulats plats et leur influence sur la résistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article est consacré, d'une part, à l'étude de l'influence des différentes textures et structures des gneiss et des granites sur la formation des granulats plats lors du concassage et, d'autre part, à l'étude de l'impact du contenu de ces granulats plats sur la résistance mécanique des granulats, en général. Les résultats ...

  18. Influence sociale et leadership dans la direction des personnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Bapes Ba Bapes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte actuel de direction des personnes, la bonne articulation de l’influence sociale et du leadership constitue un véritable défi à relever. Partagées entre la rupture d’avec les modes de management classiques et la fidélité au management traditionnel, les organisations se trouvent de plus en plus insérées dans un champ où s’expriment diverses rationalités toujours plus complexes. Les modes d’exercice du leadership semblent en fait subir l’influence de l’environnement social et culturel dans lequel ils s’expriment, ce qui consacre un certain relativisme qui vise à recommander désormais un ré-encastrement social du leadership. Les enjeux actuels de la direction des personnes placent les organisations au cœur d’une remise en question nécessaire, du moment où les valeurs de la démocratie semblent orienter les problématiques actuelles. Dès lors, une redéfinition de l’influence sociale et du leadership, qui tienne compte des élaborations théoriques et des constations empiriques s’impose, en vue de déboucher sur une culture d’entreprise négociée qui rende plus réelle l’optimisation du capital humain.In the present context of personnel management, the good articulation of social influence and leadership is a major challenge. Caught between the break away from classical management methods and faithfulness to traditional management, organizations are becoming more and more integrated in a field where different and even more complex rationalities are expressed. Actually, ways of practicing leadership seem to be subject to the influence of the social and cultural environment in which they are used. This, therefore, establishes some sort of relativism which aims henceforth at recommending a new social build-in of leadership. The present issues in personnel management place organizations at the centre of a necessary questioning, as democratic values seem to be oriented towards current problems

  19. La formation des granulats plats et leur influence sur la résistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    261. La formation des granulats plats et leur influence sur la résistance mécanique des agrégats des granites et gneiss du Togo. Irina PACHOUKOVA1, Ampah Kodjo Christophe JOHNSON2* et Boko AKA3. 1 Ecole nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs, ENSI, Université de Lomé, Togo. 2 Département de géologie, Faculté de ...

  20. Influence de la fertilisation à base des déchets humains recyclés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2014 ... 2014. Influence de la fertilisation a base des déchets humains recycles , des engrais minéraux et de leur combinaison sur le comportement de maïs. 6502 permettent d'obtenir des rendements compétitifs à ceux obtenus avec la fumure minérale en culture maraîchère et céréalière (Kiba, 2005). Les études.

  1. Influence de l'hydrodynamique des bassins sur la survie et la croissance des larves de turbot (Psetta maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAIGNON J. L.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Une forte variabilité des performances larvaires est observée chez le turbot. De nombreuses causes ont été étudiées, mais peu de travaux ont été publiés sur l'influence des conditions environnementales. Dans cet article, les effets des conditions hydrodynamiques des milieux d'élevage sur la survie et la croissance de larves nourries jusqu'aux jours 7-10 et de larves non alimentées ont été étudiés. Plusieurs expérimentations ont porté sur l'importance des débits d'eau (600 et 1200 ml.mn-1, constant et progressif, des débits d'air (10 et 30 ml.mn-1 et du sens de circulation de l'eau (descendant et ascendant, avec et sans changement de sens en cours d'élevage. De plus, les interactions possibles du sens de circulation de l'eau avec les conditions d'alimentation des larves ont été étudiées (i en différant la première distribution alimentaire (à 4 moments différents entre 52 à 76 heures après le stade 95% d'éclos et (ii en utilisant deux rations alimentaires (différentes d'un facteur 3. Les résultats montrent que les débits d'eau et d'air influencent fortement la mortalité : une élévation de 25% du débit d'eau et un faible débit d'air ont des effets négatifs durant la période d'alimentation mixte (jours 3-4. Le sens de circulation de l'eau influence la mortalité durant toute la période d'élevage concernée. Un courant ascendant améliore la survie. Ces résultats ont été confortés lorsque des changements de sens de circulation de l'eau ont été pratiqués en cours d'élevage. Ils modifient quasi immédiatement (dans les 8-24 heures l'évolution des mortalités observées : le passage d'un courant ascendant à un courant descendant entraîne de fortes mortalités et le changement inverse se traduit par une diminution, voire un arrêt de la mortalité. Les conditions d'alimentation testées n'influencent pas la survie larvaire ; elles n'interagissent pas non plus avec le sens de circulation de l'eau sur

  2. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...... profession et de celle de leurs contreparties? Comment perçoivent-ils leurs rôles, leurs méthodes de travail et leurs interactions? Nous avons employé une méthode mixte, comprenant des entretiens en personne et des enquêtes en ligne, afin de recueillir et d’analyser les données. Les résultats indiquent que...

  3. Influence de la structure des gneiss et des granites sur la resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A partir de la structure des roches (gneiss et granites) provenant des différentes régions du Togo il a été proposée une classification basée sur le modèle exponentielle appliquée à la probabilité de présence de grains de dimensions variables. Cette classification a permis d'évaluer l'homogénéité granulaire des roches de ...

  4. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the

  5. Influences des Pressions Anthropique_MCD Issue2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion de la forêt ni les lois régissant la gestion forestière et les chasses des animaux sauvages. Ces critères classifient ... projet qui assurera la surveillance et le contrôle du secteur par des missions de suivi - évaluation. ... population riveraine du site à être responsable de la gestion rationnelle de leurs ressources naturelles.

  6. Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    Située à proximité de Kinshasa, la province du Bas-Congo (R.D. Congo) est l'une des principales pourvoyeuses en produits vivriers de cette ville. Par conséquent, l'augmentation de la pression sur les ressources naturelles s'accentue. L'analyse diachronique du paysage peut servir à montrer l'effet des actions ...

  7. Influence des herbicides sur les principaux paramètres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2015 ... l'effet positif des herbicides sur l'accroissement des principaux paramètres physiologiques de la ..... de biomasse de 10,8%, soit 5,72 t ha-1, son taux de ..... Maroc Oriental. Nature et Technologie. 5: 80-. 86. De Jesus W.C., Ribeiro Jr., do Vale X., Coelho R. R. and Costa L. C. 2001. Comparison of two.

  8. Influence des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des sols sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    alcalinité et la teneur élevée en sable des sols constituent ... Les rares travaux sur les sols au Tchad ont été réalisés par. Pias et Barbery (1964) puis par Audry et Poisot. (1969) et ont porté essentiellement sur la cartographie ...

  9. Étude de l'influence des parlementaires éthiopiennes | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude de l'influence des parlementaires éthiopiennes. Le pourcentage de femmes au Parlement de l'Éthiopie n'a cessé d'augmenter au cours des dernières années, et il atteint maintenant un sommet historique (21,2 %). Cette subvention permettra de soutenir l'exécution d'une modeste première étude sur la perception ...

  10. Étude de l'influence des parlementaires éthiopiennes | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude de l'influence des parlementaires éthiopiennes. Le pourcentage de femmes au Parlement de l'Éthiopie n'a cessé d'augmenter au cours des dernières années, et il atteint maintenant un sommet historique (21,2 %). Cette subvention permettra de soutenir l'exécution d'une modeste première étude sur la perception ...

  11. Influence des technologies d'information et de la communication sur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Influence des technologies d'information et de la communication sur les mutations du marché du travail au Sénégal. Les technologies d'information et de la communication (TIC) sont devenues un élément-clé des stratégies de développement économique et réduction de la pauvreté au Sénégal. Cependant, quoique la ...

  12. influence du systeme de riziculture intensif (sri) sur les attaques des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du système de riziculture intensif (SRI) sur les attaques des insectes dépredateurs. INFLUENCE DU SYSTEME DE ... Cette étude sur le Système de Riziculture Intensif (SRI) a été conduite au cours de la saison humide 2013 avec quatre champs ...... au Projet SRI/FCN pour le soutien financier. REFERENCES.

  13. Influence des perturbations anthropiques sur la biodiversité des bois ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étude a ciblé 61 bois sacrés autour desquels des entretiens ont été réalisés avec les populations riveraines. A cet effet, 244 personnes de façon raisonnée ont été interrogées. Ces entretiens ont permis de savoir que les valeurs traditionnelles, ...

  14. Influence des activités anthropiques sur la diversité floristique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    à Raphia hookeri et Anthocleista vogelii et la savane marécageuse à Ficus asperifolia et Paullinia pinnata. Une gestion plus rationnelle du prélèvement des PFNL par les exploitants doit permettre un développement durable de la forêt marécageuse de Lokoli. Mots clés: Produit forestier non ligneux, exploitation durable, ...

  15. Electrostatic Characterization of Solid/ Liquid Interfaces. Influence of Adsorbats Propriétés électrostatiques des interfaces solide/liquide. Influence des adsorbats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyklema J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available As a rule, electrical double layers develop at the phase boundary between dispersed insoluble oxides and the liquid medium in which they are embedded. Such double layers can be characterized by their surface charge, which is a measurable quantity. This surface charge can be determined as a function of the pH (for oxides, the pAg (for silver halides or by corresponding quantities for other systems. The relation between the surface charge and the pH (etc. also depends on the extent of screening. Hence, uncharged or charged adsorbates exert their influence, and from the ensuing changes information can be obtained regarding these adsorates. Principles and consequences of these phenomena will be discussed. En règle générale, des couches doubles électriques se forment à la limite de phase entre des oxydes insolubles en dispersion et le milieu liquide dans lequel ils se trouvent. Ces couches doubles peuvent être caractérisées par leur charge de surface, qui est une grandeur mesurable. Cette charge de surface peut être déterminée en fonction du pH (pour les oxydes, du pAg (pour les halogénures d'argent ou par des quantités correspondantes pour d'autres systèmes. La relation entre la charge de surface et le pH (etc. dépend aussi de l'efficacité de la protection contre les forces électrostatiques. Les adsorbats, chargés ou non, exercent donc une influence et provoquent des modifications dont on peut tirer des informations sur les corps adsorbés. L'auteur étudie les principes et les conséquences de ces phénomènes.

  16. Influence des systemes agraires sur la dynamique de regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De même, dans les champs, ce nombre a été de 373 jeunes plants à Tengrela et de 45 à Korhogo, sur la même zone échantillonnée. Le nombre de jeunes karités a varié aussi, selon la formation végétale. En effet, sur l'ensemble des deux zones échantillonnées, le nombre de jeunes karités a été de 1596 plants dans les ...

  17. Influence des associations de cultures Vigna -sesbania sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette étude était d'analyser la possibilité de développement d'une approche de lutte basée sur l'utilisation de Sesbania cannabina (Retz) Pers comme plante piège et source d'ennemis naturels de Maruca vitrata (Fabricius). Deux variétés de niébé ont été testées : «Kpodjiguêguê» (constituée des traitements ...

  18. Le comportement mécanique des risers. Influence des principaux paramètres Mechanical Behaviour of Marine Risers Mode of Influence of Principal Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparks C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but de déterminer les principaux paramètres qui gouvernent le comportement mécanique des risers de forage et de production, et d'expliquer pourquoi et comment ils interviennent. Une compréhension claire de ces influences permet d'optimiser rapidement un riser donné sans avoir recours à un grand nombre d'analyses par ordinateur. Celui qui conçoit un riser est principalement préoccupé par les points suivants : - niveaux de contraintes dans la partie courante du riser ; - mouvements angulaires à la base du riser (ou moments, dans le cas d'une liaison rigide ; - mouvements relatifs au niveau de la liaison plate-forme/riser. La méthode utilisée dans cet article consiste à établir des expressions analytiques valables pour des risers simplifiés. Les conclusions tirées de ces expressions ont ensuite été verifiéés à l'aide d'un programme de calcul capable de simuler le comportement dynamique d'un riser dans des configurations variées. This paper attempts to identify the principal parameters, that influence the behavior of drilling and production risers and to explain how and why they do so. Clear understanding of these influences enable particular risers to be optimised rapidly without recourse to an inordinate number of computer analyses. The points of greatest concern, to the riser designer, are: a Stress levels in the main length of riser. (b Angular movement at sea bed (or moment, if the connection is rigid. (c Relative movement at riser/platform connection. The approach, used in the paper, has been ta derive analytical expressions, for simplified riser cases. Conclusions drawn from these expressions have then been checked for validity, by using a dynamic analysis computer program to simulate a wide range of cases.

  19. Etude de l'influence des modes de transformation sur les teneurs en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de l'influence des modes de transformation sur les teneurs en lycopène de quatre variétés de tomates de la région du nord du Burkina Faso. I Sawadogo, M Koala, C Dabire, LP Ouattara, VBEJT Bazie, A Hema, C Gnoula, E Pale, RHC Nebie ...

  20. Influence des technologies d'information et de la communication sur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) en partenariat avec le Centre de recherche et de formation pour le développement économique et social (CREFDES) de l'Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD) de Dakar de mener une étude sur l'influence des TIC sur le marché du travail.

  1. L’INFLUENCE DES PARTICULARITÉS BIOCHIMIQUES DE CERTAINS HYBRIDES DE MAÏS UTILISÉS COMME SUBSTRAT SUR LA QUALITÉ DES SPORES DE PENICILLIUM CHRISOGENUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Zaharia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, nous avons essayé de mettre en évidence la modalité dont le substrat sur lequel sont obtenues les spores utilisées comme inocule peut influencer le taux de biosynthèse du mycélium issu de ces spores en culture submergée (en flacons agités. Nous avons également cherché à déceler la variante optimale de substrat et la mise en évidence des éventuels aspects biochimiques qui pourraient influencer négativement la qualité des spores. Pour des raisons pratiques, on a opté pour des variantes de substrat naturel appartenant à une même espèce végétale (caryopses de 23 hybrides de maïs autochtones.

  2. La pénétration des adhésifs de doublage : Méthode d’évaluation et recherche des facteurs d’influence

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haenens, Manon

    2013-01-01

    La réversibilité des doublages est une question complexe et intimement liée à la pénétration des adhésifs au sein de la toile originale. Cette investigation a consisté en la recherche des facteurs d’influence et la mise au point d’une méthode d’évaluation de la pénétration. Les adhésifs testés sont les plus fréquemment utilisés actuellement : Plextol® B500 et Beva® 371. Peer reviewed

  3. La religion, l'action sociale et la politique - étude de l'influence des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La religion, l'action sociale et la politique - étude de l'influence des organisations confessionnelles sur les politiques publiques au Liban. Au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord, les organisations confessionnelles représentent l'une des principales forces de changement politique et social. Elles fournissent également un ...

  4. Influence des conditions de compression sur les propriétés physico-chimiques des comprimés issus de poudres organiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Serris, Eric

    2002-01-01

    La compression des poudres est un procédé largement répandu et concerne, par exemple, 60% de la production de l'industrie pharmaceutique. Malgré cette importance, les connaissances scientifiques sur cette opération restent encore partiellement empiriques. Nous avons donc tenté au cours de cette thèse d'approfondir la connaissance des phénomènes qui se déroulent lors de la compression. L'objectif de ce travail était d'étudier l'influence des paramètres du procédé sur les propriétés d'usage des...

  5. Influence mutuelle des prises de terre: Determination du circuit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present brings back the work carried out on the development of a simple and practical method of calculation of the earth electrodes and their mutual influence starting from an equivalent electric circuit of the networks of earth electrode within the framework of the research which is led to the LERTI on the protection of the ...

  6. Influence des facteurs psychologiques et environnementaux sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sampling by ad hoc method was performed with data collection based on psychoanalytic structured and semi-structured interview. ... The influence of those factors was blood pressure elevation, very difficult to control by medicines, therapeutic inobservance, hypertension crises complicated by heart failure, acute coronary ...

  7. Comment l'alimentation des poules influence la qualité des oeufs ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvarel, Isabelle; Nys, Yves; Panheleux, M.; Lescoat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Le producteur est intéressé principalement par le poids de l’œuf et la solidité de la coquille. Le poids de l’œuf est conditionné par l’origine génétique et l’âge de la poule, mais aussi par les apports nutritionnels de la poulette puis de la poule. Le poids de la pou- lette à l’entrée en ponte, la concentration énergétique de l’aliment, les teneurs en protéines et acides aminés (méthionine notamment) et en acides gras (acides linoléique et oléique) influencent le poids de l’œuf. Moins étudié...

  8. Influence de la succession des générations de cicadulina mbila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L\\'étude de l\\'influence de la succession de quatre générations d\\'une population de Cicadulina mbila Naude (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) sur la transmission du Maize Streak Virus (MSV) réalise au Burkina Faso a montre qu\\'au cours des générations successives, l\\'insecte vecteur voit son efficacité de transmission du virus ...

  9. Influence de la fertilisation à base des coques de cacao sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... sur les paramètres chimiques d'un ferralsol et sur la croissance du maïs à Oumé Cote d'Ivoire. 7359. Influence de la fertilisation à base des coques de ... gestion de la fertilité du sol pourrait être recommandée en vue d'une agriculture durable. Mots clés : Coques de cacao, fertilité du sol, ferralsols, maïs, ...

  10. Influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms in oxygen-containing chromium compounds; Influence des defauts cristallins sur la reactivite chimique des atomes de recul dans des composes oxygenes du chrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costea, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms produced by the reaction {sup 50}Cr (n,{gamma}){sup 51}Cr in oxygen-containing chromium compounds has been studied. Three methods have been used to introduce the defects: doping (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} doped with BaCrO{sub 4}), irradiation by ionizing radiation (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} irradiated in the presence of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and non-stoichiometry (the semi-conducting oxides of the CrO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} series). The thermal annealing kinetics of the irradiated samples have been determined, and the activation energy has been calculated. In all cases it has been observed that there is a decrease in the activation energy for thermal annealing in the presence of the defects. In order to explain the annealing process, an electronic mechanism has been proposed based on the interaction between the recoil species and the charge-carriers (holes or electrons). (author) [French] On a etudie l'influence des defauts cristallins sur la reactivite chimique des atomes de recul produits par la reaction {sup 50}cr (n,{gamma}){sup 51}Cr, dans des composes oxygenes du chrome. Les defauts ont ete introduits par trois voies: dopage (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} dope avec BaCrO{sub 4}), irradiation avec des radiations ionisantes (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} irradie en presence de Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) et non-stoechiometrie (les oxydes semiconducteurs de la serie CrO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}). On a determine la cinetique du recuit thermique des echantillons irradies et on a calcule l'energie d'activation. Dans tous les cas, on a observe, en presence des defauts, une diminution de l'energie d'activalion du recuit thermique. On a propose, pour expliquer les processus de recuit, un mecanisme electronique base sur l'interaction entre les especes de recul et les porteurs de charge (trous ou electrons). (auteur)

  11. Influence des engrais de type NPK sur l’oviposition d’Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Les engrais sont des associations de minéraux destinées à apporter aux plantes des compléments nutritifs nécessaires à leur croissance. Les engrais modernes de type NPK combinent les trois éléments de base que sont l’azote (N, le phosphore (P et le potassium (K. Dans cette étude de laboratoire réalisée dans des tunnels expérimentaux, nous avons étudié l’influence de solutions aqueuses contenant différentes concentrations en engrais NPK sur l’oviposition de femelles d’Aedes aegypti. Les résultats ont montré que les solutions contenant les concentrations en NK = 17-33 mg/l et P = 23-47 mg/l attiraient significativement plus de femelles gravides que l’eau osmosée seule (P 0,05. Ces résultats suggèrent que certaines teneurs en engrais NPK peuvent influencer le comportement de ponte du moustique Ae. aegypti.

  12. Influence of biological and ecological factors on the radio-sensitivity of laboratory animals; Influence des facteurs biologiques et ecologiques sur la radiosensibilite des animaux de laboratoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenet, J.L.; Legeay, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The biological and ecological factors liable to induce a change in the radio-sensitivity of a species are undoubtedly responsible for the large fluctuations observed during radio-biological experiments. It is easy to limit or to suppress the effects of some of them (genetic or nutritional factors). Since the research worker cannot control the others it is necessary to take them into account. In this report the authors analyse the action of two factors chosen as examples: - the first concerns biological rhythms; - the second attempts to define the role of health conditions. Other factors will be dealt with in a later report. (authors) [French] Les facteurs biologiques et ecologiques susceptibles de faire varier la radiosensibilite d'une espece sont sans aucun doute responsables des fluctuations importantes observees lors de l'experimentation radiobiologique. On peut facilement limiter ou supprimer l'action de certains d'entre eux (facteurs genetiques ou nutritionnels...). Il est necessaire de tenir compte des autres puisque l'experimentateur ne peut agir. Dans ce rapport, les auteurs analysent l'action de deux facteurs choisis comme exemple: - le premier concerne les rythmes biologiques; - le deuxieme s'attache a definir le role de l'etat sanitaire. D'autres facteurs seront analyses dans un prochain rapport. (auteurs)

  13. Influence of heat transfer on walls due to aerosol decomposition rate in the containment building of nuclear power plants during heavy incidents; Einfluss des Waermeuebergangs an Waenden auf die Aerosolabbaurate im Sicherheitsbehaelter von Kernkraftwerken bei schweren Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, T.

    2004-07-01

    Today, German nuclear power plants are leading in safety standards worldwide. Increasing potentials arise continuously along with improvements in technology. One of these potentials is the best-estimate simulation of fission product transport in case of a severe accident. A main part of the fission products is allocated on aerosols. Therefore, the aerosol behavior before containment leakage is important for the radioactive source term to the environment. Having a good knowledge about the main aerosol phenomena, it is possible to simulate them numerically. This enables to develop and test safety measures to limit damages before accidents occur. Within this study, the main aerosol phenomena have been ascertained and accordingly classified into formation, transport and reduction. On this basis, simulations of one- and multi-component aerosol experiments of the KAEVER series have been performed with the COCOSYS code. Due to an overprediction of the computed volume condensation rate, the results showed an overestimation of the reduction rate of insoluble aerosols. The reason was found to be the underestimation of the wall condensation rate. Based on an additional plain thermal hydraulic multi compartment experiment, these uncertainties in the wall heat transfer correlations were investigated in detail. The results show a strong dependency between the wall condensation rate and the convective heat transfer, resp. the characteristic length. In case of mainly forced convection, correct values for the characteristic length led to an underestimation of the calculated heat transfer coefficients. The analysis of the heat transfer models show an inconsistency in the coupling of free and forced convection. Therefore, an improved and consistent convection model has been developed and implemented. Both models have been tested on different experiments. Although the new model shows only minor improvements, it could be proven that the influence for forced convection is significant

  14. Influence des additions minérales sur la résistance mécanique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Les grands ouvrages tels que les tunnels sont de gros consommateurs du matériau béton dans lequel des millions de tonnes de ciment sont utilisés pour leur réalisation. La fabrication du ciment ternaire en utilisant des additions minérales (Fines Siliceuses : FS) représente double intérêt lorsque le ciment Portland ...

  15. Influence de l'âge des explants primaires sur la régénération des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: En Côte d'Ivoire la production annuelle de Dioscorea spp est insuffisante à cause de la conservation des tubercules qui réduisent fortement les rendements des tubercule-semences. Il s'avère nécessaire de conserver tous les cultivars d'igname sous forme de vitroplant. Cette étude vise à évaluer l'effet du milieu de ...

  16. Influence de la nuance d'acier des roues ferroviaires en Fatigue de Contact de Roulement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langueh Amavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une méthodologie de prédiction de la durée de vie des roues ferroviaires permettant de prendre en compte les sollicitations locales via la géométrie réelle du contact roue/rail, le comportement inélastique du matériau (acier et d'intégrer un critère de fatigue. Le contexte industriel, d'étudier l'influence de la nuance d'acier sur la durabilité de la roue. Les principales étapes de l'approche sont l'identification du comportement des matériaux, la détermination des champs de contrainte-déformation stabilisés et l'application d'un critère de fatigue. L'algorithme stationnaire est utilisé pour déterminer les contraintes et déformations suivant les conditions d'exploitation. Trois aciers ont été étudiés en analysant leurs réponses mécaniques, leurs limites d'adaptation et leurs durées de vie moyenne.

  17. Influence de l'emballage sur les préférences des enfants en matière ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette recherche étudiera l'influence des emballages sur les préférences des enfants d'âge préscolaire et scolaire en matière de collations à haute teneur en énergie. En 2010, l'Organisation mondiale de la santé ... Téléchargez le PDF. Articles de revue. Snack food advertising in stores around public schools in Guatemala.

  18. Influence de la décomposition de la nécro-masse des espèces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs: L'objectif de cette étude est de suivre l'influence des litières de Faidherbia albida A. CHEV., Azadirachta indica A. JUSS., Casuarina equisetifolia FORSK., Andropogon gayanus KUNTH. et Eragrostis tremula STEUD. sur le pH du sol et la structure génétique des communautés bactériennes d'un sol ferrugineux ...

  19. Influence des additifs sur la cristallisation des n-paraffines en milieu hydrocarbure. Influence of Additives on the Crystallization of N-Paraffins in a Hydrocarbon Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Petinelli J. C.

    2006-01-01

    On montre que les additifs qui ont une longueur de chaîne et une structure physico-chimique voisines de celles des n-paraffines ne retardent pas, ou très peu, la cristallisation des n-paraffines en milieu hydrocarbure, et ne perturbent pas de façon significative le faciès des cristaux.Par contre, les additifs qui présentent soit de très longues chaînes avec plusieurs groupements non paraffiniques, soit un encombrement stérique suffisamment grand avec des radicaux alkyles greffés sur un groupe...

  20. Influence de la taille des vitroplants et du type d'explant sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'aptitude à la callogenèse chez le cotonnier a été estimée par le taux d'induction et le poids sec des cals en fonction de la source de l'explant et de la taille des plantules. Le taux d'induction des cals augmente avec la taille des plantules alors que le poids sec des cals ; résultat de la croissance des cals, évolue en sens ...

  1. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors; Conception de la surete en france et influence des imperatifs de surete sur la conception des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vathaire, F. de; Vernier, Ph.; Pascouet, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience acquired in France on the question, of reactor safety. Since a special paper is being presented on reactors of the graphite gas type, the safety of the other types studied in France is discussed here: - heavy water-gas reactors, - fast neutron reactors, - water research reactors of the swimming-pool and tank types. The safety rules peculiar to the different types are explained, with emphasis on their influence on the reactor designs and on the power limits they impose. The corresponding safety studies are presented, particular stress being placed on the original work developed in these fields. Special mention is made of the experimental systems constructed for these studies: the reactor CABRI, pile loop for depressurization tests, loops outside the pile, mock-ups etc. (authors) [French] La presente communication propose une synthese de l'experience acquise en France en matiere de surete des reacteurs. Les reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz faisant l'objet d'une communication particuliere, on examine ici la surete des autres types de reacteurs etudies en France: - reacteurs eau lourde-gaz, - reacteurs a neutrons rapides, - reacteurs de recherche a eau des types piscines et tank. Les imperatifs de surete propres aux differentes filieres sont developpes, en mettant l'accent sur leur influence sur la conception des reacteurs et sur les limitations de puissance qu'ils entrainent. Les etudes de surete correspondantes sont presentees, en insistant plus particulierement sur les travaux originaux developpes dans ces domaines. On indique notamment les moyens d'essais qui ont ete construits pour ces etudes: le reacteur CABRI, boucle en pile pour essais de depressurisation, boucles hors pile, maquettes, etc. (auteurs)

  2. Renforcement de l'influence de la recherche sur l'élaboration des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Réflexions

    et la gestion des risques de catastrophe. L'approche du Centre a depuis été reproduite à grande échelle par le gouvernement de la région de Thiès. Enfin, à Iramba, en Tanzanie, des fonctionnaires agricoles régionaux ont débloqué des budgets visant à renforcer l'utilisation des charrues de type spring jembe après que la.

  3. Influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur la cristallisation des carbonates de calcium Influence of Foreign Ions and of Organic Matter on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailleau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente les résultats d'un travail de recherche entrepris pour des aspects de la diagenèse des roches carbonatées : la cimentation cal le rôle est capital pour la conservation ou le colmatage de la porosit de ce type de sédiments. Après une synthèse bibliographique des connaissances actuelles sur et la cimentation du CaC03 en milieu naturel et en laboratoire, on a mentalement l'influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur germination et la croissance des carbonates de calcium. Les principaux résultats obtenus peuvent se résumer comme suit a En ce qui concerne les ions étrangers. Leur action se traduit en général par une augmentation du temps de germination et une réduction de la vitesse de croissance des cristaux de CaCO3; l'apparition de faciès particuliers pour certains des minéraux formés ; l'inhibition des transformations d'une variété en une autre. On obtient un classement par ordre d'efficacité croissante action à peu près nulle: K+, CI-; action modérée : Bat+, Na+, AI3+, Cul+, Sr2+, SO2 , P0;-; action dominante de Mg'+. b Pour les matières organiques. Seules l'acide citrique et, dans une moindre mesure, l'acide tartrique, ont une influence notable, d'ailleurs analogue à celle des ions étrangers en ce qui concerne les cinétiques de germination et de croissance du CaCO. L'adsorption de certains de ces produits se traduit en outre par des faciès particuliers des minéraux formés et éventuellement par l'inhibition des transformations d'une variété en une autre. This article gives the results of a research project undertaken to study one of the aspects of the diagénesis of carbonate rocks, 1. e. calcite cementing, which plays a capital role in preserving or plugging up the original porosity of such sediments.After making a bibliographic synthesis of what is now known about the origin and cementation of CaC03 in a natural environment and in the laboratory, the article experimentally

  4. Influence De la Température sur Le Comportement Physique Et Electronique des Transistors MOS

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANI CHERIF, Sidi Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Notre travail consiste à étudier l'influence de la température sur le comportement physique et électronique des transistors MOSFET à canaux courts en utilisant un modèle de dernière génération l'EKV (Ens Krummenacher and Vittoz) qui est un modèle évolutif et compact de simulation se basant sur les propriétés physiques fondamentales de la structure MOS. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tout d’abord fait une étude théorique sur les transistors MOS où on a rappelé les notions de base et expliqu...

  5. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la région de Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire): mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration de l'eau et de la quantité de matière organique en conditions expérimentales.

  6. Influence des additifs sur la cristallisation des n-paraffines en milieu hydrocarbure. Influence of Additives on the Crystallization of N-Paraffins in a Hydrocarbon Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinelli J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On montre que les additifs qui ont une longueur de chaîne et une structure physico-chimique voisines de celles des n-paraffines ne retardent pas, ou très peu, la cristallisation des n-paraffines en milieu hydrocarbure, et ne perturbent pas de façon significative le faciès des cristaux.Par contre, les additifs qui présentent soit de très longues chaînes avec plusieurs groupements non paraffiniques, soit un encombrement stérique suffisamment grand avec des radicaux alkyles greffés sur un groupement non paraffinique retardent la cristallisation et modifient le faciès des cristaux de n-paraffines. This article shows that additives which have a chain length and a physicochemical structure similar to those of n-paraffins do not or hardly slow down the crystallization of n-paraffins in a hydrocarbon medium and do not create any significant disturbance in the crystal facies.On the other hand, additives having either very long chains with several non-paraffinic groups or sufficiently great steric bulk with alkyl radicals grafted to a non-paraffinic group delay crystallization and modify the facies of n-paraffin crystals.

  7. Influence Operations: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions (Les Dimensions Historiques et Contemporaines des Operations d’Influence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-31

    target of influence very well in order to affect its moral qualities. Clausewitz was not blind to the moral effects of the application of particular...Eurasian landmass. The Soviets were not blind to their weaknesses and began to look to means other than the force of arms to ensure the sanctity of their...technology and to avoid a decisive fight using “4GW judo ” to keep large Western security, military, and legal bureaucracies off balance. Yet how

  8. Influence des herbicides sur l'infestation par les adventices, la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... Keywords: Wheat, herbicides, weed, density, dry matter. INTRODUCTION. Une des raisons majeures de la chute des rendements des cultures céréalières comme les blés dans la zone «non chernozem» de la Russie et le reste du monde, demeure une forte infestation par différentes espèces adventices.

  9. Frauen als Akteurinnen während des Nationalsozialismus Women as Agents during National Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gerodetti

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Buch stellt die wichtigen Fragen nach der Beteiligung von Fürsorgerinnnen (Sozialarbeiterinnen am System der öffentlichen Fürsorge während des Dritten Reiches. Betrachtet werden die Anforderungen an fürsorgerische Aktivitäten während des Nationalsozialismus im Spannungsfeld von Auslese und „Ausmerze“. Esther Lehnert kann zeigen, dass die von der Wissenschaft und der interessierten Öffentlichkeit bislang kaum wahrgenommene Arbeit der Fürsorgerinnen einen wichtigen Ort der Umsetzung und Bildung der Kategorie „minderwertig“ darstellte. Sie präsentiert Fürsorge nicht als „unpolitisches Helfen“, sondern in ihrer Schlüsselfunktion für die nationalsozialistische Diskriminierungs- und Ausmerzpolitik. Lehnerts Studie basiert explizit auf Forschungspositionen, in denen Frauen nicht ausschließlich als Opfer des Nationalsozialismus gesehen und polare Opfer-Täter Stukturen aufgebrochen werden.This book raises important questions regarding the participation of social workers in the system of public welfare services during the Third Reich. Demands on welfare activities within the tension-ridden area of selection and “extermination” during National Socialism are considered. Esther Lehnert can illustrate that the work of social workers, previously barely recognized by academics and the interested public, represented an important site for the realization and formation of the category “inferior”. She does not present welfare work as “apolitical assistance”, but as a key function for National Socialist politics of discrimination and extermination. Lehnert’s study is based explicitly on research perspectives that do not view women solely as victims of National Socialism and that bring polarizing victim-perpetrator structures to light.

  10. Le pouvoir normatif de Google. Analyse de l’influence du moteur sur les pratiques des éditeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Sire, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Dès lors qu’un éditeur souhaite que les documents qu’il a produits soient aussi visibles que possible, la méthode employée par le moteur Google pour hiérarchiser les informations est susceptible d’influencer ses pratiques. Or il se trouve que, paradoxalement, cette influence ne va pas toujours dans le sens des intérêts de l’entreprise Google. Nous expliquons pourquoi, avant d’expliquer comment les concepteurs du moteur essayent d’orienter l’influence qu’ils exercent sur la production éditoria...

  11. Influence des sols contaminés en cuivre sur le développement de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs : Dans l'ex province du Katanga l'agriculture vivrière est majoritairement traditionnelle. Alors que ces sols sont contaminés par les etms provenant des activités industrielles ont pour conséquences l'augmentation des diverses substances riches en etms (zinc, cobalt, plomb, arsenic, cuivre, cadmium). Cette étude ...

  12. Influence d'un herbicide et de l'inoculation des semences sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une expérimentation sur la culture du soja a été réalisée en zone forestière de la Côte d'Ivoire, pour résoudre le problème de la réduction des terres arables, sous la pression démographique, par le maintien de la fertilité des sols et la lutte contre l'enherbement excessif des terres. Cette étude a été réalisée à la station de ...

  13. Influence de la nature des granulats sur le comportement rhéologique du béton à hautes temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El abidine Rahmouni Zine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le béton est largement utilisé comme matériau de structure dans les ouvrages de génie civil tels que les tunnels. La prise en compte du comportement du béton soumis à des températures élevées est apparue dernièrement comme un problème majeur. Cette problématique concerne aussi bien des situations de service dans le cas des structures de stockage de déchets radioactifs que des situations d’accident, mises en exergue par les cas récents d’incendie dans des tunnels. Ce travail de recherche basé sur une approche expérimentale, analyse l’influence de la nature des granulats sur le comportement thermo-mécanique du béton soumis à une température élevée. Des bétons formulés avec deux granulats (calcaire concassé et silico-calcaire subissent des cycles de chauffage/refroidissement à une vitesse de 10°C/min à 200 °C, 400 °C et 900 °C. Nous étudions l’évolution de la fissuration, des propriétés thermiques, physiques et mécaniques des bétons en fonction des températures appliquées. Pour la nature de granulat siliceux, le silex présente une instabilité thermique se traduisant par un éclatement à partir de 300°C alors que le granulat calcaire présente aussi une instabilité à cause des phénomènes de décarbonatation/hydratation mais seulement pour le cycle de chauffage/refroidissement à 750°C.

  14. ETUDE DE L’INFLUENCE DES DIFFERENTS PARAMETRES SUR UN MODULE PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assia ZERDOUDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L’Algérie dispose d’environ 3200 heures d’ensoleillement par année, bénéficiant d’une situation climatique favorable à l’application des techniques solaires. La conception des installations efficaces et rentables sur la base des modules solaires est particulièrement importante. Des logiciels dédiés à la simulation des systèmes photovoltaïques peuvent réaliser une vaste et précise analyse, mais ils ne permettent généralement pas à l'utilisateur de modifier les algorithmes. Dans le présent travail, un programme fonctionnant en environnement MATLAB, de la simulation de l'application d'un système photovoltaïque sur la base des modèles mathématiques, de ses composants a été conçu, nous avons modélisé un générateur photovoltaïque en se basant sur les équations électriques et mathématiques qui régissent son comportement ainsi que la dégradation  des caractéristiques de ce générateur en fonction des conditions météorologiques (température et éclairement. Nous avons  réalisé notre étude sur le module SPR 315 E de chez SUNPOWER, qui fournit une puissance de 315 W..

  15. Influence de l'acide salicylique sur l'activité des polyphénoloxydases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    tomate, la quantité de l'ARNm de la PPO F subit une augmentation systémique dans les jeunes feuilles des plants lorsque les feuilles adultes sont blessées. Le traitement à l'AS a induit très significativement la synthèse des composés phénoliques éthano-solubles totaux dans tous les cultivars. Nos résultats sont en accord ...

  16. Influence des déformations tectoniques sur les caractéristiques pétrophysiques matricielles des réservoirs calcaires Influence of Tectonic Deformation on the Petrophysical Matrix Properties of Limestone Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trémolières P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les principaux résultats d'une étude menée en commun par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production (SNEA (P, étude qui avait pour but de rechercher l'influence des contraintes tectoniques sur les propriétés pétrophysiques matricielles des réservoirs calcaires. Ces travaux, ayant porté principalement surle Burdigalien des Alpilles (Provence et accessoirement sur le Turonien de Mareuil (Aquitaine et la « Scaglia bianca » du Monte Conero (Ancàne-Itatie, ont permis de mettre en évidence - des variations importantes de la porosité et de la perméabilité en fonction de la position structurale du matériau et, à plus petite échelle, de la courbure des couches; - un double processus de la réduction des porosité et perméabilité : soit par tassement mécanique, soit par cristallisation dans les pores d'une calcite provenant probablement d'une dissolution le long de joints stylolithiques d'origine tectonique. On montre enfin qu'en certaines zones particulières (dans les périclinaux ou à l'aplomb d'accidents profonds jouant en faille inverse les effets des contraintes tectoniques sur les qualités matricielles peuvent être très importants et survenir avant la structuration des couches par plissement. This article describes the main results of a joint Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP-Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production (SNEA (P research project on the influence of tectonic stresses on thé petrophysical matrix properties of limestone reservoirs. Research mainly concentrated on the Burdigalien from the Alpilles mountains in ihe Provence région and accessorily on the Turonian from Mareuil in the Aquitaine region and Scaglia Bianca from Monte Conero in Anconia, Italy. The following findings were made: - considerable variations in porosity and permeability can be found, depending on the structural position of the material and, on a smaller scale, on the

  17. Influence des processus biogéochimiques sur la contamination par les PCB des espèces piscicoles des lacs d'altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Nellier, Yann-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Altitude lakes undergo atmospheric deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulting mainly from human activities despite their distance from emission sources. If the mechanisms driving the atmospheric transport of these pollutants to altitude environment are now fairly known ("global distillation" or "grasshopper effect"), there is still few information about their fate in these mountain ecosystems. This work aims to identify the internal lake processes influencing the fate of POP...

  18. Aspects of radiation protection during chest X-radiography; Strahlenhygienische Aspekte bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie - Kinderradiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation safety in conventional X-ray diagnostics is based on the concepts of justification, optimization of an X-ray examination and limitation of the radiation exposure achieved during the examination. Optimization of an X-ray examination has to be considered as a multimodal process in which all technical components of the X-ray equipment have to be adapted to each other and also have to be adapted to the anthropometric characteristics of patients and the clinical indications. In this article the technical components of a conventional pediatric chest X-radiograph are presented, and recommendations for optimizing chest X-rays in children are provided. The following measures are of prime importance: correct x-ray beam limitation, using the posteroanterior projection when possible and not using anti-scatter grids in children under approximately 8 years old. In pediatric radiology chest x-rays that are taken not at the peak of inspiration can also be of some diagnostic significance. Optimization of an X-ray examination inevitably results in the limitation of radiation exposure. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenhygiene in der konventionellen radiologischen Diagnostik basiert auf der Trias Rechtfertigung, Optimierung bzw. Limitierung der Roentgenuntersuchung bzw. Strahlenexposition. Die Optimierung einer Roentgenuntersuchung ist als multimodaler Prozess aufzufassen, in welchem saemtliche technische Komponenten der Roentgeneinrichtung sowohl miteinander als auch mit den anthropometrischen Eigenschaften des Patienten und der klinischen Fragestellung abzustimmen sind. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die technischen Komponenten bei der konventionellen Roentgenuntersuchung des paediatrischen Thorax in ihrer Beziehung zueinander dargestellt und Empfehlungen fuer eine Optimierung der konventionellen Thoraxaufnahme bei Kindern ausgesprochen. Die wichtigsten Massnahmen bestehen in einer korrekten Einblendung, in der Anfertigung der Aufnahmen im posteroanterioren Strahlengang und im

  19. Influence des engins et techniques de peche sur l'abondance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les indices de nuisance et d'impact des engins et techniques de pêche ainsi que l'abondance relative des espèces ont été calculés en utilisant le logiciel XLSTAT. Une cartographie de ces paramètres a été faite par interpolation linéaire sous le logiciel ArcGis 9.3. Les résultats ont révélé 8 engins et techniques de pêche.

  20. SPECTROSCOPIE LASER DE LENTILLE THERMIQUE : INFLUENCE DES PROPRIÉTÉS PHOTOTHERMIQUES DU SOLVANT

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, J.; Mermet, J.

    1987-01-01

    La spectroscopie de lentille thermique (thermal lensing) est une technique de plus en plus utilisée en Chimie Analytique pour améliorer les limites de détection des échantillons faiblement absorbants et non fluorescents. Le principe de la méthode repose sur la création, dans l'échantillon, d'une lentille thermique, consécutivement à l'échauffement produit par la relaxation non radiative des molécules excitées par un faisceau laser incident. Le phénomène d'absorption est suivi en mesurant, à l...

  1. Influence des herbicides sur l'infestation par les adventices, la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer les effets de la combinaison des herbicides 2,4-D®-sel d'amine + Lontrel® et du Quartz- super® (diflufénicanil-50 g/l+isoproturon-500 g/l) sur l'évolution de la flore adventice, sa densité et biomasse ainsi que la formation de matière sèche des variétés de blés tendres et durs ...

  2. Etude de l'influence des facteurs de formulation sur les proprietes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resume. Le carbopol est un polymere souvent utilise comme agent viscosifiant et stabilisant clans la formulation des produits pharmaceutiques et cosmetiques. 11 est introduit sous forme de gel, avec les autres excipients pour conferer au produit l'aspect semi-solide. Ses proprieres rheologiques, en matiere de consistance ...

  3. Influence des sols contaminés en cuivre sur le développement de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2017 ... carrot and eggplant culture on contaminated soils and to determine the potential risk of food chain contamination .... C'est pourquoi cette situation avait favorisée le remplacement de la forêt claire originelle de Miombo, par une steppe courte au sein de laquelle on ... la mobilité incluent l'adsorption des ions.

  4. Simulation of the influence of tar formation in wood gasification processes on the cost of the purified process gas; Simulation des Einflusses der Teerbildung bei der Vergasung von Holz auf die Kosten des gereinigten Produktgases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The influence of the gasification process and the related tar formation rate on the cost of gas production is investigated with the aid of process models. The processes of gasification, gas purification and adsorptive treatment of waste water were modelled mathematically with a view to process mechanisms and cost. Simulations of the overall process helped to obtain a quantitative assessment of the cost of product gas as a function of process parameters like gasification process and tar formation. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe von Prozessmodellen wird untersucht, welchen Einfluss das Vergasungsverfahren und die damit verbundene Teerbildung mit entsprechenden Reinigungsverfahren auf die Produktionskosten des gereinigten Produktgases besitzt. Hierfuer werden die Prozesse der Vergasung, Gasreinigung und adsorptiven Abwasseraufbereitung hinsichtlich verfahrenstechnischer Zusammenhaenge und Kosten mathematisch modelliert. Durch Simulation des Gesamtprozesses werden quantitativ die Kosten des Produktgases in Abhaengigkeit von Prozessparametern wie Vergasungsverfahren und Teerbildung ermittelt. (orig./SR)

  5. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks; Influence des solutions aqueuses sur le comportement mecanique des roches argileuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakim, J

    2005-12-15

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  6. influence des engins et techniques de peche sur l'abondance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    17 févr. 2017 ... les deux jours indépendants de prospection. Le processus est répété chaque mois afin de tenir compte de la variabilité spatio-temporelle des variables à mesurer. Ces donnéesde pêche collectées sont relatives aux engins et techniques de pêche et, aux espèces de poissons capturées par les pêcheurs.

  7. Comprendre l'influence des facteurs contextuels sur la participation communiautaire à la santé

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sombie, Issa; Ilboudo, Sidbewendin David Olivier; Soubeiga, André Kamba

    2015-01-01

    Le Burkina Faso met en œuvre depuis plusieurs années la stratégie de la participation communautaire. Des comités de gestion (CoGes) ont été mis en place dans les centres de santé de la première ligne et doivent participer aux prises de décisions. L’objectif principal de cette stratégie est de...

  8. Influence des bois rameaux fragmentés (BRF) de Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le diamètre au collet, la hauteur, le nombre de feuilles et d'épis des plants de mil n'ont pas montré de différence significative par rapport au témoin contrairement au nombre de talles et aux biomasses aérienne et racinaire. Utilisés seuls et à dose croissante, les BRF de G. senegalensis ont eu un effet stimulant sur la ...

  9. ETUDE EXPERIMENTALE DE L’INFLUENCE DE LA RIGIDITE STATIQUE DES TOURS SUR LE COMPORTEMENT A L’USURE DES PLAQUETTES EN CARBURE METALLIQUE «NUANCE P25 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L BOULANOUAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail consiste à étudier expérimentalement l’influence de quelques machines-outils sur le comportement à l’usure des plaquettes en carbure métalliques. Les essais ont été réalisés dans des conditions opératoires proches de celles industrielles. Les machines-outils utilisées sont caractérisées par leurs rigidités. Le suivi de l’évolution de l’usure des plaquettes en fonction du temps (τ et des éléments du régime de coupe (v, f et d sur chaque machine a été établi conformément à la méthode de planification des expériences. Les résultats obtenus ont été traités, analysés et interprétés physiquement.

  10. Corrosion influencée par les micro-organismes : influence du biofilm sur la corrosion des aciers, techniques et résultats recents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feugeas, F.; Magnin, J. P.; Cornet, A.; Rameau, J. J.

    1997-03-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (M.I.C.) studied since the beginning of this century, is responsible for the degradation of many metallic equipments. This study is a review of results dealing with M.I.C. on several types of steels as: carbon steels, stainless steels, welded steels and covered steels. M.I.C. occurs only in presence of a biofilm. The first part of this study describes chemical and physical factors involved in its development, technical methods for studying biofilms, and its contribution in the corrosion process. The second part is devoted to the study of M.I.C. cases linked with metal nature and different aqueous environments and the last part reviews the mainly mecanisms of biocorrosion. La Corrosion Influencée par les Micro-organismes (C.I.M.) ou biocorrosion, phénomène étudié depuis le début du siècle, est responsable de la dégradation d'un grand nombre d'ouvrages métalliques. Cette étude a pour but de faire le point des connaissances sur la corrosion influencée microbiologiquement de divers types d'aciers au carbone, d'aciers inoxydables, d'assemblages soudés et d'aciers revêtus. La C.I.M. n'apparaît qu'en présence d'un biofilm. La première partie de cette étude décrit les facteurs physico-chimiques impliqués dans la formation du biofilm, ces moyens d'études ainsi que son action dans le processus de biocorrosion. La seconde partie est consacrée à la description des cas de biocorrosion classés en fonction de la nature des métaux et des milieux avec lesquels ils sont en contact. La dernière partie de ce document passe en revue les principaux mécanismes de biocorrosion décrits.

  11. Social influence on risk perception during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-05-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Etude de l'influence du rayonnement UV sur le vieillissement des bitumes purs et modifiés par des polymères

    OpenAIRE

    KIENER, Nicolas; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2004-01-01

    Les bitumes, résidus de la distillation du pétrole, sont des mélanges complexes de composés hydrocarbonés très utilisés comme liant routier. Sur la route, le bitume subit différents types de contraintes à l'origine de son vieillissement : passage des véhicules, températures, rayonnements solaires. Le vieillissement chimique des bitumes, essentiellement dû à la température et aux radiations solaires, se traduit par des réactions d'oxydation. Ce travail porte sur l'étude du vieillissement photo...

  13. Influence of Clays on Borehole Stability : a Literature Survey Part One: Occurence of Drilling Problems. Physico-Chemical Description of Clays and of Their Interaction with Fluids Influence des argiles sur la stabilité des parois de puits : revue bibliographique. Première partie : les problèmes rencontrés lors du forage dans les argiles. Description physico-chimique des argiles et de leur interaction avec les fluides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsans T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey of literature was undertaken by ARTEP- the French Research Association for Oil Exploration and Production Techniques- at the beginning of STAR (=STabilité des ARgiles, a project on the influence of clays on borehole stability. Knowledge of theories and laboratory experiments was indeed felt very necessary to help understanding, and thus becoming able to prevent, quite damaging phenomena. During the time spent on this project, ideas and interpretations of all participants underwent some evolution due to the comparison between theories and experiment, and new procedures and interpretations are being proposed elsewhere. The survey is divided in four sections :The first section recalls the specific problems caused by the occurrence of shales during drilling operations for oil or gas : about 90 % of the problems, for about 70% of the drilled formations. The behaviour of the shales leads to a classification in four different classes : dispersive, swelling, heaving and brittle. They are spread all over the world, not only on the Gulf Coast of the USA and in the North Sea, where they have been more extensively studied, but also in former USSR, in Asia and Africa. Due to deposit conditions and diagenetic history, they occur at different depths, with different properties : reactive shales, at shallow depths, under-, over- or normally-compacted formations, and reservoir caps. Besides their mineralogical and textural properties, due to the large proportion of clays, they have damaging properties as the low permeability (10 to the power of (-6 to 10 to the power of (-12 D. The variety of reactions with water extends from a complete dispersion in mud to cavings or swelling of the borehole, with cuttings ranging from less than 1 mm to more than several cm. This has led to use of various empirical solutions to protect the borehole, with mainly mechanical or chemical objectives. However, it is felt that the general solutions can arise only from a

  14. Influence des matières végétales et des engrais NPK sur la biologie de Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude de laboratoire, les auteurs ont mesuré sur des femelles gravides de Aedes aegypti, l’attractivité à la ponte de milieux aqueux contenant un engrais NPK, de la matière végétale (MV et un mélange composé de MV+NPK. Tandis que les analyses physico-chimiques ont permis d’identifier puis de doser les constituants de chaque milieu, le suivi des larves et la pesée des femelles émergentes nous ont renseigné sur l’impact des composés minéraux et organiques sur le développement des moustiques. Sur les 23 jours qu’a duré l’expérience, la solution NPK est restée aussi attractive que le mélange MV+NPK sans toutefois pouvoir assurer le développement des larves. L’infusion MV a révélé une attractivité à la ponte moins importante, mais elle a apporté aux larves de moustiques les substances organiques dont la solution NPK était dépourvue. Enfin le mélange MV+NPK a attiré les femelles à la ponte tout en assurant pleinement la croissance des larves de Ae. aegypti. Alors que les analyses physico-chimiques de NPK ont révélé une composition essentiellement minérale (NH4++NO3–+P+K et celles de MV de fortes concentrations en carbone et en azote organiques, le mélange MV+NPK s’est distingué par une composition mixte organique et minérale qui a favorisé la prolifération des bactéries et le développement des larves de moustiques. Ce sont des observations importantes qui pourraient aider à la fabrication de pièges à la fois attractifs et létaux (NPK+larvicide et dont les fonctions seraient de piéger les femelles gravides à la recherche d’un lieu de ponte et de tuer les larves à l’éclosion des oeufs.

  15. Influence de la fertilisation à base des coques de cacao sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... augmentation de la biomasse aérienne de 21,53 et 66,75 % par rapport à D0. Avec D10, cette biomasse a baissé de 29,69 %, au 1er cycle, tandis qu'elle a augmenté de 16,94 %, au 2e cycle. Les paramètres chimiques des sols ont été améliorés de façon significative et proportionnelle avec les coques de ...

  16. L'influence des représentations religieuses du monde sur l'innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Riondet , Odile

    2009-01-01

    International Conference SNSPA November 6-7 Bucharest R§D Perspectives. Promoting innovation through Education, Culture and Communication; Le débat sur les représentations religieuses du monde et l'innovation peut sembler réglé depuis longtemps. La science peut être comprise comme le contraire des représentations mythiques du monde, la religion comme naturellement opposée à l'innovation. Pourtant, ces positions sont, depuis quelques dizaines d'années, face à deux questions. La première est né...

  17. Material influence on biocontamination level and adhering cell physiology Influence des matériaux sur le niveau de biocontamination et la physiologie des cellules adhérentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allion Audrey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la plupart des environnements, les microorganismes vivent préférentiellement au sein de biofilms. De nombreux facteurs influencent leur formation i.e. les nutriments, la température, le régime du fluide environnent, la microflore et les matériaux. Dans le mécanisme de biocontamination, décrit en quatre étapes successives, l'adhésion initiale est un élément clé de la bioadhésion et les matériaux un élément majeur pour son contrôle. L'acier inoxydable est très utilisé dans de nombreux secteurs d'activité pour sa bonne nettoyabilité et son excellente résistance à la corrosion. Pour se différencier, certains matériaux mettent en avant d'autres propriétés. Ainsi, la sélection du matériau le mieux adapté à un problème donné nécessite de connaitre son aptitude à la biocontamination ainsi que son impact sur la physiologie des microorganismes. Pour tous les matériaux testés, la mortalité des bactéries adhérentes est inférieure à 55 %. Les résultats obtenus ont montré qu'un matériau dit antimicrobien n'induit pas plus de cellules endommagées comparativement aux autres matériaux. In most environments, association with a surface in a structure known as a biofilm is the prevailing microbial lifestyle. Several factors may influence the biofilm formation e.g. nutrients, temperature, flow velocity, initial microflora and the nature of materials. Considering the biocontamination mechanism described in four steps, the initial adhesion is a key element in the biocontamination phenomenon and the substratum is of major concern in controlling bacterial adhesion. Stainless steel is well used in numerous markets because of its high cleanability and corrosion resistance properties. However, other materials are put forward by focusing on properties which differentiate them from those of stainless steel. Thereby, to select the material best suited to the problem, there should have data on their aptitude for

  18. INFLUENCE DE LA DIMENSION DES PLANTS-MERES SUR LE RENDEMENT FINAL ET CELUI DES DIFFERENTS CALIBRES CHEZ QUATRE VARIETES DE POMME DE TERRE (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BENNIOU

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le calibre de plantation est un paramètre qui conditionne d’une manière importante la production et la dimension des tubercules-fils de la pomme de terre. A travers notre étude menée sur deux années (1991/92 et 1993/94, nous avons cherché à mettre en relief l’effet du calibre de plantation sur le rendement et la répartition de la production par classe des tubercules selon leur diamètre. Dans ce contexte, nous avons combiné les effets du calibre de plantation à trois niveaux (45/55, 35/45 et 28/35 chez quatre variétés (Desirée, Diamant, Nicola et Chieftain, dans les conditions agro-climatiques de la région de Sétif. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le calibre de plantation a un effet favorable sur le rendement final et sur le répartition des tubercules- fils. Le calibre (28/35 a tendance à produire des gros tubercules (> 55 mm, fraction destinée à la consommation. Par contre, les calibres (45/55 et (35/45 ont tendance à produire des moyens et petits tubercules (< 45 mm; cette fraction est destinée, d’une manière générale, à la semence, à l’exception des petits tubercules inférieurs à 28 mm, qui sont appréciés également à la consommation. De ce fait, le calibre de plantation pourrait être un moyen de contrôle de rendement et de la qualité physique des tubercules-fils, à savoir sa grosseur.

  19. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962); Etude de l'influence des facteurs climatiques sur l'accumulation des radioelements dans les tissus vegetaux (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gilly-Heuze, C.; Nizia, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [French] 1. Nous proposons un traitement special du sol pour favoriser l'absorption et l'accumulation de radioelements dans les parties aeriennes de jeunes arbres. 2. Grace a ce traitement, il semble possible d'utiliser de jeunes arbres appartenant a plusieurs especes convenablement choisies pour detecter une contamination eventuelle du sol par un radioelement pendant un cycle vegetatif complet. Le pouvoir de concentration de leurs tissus est important: apres quatre semaines seulement de culture sur sol contamine, le facteur de concentration (FC) est de l'ordre de 85 dans les aiguilles d'epiceas. Les mesures d'activite sur des echantillons de tissus vegetaux peuvent devenir une methode de routine pour un controle de contamination des sols. (auteurs)

  20. Perception des producteurs sur l'utilisation des déjections de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: L'étude vise à analyser la perception des producteurs sur la contribution des chenilles dans la gestion de la fertilité des sols et dans la production des ... Les producteurs enquêtés ont par ailleurs, identifié les facteurs anthropiques, climatiques et édaphiques comme les facteurs pouvant influencer la dynamique des ...

  1. « Conflit entre l'Acte uniforme portant organisation des procédures collectives d'apurement du passif et la réglementation des systèmes de paiement de l'UEMOA»

    OpenAIRE

    KAGISYE, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    La matière des procédures collectives est souvent complexe en raison du nombre de questions transversales qu’elle soulève et des conflits d’intérêts qu’elle suscite. Dans l’espace ohada, cette matière est régie par les dispositions de l’Acte uniforme portant organisation de procédures collectives d’apurement du passif de l’OHADA, certaines dispositions de l’UEMOA et de la Conférence interafricaine sur les marchés des assurances (CIMA). Au-delà de la question d’articulation difficile de ces dr...

  2. A Framework of Factors Influencing ANSA Decision Making (Structure des Facteurs Agissant sur le Processus Decisionel des Acteurs Armes non Etatiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010. DRDC Toronto CR 2010-187 i Foreward The...étatiques (AANE) dans le contexte des conflits intergroupes violents; • La dynamique opérationnelle – soit les structures, les fonctions et les...Phase 2 Framework Calibration and Practicum – of the Project’s research program. ii DRDC Toronto CR 2010-187 Avant-propos La section des

  3. Photoinhibition influences protein utilisation during seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed storage proteins are mobilised during germination, especially at radicle protrusion. The objective of this study was to examine changes in protein expression during germination of Cleome gynandra in the presence or absence of light and at constant or alternating temperatures. Seeds were germinated at alternating ...

  4. Studies in Petroleum Composition the Distribution of Nitrogen Species, Metals and Coke Precursors During High Vacuum Distillation of Petroleum Étude de composition du pétrole Répartition des espèces azotées, des métaux et des précurseurs du coke pendant la distillation sous vide poussé du pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long R. B.

    2006-11-01

    tudie cette question et tente de décrire l'influence d'une distillation approfondieà +1289 °F (environ 698 °C sur la composition en produits volatils/non volatils d'un résidu obtenu à + 950 °F (510 °C. A +1289 °F, la distillation concentre dans la fraction obtenue la majorité de l'azote, du nickel, du vanadium et des produits de tête. Cependant, étant donné le niveau élevé de son point de coupe, cette procédure implique virtuellement que certaines molécules contenant des hétéroatomes seront volatiles au point de coupe. Des quantités significatives de ces produits se trouvent dans la fraction 950-1289 °F. Parmi ceux d'entre eux qui contiennent de l'azote, on pourra trouver des benzophénanthrolines et des benzocarbazoles alkylés dont les points d'ébullition se situent dans le domaine 950-1289 °F. Il n'est pas non plus surprenant de trouver dans cette fraction des métaux volatils, puisque les organométalliques se vaporisent vers 1100 °F (environ 593 °C. Les matériaux du domaine A-1289 °F ont donné des rendements élevés en pentane- et heptane- -asphaltènes. Le bilan des poids des asphaltènes sur la base A-950 °F fait apparaître des quantités excessives d'asphaltènes dans le domaine A-1289 °F dépassant la marge d'erreurs permise dans la technique de désalphatage. On a également noté des déséquilibresen asphaltène comparables, lorsque des matières lourdes sont fractionnées par un désalphatage séquentiel utilisant des hydrocarbures différents à chaque étape (13. On peut penser que la technique d'adsorption, comme le désalphatage séquentiel, rompt les forces intermoléculaires qui, autrement, pourraient rendre les constituants de la charge solubles dans les hydrocarbones, du fait de la nature non polaire des participants. Dans le cas présent, on peut penser que les forces intermoléculaires du A-1289 °F sont plus difficiles à rompre par les n-paraffines (ou par le toluène du fait de l'absence relative (par rapport à A-950

  5. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  6. Recevabilité des communications par la Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples

    OpenAIRE

    Nguema, Nisrine Eba

    2014-01-01

    La Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples constitue le principal organe de protection des droits de l’homme en Afrique. Mise en place en 1987, elle a pour mission principale de recevoir les communications des victimes des violations des droits de l’homme. L’ouverture de la procédure de traitement des communications individuelles devant la Commission africaine est conditionnée par le respect des conditions posée par l’article 56 de la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme e...

  7. Influence de la nature des fuels lourds sur la qualité de leur combustion Influence of Heavy Fuel Oil Composition on Particulate Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feugier A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir d'études de combustion de fuels lourds numéro 2 effectuées dans une chaudière de 1 MW et dans un foyer de 0,1 MW, on conclut que le résidu de Carbone Conradson (CCR des fuels est un bon indicateur de leur combustibilité, mais qu'il n'est pas suffisant dans tous les cas, c'est-à-dire que pour un même CCR, on peut mesurer des valeurs différentes en indice pondéral. Plusieurs interpréta. tions possibles ont été proposées et vérifiées : a Le résidu de Carbone Conradson, résultat d'une pyrolyse lente, est une procédure qui n'est pas suffisamment représentative des conditions réelles. Or, en soumettant un certain nombre de fuels à une pyrolyse flash (technique de la grille chauffée, on observe une bonne corrélation entre la quantité de résidu résultant et le CCR. Donc, ce dernier reste un bon indicateur de combustibilité. b Pour les fuels ex résidu atmosphérique, ex résidu sous-vide et ex désasphaltage, on détermine de satisfaisantes corrélations entre le CCR et certaines caractéristiques physico-chimiques de la fraction lourde des fuels (point de coupe choisi 450°C : polyaromaticité (mesurée par RMN du Carbone 13, C/H, masse moléculaire. Cependant, les fuels de visco-réduction satisfont à d'autres corrélations, de même que les résidus de vapocraquage. Donc, pour ces classes de fuels, on peut prévoir des anomalies entre indice pondéral et CCR, ce qui est observé dans certains équipements. c On observe que pour une même valeur de CCR, la proportion relative entre fractions légères et fractions lourdes des fuels peut parfois varier très sensiblement avec pour conséquence des modifications dans les cartes de richesse et de température des flammes résultantes, et donc des variations dans les émissions particulaires. L'importance de telles variations dépendra des types de brûleurs et de chambres de combustion dans lesquelles la flamme se développera. On the basis of combustion runs of

  8. L'application des normes IAS/IFRS par les entreprises françaises cotées : une décision sous influence institutionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Elena

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Cet article cherche à démontrer le rôle des facteurs institutionnels dans l'application des normes comptables internationales par les entreprises françaises cotées. Pour cela, nous avons analysé les réponses à un questionnaire fondé sur l'approche néo-institutionnelle, envoyé en 2005 aux directeurs financiers des entreprises du CAC 40 et Euronext 100. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de mettre en évidence que la décision d'appliquer les IAS/IFRS est influencée par l'en...

  9. Influence du compartiment trophique dans les réponses des populations de poissons aux variations artificielles de débit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORTH D. J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Les réponses des populations de poissons aux altérations de débit sont assez peu souvent correctement prédites à partir des simulations physiques d'habitat. Actuellement, les évaluations de débit réservé sont basées sur des analyses de l'habitat physique, qui sont supposées avoir une influence sur ces populations. Cela conduit au dilemme en matière de détermination de ces débits : combien d'espèces et de stades faut-il analyser et comment pondérer leur importance respective ? Dans certains cours d'eau, les simulations d'habitat physique issues de PHABSIM (Physical Habitat Simulation pour les poissons les plus courants montrent une surface pondérée utile insensible ou maximum à faible débit. Or, les débits moyens à forts débits sont indubitablement importants pour différentes raisons, telles que le recrutement des espèces inféodées à la plaine alluviale, le nettoyage du fond du lit, les entrées de matière organique et la production des invertébrés benthiques. La densité, la diversité et la production des insectes aquatiques dans différents types de cours d'eau montrent des variations spatiales et interannuelles considérables, souvent directement reliables aux débits. De même, la croissance et le succès de prise de nourriture des poissons varient en fonction de l'abondance des proies. Un modèle de chaîne trophique a été développé pour étudier l'influence de la nourriture de base (insectes aquatiques, proies constituées par les poissons de petite taille et écrevisses sur la production des poissons prédateurs clé (Black bass à petite bouche, Micropterus dolomieu, Rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, et Poisson chat à tête plate, Pylodictis olivaris dans un grand cours d'eau à régime thermique chaud. L'analyse du modèle indique que la production des poissons est très dépendante de la disponibilité des proies, en particulier les insectes aquatiques et les écrevisses. A partir des analyses du mod

  10. Étude expérimentale de l'hydrodynamique des suspensions non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nous avons mené des travaux de recherches sur l'hydrodynamique des suspensions dans le but de bien appréhender les problèmes liés à l'influence de la phase dispersée des écoulements chargés en sphères dures dans l'industrie agroalimentaire. Dans ce papier nous présentons les résultats de ces travaux.

  11. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  12. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... However, differing acidic monomer type, ratio, pH, and some new monomers may change bond ... systems, contamination (from saliva, blood, astringents, water, or hand piece lubricant) during the ..... adhesives to enamel and dentin under normal and contaminated conditions. Dent Mater 1993;9:295‑9.

  13. Photoinhibition influences protein utilisation during seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Accumulation pattern and identification of seed storage proteins in zygoticembryos of Pinus strobus and in somatic embryos from different maturation treatments. Physiol. Plant. 121: 682-690. Laemmli UK (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature ...

  14. Influence de la taille des particules alimentaires sur la croissance du saumon atlantique lors de la prise d'alimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAIGNON J. L.

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Les taux de croissance enregistrés sur des saumons atlantiques en période de première alimentation ont permis de montrer que la formule établie pour des parrs par WANKOWSKI : taille des particules à distribuer = taille du saumon x 0,024 est vérifiée pour des alevins de plus de 250 mg pour différents aliments. Pour des alevins de taille inférieure à 250 mg, les résultats dépendent de l'aliment, une taille d'aliment de 400 - 630 μ permet en général des performances satisfaisantes. Pratiquement on détermine une correspondance entre taille d'aliment à distribuer et le poids de l'alevin pour la période d'alevinage.

  15. OSIRIS reactor radioprotection, radioprotection measurements performed during the power rise and the first 50 megawatt operation; Radioprotection de la pile OSIRIS, mesures de radioprotection effectuees au cours de la montee en puissance et des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanton, B.; Lebouleux, P

    1967-12-01

    The authors supply the results of the measurements that have been made near the Osiris reactor during the power increase and during the first functioning at 50 megawatts. The measurements relate to the absorbed dose rates in the premises, the water activation and the atmospheric contamination. The influence of the heat layer of water movements and the water rate in the core chimney on the absorbed dose rate at the footbridge level overhanging the pile core has been studied. The modifications to the protection devices that have been proposed after the measurements and the effect of these modifications on the results of the measures are given then. The regeneration process of a water purification chain has been examined from the radiation protection point of view. It has been possible to make some twenty radionuclides obvious in the produced effluents and to determine the volume activity of these effluents for each radionuclide. The whole of results show that in a general way, the irradiation levels are low during the usual reactor functioning. [French] Les auteurs fournissent les resultats des mesures de radioprotection oui ont ete effectuees aupres de la pile Osiris pendant la montee en puissance et au cours des premiers fonctionnements a 50 megawatts. Les mesures portent sur les debits de dose absorbee dans les locaux, l'activation de l'eau et la contamination atmospherique. L'influence de la couche chaude des mouvements d'eau et du debit d'eau dans la cheminee du coeur sur le debit de dose absorbee au niveau de la passerelle surplombant le coeur de la pile, a ete etudiee. Les modifications aux dispositifs de protection, qui ont ete proposees a la suite des mesures, et l'effet de ces modifications sur les resultats des mesures sont indiques ensuite. Le processus de regeneration d'une chaine d'epuration de l'eau a ete examine sous l'angle de la radioprotection. Il a ete possible de mettre en evidence une vingtaine

  16. Influence de l'emballage sur les préférences des enfants en matière ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le programme Prévention des maladies non transmissi- bles (PMNT) soutient la production de nouvelles connais- sances en vue d'inspirer des politiques et des programmes peu coûteux mais susceptibles d'avoir une incidence con- sidérable sur la réduction de la charge de morbidité reliée aux maladies non ...

  17. Mesures de procédure spéciales et respect des droits de l'homme
    Rapport général

    OpenAIRE

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2009-01-01

    Le but du rapport général est de mener une analyse comparative des rapports nationaux en vue de présenter les processus de transformation des systèmes de justice pénale internes, en particulier du procès pénal, étant donné que des mesures procédurales spéciales sont introduites pour appréhender le terrorisme et la criminalité organisée, et de voir si cela a conduit les pays à se départir de leur propres règles fondamentales, procédures, principes et standards des droits de l’homme applicables...

  18. Mesures de procédure spéciales et respect des droits de l'homme Rapport général

    OpenAIRE

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Le but du rapport général est de mener une analyse comparative des rapports nationaux en vue de présenter les processus de transformation des systèmes de justice pénale internes, en particulier du procès pénal, étant donné que des mesures procédurales spéciales sont introduites pour appréhender le terrorisme et la criminalité organisée, et de voir si cela a conduit les pays à se départir de leur propres règles fondamentales, procédures, principes et standards des droits de l’homme applicables...

  19. Des travaux récents montrent que le type de hiérarchie et les politiques RH pourraient influencer les usages des logiciels collaboratifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ologeanu-Taddei, R.; Pascal, A.; Tchobanian, R.; Fallery, B.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Jongejan, J.; Oiry, E.

    2013-01-01

    Le premier travail prévu dans le cadre du projet Use.Org consistait à réaliser une synthèse pluridisciplinaire de la littérature. Dans un premier temps, nous avons synthétisé la littérature existante en SI sur les usages des outils collaboratifs. Ensuite, nous avons enrichi cette analyse en

  20. Influence des télévoteurs sur le résultat scolaire : une méta-analyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel T. Léger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution s’inscrit dans une continuation de recherches sur les effets pédagogiques des technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC. Une recension par procédure méta-analytique est entreprise afin d’examiner la relation entre l’utilisation des télévoteurs en grands groupes et le rendement des étudiants. Après avoir recensé les écrits empiriques traitant le résultat scolaire comme variable dépendante de l’utilisation des télévoteurs, nous n’avons retenu que les études exploitant un devis méthodologique expérimental ou quasi expérimental. La méta-analyse, incluant 17groupes de données provenant de huit articles scientifiques retenus, indique qu’il existe une relation positive entre l’utilisation des télévoteurs et le résultat scolaire (g=0,463.

  1. Influence de l'acide salicylique sur l'activité des polyphénoloxydases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of salicylic acid on activity of polyphenol oxidases and accumulation of phenolic compounds in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). To study the ... The synthesis of enzyme has been equally stimulated in immediately situated leaves above (fis) and in under (fii) of the inoculated leaf (fi). Phenolic compound have ...

  2. Influence de l'activite du systeme racinaire de pommiers sur la repartition des solutes en irrigation localisee

    OpenAIRE

    Guennelon, R.; Cabibel, B.

    1981-01-01

    La fertilisation des arbres fruitiers associée à l’irrigation localisée peut permettre d’entrevoir des réductions importantes de coût d’exploitation en matière de main-d’oeuvre et de quantités d’engrais utilisées. Mais il faut que les éléments comme P et K, facilement adsorbés par le sol, puissent migrer jusqu’aux racines. L’accélération des flux hydriques, due à la fonction puits des racines, concurrence l’évolution des cinétiques d’adsorption ; ainsi, la répartition de ces éléments n’es...

  3. Study of the influence of combustion parameters on the formation of SO{sub 2}, NO and CO during the thermal degradation of phytosanitary products currently used in West Africa; Etude de l'influence des parametres de combustion sur la formation de SO{sub 2}, de NO et de CO lors de la degradation thermique de produits phytosanitaires d'usage courant en Afrique de l'Ouest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouda, M.; Segda, B.G.; Koulidiati, J. [Ouagadougou Univ., Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Laboratoire de physique et de chimie de l' environnement; Rogaume, T. [Poitiers a Niort Univ., Chasseneuil-du-Poitou (France). Ecole national superieure de mecanique et d' aerotechnique, Laboratoire de combustion et detonique; Sawadogo, P.W. [Inst. de l' environnement et de recherches agricoles, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Laboratoire sol-eau-plante

    2008-05-15

    The challenge of treating soils in West Africa that have been contaminated with pesticides was discussed. Incineration is considered to be a viable method for the disposal of toxic industrial wastes, including phytosanitary products. The 2 main phytosanitary products currently used in West Africa are Cyperthion D and Cyperthion O. These 2 products were incinerated in a small-scale study in order to determine the influence of combustion parameters on the production of nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The incineration process was optimized in order to reduce these emissions and other toxic gases. The study showed that there is a good correlation between the generation of these pollutants during the incineration of phytosanitary wastes and combustion parameters such as oxygen concentration, temperature, and residence time in the reactor core. Emissions of NO and SO{sub 2} decreased with an increase in residence time, but increased with higher local oxygen concentrations and higher combustion temperatures in the reactor core. CO emissions were found to increase with an increase in residence time, but decrease with higher temperatures and higher local oxygen concentrations. The results were used to pursue large-scale assays, in a rotatory incinerator, for the thermal processing of expired phytosanitary products. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. De la Bourgogne à l’international : construction et promotion des normes d’appellation d’origine ou l’influence des syndicats professionnels locaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jacquet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendant l’entre-deux-guerres, pour améliorer la difficile situation nationale et internationale du commerce des vins (fraudes, mévente, surproduction endémique, fermetures de marchés, politiques protectionnistes, le gouvernement français profite des débats internationaux pour imposer les normes hexagonales de vente et de production à l’étranger. En dépit de nombreuses réussites au sein de l’OIV ou lors de congrès, et malgré une propagande organisée, l’Etat français ne parvient pas à restaurer la confiance. La régionalisation des enjeux et les luttes pour ou contre l’instauration des appellations déclasse en partie les initiatives centralisées de l’Etat. Aussi, les syndicats vignerons tentent-ils d’organiser eux-mêmes leur propagande. Les démarches bourguignonnes vers les Etats-Unis évoquent ce processus d’exportation de la notion d’appellation d’origine. Dans un même temps, ces actions deviennent un moyen efficace pour légitimer nationalement ces nouvelles normes marchandes. L’apposition de normes légitimes semble, dans ce cas, un préalable nécessaire à tout bon fonctionnement du marché. De 1919 à 1939, la mise en place d’une légitimité internationale des AOC et la victoire nationale de cette norme procède au final d’une identification très locale des territoires de production en concurrence.Between the two World Wars, in order to improve the problematic situation of wine trading on a national and international scale – due to irregularities, slumping sales, endemic overproduction, markets closing down or protectionist policies – the French government took advantage of the worldwide debates taking place so as to have its own French standards of sales and production implemented abroad. Despite many successful manoeuvres within the OIV or at general meetings, and in spite of an organised propaganda, the French authorities were unable to recreate a state of confidence. The state

  5. 1 Influence des paramètres de composition sur le comportement du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    l'utilisation du superplastifiant "viscocrete 20HE" dans les formulations autoplaçantes peut avoir une influence bénéfique sur la résistance mécanique. • la présence d'une quantité importante de filler calcaire comme addition dans les. BAP peut également avoir une action positive sur leurs compacités et par conséquent sur ...

  6. Rechercher des influences planétaires sur l'activité solaire

    OpenAIRE

    Baidolda, Farida

    2017-01-01

    The causes of solar variations and their impact on climatic environments have been andstill are the subject of large debate. The possible influence of planetary perturbations on thesolar cycles have also been recently the subject of multiples controverses. The goal of thepresent thesis is to provide some insight on this problem by a new computation of the planetaryperturbations on the Sun, at short, middle and and long time scales.At first, we describe our current understanding of the physica...

  7. Genetic Characterization of a Novel Mutant of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated from Capra ibex in China during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV is the causative agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR. The spread of PPR often causes severe economic losses. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the surveillance of PPR emergence, spread, and geographic distribution. Here we describe a novel mutant of PPRV China/XJBZ/2015 that was isolated from Capra ibex in Xinjiang province in China 2015. The sequence analysis and phylogenetic assessment indicate that China/XJBZ/2015 belongs to lineage IV, being closely related to China/XJYL/2013 strain. Interestingly, the V protein sequence of China/XJBZ/2015 showed lower homology with other Chinese PPRVs isolated during 2013 to 2014 (94%~95%, whereas it shared 100% identity with three Tibet strains isolated in China 2007. The 3′ UTR, V gene, and C gene were determined to be highly variable. Besides, 29 PPR genomic sequences available in GenBank were analyzed in this study. It is the first time to use PPRV genomic sequences to classify the different lineages which confirmed the lineage clustering of PPRVs using N gene 255 bp fragments and F gene 322 bp fragments. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the PPRVs continue to evolve in China, and some new mutations have emerged.

  8. Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of Embryonic and Maximal Placental Growth on Organ Development in the Adult Sheep. ... Objective: It is apparent that maternal under nutrition at specific period during pregnancy has differential effects on placental and fetal development, such that the resulting ...

  9. Influence de la maturation des sols de mangrove sur la déflation éolienne et la formation des dunes argileuses dans le delta du fleuve Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Barbiéro, Laurent; Ould Mohamedou, A.; Caruba, R.

    1998-01-01

    L'étude des dunes argileuses est largement employée pour la reconstitution des paléo-environnements. L'arrêt de la sédimentation éolienne est généralement attribuée à des modifications climatiques ou hydrologiques. Notre étude, menée dans le delta du fleuve Sénégal, montre que des transformations internes de la couverture pédologique peuvent induire des modifications de la partie superficielle des sols et arrêter la déflation éolienne, sans modifications des conditions environnementales. (Rés...

  10. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  11. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  12. Utilisation des polymères organiques durant le forage et la cimentation des puits à haute température Using Organic Polymers During Drilling and Cementing of High Temperature Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les puits pétroliers, par suite de l'accroissement de la profondeur, des températures statiques de fond voisines de 250 °C seront probablement atteintes dans un très proche avenir. Dans les puits géothermiques à haute énergie, cette limite est déjà largement dépassée avec des températures pouvant aller jusque 400 °C. II est indispensable que les fluides de forage et les matériaux de cimentation alors mis en oeuvre possèdent des stabilités suffisantes. Pour les fluides de forage, à base d'eau et à base d'huile, il convient de prévenir, à l'aide d'additifs, les évolutions réversibles et irréversibles des caractéristiques de viscosité et de filtration durant le cycle ou pendant des arrêts de circulation de quelques heures. Ces additifs sont, pour la plupart, des polymères susceptibles de se disperser dans la phase liquide. Mais actuellement leur stabilité ne permet guère d'envisager l'utilisation des fluides à base d'eau au-delà de 260 °C et celle des fluides à base d'huile au-delà de 285 °C. Pour les cimentations, il peut être souhaitable de remplacer le ciment hydraulique habituellement employé par un matériau de masse volumique plus faible et/ou de durabilité accrue. Pendant toute la vie du puits, prévue pour 20 à 30 ans, ce matériau devra assurer l'étanchéité de l'annulaire et conserver sa résistance mécanique. II devra, de plus, supporter l'environnement parfois agressif des eaux de formation. Des recherches de laboratoire sur de nouveaux matériaux de cimentation ont été orientées vers des résines organiques et des composés à base d'organosiloxanes. Elles conduisent à sélectionner des formules stables jusqu'à 300 °C. Mais les possibilités de mise en oeuvre sur puits restent encore à étudier et le coût élevé des produits de base risque de limiter leur application. Static downhole temperatures of around 250°C will probably be reached in the very near future in oil wells as the

  13. Influence of preactivation on fascicle behavior during eccentric contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Background Because muscle fascicle behavior affects to the force-generating capability, understanding of muscle fascicle length changes during dynamic movements is important. Preactivation may affect the muscle fascicle length changes, especially in the case of eccentric contraction. However, its influence has not been clarified. To this end, muscle fascicle behavior during eccentric contraction was compared between preactivation and no-preactivation conditions. Results Seven healthy men (24....

  14. Influence des états d'interface et de la température sur l'inefficacité de transfert des dispositifs à transfert de charge en surface ll SCCD gg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhdada, A.; Touhami, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two phenomena are on the degradation base of the charge transfer inefficiency in the C.C.D. devices : the incomplet transfer of the free charges because of the insuffisance of the transfer time and the charge trapping by the interface state, whose effect is negligible at high frequencies. The aim of this paper is the transfer inefficiency analyze on the absence and presence of interface states. The charges transfer from a potential well to another, is described by a nonlinear differential equation, that introduces all the transfer major mechanisms : self-induced drift E_s (x, t ), fringing field drift E_ff, the thermal diffusion and the recombination-generation phenomenon at the interface described by Shockley-Read-Hall. The numerical method proposed for this equation resolution is based on the implicit fined difference method, which leads to a discretized system of equations, which we solve by using the algorithm Gauss by elimination. In the last stage, we shall discuss the temperature influence on the transfer inefficiency, while introducing in the differential equation all the parameter expressions dependent on the temperature (captor cross section σ_n, thermal velocity V_th, acceptor density N_A, conduction band density of states N_c and the surface mobility of electrons μ_n). La dégradation de l'inefficacité de transfert dans les dispositifs à transfert de charge " CCD " est liée principalement à l'insuffisance du temps de transfert, et au piégeage de charges par les états d'interface dont l'effet est négligeable en hautes fréquences. Le but de cet article est de montrer l'influence des états d'interface et de la température sur l'inefficacité de transfert. Pour cela nous avons résolu l'équation différentielle non linéaire qui décrit le transfert de charge d'un puits à un autre en introduisant le champ self-induit, le champ de bord, la diffusion thermique et le phénomène de recombinaison-génération au niveau de la surface décrit par

  15. Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of restricted maternal nutrition during the period of embryonic and maximal placental growth (i.e. 0 – 95 days gestation; term ≈147 days) on the developmental and programming of mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c in the lung of the resulting ...

  16. How weight during pregnancy influences the association between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Body mass index, gestational weight gain, caesarean delivery, low birth weight, macrosomia. ... Cite as: Babanezhad M. How weight during pregnancy influences the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index and types of delivery and ...... areas, but there was evidence that women in rural areas.

  17. Influence des opérations thermiques impliquées dans les procédés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les indices d'acide, de peroxyde et de réfraction des différents échantillons de beurre ont été déterminés; de même que la teneur en eau et la composition en acide gras. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que les opérations thermiques permettent la réduction de l'acidité des beurres. Quant au taux de peroxyde, il diminue ...

  18. Influence de la nature chimique et minéralogique des argiles et du processus de fabrication sur la qualité des carreaux céramiques Influence of chemical and mineralogical nature of clay and manufacturing process on the quality of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude correspond à une approche pluridisciplinaire menée en étroite collaboration entre des géologues, des chimistes et des industriels de la céramique. Les résultats confirment l’étroite relation existante entre la composition des argiles et la qualité du produit céramique final. Les briquettes obtenues, dans les mêmes conditions, à partir de deux argiles marocaines assez différentes du point de vue chimique et minéralogique, présentent des caractéristiques technologiques bien distinctes. l’utilisation d’adjuvants minéraux, bien sélectionnés, contribue à l’équilibrage des argiles brutes et conduit à une nette amélioration de la qualité du produit céramique, notamment une réduction de leur retrait à la cuisson et une augmentation de leur résistance à la flexion. Concernant l’effet du processus de fabrication, l’application de l’engobe et de l’émail, s’avère être à l’origine de bombement des carreaux lors de la cuisson, en raison vraisemblablement de la différence des coefficients de dilatation des deux milieux argile et émail. This study is conducted in a multidisciplinary collaboration between geologists, chemists and industrial ceramics. The results confirm the close ralatioship existing between the composition of clays and quality of the finished ceramic pieces. The obtained specimens, under the same conditions, from two moroccan clays that are different on the chimico-mineralogical point of view, present distinct technological characteristics. The use of well selected mineral adjuvants, contributes to the balancing of raw clays and leads to a marked improvement in the quality of the ceramic product, including a reduction on their firing shrinkage and an increase of flexural strength. Concerning the effect of the manufacturing process, the application of the glaze, turns out to be the cause of bulging tiles during firing, probably because of the difference in thermal

  19. Does reduced mastication influence cognitive and systemic health during aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Sophie; Aspiras, Marcelo; Day, Jon E L

    2018-05-01

    There is a growing body of literature which suggests that oral health and mastication can influence cognitive and systemic health during aging. However, it is currently unclear whether oral health, masticatory efficiency, cognitive health and systemic health merely deteriorate independently with age, or whether mechanisms exist linking mastication to cognitive and systemic health directly. The aim of this paper is to review the extent to which reduced mastication influences cognitive and systemic health during aging because this knowledge may underpin future interventions that improve quality of life. Current evidence suggests that a deterioration in mastication and oral health during aging can have: 1) direct effects on systemic health through mechanisms such as the migration of the oral microbiota into the systemic environment, and 2) indirect effects on systemic health through changes nutrient intake. A loss of teeth and reduction in masticatory efficiency during aging can have: 1) direct effects on cognitive performance and potentially impact cognitive health through mechanisms such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and 2) indirect effects on cognitive health through changes in nutrient intake. It is concluded that oral health and masticatory efficiency are modifiable factors which influence the risk poor cognitive and systemic health during aging, although it is currently premature to propose chewing-based interventions to slow the rate of cognitive decline and improve cognitive health during aging. Future research should include large-scale longitudinal studies which control for the types of confounding factors which concurrently influence the association between mastication and cognitive and systemic health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fractures of the atlantoaxial complex in the elderly: assessment of radiological spectrum of fractures and factors influencing imaging diagnosis; Frakturen des Atlas und Axis bei aelteren Patienten: Untersuchung des Radiologischen Spektrums der Frakturen und bedeutsamer Faktoren fuer die Bildgebende Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomoschitz, F.M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH Wien, Wien (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Blackmore, C.C.; Linnau, K.F.; Mann, F.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Harborview Medical Center, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Stadler, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH Wien, Wien (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Objective: to describe patterns of atlantoaxial fractures in a population of consecutive elderly patients, including assessment of type, distribution and associated clinical and radiological findings, and to analyze any influence of the causative trauma mechanism on the individual fracture pattern. Materials and methods: the distribution and type of 123 atlantoaxial fractures in 95 subjects older than 65 years (range: 65-102; mean age: 79 years) were retrospectively assessed. For each subject, trauma mechanism and clinical and neurological status were recorded at admission. Initial imaging studies of the cervical spine were reviewed. Preexistent degenerative changes were assessed and the atlantoaxial fractures classified. Data were evaluated for the frequency of different types of fractures of C1 and C2 and for accompanying fractures of cervical vertebrae or the occipital condyles, respectively. Results: the majority of patients with injuries of the atlantoaxial complex had fractures of C2 (90 of 95, 95%). A large proportion of these patients (67 of 90, 74%) had odontoid fractures. An isolated fracture of C1 was present in only 5 (5%) patients. Associated fractures of the occipital condyles or other cervical vertebrae were rare (10 of 95, 11%). The main trauma mechanism for atlantoaxial injuries was a fall (56 of 95, 59%). Elderly patients injured in motor vehicle accidents were more likely to have isolated fractures of C2 and Type III fractures of the odontoid (p < 0.02). Conclusion: in elderly patients, fractures of the atlantoaxial complex are mainly caused by falls and almost always involve C2. The trauma mechanism influences the fracture pattern (orig.) [German] Untersuchung von Frakturen des Atlas (C1) und Axis (C2) in einer konsekutiven Population aelterer Patienten ({>=} 65 Jahre) hinsichtlich Fraktur-Typus, -Haeufigkeit, und -Kombinationen, und Analyse von assoziierter Klinik sowie Einfluss von unfall-ursaechlichen Faktoren auf Frakturen des atlanto

  1. Influence de l'activité des termites sur les propriétés du sol dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    amélioration de la fertilité en déterminant la vitesse d'infiltration de l'eau et ... abriter une macrofaune importante (tels que les vers de terre et les termites) dont l'activité lui apporte des nutriments et en améliore la structure physique ( ...

  2. Influence des paramètres mécaniques, pression et vitesse, sur l'oxydation de l'huile de graissage Influence of Mechanical Parameters (Pressure and Velocity on Lube-Oil Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Guindi C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'oxydation de l'huile de graissage dans les moteurs à 4 temps et à allumage commandé est influencée par des facteurs d'origine chimique et mécanique. Du fait de la complexité du fonctionnement des moteurs il est impossible d'étudier séparément l'influence de ces deux facteurs. Les résultats obtenus sur une machine simple de frottement, où seul prédomine l'effet des paramètres mécaniques, pression et vitesse, sur l'oxydation de l'huile de graissage, et la reproduction de ces mêmes résultats sur un moteur monocylindre classique, où s'enchevêtrent les effets chimiques et mécaniques, confirment l'importance souvent négligée de ces paramètres mécaniques sur l'oxydation de l'huile. Lube-oil oxidation in 4-stroke spark-ignition engines is influenced by factors of chemical and mechanical origin. Because of the operational complexity of such engines, it is impossible to analyse the influence of these two factors separately. The results obtained with a simple friction machine, in which the mechanical parameters (pressure and speed are the only ones influencing lube-oil oxidation, and the reproduction of these same results on a standard single-cylinder engine, in which the chemical and mechanical effects are intermingled, confirm the often neglected importance of these mechanical parameters with regard to oil oxidation.

  3. Modifications structurales des résidus lors du procédé de viscoréduction Structural Changes in Residues During the Visbreaking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favre A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les asphaltènes et les maltènes d'un résidu sous vide Safaniya et ceux issus de la recette de viscoréduction correspondante sont étudiés. Vu la complexité des produits, plusieurs fractionnements sont pratiqués (chromatographie en phase liquide, chromatographie échangeuse d'ions. Les produits et leurs fractions sont ensuite caractérisés par RMN, IR, analyse élémentaire, tonométrie, diffraction et diffusion centrale des rayons X. Les résultats mettent en évidence des différences notables et permettent de comprendre le comportement des produits lourds du pétrole au cours du craquage thermique et ainsi tenter d'améliorer te taux de conversion. The asphaltenes and maltenes from a Safaniya vacuum residue and those coming from the corresponding visbreaking product are analyzed. Given the complexity of the products, several fractionations are performed (liquid chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography. The products and their fractions are then characterized by NMR, IR, elemental analysis, tonometry, X-ray diffraction and small ange X-ray scattering. The results reveal appreciable differences and enable the behavior of heavy petroleum products to be understood during thermal cracking. So an effort can be made to improve the rate of conversion.

  4. Mesures de procédure spéciales et respect des droits de l'homme
    Rapport général

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Le but du rapport général est de mener une analyse comparative des rapports nationaux en vue de présenter les processus de transformation des systèmes de justice pénale internes, en particulier du procès pénal, étant donné que des mesures procédurales spéciales sont introduites pour appréhender le terrorisme et la criminalité organisée, et de voir si cela a conduit les pays à se départir de leur propres règles fondamentales, procédures, principes et standards des droits de l’homme applicables. Partant de la prémisse qu’un système intégré de droit pénal a trois dimensions – la protection des individus (la dimension de bouclier, la mise à disposition d’instruments d’application de la loi (la dimension d’épée et les contrôles et équilibres c’est-à-dire la séparation des pouvoirs (la dimension constitutionnelle – le rapport fournit un aperçu d’ensemble des transformations corrélées, surtout dans la procédure d’enquête préliminaire, qui les ont affectées toutes les trois dans trois vagues de « guerre » (contre la drogue, le crime organisé et le terrorisme. Dans beaucoup de pays, les garanties procédurales et les principes qui protègent contre la violation du droit à un procès équitable sont considérés comme un fardeau du point de vue de l’efficacité de l’application de la loi à la criminalité grave. Ces réformes se sont traduites par une claire extension de l’état répressif et un estompement des distinctions classiques, et ne favorisent pas la primauté du droit. La focalisation sur la sécurité publique et les investigations contraignantes préventives sapent le système de justice pénale. Avec l’usage croissant du système de justice criminelle comme instrument de régulation du présent et/ou de l’avenir plutôt que de sanction d’un comportement passé, et un procès pénal dans lequel l’enquête préliminaire ne concerne pas la recherche de la v

  5. Influence of aging time on thermodynamical, structural and microstructural properties of Pd{sub 100-(x+y)}Pt{sub x}Rh{sub y-}T{sub 2}(D{sub 2}) systems; Influence de la duree de stockage sur les proprietes thermodynamiques, structurales et microstructurales des systemes Pd{sub 100-(x+y)}Pt{sub x}Rh{sub y-}T{sub 2}(D{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebaut, S

    1998-12-31

    This study has demonstrated that substitution of palladium by a few atomic percent of platinum and/or rhodium induces great changes in tritium storage properties and aging phenomena in these systems. Before aging, equilibrium pressures only depend of the global substitution rate, and not at all of the substituents nature. During storage, the decrease of plateau pressures is stronger in Pd-Pt alloys, and even more in the ternary solid solution Pd{sub 90}Pt{sub 5}Rh{sub 5}. This substitution effect was explained by a difference in the nature of defects created by {sup 3}He bubbles formation. The presence of platinum, with or without rhodium, in the lattice stabilizes self interstitial atoms isolated or in dislocation loops. These defects induce a great lattice swelling, and the tritides stability is directly proportional to the metal lattice volume. On the contrary, in pure palladium and Pd-Rh alloys, self interstitial atoms are preferentially integrated in a dislocation network, so they are without effect on the lattice parameter and consequently on the tritides stability. In all cases, Pd-Pt-Rh systems are indeed perfectly suited for tritium storage thanks to their conservation of local order and thermodynamical properties during aging. (author) 81 refs.

  6. Student-Perceived Influences on Performance During Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Beth E; Thompson, Sarah A; Barnason, Susan A; Wilhelm, Susan L; Kotcherlakota, Suhasini; Miller, Connie L; Paulman, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the effect of the context of simulation to learning and performance is critical to ensure not only optimal learning but to provide a valid and reliable means to evaluate performance. The purpose of this study is to identify influences on performance from the student perspective and understand the contextual barriers inherent in simulation before using simulation for high-stakes testing. This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Senior nursing students (N = 29) provided nursing care during simulation. Vocalized thoughts during simulation and reflective debriefing were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcribed data. Student performance during simulation was influenced by anxiety, uncertainty, technological limitations, and experience with the patient condition. Students had few previous simulation-based learning experiences that may have influenced performance. More needs to be understood regarding factors affecting simulation performance before pass-or-fail decisions are made using this technology. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(7):396-398.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Solubilisation des hydrocarbures dans les solutions micellaires Influence de la structure et de la masse moléculaire Solubilization of Hydrocarbons in Micellar Solutions Influence of Structure and Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baviere M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La solubilisation des hydrocarbures par les solutions de tensio-actifs utilisés pour la récupération améliorée du pétrole est directement liée à l'efficacité interfaciale de ces solutions. D'autant plus élevée que la tension interfaciale entre la phase micellaire et l'huile est plus basse, elle dépend fortement de la nature de l'hydrocarbure. Dans certains cas, celui-ci est responsable de comportements de phase inhabituels. On examine d'abord dans cet article la méthodologie généralement utilisée pour caractériser les propriétés interfaciales des mélanges eau-huile-tensio-actifs. Elle est fondée, à partir des travaux de Winsor et de quelques auteurs après lui, sur le concept d'énergies de cohésion entre les diverses entités moléculaires présentes et sur le rapport entre ces énergies. Cette approche permet d'orienter le choix des paramètres pour optimiser les formulations du point de vue de la solubilisation et de la tension interfaciale. Les comportements de phase d'hydrocarbures modèles, alcanes et alkylbenzènes, sont ensuite comparés et discutés, ainsi que ceux d'huiles brutes de stockage. Il apparaît notamment que, dans les mélanges d'hydrocarbures, le paramètre d'optimisation (ici la masse moléculaire du tensio-actif varie de façon non linéaire avec les proportions du mélange. Les performances obtenues avec les huiles brutes de masses moléculaires voisines dépendent sensiblement de la composition. Cependant l'influence propre de la structure et de la masse moléculaire des différentes espèces n'a pas encore été établie. A cet égard l'huile de Daqing constitue un cas intéressant : la solubilisation est extrêmement faible, bien que les tensions interfaciales soient relativement basses. D'après des essais préliminaires de fractionnement de ce brut, les résines pourraient être à l'origine de ce comportement. La poursuite des travaux vise à préciser l'effet des fractions lourdes des bruts

  8. Synthèse et caractérisation des nanomatériaux chiraux et leur influence sur la différenciation des cellules souches

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a field related to regenerative medicine which aims at replacing or regenerating a patient’s tissue, usually using a combination of cells and bioactive material designed to influence cell behaviour. In approaches for bone regeneration, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a common choice because of their ability to proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts. Harnessing this potential requires biomaterials which promote osteoblastic differentiation, for example by...

  9. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  10. Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence du traitement thermique sur quatre éléments métalliques (Cu, Cd, Pb et Zn) des boues résiduaires. S Bounit, M El Meray, A Chehbouni ... Influence des rejets des eaux usées sur la composition des eaux de surface et des sédiments superficiels du lac Merja Fouarate au Maroc. H Nassali, H Ben Bouih, A Srhiri, ...

  11. Metabolic and hormone influences on emotion processing during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Marsh, Courtney; Persad, Carol; Randolph, John; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda

    2017-02-01

    Disturbances of emotion regulation and depressive symptoms are common during the menopause transition. Reproductive hormone levels are not directly correlated with depressive symptoms, and other factors may influence mood symptoms during menopause. In this study, we sought to determine the role of metabolic function in mood symptoms during menopause, hypothesizing an association with menopause status and long-term glucose load. We studied 54 women across three menopause transition stages (15 premenopause, 11 perimenopause, and 28 postmenopause), examining effects of age, hormones, and metabolism on mood and neural activation during emotional discrimination. We assessed participants using behavioral and functional MRI measures of negative emotion and emotion discrimination, and glycated hemoglobin A1c, to assess long-term glucose load. We found that emotionally unpleasant images activated emotion regulation (amygdala) and cognitive association brain regions (prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, temporal-parietal-occipital (TPO) junction, hippocampus). Cognitive association region activity increased with menopause stage. Perimenopausal women had left TPO junction activation, and postmenopausal women had prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and TPO junction activation. Negative affect was associated with decreased amygdala activation, while depression symptoms and negative mood were associated with increased TPO junction activation. Hemoglobin A1c was associated with negative interpretation bias of neutral images and cognitive region recruitment during emotion discrimination. FSH levels, indicating menopause stage, were associated with negative mood. Age was not associated with any behavioral measures or activation patterns during the emotion task. Our results suggest that an interaction between metabolic and hormonal factors may influence emotion regulation, leading to increased risk for depression during menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  13. L’influence des réseaux dans la naissance et l’évolution des stations de villégiature : l’exemple de la Côte de Granit rose (Côtes-d’Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Justome

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La naissance et le développement des stations balnéaires résultent de la combinaison d’un certain nombre de réseaux : de transports, humains, sociaux et culturels. L’exemple de la Côte de Granit rose met en évidence l’importance d’une ligne de chemin de fer et d’une route, non seulement pour structurer l’ensemble du territoire, mais aussi l’urbanisme de chaque station, ou encore pour assurer la fondation de groupes sociaux spécifiques. A ce réseau de communications s’ajoute le réseau culturel, très singulier sur cette côte, et à l’origine de l’image des stations où s’épanouit un style architectural régionaliste tout aussi spécifique.The creation and development of seaside resorts are founded on a combination of a certain number of networks: transportation networks, networks of human relations and social and cultural networks. The study of the seaside resorts along the Côte de Granit rose draws attention to the influence of the railway and roads not only as structuring elements for the territory as a whole and for the town planning of the individual resorts, but also for the constitution of specific social groups. Along with these transportation networks, cultural networks are also significant. On this stretch of the Brittany coast, they are highly specific and can be seen as the inspiration for the particular image that the resorts sought to project with their equally specific regionalist architectural styles.

  14. Users' participation and social influence during information spreading on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Han, Ding-Ding; Yang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Ziqiao

    2017-01-01

    Online Social Networks generate a prodigious wealth of real-time information at an incessant rate. In this paper we study the empirical data that crawled from Twitter to describe the topology and information spreading dynamics of Online Social Networks. We propose a measurement with three measures to state the efforts of users on Twitter to get their information spreading, based on the unique mechanisms for information retransmission on Twitter. It is noticed that small fraction of users with special performance on participation can gain great influence, while most other users play a role as middleware during the information propagation. Thus a community analysis is performed and four categories of users are found with different kinds of participation that cause the information dissemination dynamics. These suggest that exiting topological measures alone may reflect little about the influence of individuals and provide new insights for information spreading.

  15. Influence of compatibilizer on blends degradation during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Waldman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical degradation of blends made from polypropylene and polystyrene, with or without compatibilizer, was studied using an internal mixer coupled to a torque rheometer. The blends processed without compatibilizer presented regular and expected results regarding torque reduction, with evidence of chain scission. The blends processed with the block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, SBS, as a compatibilizer presented unchanged or less reduced variation on torque values during processing. The extraction of stabilizers from the compatibilizer before processing did not affect the results. The compatibilizer concentration in the blends was varied, with its influence still being observed in concentrations as low as 0.03 parts per hundred. Similar results were obtained in an experiment comparing the performance of a primary commercial anti-oxidant, Irganox 1076, and the compatibilizer SBS. Therefore, the compatibilizer can be considered as a processing aid agent with positive influence on avoiding thermomechanical degradation.

  16. Gazettes sous influence : le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, la Gazette des Deux-Ponts et les sujets touchant la Russie vers 1770

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dulac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1770, la campagne anti-russe du gouvernement français tend à dégrader l’image de la Russie, ce qui lèse gravement ses intérêts, notamment quand elle doit emprunter pour financer la guerre avec la Turquie. Aussi le prince Dmitri Alexeevitch Golitsyn, ministre plénipotentiaire à La Haye, se montre-t-il alors très actif sur ce terrain. Sa correspondance avec Pétersbourg témoigne de ses efforts, aux effets inégaux, pour influer sur les informations diffusées par quelques journaux : principalement le Courrier du Bas-Rhin, publié par Jean Manzon à Trèves, sous contrôle prussien, et dans une moindre mesure les deux Gazettes des Deux-Ponts, l’une politique, l’autre littéraire. Le journaliste de Trèves, qui trouve son intérêt à prendre le parti de la Russie, met en œuvre en sa faveur un discours journalistique abondant et parfois très élaboré. Cependant, la ligne du journal subit des fluctuations sensibles, selon l’évolution de la situation et à la suite de diverses interventions, dont celles du roi de Prusse et d’autre part de Stanislas-Auguste, qui pensionne un temps le journaliste. La Gazette des deux Ponts pratique l’information orientée avec plus de finesse, et, comme la gazette littéraire, accorde une large place à la matière russe : mais sur le plan politique, son traitement reste le plus souvent sous influence française et répond rarement aux vœux de D. A. Golitsyn.

  17. Influence de la position dans l'épaisseur des reprises de plis sur le comportement statique et en fatigue pour un stratifié carbone/époxy = Influence of ply-drop position in thickness direction on static and fatigue loading behaviour of carbon fibre/ epoxy laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.; Michel, L.; Mahdi, Stéphane; Cross, Stéphanie; Barrau, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    National audience; L'influence de la position dans l'épaisseur des reprises de plis sur l'endommagement sous chargement en fatigue (R = -1) et la durée de vie a été étudiée. Deux configurations avec une variation de la position des reprises ont été comparées. Les stratifiés de base sont les mêmes pour les deux configurations et passent de 20 à 12 plis. Des essais mécaniques ont été menés pour identifier les modes et les lieux d'endommagement par observation des deux bords des éprouvettes pend...

  18. Etude de l'influence du TNFSF11 (RANKL) sur le développment et homéostasie des organes lymphoïdes secondaires

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro , Olga

    2015-01-01

    RANKL and RANK are members of the TNF-superfamily and TNF-receptor superfamily, respectively. They are known to play an important role in the regulation of bone mass and in the development and the function of the immune system. However questions still remain. We have used genetically modified mice to address some of these questions, in particular by using a mouse whose lymph node marginal reticular stromal cells lack RANKL. The results obtained during this PhD provide important new insights i...

  19. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    of the factors with the ability to promote such changes. Household pets are another contributor which can potentially affect the microbiota of the owner. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the antibiotic usage and vaginal microbiota in pregnant women from the COPSAC2010 pregnancy...... with a following increase in pH level can lead to an overgrowth of certain microbiota resulting in bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. Humans are continuously exposed to a large amount of environmental factors providing a possible influence on their microbial ecology. Antibiotic administration is one...... antibiotics during pregnancy and intrapartum antibiotics was associated to social and lifestyle-factors. The prevalence of oral antibiotic administration during pregnancywas higher than a decade ago with more than one-third of pregnant women being treated. Oral antibiotic administration as well as multiple...

  20. Apport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangou, TT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of image processing in monitoring the influence of nutrients on the growth of duckweed (Lemna minor. The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor is an important component in the treatment process in wastewater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought to assess the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+·l-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-·-1, respectively. Digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight. Our results showed that the image processing method allowed a continuous and non-destructive monitoring of duckweed biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreased when nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+·l-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-·-1. The maximum growth rates μmax were of the order of 0.07 d-1. The kinetic constants KS and KI were respectively 3.83 mg·l-1 and 204 mg·l-1 for nitrogen, and 1.26 mg·l-1 and 13.3 mg·l-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could contribute to the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors.

  1. 35 Contribution à l'étude de l'influence des paramètres d'élaboration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t

    composites injectés dans les conditions optimisées de mise en œuvre ont été produits puis caractérisés afin de comparer leurs performances mécaniques à celles des PS. 2. Matériel et méthodes. 2-1. Matières premières. 2-1-1. Les résidus d'égrenage ou coques de cotonnier. Les résidus d'égrenage proviennent de l'usine ...

  2. Fission product removal by containment spray - influence of the distance between the drops on the aerosol collection efficiency; Influence de la densite spatiale des gouttes d'aspersion sur l'efficacite de collecte des produits de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauchet, N

    2000-07-01

    This work is within the framework of the studies that are conducted at the IPSN concerning the loss of coolant in a nuclear reactor. During this kind of accident, a spray system in the reactor containment induces the scrubbing of fission products in the atmosphere, and allows the decrease of their concentration in the containment. Our objective is to study the influence of the distance between the drops of their aerosol collection efficiency. This is not taken into account in the existing models. We stimulate the various aerosol collection mechanisms with one free falling drop using computational fluid dynamics codes. The mechanisms are: deposition by brownian diffusion, impaction and interception of the particles by the drop, and collection of particles in the presence of steam condensation at the surface of the drop. These phenomena are studied for drops ranging in diameter from 100 to 700 micrometers, falling in a saturated air-steam mixture whose temperature varies between 20 and 140 degrees Celsius, and total pressure varies between 1 and 5 bars. We validate these models with results available in the literature and with experimental results CARAIDAS. Then we apply these models to the case of three aligned drops, which constitutes a case for which the proximity of the drops has a strong influence on the collection of aerosols. While varying the distance between the drop from 5 to 25 drop diameters, we can highlight the modification of the collection efficiency of each mechanism related to the disturbance of the velocity and concentration fields in the vicinity of the drops. We note that the strongest variations of efficiency observed are in the field of impaction, and that the steam condensation at the surface of the drops limits the decrease. (authors)

  3. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  4. Influence of diffusion on extraction kinetics in porous bodies. The case of uranium oxides; Influence de la diffusion sur la cinetique d'extraction dans un corps poreux. Cas des oxydes de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinturier, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-12-01

    The study of the leaching of heaped uranium ore can be considered theoretically as the problem of the diffusion of liquids in porous bodies and in particular as that of its influence on the chemical reaction rates of conventional uranium oxides. Below a certain value of the pore diameter, it is diffusion which is responsible for mass transfer. The porous structure can be characterized by various physical constants which modify the free diffusion equation and, as long as the pores have a diameter greater than a few microns, it can be shown that the pore walls have a negligible effect on the diffusion. The diffusion coefficients for the nitrate, the sulfate, the chloride, the acetate and the perchlorate of uranium have been determined. In the case of the reaction of uranium trioxide with acids in a porous body, the reaction kinetics are governed by the arrival of the reagent by diffusion. The attack of uranium dioxide by an acid ferric iron solution has been studied under the same conditions and it has been found that the diffusion modifies the influence of the ferrous and ferric iron concentrations on the reaction kinetics. The same is true for the oxide U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. All the results concerning these reactions studied in the absence of the influence of diffusion should be modified to take this factor into account when it intervenes in an extraction process. (authors) [French] L'etude de la lixiviation en tas d'un minerai d'uranium peut se ramener theoriquement au probleme de la diffusion des liquides dans les corps poreux et en particulier a celui de son influence sur les vitesses de reaction chimique des oxydes classiques de l'uranium. En dessous d'une certaine limite de diametre des pores la diffusion est responsable du transfert de masse. La structure poreuse peut se caracteriser par differentes constantes physiques qui modifient l'equation de la diffusion libre et tant que les pores ont un diametre superieur a quelques microns

  5. Task Context Influences Brain Activation during Music Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjela Markovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examined brain activation in subjects during two music listening conditions: listening while simultaneously rating the musical piece being played [Listening and Rating (LR] and listening to the musical pieces unconstrained [Listening (L]. Using these two conditions, we tested whether the sequence in which the two conditions were fulfilled influenced the brain activation observable during the L condition (LR → L or L → LR. We recorded high-density EEG during the playing of four well-known positively experienced soundtracks in two subject groups. One group started with the L condition and continued with the LR condition (L → LR; the second group performed this experiment in reversed order (LR → L. We computed from the recorded EEG the power for different frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta. Statistical analysis revealed that the power in all examined frequency bands increased during the L condition but only when the subjects had not had previous experience with the LR condition (i.e., L → LR. For the subjects who began with the LR condition, there were no power increases during the L condition. Thus, the previous experience with the LR condition prevented subjects from developing the particular mental state associated with the typical power increase in all frequency bands. The subjects without previous experience of the LR condition listened to the musical pieces in an unconstrained and undisturbed manner and showed a general power increase in all frequency bands. We interpret the fact that unconstrained music listening was associated with increased power in all examined frequency bands as a neural indicator of a mental state that can best be described as a mind-wandering state during which the subjects are “drawn into” the music.

  6. The influence of the atmosphere on the reactivity of uranium oxide powders (1960); Influence de l'atmosphere sur la reactivite des poudres d'oxyde d'uranium (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, Y.; Portnoff, M.; Elston, J.; Caillat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The reactivity of the UO{sub 2} powders in different atmospheres (hydrogen, vacuum or argon) has been studied by measuring their specific surface. The influence of the non stoichiometry has also been examined. The experiments give the following results: - in hydrogen the specific surface of the UO{sub 2} powder decreases from 900 deg. C; - in argon or under vacuum the surface of a stoichiometric oxide quickly decreases between 700 and 800 deg. C, the effect being more important as the initial surface is larger. If traces of oxygen are present before the experience, the surface begins to diminish at 500 deg. C. Conclusion: there is a relation between the reactivity of UO{sub 2} powder and its specific surface. The reactivity is higher in argon or under vacuum than in hydrogen, and it is higher for a non stoichiometric oxide. (author) [French] La reactivite des poudres de bioxyde d'uranium dans differentes atmospheres (hydrogene, vide ou argon), a ete comparee par la mesure de leur surface specifique. L'influence de l'ecart a la stoechiometrie a ete egalement examinee. Les resultats experimentaux montrent que: - dans l'hydrogene, la surface specifique de la poudre de bioxyde decroit a partir de 900 deg. C; - dans l'argon ou sous vide, la surface d'un oxyde stoechiometrique diminue rapidement entre 700 et 800 deg. C, et cela d'autant plus que la surface initiale est plus grande. Si des traces d'oxygene sont introduites avant l'experience, la surface commence a diminuer des 500 deg. C. En conclusion, la reactivite de la poudre de bioxyde d'uranium est en relation avec sa surface specifique. Elle est plus elevee dans l'argon ou le vide que dans l'hydrogene, elle est plus elevee pour un oxyde non stoechiometrique que pour un oxyde stoechiometrique. (auteur)

  7. Review to Historia proxima poetis. L’influence de la poésie épique sur le style des historiens latins de Salluste à Ammien Marcellin [Collection Latomus, vol. 255], Bruxelles: Latomus, 2000, 488 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Review to Historia proxima poetis. L’influence de la poésie épique sur le style des historiens latins de Salluste à Ammien Marcellin [Collection Latomus, vol. 255], Bruxelles: Latomus, 2000, 488 pp. ISBN 2-87031-196-6.

  8. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  9. Étude par diffraction des rayons X de la nitruration plasma d'un acier 304L Influence sur l'oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, L.; Buscail, H.; Straboni, A.; Riffard, F.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the influence of various nitridation parameters on the 304L steel oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C, in air under atmospheric pressure. Nitridation temperatures were ranging between 300 ^{circ}C and 430 ^{circ}C with exposure times lasting from 2 to 8 hours. At 300 and 430 ^{circ}C, the nitridation treatment leads to the solid solution surface formation γ-N without any nitride formation. After oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C of blank specimens, X ray diffraction reveals the FeCr2O4 spinel formation. This oxide does not act as a good diffusion barrier. With nitrogen treated specimens, the higher the nitridation temperature is and the longer the exposure time is, better is the oxidation behaviour at 1000 ^{circ}C. We then observe that the Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 oxide is more present in the oxide sale from the very beginning of the oxidation test which is correlated to a final lower mass gain. Cette étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres de nitruration plasma sur l'oxydation de l'acier 304L à 1000 ^{circ}C, sous air, à la pression atmosphérique. Les températures employées lors de la nitruration ont été de 300 ^{circ}C et 430 ^{circ}C pour des durées de nitruration variant entre 2 et 8 heures. A 300 et 430 ^{circ}C, la nitruration conduit à la formation d'une solution solide γ-N en surface sans provoquer la formation de nitrures. Après oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C du 304L non nitruré, la diffraction des rayons X révèle la formation d'une couche de type spinelle FeCr2O4 qui ne semble pas jouer le rôle de barrière de diffusion. Pour les échantillons préalablement nitrurés, plus la température de nitruration est élevée et plus la durée du traitement est longue, meilleur est le comportement en oxydation. Nous observons alors l'oxyde Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 en proportion importante dès le début de l'oxydation et une prise de masse finale plus faible.

  10. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Mothes

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a the effects of exercise and b the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  11. Influence of pressure change during hydraulic tests on fracture aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Koh, Yong-Kwon; Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Lee, Moo Yul; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-03-01

    In a series of field experiments, we evaluate the influence of a small water pressure change on fracture aperture during a hydraulic test. An experimental borehole is instrumented at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) Underground Research Tunnel (KURT). The target fracture for testing was found from the analyses of borehole logging and hydraulic tests. A double packer system was developed and installed in the test borehole to directly observe the aperture change due to water pressure change. Using this packer system, both aperture and flow rate are directly observed under various water pressures. Results indicate a slight change in fracture hydraulic head leads to an observable change in aperture. This suggests that aperture change should be considered when analyzing hydraulic test data from a sparsely fractured rock aquifer. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Physical factors influencing pleasant touch during tactile exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöcker

    Full Text Available When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (unpleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness.Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT , as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN , i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, μ. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of μ were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain.Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place

  13. Influence of preactivation on fascicle behavior during eccentric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Because muscle fascicle behavior affects to the force-generating capability, understanding of muscle fascicle length changes during dynamic movements is important. Preactivation may affect the muscle fascicle length changes, especially in the case of eccentric contraction. However, its influence has not been clarified. To this end, muscle fascicle behavior during eccentric contraction was compared between preactivation and no-preactivation conditions. Seven healthy men (24.6 ± 2.2 years, 169 ± 2 cm, 68.0 ± 5.1 kg) participated in this study. An eccentric knee extension controlled by a Biodex system was adopted as the testing motion. Muscle fascicle behavior of vastus lateralis during eccentric knee extensions was compared following two conditions. In preactivation condition, isometric preactivation was conducted before initiating eccentric contraction. On the other hand, in no-preactivation condition, muscle contraction was initiated immediately after initiating the knee angle change induced by a dynamometer. The muscle fascicle length at the onset of eccentric contraction was significantly shorter in preactivation condition than in no-preactivation condition (Cohen's d = 0.98, p eccentric contraction was not different (Cohen's d = 0.08, p = 0.844). The muscle fascicle was elongated throughout the eccentric contraction phase in preactivation condition. On the other hand, muscle fascicle was shortened in the first part, and then elongated in the latter part of the eccentric contraction phase in no-preactivation condition. The muscle fascicle is shortened even during eccentric contraction phase. However, this shortening is disappeared when preactivation is conducted.

  14. Study of catalytic reactions under supercritical conditions: pressure impact; Etude des reactions catalytiques en milieu supercritique: influence de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montillet, M.; Guillaume, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP/ENS), 69 - Vernaison (France); Essayem, N. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-02-15

    The supercritical fluids can be characterised mainly by their high extraction properties: high density, high compressibility and diffusivity, and low viscosity index. These properties can be affected by the evolution of the pressure near the critical point. This work aims to study the influence of the pressure to the performances of the solid catalyst (Beta zeolite) during the reaction of isobutane/butene alkylation. Near the critical point ({approx} 140 deg C, {approx} 4 MPa), an increase of the pressure leads to a higher density and to a decrease of the diffusivity of the reaction medium. Experiments have shown a significant improvement of the catalyst life time under supercritical conditions (140 deg C, > 4 MPa) as regard to the liquid phase conditions (80 deg C, 3 M Pa). However, under supercritical conditions, the quality of the alkylate was poorer mainly due to the cracking reactions favoured under high temperatures. Our study demonstrates a positive effect of the pressure on the alkylation reaction catalysed by a solid acid under supercritical conditions. The increase of the pressure near the critical point favours the extraction of the alkylation products (trimethyl-pentane) and the coke precursors from the catalytic surface but also reduces the occurrence of secondary reactions. (authors)

  15. International influences in Adult Education during Franco’s period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García Redondo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a point of view of adult education in Spain during Franco´s Regime, through critical analysis of the most important international contributions. Education was considered by the regime as an aid to socialize the population. In this article, we want to determine, firstly, if we can observe or not a certain international influence in adult education politics; second, if it is real that, behind this international interest about organizations, like UN and OECD, there is an motive and what is it; and finally, determine what importance has these universal proposals in the national political development. So, aided by the method historical-pedagogical, we make a critical review of the conferences, documents and most notable reports produced by these organizations during the period analyzed, with a particular interpretation that in summarized form, presented below.How to reference this articleGarcía Redondo, E. (2015. Influencias internacionales en la Educación de Adultos durante el franquismo. Foro de Educación, 13(19, 327-341. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.019.014

  16. INFLUENCE DES CONDITIONS D’ÉLEVAGE SUR LA CROISSANCE PONDÉRALE ET LES PARAMÈTRES SANGUINS UTILISÉS COMME DESCRIPTEURS DE L’ÉTAT PHYSIOLOGIQUE ET IMMUNITAIRE DE JEUNES CARPES CYPRINUS CARPIO (CYPRINIDAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Les réponses de certains paramètres sanguins de la carpe (Cyprinus carpio à des modifications des conditions d’élevage sont analysées au cours d’un cycle annuel. Les descripteurs hématologiques retenus, car pouvant témoigner d’une perturbation physiologique des poissons, sont : l’hématocrite, le nombre de globules rouges, le taux d’hémoglobine, la glycémie, la concentration en protéines sériques et la proportion d’immunoglobulines par rapport aux protéines totales. Les conditions d’élevage testées correspondent à un schéma de production de plus en plus utilisé en Dombes. Deux phases successives sont considérées : -élevage semi-intensif caractérisé par des densités élevées et une complémentation alimentaire à base de céréales ou d’aliments complets plus riches en protéines, -élevage extensif avec des densités plus faibles et une alimentation exclusivement naturelle. Nos résultats illustrent une influence du régime alimentaire, notamment au printemps avec l’augmentation de la température de l’eau et l’arrêt de la complémentation. Il semblerait qu’un régime très protéique provoque une déficience physiologique des poissons lorsqu’ils ne disposent plus que des ressources naturelles du milieu.

  17. Modelling of the influence of the 'Flimserstein' tunnel on the Lag Tiert karstic spring in Flims; Modellierung des Einflusses des Flimserstein-Tunnels auf die Karstquelle des Lag Tiert (Flims, GR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P.-Y.; Haeuselmann, P. [Schweizerisches Institut fuer Spelaeologie und Karstkunde SISKA, La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Wildberger, A. [Dr. von Moos AG, Geotechnisches Buero, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the influence of the 'Flimserstein' tunnel on the Lag Tiert karstic spring in Flims, Switzerland. When the tunnel, that provides a by-pass for the mountain village of Flims, was built, a karstic system was broached. As a result, several springs dried up and others had their capacity reduced. Also, the quantity of water available for a local hydropower station was reduced. The report describes how the situation as far as the underground watercourses are concerned was modelled and how exactly the tunnel construction changed the water-quantities at the various springs. The results of the study are presented and discussed and recommendations are made concerning the modelling of such karstic systems.

  18. Fuites dans les filetages des tubages : influence de la température et du passage dans le domaine plastique Leakage Through Tubular Connections: Influence of Temperature and of Partial Overstressing Unto the Plastic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bes De Berg F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après un rappel des conditions et des résultats du frettage purement mécanique des raccords filetés coniques, puis de l'influence d'une pression intérieure de fluide sur la réaction entre filetage mâle et manchon, l'étude montre que l'existence d'un gradient thermique élevé entre l'intérieur et l'extérieur du raccord bloqué entraîne une variation de la pression de contact dans le filetage (suivant approximativement une loi deltaPbar = 0,5 deltaT(°C qui peut favoriser une fuite. On voit aussi qu'en régime thermique établi (pseudoéquilibre les différences de température entre intérieur et extérieur du raccord sont trop faibles pour avoir quelque influence sur la pression de frettage. Les conséquences d'un accroissement des contraintes entraînant le passage de l'acier du raccord dans le domaine plastique ont été ensuite analysées, dans la perspective d'un critère suivant lequel le cylindre entre en déformation plastique, lorsque la contrainte de cisaillement maximum devient égale à la limite élastique du matériau du raccord. Examinant deux situations bien typées (dont on peut déduire toute situation intermédiaire, soit pression intérieure ou pression extérieure agissant seule, les auteurs montrent que la relaxation lente des contraintes qui avaient amené le matériau dans le domaine plastique, laissent subsister des contraintes résiduelles mobilisables dans un nouveau processus de sollicitation du raccord, pour en accroître d'autant la résistance dans le domaine élastique (à la limite duquel apparaît en principe la pression de fuite. Sous réserve d'un contrôle expérimental, cette démarche pourrait être appliquée en vue d'accroître la pression d'interférence dans les filetages, et d'augmenter les pressions de fuite, ce qui peut prendre une importance particulière dans le cas des tubes les plus épais de chaque dimension nominale, dont la résistance à l'éclatement des corps est toujours sup

  19. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de transformation des aliments et de commerce de détail, les marchés agroalimentaires évoluent vers une plus ...

  20. Influence of natural organic matter on the speciation of radionuclides in a geochemistry context; Influence de la matiere organique naturelle sur la speciation des radionucleides en contexte geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marang, L

    2007-09-15

    The principal aim of this work is the study of the influence of natural organic matter, in particularly humic substances (HS), on the speciation of radionuclides (RN). The studied radionuclides are cobalt (II), europium (III) and uranium (VI). It has been shown that mobility and bioavailability of a metal are related to its speciation. The NICA-Donnan model describes metal ion binding to NOM: it accounts for NOM chemical heterogeneity, competition during binding and ionic strength effects. However the model has been calibrated with a limited number of experimental data for the RN. Indeed there is only a few speciation technique available for the study of the interactions RN-HS. Within the framework of this study, we have developed and optimised speciation technique (Flux Donnan Membrane Technique and the use of an un-solubilized humic acid) in order to acquire new experimental data, we have also studied the effect of the competition on RN speciation and finally we have tested the model capacity to predict the RN behavior in laboratory or in situ. (author)

  1. The influence of Lidocaine temperature on pain during subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbom, Janne S; Tangen, Lena F; Wågø, Kathrine J; Skarsvåg, Trine I; Ballo, Solveig; Hjelseng, Tonje; Foss, Olav A; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-04-01

    Injection of local anaesthetics is an uncomfortable procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of lidocaine temperature on pain during subcutaneous injection. A randomised, double blind trial with 36 healthy volunteers was performed. Each subject received three injections of 4.5 ml 1% lidocaine subcutaneously on the abdomen; refrigerated (8 °C), at room temperature (21 °C), and warmed to body temperature (37 °C). By giving every subject injections of all three temperatures they served as their own controls. The participants were asked to evaluate the pain felt during the injection by placing a pencil mark on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale without intermediate markings immediately after every injection. They were told that the scale ranged from no pain to worst imaginable pain (0 = best; 100 = worst). Retrospectively the participants did a verbal assessment of the most and least painful injection. The median VAS score for the heated lidocaine was 16 (range =11-28), lidocaine at room temperature 25 (13-40) and for the cold 24 (11-35). The VAS scores for the heated lidocaine was significantly lower than for lidocaine at room temperature (p = 0.004). Also, the verbal assessment of heated lidocaine being less painful than the injection at room temperature was statistically significant (p = 0.015). Injection with lidocaine heated to around body temperature was less painful than injection with lidocaine at room temperature. There was no statistically significant difference in verbal assessment or VAS scores between the cold lidocaine and that at room temperature.

  2. Influence of Infection During Pregnancy on Fetal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; McAdams, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Infection by bacteria, viruses and parasites may lead to fetal death, organ injury or limited sequelae depending on the pathogen. Here we consider the role of infection during pregnancy on fetal development including placental development and function, which can lead to fetal growth restriction. The classic group of teratogenic pathogens are referred to as “TORCH” (Toxoplasma gondii, Others like Treponema pallidum, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus), but should include a much broader group of pathogens including Parvovirus B19, Varicella zoster virus, and Plasmodium falciparum to name a few. In this review, we describe the influence of different infections in utero on fetal development and the short- and long-term outcomes for the neonate. In some cases, the mechanisms used by these pathogens to disrupt fetal development are well known. Bacterial infection of the developing fetal lungs and brain begins with inflammatory cascade resulting in cytokine injury and oxidative stress. For some pathogens like P. falciparum, the mechanisms involve oxidative stress and apoptosis to disrupt placental and fetal growth. An in utero infection may also impact the long-term health of the infant; in many cases, a viral infection in utero increases the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes in childhood. Understanding the varied mechanisms employed by these pathogens may enable therapies to attenuate changes in fetal development, decrease preterm birth, and improve survival. PMID:23884862

  3. Evaluation des dommages des punaisese( Heteroptera ) et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse statistique des résultats dans les blocs témoins montre que les punaises occasionnent plus de dommages aux boutons floraux et aux capsules vertes immatures que les chenilles. Sur les jeunes capsules, la moyenne des dommages des punaises et des chenilles reste statistiquement identique. Les traitements ...

  4. Influence of second phase dispersion on void formation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararaman, M.; Banerjee, S.; Krishnan, R.

    Irradiation-induced void formation in alloys has been found to be strongly influenced by the microstructure, the important microstructural parameters being the dislocation density and the nature, density and distribution of second-phase precipitates. The effects of various types of precipitates on void swelling have been examined using the generally-accepted model of void formation : void embryos are assumed to grow in a situation where equal numbers of vacancies and interstitials are continuously generated by the incident irradiation, the interstitials being somewhat perferentially absorbed in some sinks present in the material. The mechanism of the trapping of defects by a distribution of precipitates has been discussed and the available experimental results on the suppression of void formation in materials containing coherent precipitates have been reviewed. Experimental results on the microstructure developed in a nickel-base alloys, Inconel-718 (considered to be a candidate material for structural applications in fast reactors), have been presented. The method of determination of the coherency strain associated with the precipitates has been illustrated with the help of certain observations made on this alloy. The major difficulty in using a two-phase alloy in an irradiation environment is associated with the irradiation-induced instability of the precipitates. Several processes such as precipitate dislocation (in which the incident radiation removes the outer layer of precipitates by recoil), enhanced diffusion disordering, fragmentation of precipitates, etc. are responsible for bringinq about a significant change in the structure of a two-phase material during irradiation. The effect of these processes on the continued performance of a two-phase alloy subjected to irradiation at an elevated temperature has been discussed. (auth.)

  5. Oxygen tension during biofilm growth influences the efficacy antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pippi ANTONIAZZI

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX and herbal green tea (Camellia sinensis solution on established biofilms formed at different oxygen tensions in an in situ model. Method Twenty-five dental students were eligible for the study. In situ devices with standardized enamel specimens (ES facing the palatal and buccal sides were inserted in the mouths of volunteers for a 7 day period. No agent was applied during the first four days. From the fifth day onward, both agents were applied to the test ES group and no agent was applied to the control ES group. After 7 days the ES fragments were removed from the devices, sonicated, plated on agar, and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C to determine and quantify the colony forming units (CFUs. Result CHX had significantly higher efficacy compared to green tea on the buccal (1330 vs. 2170 CFU/µL and palatal (2250 vs. 2520 CFU/µL ES. In addition, intragroup comparisons showed significantly higher efficacy in buccal ES over palatal ES (1330 vs. 2250 CFU/µL for CHX and 2170 vs, 2520 CFU/µL for CV for both solutions. Analysis of the ES controls showed significantly higher biofilm formation in palatal ES compared to buccal ES. Conclusion CHX has higher efficacy than green tea on 4-day biofilms. The efficacy of both agents was reduced for biofilms grown in a low oxygen tension environment. Therefore, the oxygen tension environment seems to influence the efficacy of the tested agents.

  6. Influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guardia, A; Petiot, C; Rogeau, D; Druilhe, C

    2008-01-01

    The paper aimed to study the influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting of wastewater sludge with wood chips. Wastewater sludge was sampled at a pig slaughterhouse 24h before each composting experiment, and mixtures were made at the same mass ratio. Six composting experiments were performed in a lab reactor (300 L) under forced aeration. Aeration flow was constant throughout the experiment and aeration rates applied ranged between 1.69 and 16.63 L/h/kg DM of mixture. Material temperature and oxygen consumption were monitored continuously. Nitrogen losses in leachates as organic and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate, and losses in exhaust gases as ammonia were measured daily. Concentrations of total carbon and nitrogen i.e., organic nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, and nitrite and nitrate were measured in the initial substrates and in the composted materials. The results showed that organic nitrogen, which was released as NH4+/NH3 by ammonification, was closely correlated to the ratio of carbon removed from the material to TC/N(org) of the initial substrates. The increase of aeration was responsible for the increase in ammonia emissions and for the decrease in nitrogen losses through leaching. At high aeration rates, losses of nitrogen in leachates and as ammonia in exhaust gases accounted for 90-99% of the nitrogen removed from the material. At low aeration rates, those accounted for 47-85% of the nitrogen removed from the material. The highest concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen in composts occurred at the lowest aeration rate. Due to the correlation of ammonification with biodegradation and to the measurements of losses in leachates and in exhaust gases, the pool NH4+/NH3 in the composting material was calculated as a function of time. The nitrification rate was found to be proportional to the mean content of NH4+/NH3 in the material, i.e., initial NH4+/NH3 plus NH4+/NH3 released by ammonification minus losses in

  7. Characterization of the atmospheric pollution level in Sfax (Tunisia): influence of sources and meteorological factors; Caracterisation du niveau de pollution atmospherique dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie): influence des sources et des facteurs meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch.; Maalej, A.; Medhioub, K. [Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs de Sfax, Unite de Recherche Etude et Gestion des Environnements Cotiers et Urbains (Tunisia); Tlili, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. de Geologie (Tunisia)

    2002-01-01

    This study held in Sfax City (Tunisia), showed that the atmospheric pollution level is strongly influenced by industrial sources, obstacles and meteorological factors. The factory of phosphate treatment 'SIAPE' displayed the main polluting source in the City. It is the principal issuing of SO{sub x} and toxic metals. The phosphogypsum deposit displayed an obstacle to the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. Their stagnation is accentuated under smoky conditions. Several episodes of SO{sub 2} and dust are attributed to the effect of marked thermal inversions and the sirocco wind. The limited influence of traffic was proved by the registration of NO{sub x}, which showed low concentrations. It is conditioned by the change of fashion life of people and their customs of work (Ramadan month, agricultural activities). As a result, the adequate treatment of atmospheric industrial emanations (notably those of SIAPE) and the evacuation of artificial obstacles have to be considered. (authors)

  8. Biodisponibilité des Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques dans les écosystèmes aquatiques : Influence de la matière organique naturelle et anthropique

    OpenAIRE

    Gourlay, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Les écosystèmes aquatiques sont un récepteur privilégié des micro-polluants. Ils contiennent aussi des matières organiques (MO) naturelle ou anthropiques. Les interactions entre les contaminants et les MO déterminent en grande partie la biodisponibilité des polluants. Par le passé, de nombreux travaux ont été consacrés à l'étude des interactions entre les contaminants et les MO humiques, très hydrophobes et non dégradables. Cependant, les MO des milieux anthropisés sont généralement plus hydr...

  9. Comprendre l'influence des facteurs contextuels sur la participation communautaire à la santé : une étude de cas dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, au Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombié, Issa; Ilboudo, David O S; Soubeiga, André Kamba; Samuelsen, Helle

    2017-09-01

    Le Burkina Faso met en œuvre depuis plusieurs années la stratégie de la participation communautaire. Des comités de gestion (CoGes) ont été mis en place dans les centres de santé de la première ligne et doivent participer aux prises de décisions. L'objectif principal de cette stratégie est de favoriser l'utilisation des services de santé et une adhésion massive des communautés aux activités de promotion de la santé. Seulement, on constate que les résultats escomptés par les autorités sanitaires tardent à se réaliser. Le présent article convoque les facteurs liés au contexte socioculturel du district sanitaire, pour analyser le phénomène de la participation communautaire. L'étude s'est déroulée dans le district sanitaire de Tenkodogo, situé dans la région administrative du Centre-est, à environ 190 km de la capitale. Cette étude exclusivement qualitative, a utilisé deux méthodes de collecte : les entretiens individuels et les focus groups. Les participants à l'étude sont les chefs de ménage ( n = 48), les membres des CoGes ( n = 10), les agents de santé ( n = 8) et les agents de santé communautaire ( n = 24). La méthode de l'analyse de contenu a été utilisée pour l'analyse des données. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que plusieurs facteurs socioculturels influencent la dynamique de la participation communautaire dans le district. Ce sont les conditions économiques, la perception négative des services de santé, les inégalités sociales de sexe et d'âge, le faible ancrage social des organisations communautaires, les rivalités inter-villages et les conflits coutumiers. L'étude relève également que les communautés ne perçoivent pas leur implication dans le processus décisionnel des services de santé comme une priorité. Leurs principales attentes s'orientent vers la disponibilité de soins de qualité et à coût réduit.

  10. Influence de la décomposition de la nécro-masse des espèces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2015 ... qualifié de climat sub-canarien avec une influence continentale. Les précipitations dans le département de ..... equisetifolia qui passe de 8,21 à 7,29. A partir du 28ème jour, le pH augmente régulièrement dans tous .... en terre du Nord Cameroun. Paris, ORSTOM,. M.E.S.R.E.S. et I.R.A. Notice Explicative, ...

  11. Biomass burning influences on ozone during the SAMBBA aircraft campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslake, Tim; Chiperfield, Martyn; Mann, Graham; Flemming, Johannes; Morgan, Will; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Remy, Sam; Dhomse, Sandip; Pope, Richard; Reddington, Carly

    2017-04-01

    Ozone (O3) is an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. It is detrimental to human and plant health, damaging plant stomata and therefore limiting photosynthesis. O3 is both formed and lost via the interconversion between nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2); the relative amount of O3 produced depends on the amount of NOx (NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which indirectly compete with O3 to oxidise NO back into NO2, leading to more O3. The Amazon region has some of the lowest background O3 levels on the planet (˜20 ppb) and is a NOx-limited environment for ozone production. During the tropical dry season emissions of NOx and VOCs from both tropical and savannah fires lead to a large increase in O3mixing ratios over the Amazon. With a predicted increase in non-agricultural fire activities, due to a changing climate it is important to understand how much O3is being formed in the Amazon and the sensitivity of this to fire and other emissions. The amount of O3 is potentially of additional importance as the Amazon forest is the largest single land carbon sink on the planet, with an estimated net annual sink of 2.4 pG C yr-1, which could be limited by O3 plant damage. Despite this, detailed observation of O3and its precursors in the Amazon have been limited. However, the SAMBBA field campaign (September- October 2012) provides an opportunity to observe in-situ O3formation. The ECMWF C-IFS (Composition Integrated Forecast System) developed under MACC and continued under CAMS, provides global operational forecasts and re-analyses of atmospheric composition at high spatial resolution (T255, ˜80km). In this study, we present results from C-IFS experiments for the SAMBBA period, with and without composition data assimilation, exploring how well the C-IFS represents biomass burning influences on O3in the Amazon. The aim is to test our understanding of O3formation and precursor emissions as well as the capability of the C-IFS for air quality forecasts

  12. Balancing of rotating machines using influence coefficients calculated by numerical models; Equilibrage des machines tournantes par coefficients d`influence a l`aide de modeles numeriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, R.; Bigret, R.; Karajani, R.; Vialard, S.

    1995-09-01

    The balancing of large rotating machines (turbine-generator sets and reactor coolant pumps) is generally carried out at Electricite de France using a influence coefficient method. For this, the influence of unbalances in the balancing planes have to be ascertained and, as a consequence, involves stopping and starting the machines several times. The purpose of the presented study is to analyse the possibility of reducing machine unavailability through the use of influence coefficients calculated with the help of a adjusted numerical (unbalance response) model for the balancing process. The principles of this method are shown and applied to a mock-up of a shaft line fitted with a full set of instruments (bearings and shaft) and having modal characteristics similar to common machines. The results are encouraging. They show the feasibility of the method.

  13. Influence of the Chernobyl fallout on {sup 137}Cs wine activities on the Rhone valley; Influence des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl sur l'activite en {sup 137}Cs du vin des cotes du Rhone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Colle, C.; Louvat, D.; Barker, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-03-01

    Influence of the Chernobyl fallout on {sup 137}CS wine activities on the Rhone valley. Some parts of the Rhone valley have been quite strongly, affected by the Chernobyl fallout, with {sup 137}Cs deposits sometimes higher than 20 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In those regions, most of agricultural surfaces are devoted to vineyards for famous vintages. This study shows that the consequences of the Chernobyl fallout in wine were visible but very weak. {sup 137}CS wine activities did not reached 1 Bq 1{sup -1}. Such limited consequences are linked to the date of the deposit, the first week of May 1986, at the beginning of vineyard plant foliar development. Since 1986, this activity has strongly decreased to be in 2000 close to those existing before the accident: some milli-becquerel per litre. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil, mainly contained within the 20 first centimeters, are weakly available for vineyard roots. (authors)

  14. Influence of the impurity-defect and impurity-impurity interactions on the crystalline silicon solar cells conversion efficiency; Influence des interactions impurete-defaut et impurete-impurete sur le rendement de conversion des cellules photovoltaiques au silicium cristallin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, S

    2007-05-15

    This study aims at understanding the influence of the impurity - defect interaction on the silicon solar cell performances. We studied first the case of single-crystalline silicon. We combined numerical simulations and experimental data providing new knowledge concerning metal impurities in silicon, to quantify the evolution of the conversion efficiency with the impurity concentration. Mainly due to the gettering effects, iron appears to be quite well tolerated. It is not the case for gold, diffusing too slowly. Hydrogenation effects were limited. We transposed then this study toward multi-crystalline silicon. Iron seems rather well tolerated, due to the gettering effects but also due to the efficiency of the hydrogenation. When slow diffusers are present, multi crystalline silicon is sensitive to thermal degradation. n-type silicon could solve this problem, this material being less sensitive to metal impurities. (author)

  15. Factors Influencing Lesion Formation During Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf J. Eick

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In radiofrequency (RF ablation, the heating of cardiac tissue is mainly resistive. RF current heats cardiac tissue and in turn the catheter electrode is being heated. Consequently, the catheter tip temperature is always lower - or ideally equal - than the superficial tissue temperature. The lesion size is influenced by many parameters such as delivered RF power, electrode length, electrode orientation, blood flow and tissue contact. This review describes the influence of these different parameters on lesion formation and provides recommendations for different catheter types on selectable parameters such as target temperatures, power limits and RF durations

  16. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    constant exposure of humans with possible harmful influence on health and hormone regulation. EDCs may affect thyroid hormone homeostasis by different mechanisms, and though the effect of each chemical seems scarce, the added effects may cause inappropriate consequences on, for example, foetal...... neurodevelopment. This paper focuses on thyroid hormone influence on foetal development in relation to the chemicals suspected of thyroid disrupting properties with possible interactions with maternal thyroid homeostasis. Knowledge of the effects is expected to impact the general debate on the use...

  17. Contrôle hormonal des caractéristiques des fibres musculaires après la naissance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Listrat, Anne; Picard, Brigitte

    1998-01-01

    Après la naissance, la croissance et les propriétés contractiles et métaboliques des fibres musculaires sont soumises à une régulation endocrinienne complexe. A l’exception des glucocorticoïdes, la plupart des hormones présente une action anabolique sur le tissu musculaire. Leur influence sur les caractéristiques des fibres est cependant très différente. Ainsi, les hormones somatotropes affectent peu la composition en fibres des muscles. La GH, comme l’IGF-1, régulerait cependant l’expression...

  18. Intérêt et limites de l'ajout de fèces dures dans le nid sur la santé des lapereaux

    OpenAIRE

    Savietto, Davi; Prigent, Anne Yvonne; Gidenne, Thierry; Colin, M.; Combes, Sylvie; Zemb, Olivier; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Le comportement naturel de coprophagie exprimé par les jeunes lapereaux au nid peut être amplifié par l’ajout de fèces dures exogènes. L'objectif de notre étude est 1) d'évaluer la faisabilité de cette pratique en conditions d’élevage professionnel, et 2) d’étudier son intérêt et ses limites sur la santé des lapereaux jusqu’à l’âge de la vente. L’expérience a été réalisée sur 363 portées, dans un élevage professionnel n'utilisant pas d'antibiotiques depuis plus de 10 ans, et penda...

  19. How weight during pregnancy influences the association between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Women in study areas suffered from the problems of caesarean delivery (CD), low birth weight (LBW), and macrosomia. Objective: To investigate how gestational weight gain (GWG) influences the effect of the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on the risks of CD, LBW, and macrosomia in urban and rural ...

  20. Mesures de procédure spéciales et respect des droits de l'homme Rapport général

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Le but du rapport général est de mener une analyse comparative des rapports nationaux en vue de présenter les processus de transformation des systèmes de justice pénale internes, en particulier du procès pénal, étant donné que des mesures procédurales spéciales sont introduites pour appréhender le

  1. Influence of hamstring lengthening on muscle activation timing during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Roetenberg, D.; Harlaar, J.; Rosenbaum, D.; Kleissen, R.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in muscle activation patterns using surface electromyography (sEMG) during walking in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), before and after hamstring lengthening. In the current clinical use of sEMG during walking in CP for pre-operative planning,

  2. Relation eau de ruissellement et eau des sources et forages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La région Zagnanado-Zogbodomey constituée de grandes dépressions et de vallée a été retenue pour mieux comprendre l'influence des eaux de ruissellement sur la qualité des eaux souterraines des aquifères continus du Bassin sédimentaire côtier. A partir d'analyses microbiologiques portant sur des échantillons d'eau ...

  3. Influence of heat treatment in {beta} and {gamma} phases on the microscopic structure of uranium; Influence des traitements thermiques en phases {beta} et {gamma} sur la structure micrographique de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robillard, A

    1958-06-02

    aux faibles variations d'orientation den structures polygonisees. En utilisant cette technique d'examen on a montre l'existence de sous-structures, differentes de celles dues a la polygonisation de la phase {alpha}, dans l'uranium traite en phase {gamma} et refroidi a une vitesse qui depend de la temperature de maintien en {gamma}. ces sous-structures sont materialisees par la precipitation d'impuretes sur les dislocations induites par les tensions qui accompagnent la transformation {gamma} {yields} {beta}. Des traitements analogues sur un alliage U-Cr 1,4 % ou la phase {beta} peut etre retenue a la temperature ambiante, confirme cette explication. En plus de ces sous-structures, on observe dans le reseau des discontinuites formant un reseau de 'joints blancs'. La comparaison avec les structures revelees par attaque thermique indique qu'il s'agit des traces des joints de la phase {gamma}. La methode d''attaque-oxydation' a permis la mise en evidence d'une phase 'aureolee' identifiee comme etant UH{sub 3}. Les conditions d'apparition et de disparition de cette phase sont etudiees. La sensibilite de la methode a detecter les traces ultimes d'H dans U est tres grande. On a enfin etudie l'influence de la teneur en hydrogene sur les proprietes mecaniques du metal uranium. (auteur)

  4. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Sutton, D.; Wallace, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  5. An Extraterrestrial Influence During the Current Glacial-Interglacial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clube, S

    1993-01-01

    ...:2 Jovian mean motion resonance. Assuming the material released by these events perturbs the atmospheres of Sun and Earth attention is drawn to modulations of the climate during the late Pleistocene-Holocene (i.e. since approx. 20000 BP...

  6. Factors influencing resilience in patients with burns during rehabilitation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: During psychological crisis intervention, medical staff should guide burn patients according to their individual coping styles. Such guidance would achieve a better effect, improve patient resilience, and promote positive psychological adaptation.

  7. Contribution des causes de décès aux gains en espérance de vie à 65 ans au Canada et l’influence de leur profil par âge, 1979-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier

    dans l’évolution de l’espérance de vie proviennent de modifications dans les tendances de certaines causes de décès et de leurs interactions. Cette étude analyse la contribution respective de certaines causes de décès aux changements observés de l’espérance de vie, mais aussi comment les profils de...... variation par âge des causes de décès influencent les tendances des taux de mortalité par cause. Les résultats montrent que les progrès de l’espérance de vie à 65 ans sont encore majoritairement dus à la diminution de la mortalité liée aux maladies cardiovasculaires. Toutefois, ces dernières causes de décès...

  8. Protein deubiquitination during oocyte maturation influences sperm function during fertilisation, antipolyspermy defense and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Song, Won-Hee; Sutovsky, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Ubiquitination is a covalent post-translational modification of proteins by the chaperone protein ubiquitin. Upon docking to the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin is released from the substrate protein by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We hypothesised that specific inhibitors of two closely related oocyte DUBs, namely inhibitors of the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCH) UCHL1 (L1 inhibitor) and UCHL3 (L3 inhibitor), would alter porcine oocyte maturation and influence sperm function and embryo development. Aberrant cortical granule (CG) migration and meiotic spindle defects were observed in oocytes matured with the L1 or L3 inhibitor. Embryo development was delayed or blocked in oocytes matured with the general DUB inhibitor PR-619. Aggresomes, the cellular stress-inducible aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins, formed in oocytes matured with L1 inhibitor or PR-619, a likely consequence of impaired protein turnover. Proteomic analysis identified the major vault protein (MVP) as the most prominent protein accumulated in oocytes matured with PR-619, suggesting that the inhibition of deubiquitination altered the turnover of MVP. The mitophagy/autophagy of sperm-contributed mitochondria inside the fertilised oocytes was hindered by DUB inhibitors. It is concluded that DUB inhibitors alter porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and preimplantation embryo development. By regulating the turnover of oocyte proteins and mono-ubiquitin regeneration, the DUBs may promote the acquisition of developmental competence during oocyte maturation.

  9. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while...... neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase...... not influence the force needed to close the fascia....

  10. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIC » ont sur l'éducation des adolescents. Par une démarche d'étude essentiellement transversale, quantitative et qualitative, nous avons interrogé 160 sujets et les données collectées ont fait découvrir autant d'influences positives que ...

  12. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    of the factors with the ability to promote such changes. Household pets are another contributor which can potentially affect the microbiota of the owner. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the antibiotic usage and vaginal microbiota in pregnant women from the COPSAC2010 pregnancy...... cohort. In study I we described the usage of antibiotics; (1) in pregnancy as oral antibiotics subdivided into groups; urinary tract infection (UTI) antibiotics, beta-lactams and other antibiotics, and (2) during birth as intrapartum antibiotics. Furthermore we examined whether the usage of both oral...... antibiotics during pregnancy and intrapartum antibiotics was associated to social and lifestyle-factors. The prevalence of oral antibiotic administration during pregnancywas higher than a decade ago with more than one-third of pregnant women being treated. Oral antibiotic administration as well as multiple...

  13. Epigenetic Influences During the Periconception Period and Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Akwasi A; Nafee, Tamer M; Ola, Bolarinde

    2017-01-01

    The periconception period starts 6 months before conception and lasts until the tenth week of gestation. In this chapter, we will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA and gene expression within this period and during assisted reproduction. There are two critical times during the periconception window when significant epigenetic 'reprogramming' occur: one during gametogenesis and another during the pre-implantation embryonic stage. Furthermore, assisted conception treatments, laboratory protocols and culture media can affect the embryo development and birth weights in laboratory animals. There is, however, an ongoing debate as to whether epigenetic changes in humans, causing embryo mal-development, placenta dysfunction and birth defects, result from assisted reproductive technologies or are consequences of pre-existing medical and/or genetic conditions in the parents. The periconception period starts from ovarian folliculogenesis, through resumption of oogenesis, fertilisation, peri-implantation embryo development, embryogenesis until the end of organogenesis. In men, it is the period from spermatogenesis to epididymal sperm storage and fertilisation. Gametes and developing embryos are sensitive to environmental factors during this period, and epigenetic modifications can occur in response to adverse lifestyles and environmental factors. We now know that lifestyle factors such as advanced parentage age, obesity or undernutrition, smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine intake and recreational drugs used during gamete production and embryogenesis could induce epigenetic alterations, which could impact adversely on pregnancy outcomes and health of the offspring. Furthermore, these can also result in a permanent and irreversible effect in a dose-dependent manner, which can be passed on to the future generations.

  14. Task Requirements Influence Sensory Integration during Grasping in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safstrom, Daniel; Edin, Benoni B.

    2004-01-01

    The sensorimotor transformations necessary for generating appropriate motor commands depend on both current and previously acquired sensory information. To investigate the relative impact (or weighting) of visual and haptic information about object size during grasping movements, we let normal subjects perform a task in which, unbeknownst to the…

  15. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...

  16. Influence of Bilingualism on Memory Generalization during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined the cognitive advantages of bilingualism during the first two years of development, and a majority of the studies examining bilingualism throughout the lifespan have focused on the relationship between multiple languages and cognitive control. Early experience with multiple language systems may influence…

  17. Agent des médias sociaux (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Travaillant en étroite collaboration avec le chef, Web et nouveaux médias, l'agent des médias sociaux contribue à l'élaboration de stratégies et de politiques pour les médias sociaux et encadre leur mise en oeuvre; instaure des lignes directrices, des systèmes, des procédures et des outils relatifs aux ...

  18. Correspondence Between Structure and Reactivity During Hydrothermal Conversion of Lignocellulosic Macromolecules Relation entre la structure ét la réactivité en conversion hydrothermale des macromolécules de lignocellulosique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbier J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reaction pathway of a woody biomass under hydrothermal conditions is investigated in order to further understand reactions that occur during the thermochemical liquefaction of a lignocellulosic biomass. A multitechnique analytical approach combining chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques has been developed in order to characterize both chemical structure and molecular weight of the products. From our experiments, we can assume that the holocellulosic and the ligneous fractions of biomass have different reactivity under hydrothermal condition. Although hydrothermal conversion of holocellulose and lignin occur both according to a complex pathway composed of competitive fragmentation and condensation reactions, holocellulose reacts first by total fragmentation to low molecular weight compounds followed by the condensation of the fragment to heavy molecular weight compounds, whereas lignin reacts essentially by partial depolymerisation. Since compounds produced from both the holocellulosic and the ligneous fraction are together in the reaction medium then they condense each other during the conversion of lignocellulosic material. Ce travail porte sur l’étude des voies réactionnelles accompagnant la liquéfaction thermochimique du bois et de ses constituants lignocellulosiques lors d’un traitement hydrothermal. Pour ce faire, une approche analytique multi-technique originale combinant des méthodes chromatographiques et spectroscopiques complémentaires a été développée afin de caractériser les structures et les masses moléculaires des produits. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la fraction holocellulosique et la fraction ligneuse de la biomasse ont des réactivités très différentes. Bien que les deux matériaux réagissent selon des schémas réactionnels complexes faisant intervenir de nombreuses voies de fragmentation et de condensation compétitives, la fraction holocellulosique réagit par une première

  19. Influence of the radiographer on the pain felt during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; De Schepper, A.; Mortelmans, D.; Bruyninckx, E.; Hove, E. Van

    2003-01-01

    Mammography is the only useful examination in screening for breast cancer. Mortality from breast cancer can be reduced if women go regularly for a screening mammography. Moreover, it is still the key examination in diagnosis of breast diseases and in the follow-up of patients treated for breast cancer. Pain with mammography can deter women from going for regular screening or follow-up; therefore, it is important to reduce pain experience or discomfort from mammography. In this study we evaluate the impact of the ''radiographer'' on the pain risk during mammography by analysing questionnaires filled in by women and radiographers. Study results reveal that the opinion of the radiographer, the information and communication during the examination and the number of years of experience are important factors in pain and discomfort experience. The attitude of the radiographer plays an important role in the pain experience. (orig.)

  20. Influence of compatibilizer on blends degradation during processing

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Walter R.; Paoli, Marco-A. De

    2013-01-01

    The thermomechanical degradation of blends made from polypropylene and polystyrene, with or without compatibilizer, was studied using an internal mixer coupled to a torque rheometer. The blends processed without compatibilizer presented regular and expected results regarding torque reduction, with evidence of chain scission. The blends processed with the block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, SBS, as a compatibilizer presented unchanged or less reduced variation on torque values during pro...

  1. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optic Flow Information Influencing Heading Perception during Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederick C. Niehorster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated what roles global spatial frequency, surface structure, and foreground motion play in heading perception during simulated rotation from optic flow. The display (110°Hx94°V simulated walking on a straight path over a ground plane (depth range: 1.4–50 m at 2 m/s while fixating a target off to one side (mean R/T ratios: ±1, ±2, ±3 under six display conditions. Four displays consisted of nonexpanding dots that were distributed so as to manipulate the amount of foreground motion and the presence of surface structure. In one further display the ground was covered with disks that expanded during the trial and lastly a textured ground display was created with the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the disk ground. At the end of each 1s trial, observers indicated their perceived heading along a line at the display's center. Mean heading biases were smaller for the textured than for the disk ground, for the displays with more foreground motion and for the displays with surface structure defined by dot motion than without. We conclude that while spatial frequency content is not a crucial factor, dense motion parallax and surface structure in optic flow are important for accurate heading perception during rotation.

  3. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  4. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and imagination. Alexithymia is widely regarded to arise from an impairment of emotion regulation. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to critically evaluate this by investigating the neural correlates of emotion regulation as a function of alexithymia levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying the two alexithymia dimensions during emotion perception and emotion regulation. Using fMRI, we scanned 51 healthy subjects while viewing, reappraising or suppressing negative emotional pictures. The results support the idea that cognitive alexithymia, but not affective alexithymia, is associated with lower activation in emotional attention and recognition networks during emotion perception. However, in contrast with several theories, no alexithymia-related differences were found during emotion regulation (neither reappraisal nor suppression). These findings suggest that alexithymia may result from an early emotion processing deficit rather than compromised frontal circuits subserving higher-order emotion regulation processes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels van der Aa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  6. Influence de la concentration en silicium et en titane sur le gonflement d'aciers du type 316 Ti irradiés par des electrons de 1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbon, Didier; le Naour, Lucien; Didout, Gérard; Levy, Viviane

    1981-09-01

    Dans le but d'étudier l'influence de la teneur en titane et silicium sur le gonflement des aciers 316 Ti nous avons étudié quatre nuances d'aciers, 0.25 Ti-0.33 Si, 0.25 Ti-0.60 Si, 0.45 Ti-0.33 Si, 0.45 Ti-0.60 Si, obtenues en effectuant des additions contrôlées de titane et silicium dans la nuance la moins chargée. Ces matériaux ont été irradiés à 520 et 600°C à l'état hypertrempé par des électrons de 1 MeV dans le microscope électronique à très haute tension. La vitesse de production de défauts était de 20 dpa par heure. L'augmentation de la teneur en titane conduit toujours à une diminution du gonflement. On observe cependant que l'efficacité de cet élément pour réduire le gonflement est plus importante à 600°C et pour la faible teneur en silicium. Le titane, en faible concentration a pour effet de diminuer la taille des cavités; à concentration plus élevée il réduit aussi la vitesse de germination. L'addition de titane provoque un décalage du pic de gonflement vers les basses températures. L'effet du silicium est plus complexe, il dépend en particulier de la teneur en titane. L'addition de silicium ne réduit de façon importante le gonflement qu'à température élevée (600°C) et pour la faible teneur en titane. Le silicium a pour effet de diminuer la vitesse de germination des cavités mais il ne modifie pas leur taille. L'augmentation de la teneur en silicium produit un décalage du pic de gonflement vers les basses températures. Nous n'avons pas observé d'effect de couplage favorable entre le titane et le silicium. On peut rendre compte de l'ensemble des effets observés en supposant que les atomes de titane ont une énergie d'interaction relativement élevée avec les dislocations et les défauts ponctuels dans la matrice.

  7. Influence des paramètres d'un laser ER: YAG sur l'adaptation marginale d'une restauration à faible contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Quarante molaires ont été réparties en cinq groupes. C'est avec un laser de type Er:YAG que des cavités occlusales ont été faites sur les dents des quatre premiers groupes et cela avec certains paramètres définis et spécifiques à chacun. Les dents du dernier groupe quant à elles, ont subi un traitement conventionnel de fraisage. L’obturation des cavités a été faite avec le même matériau, une résine composite à faible taux de contraction. L'adaptation marginale de chaque dent a ensuite été com...

  8. The influence of core bypass flow during SBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselj, A.; Jurkovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    Many parameters affect the behaviour of a NPP during a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). The bypass flow between the core side and the downcomer is one of them. Different PWRs have different values of core bypass flow. In spite of the complexity of the real situation in the primary system during SBLOCA, some fundamental details of the phenomena can be explained with simplified mathematical models, which relate on basic parameters of the primary coolant. These models define the conditions for loop seal clearance and final results are confirmed with measured values. The analysis presented in the paper refers to Bethsy Test 9.1.b SB LOCA scenario, with variation of core bypass flow. Basic RELAP5 input model calculation results show very good agreement with the experimental data. The core liquid level depression before loop seal clearance is lower in case of smaller core bypass flow. This affects the fuel clad temperature because of different heat transfer mechanisms. Time of loop seal clearance is delayed with larger core bypass flow and consequently lower differential pressure between downcomer and core. (author)

  9. Etude de l’altération de la calcarénite des monuments de Rabat : Influence de la Pollution Atmosphérique et des Aérosols Marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaouia Nouhad

    2014-04-01

    Le but du présent travail est de constituer une base de données pour orienter les recherches ultérieures sur la problématique de la conservation du patrimoine bâti et optimiser le choix des matériaux de remplacement, tout en prenant en compte tous les mécanismes et démarches nécessaires pour une meilleure protection dans lecadre d’un développement urbain en perpétuelle expansion.

  10. Lifecourse influences on women's smoking before, during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hilary; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Law, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    The concept of the socioeconomic lifecourse is increasingly informing understanding of the social patterning of cigarette smoking. We investigated lifecourse influences on (i) women's smoking status (smoker/non-smoker) before pregnancy and (ii) quitting in pregnancy in the UK Millennium Cohort study. Our analyses included conventional measures of the socioeconomic lifecourse (woman's childhood circumstances, education, current socioeconomic circumstances) and measures of her domestic lifecourse (age of becoming a mother, current cohabitation status), as well as parity (first/subsequent child). In analyses of quitting, we also included pre-pregnancy cigarette consumption. Our study underlined, firstly, the importance of lifecourse disadvantage. Those experiencing greater disadvantage with respect to their childhood circumstances, education and current circumstances were at greater risk of being a smoker before pregnancy. A disadvantaged domestic lifecourse - earlier entry into motherhood and lone motherhood-further increased the risk. Poorer childhood circumstances, educational disadvantage, poorer current circumstances and early motherhood also significantly increased the odds of quitting in pregnancy. Secondly, parity was a major predictor of smoking behaviour. First-time mothers had higher odds both of smoking before pregnancy and quitting in pregnancy. The effects of parity were independent of women's lifecourse. Our study supports tobacco control policies which recognise and address inequalities across the lifecourse. However, our study suggests that the dye is not irrevocably cast by social disadvantage: first pregnancy uniformly increases the chances of quitting. Interventions which help smokers having their first baby to quit have an important part to play in promoting maternal and child health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Étude de l’influence des couches de non-tissés intermédiaires dans la réversibilité du doublage thermoplastique au Plextol B500®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Le Poizat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Les choix concernant les matériaux et la mise en œuvre d’un doublage du support original d’une peinture par un textile et des adhésifs synthétiques sont souvent pris de manière empirique par les restaurateurs, sans être précédés de tests précis. La réversibilité, qui est un principe de déontologie primordial est encore imprécise pour ce type de doublage. Nous avons étudié par des expérimentations comment celle-ci peut être déterminée par le choix des couches intermédiaires.Choices about materials and the elaboration of synthetic linings are often made by the conservator, without any precise experimentation. Reversibility is an important deontological principal, not well-known concerning synthetic lining. We studied thanks to experimentations, how it can be influenced by the choice of the intermediate layers.

  12. Therapist influence on client language during motivational interviewing sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B; Martin, Tim

    2006-04-01

    Client language in favor of change is hypothesized to be a causal mechanism for motivational interviewing (MI), and specific therapist behaviors are prescribed to elicit such speech. This project examined 38 motivational enhancement therapy sessions from Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), using a sequential behavioral coding system to investigate the relationship between therapist behaviors and client speech. Conditional probabilities were calculated between MI-consistent (MICO) therapist behaviors, MI-inconsistent (MIIN) therapist behaviors, and immediately subsequent client speech. MICO behaviors were more likely to be followed by self-motivational statements, whereas MIIN behaviors were more likely to be followed by client resistance. These results lend support to the importance of therapist behaviors in shaping client speech during MI sessions.

  13. Aerobic influence on neuromuscular function and tolerance during passive hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shawnda A; Sleivert, Gordon G; Cheung, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    To determine the role of aerobic fitness on central neuromuscular activation and maximal voluntary contractile force during hyperthermia. Thirty-seven healthy males in three distinct groups based on aerobic fitness and training history were passively heated using a liquid conditioning garment in a hot (35 degrees C, 50% RH) environment with the intention of testing neuromuscular function with whole-body hyperthermia. Of these initial participants, 11 of the 13 highly fit (HF; VO2max = 71.2 +/- 5.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), body fat = 5.6 +/- 1.9%), 11 of the 13 moderately fit (MF; 57.2 +/- 4.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), 11 +/- 3.4%), and 4 of the 11 lower-fit (LF; 49.6 +/- 1.1 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), 19.4 +/- 2.6%) individuals tolerated heating to 39.0 degrees C, with the remainder terminating the experimental protocol early. Maximal force output and voluntary activation were examined during a 10-s maximal isometric knee extension. Passive heating attenuated force production (-61.7 +/- 69.6 N change from initial values) and decreased voluntary activation (8.6 (12.6), 18.1 (12.4), and 6.1 (3.1)% for HF, MF, and LF training groups, respectively). Cardiovascular strain moderately increased to 60 +/- 14% (P heating (98 +/- 15, 99 +/- 7, and 79 +/- 5 mm Hg for HF, MF, and LF, respectively; P heating to 39.0 degrees C (and above) differed between the HF and MF compared with LF, despite no difference in their psychophysical rankings of thermal sensations and/or (dis)comfort. Low aerobic fitness and activity level are associated with a decreased tolerance to passive hyperthermia. However, at high body temperatures, maximum force production and voluntary activation were impaired to an equal level regardless of training status.

  14. Influence de l'environnement et des pratiques culturales sur la productivité de Jatropha curcas L. en Afrique subsaharienne (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Minengu, J.; Mobambo, P.; Mergeai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Influence of environment and cropping practices on the productivity of Jatropha curcas L. in Sub-Saharan Africa. A review. In most sub-Saharan African countries, the establishment of Jatropha curcas L. plantations preceded the scientific investigations necessary to optimize the production of this species. Consequently, the development of the plants was low and yields during the first years of cultivation were mostly disappointing. The low yields obtained in marginal conditions led to the beli...

  15. INFLUENCE DES PARAMÈTRES OPÉRATIONNELS SUR LA DÉGRADATION PHOTOCATALYTIQUE DE ’’ L’ ORANGE G ‘’ EN PRÉSENCE D’UNE SUSPENSION AQUEUSE DE DIOXYDE DE TITANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H CHENINI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail porte sur la photodégradation d’un colorant azoté ‘’ l’Orange G‘’  à température ambiante en présence d’une suspension aqueuse de dioxyde de titane.  L’influence de différents paramètres (semi conducteurs de la série PC ‘’Tiona’’, pH, anions  inorganiques, H2O2 et S2O82- sur l’orientation et la vitesse de la réaction a été examinée. Au cours de cette étude, nous avons montré que la cinétique de disparition photocatalytique de l’Orange G suit bien le modèle de Langmuir-Hinshelwood. Par ailleurs les capacités photocatalytiques des TiO2 de la famille des Tiona PC sont moins efficaces que celles du Degussa P25, même s’ils présentent des surfaces spécifiques plus élevées. L’alcalinisation du milieu réactionnel accélère considérablement la disparition de l’OG. Nous avons également constaté que la présence des ions (Cl-, CO32-, NO3- inhibe légèrement la photocatalyse de l’Orange G tandis que l’addition de H2O2 et de S2O82-  améliore les performances de dépollution par la technique  photocatalytique. Cependant, l’utilisation de H2O2 en excès conduit à un effet de piége pour les radicaux HO•.

  16. The influence of nanocellulose coating on saffron quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Bahrami, Iman; Dehnad, Danial; Shahidi, Seyyed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Since saffron is an added-value product, and the most expensive agricultural product, it is necessary to increase its shelf life, prevent its quality loss during storage, and maintain its organoleptic properties, enabling producers to export saffron with higher quality and better consumer acceptability. So, in this research, saffron samples were coated through applying different carbohydrate biopolymers: maltodextrin with DE=4 or DE=20 (MD4 and MD20) or their combination with nanocellulose fibres (MDC4 and MDC20). Finally, the experiments were carried out to measure rehydration ratio, water activity, crocin content, color values, and sensory properties of saffron samples coated by different materials. MDC4 resulted in the lowest rehydration ratio among coated samples since, first, lower DE degrees of biopolymer complexes decreased moisture adsorption and solubility of maltodextrin and second, crystalline nanocellulose fibres increased tortuous and bended pathways in materials and reduced penetration possibilities of water molecules. MDC4 was the most effective treatment in preventing crocin decrease. Indeed, film forming characteristic of maltodextrin with low hydrolysis degree and special structure of nanocellulose led to the maintenance of crocin bioactive ingredient. SEM observations revealed coating on saffron surfaces as a thin clear and brilliant layer which enhanced saffron acceptability for our panelists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the Periodic Boundary Conditions on the Fluid Structure and on the Thermodynamic Properties Computed from the Molecular Simulations Influence des conditions périodiques sur la structure et sur les propriétés thermodynamiques calculées à partir des simulations moléculaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeček J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The components of pair distribution function in different directions with respect to the coordinate system defined by the simulation box are determined for Lennard-Jones fluid simulated using the Monte Carlo technique in cubic boxes of various size. The approach of Pratt and Haan is employed to analyze the distortion of isotropic fluid structure due to the periodic boundary conditions and qualitative agreement is found between the theoretical and simulated course of particular angular components of distribution function. The relation between the anisotropy of correlation functions and the system size dependency of residual energy and compressibility factor is analyzed. The finite size effects become significantly pronounced in systems with size lower than 5 particle diameters, especially if the length of the box-edge is equal to a non-integer multiple of molecular diameter. With increasing temperature the implicit finite size effects on fluid structure as well as on the thermodynamic properties become less important. The primary cause of the structure deformation lies in the short-range interparticle correlations and the long-range interactions are not important; therefore, the implicit finite size effects influence all kinds of atomistic simulations, including those using the interactions of finite range and in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, at present the simulated systems are usually of sufficiently large size and ignoring the implicit finite size does not lead to serious problems, except for the determination of surface properties using the inhomogeneous simulations which are more sensitive to the lateral dimension of simulation box. Nous avons déterminé les contributions directionnelles de la fonction de distribution par paire du fluide de Lennard-Jones, par simulation moléculaire de Monte Carlo dans des boîtes cubiques de différentes tailles. L’approche de Pratt et Haan est utilisée pour analyser la distorsion de la

  18. CFD simulations in the nuclear containment using the DES turbulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Peng [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Meilan [China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute, Shenzhen (China); Li, Wanai, E-mail: liwai@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering & Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Yulan [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Biao [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering & Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The k-ε based DES model is used in the nuclear containment simulation. • The comparison of results between different turbulent models is obtained. • The superiority of DES models is analyzed. • The computational efficiency with the DES turbulence models is explained. - Abstract: Different species of gases would be released into the containment and cause unpredicted disasters during the nuclear severe accidents. It is important to accurately predict the transportation and stratification phenomena of these gas mixtures. CFD simulations of these thermal hydraulic issues in nuclear containment are investigated in this paper. The main work is to study the influence of turbulence model on the calculation of gas transportation and heat transfer. The k-ε based DES and other frequently used turbulence models are used in the steam and helium release simulation in THAI series experiment. This paper will show the superiority of the DES turbulence model in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy with the experimental results, and analyze the necessities of DES model to simulate the large-scale containment flows with both laminar and turbulence regions.

  19. CFD simulations in the nuclear containment using the DES turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Peng; Chen, Meilan; Li, Wanai; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The k-ε based DES model is used in the nuclear containment simulation. • The comparison of results between different turbulent models is obtained. • The superiority of DES models is analyzed. • The computational efficiency with the DES turbulence models is explained. - Abstract: Different species of gases would be released into the containment and cause unpredicted disasters during the nuclear severe accidents. It is important to accurately predict the transportation and stratification phenomena of these gas mixtures. CFD simulations of these thermal hydraulic issues in nuclear containment are investigated in this paper. The main work is to study the influence of turbulence model on the calculation of gas transportation and heat transfer. The k-ε based DES and other frequently used turbulence models are used in the steam and helium release simulation in THAI series experiment. This paper will show the superiority of the DES turbulence model in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy with the experimental results, and analyze the necessities of DES model to simulate the large-scale containment flows with both laminar and turbulence regions

  20. Novel plant inputs influencing Ralstonia solanacearum during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paola eZuluaga Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil and water-borne pathogen that can infect a wide range of plants and cause the devastating bacterial wilt disease. To successfully colonize a host, R. solanacearum requires the type III secretion system (T3SS, which delivers bacterial effector proteins inside the plant cells. HrpG is a central transcriptional regulator that drives the expression of the T3SS and other virulence determinants. hrpG transcription is highly induced upon plant cell contact and its product is also post-transcriptionally activated by metabolic signals present when bacteria are grown in minimal medium. Here, we describe a transcriptional induction of hrpG at early stages of bacterial co-culture with plant cells that caused overexpression of the downstream T3SS effector genes. This induction was maintained in a strain devoid of prhA, the outer membrane receptor that senses bacterial contact with plant cells, demonstrating that this is a response to an unknown signal. Induction was unaffected after disruption of the known R. solanacearum pathogenicity regulators, indicating that it is controlled by a non-described system. Moreover, plant contact-independent signals are also important in planta, as shown by the hrpG induction triggered by apoplastic and xylem extracts. We also found that none of the amino acids or sugars present in the apoplast and xylem saps studied correlated with hrpG induction. This suggests that a small molecule or an environmental condition is responsible for the T3SS gene expression inside the plants. Our results also highlight the abundance and diversity of possible carbon, nitrogen and energy sources likely used by R. solanacearum during growth in planta.

  1. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60 Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  2. Psychosocial influences on weight gain attitudes and behaviors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipietro, Janet A; Millet, Sarah; Costigan, Kathleen A; Gurewitsch, Edith; Caulfield, Laura E

    2003-10-01

    To examine pregnant women's weight-related attitudes and behaviors in relation to a constellation of psychosocial characteristics, prepregnancy body habitus, and gestational weight gain. One hundred-thirty women with low-risk, normal pregnancies. Cross-sectional, observational study assessed attitudes about weight gain at 36 weeks' gestation. Psychosocial characteristics, including anxiety, depression, social support, emotionality, and pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress appraisal were assessed between 28 and 36 weeks' gestation. Principal components factor analysis, Pearson correlations, t tests, and analysis of variance. A range of positive and negative attitudes about weight gain was expressed. Twenty-one percent (n=27) of the sample endorsed at least one weight-restrictive behavior during pregnancy. Women who reported more weight-restrictive behaviors were more anxious (r=.24, P<.01), depressed (r=.29,P<.001), angry (r=.29, P<.001), stressed (r=.23, P<.01), and felt less uplifted (r=-.21, P<.05) about their pregnancies in general. Higher Positive Pregnancy Body Image scores were associated with feeling better about the pregnancy in general (r=.35, P<.001), fewer depressive symptoms, and less anger (both r=.20, both P<.01). Women who were self conscious about their weight gain felt more hassled by their pregnancies (r=.21, P<.05), greater anger (r=.21, P<.05), and more support from partners (r=.22, P<.05). Prepregnancy body mass index was unrelated, but negative attitudes about weight gain existed even among women who gained within recommended ranges. Women's attitudes about weight gain in pregnancy are imbedded in their orientation toward pregnancy as well as their general psychological functioning. Effective nutrition counseling for pregnant women should include consideration of weight-restrictive behaviors, the degree to which the pregnancy is perceived as positive and uplifting, and whether weight gain attitudes may be associated with their

  3. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans beaucoup de pays en développement, la faible capacité du gouvernement est pratiquement la définition des problèmes de développement du pays. ...... Promouvoir l'échange des connaissances émanant des recherches ainsi que des outils et des résultats, et le dialogue entre les pays, institutions et donateurs.

  4. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CB...

  5. The influence of achievement before, during and after medical school on physician job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The

  6. Does body posture during tree felling influence the physiological load of a chainsaw operator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Grzywiński

    2017-09-01

    A working posture during tree felling by chainsaw has influence on the level of physiological workload of an operator. Standing bent forward body postures cause higher heart response than squatting and half-kneeling.

  7. Variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sont à dominance céréale et coton avec environ 75 % des assolements. Les revenus nets des EAF montrent en moyenne une prédominance des productions végétales (1 394 976 Fcfa) et animales, (1 420 430 Fcfa) sur les activités de diversification (358 449 Fcfa). Mots clés : production, revenu, économie, performance, ...

  8. Apport des expériences de mécaniques des roches à la géologie structurale des bassins sédimentaires Contribution of Rock-Mechanics Experiments to the Stuctural Geology of Sedimentary Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulet M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but de préciser le domaine d'application des expériences de Mécanique des Roches à la Géologie Structurale, l'auteur définit d'abord les ordres de grandeur des différents facteurs qui contrôlent, dans la nature, les relations contrainte déformation : contraintes mises en leu, vitesse de déformation, température, anisotropie des roches. Sont ensuite passés en revue les résultats des essais de laboratoire de type uniaxial (conditions de surface puis de type triaxial (conditions de fond en distinguant dans chaque cas la nature des contraintes intervenant : tension, compression, cisaillement. Le comportement des roches dans les essais en compression permet de les classer en trois catégories : les roches dites élastiques (roches sédimentaires compactes, métamorphiques et cristallines, les roches dites élastoplastiques possédant une certaine porosité (grés, calcaires, les roches dites plastiques (sel, gypse. Sur chaque type ainsi défini les expériences de laboratoire permettent d'étudier l'influence des paramètres suivants : la pression de confinement qui augmente avec la profondeur et permet une déformation permanente importante des roches élasto-plastiques, la pression des fluides qui les rend au contraire plus fragiles, la température dont l'influence est prédominante pour les roches plastiques, le temps qui seul permet des déformations continues importantes sous de faibles contraintes, l'anisotropie liée soit au dépôt (stratification, soit aux déformations antérieures. Bien que les caractéristiques mécaniques mesurées en laboratoire ne soient pas transposables directement dans la nature, les résultats des essais fournissent au géologue une clef pour l'interprétation qualitative de nombreuses observations à petite et grande échelle : relations socle-couverture sédimentaire, conditions de rejeu des accidents anciens, formation des plis, répartition et nature de la tracturation. In on attempt ta

  9. The Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Cocurrent Downflow and Cocurrent Upflow Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalytic Fixed Bed Reactors: the Effect of Pressure Les caractéristiques hydrodynamiques des réacteurs gaz-liquide-solide à lit de catalyseur fixe à écoulement cocourant montant et descendant : l'influence de la pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available While most catalytic fixed bed gas-liquid reactors of the petrol industry work at quite high pressures, the academic scientific work in this field concerned itself almost exclusively with the domain of approximatively atmospheric pressures. The authors present the results of some years of experimental investigations on the hydrodynamic characteristics of trickle bed reactors and lately of cocurrent upflow reactors. During the last years, results were also obtained under pressures up to 8 MPa. The measurements were made in a small scale cold flow equipment (diameter 23 mm. Different aqueous and organic more or less viscous, eventually coalescence inhibiting liquids, four gases and a number of non porous more or less wettable particles were used. The liquid holdup was determined in all cases by measuring liquid phase residence time distribution by different tracers. The following conclusions may be drawn:(a In the high interaction regime, it is the inertia of the gas and the liquid phases which is the main cause of the dissipation of mechanical energy. In this regime, results obtained in cocurrent upflow and downflow are approximately equal. (b Most correlations of literature are unable to predict the effect of pressure on the pressure drop or the liquid holdup. (c The gas viscosity has no influence on the hydrodynamics. It is therefore possible to simulate for example hydrogen under high pressure conditions by another gas of the same density (at a much lower pressures. A critical evaluation of the correlations and/or models of literature is presented, concerning their ability to represent the different characteristics as a function of pressure. Tandis que la plupart des réacteurs industriels gaz-liquide à lit de catalyseur fixe fonctionnent à assez hautes pressions, les travaux scientifiques académiques sont, dans ce domaine, presque exclusivement consacrés aux pressions avoisinant la pression atmosphérique. Les auteurs présentent les r

  10. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  11. Influence de l'environnement et des pratiques culturales sur la productivité de Jatropha curcas L. en Afrique subsaharienne (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minengu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of environment and cropping practices on the productivity of Jatropha curcas L. in Sub-Saharan Africa. A review. In most sub-Saharan African countries, the establishment of Jatropha curcas L. plantations preceded the scientific investigations necessary to optimize the production of this species. Consequently, the development of the plants was low and yields during the first years of cultivation were mostly disappointing. The low yields obtained in marginal conditions led to the belief that the cultivation of Jatropha could only be profitable in areas with fertile soils and sufficiently humid climates, which would place the plants in direct competition with food production. This article analyzes the available scientific knowledge regarding the ecological and technical factors influencing the productivity of J. curcas and suggests possible solutions for improving its performance in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Savoirs disciplinaires scolaires et savoirs de sens commun ou pourquoi des « idées vraies » ne prennent pas, tandis que des « idées fausses » ont la vie dure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lefrançois

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Les savoirs de sens commun sont solidement ancrés dans les usages, notamment grâce à l’habitude et à la sécurité ontologique qu’ils engendrent. Cet article examinera d’abord pourquoi les savoirs disciplinaires appris à l’école ne sont pas automatiquement réinvestis dans des contextes de nature extrascolaire et pourquoi les savoirs de sens commun résistent à leur déconstruction. La première partie de l’analyse sera marquée par le croisement de discours épistémologiques concernant la nature et la place des savoirs de sens commun dans les conceptions familières de la science. Cet article explorera ensuite les dynamiques qui marquent les relations qu’entretiennent les savoirs disciplinaires scolaires et les savoirs de sens commun en contexte scolaire. Le langage propre à la seconde partie se rattachera davantage aux débats en éducation sur l’importance prépondérante des savoirs de sens commun dans l’apprentissage disciplinaire par concepts. Enfin, nous montrerons qu’il existe des stratégies d’enseignement qui peuvent optimiser l’appropriation intellectuelle des savoirs disciplinaires scolaires et leur transfert dans les interactions quotidiennes.Common sense knowledge is firmly anchored in everyday practices, notably as a result of habit and also for the ontological security it provides. This article will first examine why disciplinary knowledge learned in school is not automatically reinvested in non-school contexts, as well as why common sense knowledge persists in the face of its own deconstruction. The first part of this analysis juxtaposes various epistemological discourses relating to the nature of common sense knowledge and its position in familiar conceptions of science. The article then explores how disciplinary knowledge taught in school and common sense knowledge interact in an educational context. This section of the article will focus mainly on educational debates pertaining to the

  13. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  14. Structure physico-chimique et résistance à la fissuration des bitumes routiers : Thèse de Malo Le Guern au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées en partenariat avec Total : Etude des bitumes purs : Influence du vieillissement en laboratoire par 25 heures de PAV

    OpenAIRE

    LE GUERN, Malo

    2008-01-01

    Le bitume peut être caractérisé par différentes méthodes physico-chimiques. Lors du cycle d'utilisation (stockage, enrobage, sur site), le liant subit des vieillissements physiques et chimiques. Dans ce rapport, nous étudions les différences entre les caractéristiques physicochimiques des bitumes purs de natures différentes, sélectionnés pour la thèse, ainsi que les modifications induites par un vieillissement de 25 heures de vieillissement par l'essai de « Pressure Aging Vessel » (PAV), e...

  15. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  16. Genetic influence on blood pressure measured in the office, under laboratory stress and during real life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Ding, Xiuhua; Su, Shaoyong; Harshfield, Gregory; Treiber, Frank; Snieder, Harold

    To determine to what extent the genetic influences on blood pressure (BP) measured in the office, under psychologically stressful conditions in the laboratory and during real life are different from each other. Office BP, BP during a video game challenge and a social stressor interview, and 24-h

  17. Influence of a Horizontal Approach on the Mechanical Output during Drop Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Mianfang; Li, Li

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a horizontal approach to mechanical output during drop jumps. Participants performed drop jumps from heights of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm with zero, one, two, and three approach steps. The peak summed power during the push-off phase changed quadratically across heights (6.2 [plus or minus] 0.3, 6.7 [plus or…

  18. Anxiety during cancer diagnosis: Examining the influence of monitoring coping style and treatment plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Madelon B.; Nguyen, Minh Hao; Smets, Ellen M. A.; van de Ven, Anthony W. H.; van Weert, Julia C. M.

    2018-01-01

    ObjectiveStudies on anxiety within oncology show a high prevalence of anxiety both during and after the course of the disease. However, little is known about factors that influence the level of anxiety in the diagnostic phase. This study examines the presence of anxiety during diagnosis and

  19. INFLUENCE DES TEMPERATURES OPERATIONNELLES SUR LA PERFORMANCE D’UN REFRIGERATEUR SOLAIRE A ADSORPTION QUI FONCTIONNE AVEC LE COUPLE CHARBON ACTIF-METHANOL

    OpenAIRE

    H SOUALMI; Z SAADI; A RAHMANI

    2014-01-01

    Le séchage des produits alimentaires au soleil est un moyen efficace, facile et économique pour conserver les aliments, en particulier les fruits. Le séchoir solaire est l'équipement le plus populaire pour le séchage des fruits. En raison de la nature intermittente de l'énergie solaire, le stockage de l'énergie thermique est nécessaire pour assurer un fonctionnement prolongé du séchoir. L'objectif principal de cette étude est d'évaluer l'efficacité du séchoir solaire intégré avec un lit en gr...

  20. La metamorphose des cypris femelles des Rhizocephales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillet, A.

    1964-01-01

    Depuis la découverte de la métamorphose des cypris de Sacculina carcini Thompson par Delage, peu de biologistes se sont intéressés au développement des Rhizocéphales. On admet aujourd'hui que tous les Cirripèdes parasites ont, comme Sacculina carcini, une forme kentrogone qui inocule le parasite au

  1. Gyrodactylidae et Gyrodactylose des Salmonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALMBERG G.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Vingt et une espèces de Gyrodactylus de Salmonidae arrangées en six groupes sont présentées. Les observations concernant ces espèces dans les milieux naturels et en pisciculture sont résumées. Sur la base de données générales relatives aux espèces de Gyrodactylus en milieu naturel en Scandinavie et Baltique, les observations biologiques, écologiques et comportementales de G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 et G. derjavini MALMBERG et MALMBERG (1987 des salmonidae sauvages des rivières norvégiennes et suédoises sont présentées. La viviparité unique, la reproduction asexuée et sexuée et le pouvoir de reproduction chez les Gyrodactylus sont développés. La Gyrodactylose à G. salaris est abordée en milieu naturel, dans les rivières norvégiennes et en pisciculture, en Suède et au Danemark. L'étude ultrastructurale des blessures causées par G. salaris ainsi que les résultats expérimentaux sur les espèces norvégiennes et canadiennes sont présentés. La distribution géographique naturelle des Salmonidae, les modifications liées à l'homme et à l'activité économique ainsi que les Salmonidae élevés sont revus. La présence de six groupes d'espèces de Gyrodactylus en Amérique du Nord et Eurasie est discutée en fonction de la distribution géographique des espèces hôtes. Il est souligné qu'une propagation intercontinentale des espèces de Gyrodactylus de Salmonidae a dû être impossible à cause de leur origine limnique d'une part et de la salinité élevée des océans atlantique et pacifique d'autre part. Les exigences micro et macro environnementales des espèces sont discutées dans les conditions naturelles et les variations saisonnières, préférendums et tolérances du parasitisme sont signalés. L'effet des conditions de pisciculture sur les espèces de Gyrocactylus sont discutées : la capacité reproductrice et de propagation ainsi que la spécificité — stricte dans la nature — peuvent être influenc

  2. Mesure de la satisfaction des patients migrants en milieu hospitalier: analyse des lacunes existantes et recommandations

    OpenAIRE

    Stotzer, Urszula; Efionayi-Mäder, Denise; Wanner, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    L'étude porte sur les lacunes existantes en matière de mesure de la satisfaction des patients migrants en milieu hospitalier et formule des recommandations à l'adresse des établissements hospitaliers et autorités compétentes. Les résultats démontrent que les outils d'évaluation de la satisfaction des patients migrants comportent des problèmes liés à la fois à la procédure d'enquête et aux instruments, susceptibles de limiter la pertinence des résultats obtenus en vue de l'amélioration de la q...

  3. Influence of Fasting during Moult on the Faecal Microbiota of Penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Dewar, Meagan L.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C.

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from...

  4. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Salah

    fabriquees industriellement. Cette technique a consiste a determiner le profil des differentes proprietes physiques. En effet, la methode basee sur la mesure de la distribution de la resistivite electrique sur la totalite de l'echantillon est la technique qui a ete utilisee pour localiser la fissuration et les macro-pores. La microscopie optique et l'analyse d'image ont, quant a elles, permis de caracteriser les zones fissurees tout en determinant la structure des echantillons analyses a l'echelle microscopique. D'autres tests ont ete menes, et ils ont consiste a etudier des echantillons cylindriques d'anodes de 50 mm de diametre et de 130 mm de longueur. Ces derniers ont ete cuits dans un four a UQAC a differents taux de chauffage dans le but de pouvoir determiner l'influence des parametres de cuisson sur la formation de la fissuration dans ce genre de carottes. La caracterisation des echantillons d'anodes cuites a ete faite a l'aide de la microscopie electronique a balayage et de l'ultrason. La derniere partie des travaux realises a l'UQAC contient une etude sur la caracterisation des anodes fabriquees au laboratoire sous differentes conditions d'operation. L'evolution de la qualite de ces anodes a ete faite par l'utilisation de plusieurs techniques. L'evolution de la temperature de refroidissement des anodes crues de laboratoire a ete mesuree; et un modele mathematique a ete developpe et valide avec les donnees experimentales. Cela a pour objectif d'estimer la vitesse de refroidissement ainsi que le stress thermique. Toutes les anodes fabriquees ont ete caracterisees avant la cuisson par la determination de certaines proprietes physiques (resistivite electrique, densite apparente, densite optique et pourcentage de defauts). La tomographie et la distribution de la resistivite electrique, qui sont des techniques non destructives, ont ete employees pour evaluer les defauts internes des anodes. Pendant la cuisson des anodes de laboratoire, l'evolution de la resistivite

  5. The Energetics during the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon-A Case Study at the Tor des Geants®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldelli, Aldo; Fornasiero, Alessandro; Trabucchi, Pietro; Limonta, Eloisa; La Torre, Antonio; Degache, Francis; Pellegrini, Barbara; Millet, Grégoire P; Vernillo, Gianluca; Schena, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM). Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day) with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter. We then calculated the net metabolic cost per unit of distance (C), the vertical metabolic cost (C vert ) and the mechanical efficiency of locomotion (Eff mech ) throughout the six uphills monitored. We further monitored the distance covered, speed, altimetry and D+ from the GPS data as well as the pulse oxygen saturation with the finger pulse oximeter. Results: Subject's [Formula: see text] was 48.1 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 . Throughout the six uphills investigated the mean exercise intensity was 57.3 ± 6.0% [Formula: see text] and 68.0 ± 8.7% HR peak . C, C vert and Eff mech were 11.4 ± 1.9 J·kg -1 ·m -1 , 57.9 ± 15.2 J·kg -1 ·[Formula: see text], and 17.7 ± 4.8%, respectively. The exercise intensity, as well as C, C vert , and Eff mech did not consistently increase during the MUM. Conclusions: For the first time, we described the feasibility of assessing the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of a MUM in ecologically valid environment settings. The present case study shows that, despite the distance performed during the MUM, our participant did not experience a metabolic fatigue state. This is likely due to improvements in locomotor efficiency as the race progressed.

  6. The Energetics during the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon—A Case Study at the Tor des Geants®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Savoldelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM.Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter. We then calculated the net metabolic cost per unit of distance (C, the vertical metabolic cost (Cvert and the mechanical efficiency of locomotion (Effmech throughout the six uphills monitored. We further monitored the distance covered, speed, altimetry and D+ from the GPS data as well as the pulse oxygen saturation with the finger pulse oximeter.Results: Subject's V˙O2peak was 48.1 mL·kg−1·min−1. Throughout the six uphills investigated the mean exercise intensity was 57.3 ± 6.0% V˙O2peak and 68.0 ± 8.7% HRpeak. C, Cvert and Effmech were 11.4 ± 1.9 J·kg−1·m−1, 57.9 ± 15.2 J·kg−1·mvert−1, and 17.7 ± 4.8%, respectively. The exercise intensity, as well as C, Cvert, and Effmech did not consistently increase during the MUM.Conclusions: For the first time, we described the feasibility of assessing the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of a MUM in ecologically valid environment settings. The present case study shows that, despite the distance performed during the MUM, our participant did not experience a metabolic fatigue state. This is likely due to improvements in locomotor efficiency as the race progressed.

  7. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La présence et l'influence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) continuent de s'élargir et de s'accroître, tout comme leurs répercussions sur le développement économique. Toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup de travail à faire avant de pouvoir comprendre d'une manière systématique et ...

  8. Inter-decade variations of the climate in Central Europe: Influence of the Atlantic Ocean and effects on the daily weather. Final report; Interdekadenschwankungen des Klimas in Mitteleuropa: Einfluss des atlantischen Ozeans und Auswirkungen im taeglichen Wetter. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The project had four important scientific aims: 1. The excecution and evaluation of simulations with the ECHAM model for the analysis of the model reaction on changed oceanic water surface temperatures (SST). 2. The production of a hierarchy of simplified models for the statistical evaluation and dynamic interpretation of model and observation data. 3. The analysis of the decade variability of synoptic disturbances (`weather`) from the hemispheric geopotential and ground pressure data of the German Weather Service (DWD). 4. The analysis of the long-term variability of synoptic disturbances and the averaged variables form daily radio-sonde ascents. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Das Projekt hatte vier wesentliche wissenschaftliche Ziele: 1. die Durchfuehrung und Auswertung von Simulationen mit dem ECHAM Modell zur Analyse der Modellreaktion auf geaenderte ozeanische Wasseroberflaechentemperaturen (SST). 2. Die Erstellung einer Hierarchie von vereinfachten Modellen zur statischen Auswertung und dynamischen Interpretation von Modell- und Beobachtungsdaten. 3. Die Analyse der dekadischen Variabilitaet synoptischer Stoerungen (`Wetter`) anhand der hemisphaerischen Geopotential- und Bodendruckdaten des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD). 4.Die Analyse der langfristigen Variabilitaet synoptischer Stoerungen und der gemittelten Variablen anhand von taeglichen Radiosondenaufstiegen. (orig./KW)

  9. Children's influence on and participation in the family decision process during food buying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Brunsø, Karen; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to contribute to studies of family decision making during food buying. In particular a theoretical framework is proposed for structuring future studies of family decision making that include children's influence and participation at specific stages...... to 13 using questionnaires for both children and parents. Findings - Family food decision making is often a joint activity, and children's active participation, among other things, determines the influence they gain. Parents and children do not always agree on how much influence children have...... have most influence on decisions regarding easily prepared meals. Originality/value - This mixed-method approach provides interesting new results, and the main findings emphasise the importance of looking at food decision making as a joint activity where children participate actively and gain influence....

  10. Geometric parameters determination of a single vapor bubble growth and heat transfer associated: non condensable influence on the onset of convective instabilities; Determination des caracteristiques geometriques de la croissance d'une bulle de vapeur et des transferts de chaleur associes: influence des incondensables sur le declenchement d'instabilites convectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L. [Laboratoire Institut Universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels (IUSTI), CNRS UMR 6595, DME, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2005-06-01

    We present here an experimental work of a single vapor bubble growth in a subcooled liquid bulk (FC-72) at atmospheric pressure. The vapor bubble grows on a downward facing heating element (at constant heating power) on an artificial nucleation site located in the centre of the heated surface. Bubble dynamics are studied thanks to image proceeding. The temporal evolution of geometric parameters, such as diameter, height, volume and shape, are measured. The analysis of some parameters enables us to determine the influence of the heating power on the heat and mass transfers. Moreover an observation, using a shadowgraphy method, of the different modes of convective instabilities is presented. The non condensable gas influence on the occurrence of the instability is discussed. (authors)

  11. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    37. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du tissu comestible des crustacés et des mollusques pêchés en Algérie : Effet du halofénozide (RH-0345) sur la composition en acides gras de. Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacé, Décapode). Samira Gheid. 1. , Safia Nadji. 2 et Mohamed El Hadi Khebbeb. 3.

  12. Methoden Des Fremdsprachenunterrichts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Sklizmantaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beim Unterrichten einer Fremdsprache ist es wichtig, Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts zu kennen, um eine Methode des Unterrichts nach dem Niveau und Bedürfnissen der entsprechenden Gruppe opti-mal zu wählen. Im Artikel wird der Überblick des Fremdsprachenunterrichts im Hinblick auf historische Entwicklung dargeboten sowie die Hauptmerkmale einiger Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts aufgezählt.

  13. Les lexiques des jeunes dans les discours écrits des blogs : pour une approche descriptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Paulina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available S’il ne faut pas confondre ce qui est appelé communément « langage SMS » et « langage des jeunes », nous avancerons toutefois que les pratiques langagières écrites des jeunes sur les supports modernes de communication, et notamment dans les blogs, présentent des particularités encore peu étudiées. Les traits observables les plus saillants sont ceux de la morphologie graphique, mais il n’en reste pas moins que certains jeunes utilisent des lexiques particuliers dans les blogs qui méritent une attention particulière. Nous nous proposons donc d’étudier les différents lexiques utilisés par des jeunes de 12 à 22 ans dans les blogs de la plateforme skyrock.com aux niveaux de sa diversité, de ses usages sémantiques variable d’un scripteur à l’autre pour un même mot, et de ses particularités morphosyntaxiques. En effet, nous observerons des lexiques divers allant des lexiques perçus comme relevant des cités à des lexiques perçus comme étant « branchés-jeunes », ou encore à des lexiques propres aux supports modernes de communication. Ainsi, nous analyserons des lexiques variés dans leurs usages écrits tels que bolos, bédave, gérer, ouf, tigen, ou encore des lexiques empruntés tels que mouv, full, etc., ainsi que des emplois particuliers de séquences autonomes comme lol. Quelques questions périphériques complèteront notre analyse telle que celles qui concerne l’influence des usages lexicaux entre pairs et le savoir partagé, la distinction de différentes communautés en fonction des lexiques utilisés, ou encore la variabilité des représentations graphiques d’un même mot.

  14. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  15. [Influencing factors and mechanism of arsenic removal during the aluminum coagulation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Feng; Tong, Hua-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in arsenic (As) removal during the drinking water treatment process. Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) which contains high content of Al13 were used as coagulants. The effects of aluminum species, pH, humic acid (HA) and coexisting anions on arsenic removal were investigated. Results showed that AlCl3 and PACl were almost ineffective in As(II) removal while the As(V) removal efficiency reached almost 100%. pH was an important influencing factor on the arsenic removal efficiency, because pH influenced the distribution of aluminum species during the coagulation process. The efficiency of arsenic removal by aluminum coagulants was positively correlated with the content of Al13 species. HA and some coexisting anions showed negative impact on arsenic removal because of the competitive adsorption. The negative influence of HA was more pronounced at low coagulant dosages. PO4(3-) and F(-) showed marked influence during arsenic removal, but there was no obvious influence when SiO3(2-), CO3(2-) and SO4(2-) coexisted. The present study would be helpful to direct arsenic removal by enhanced coagulation during the drinking water treatment.

  16. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  17. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    haies vives) et la valorisation des produits forestiers tels que l'utilisation des tourteaux comme engrais organiques (Francis et al.,. 2005). Plusieurs études ont montré que les perceptions paysannes d'une technologie ou d'une innovation sont déterminantes pour son adoption. (Adesina et Baidu-forson, 1996). Les travaux.

  18. Photographie pittoresque. L’influence des modèles esthétiques traditionnels sur les photographies de la pauvreté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Goujard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Partant d’un constat, la difficulté de retrouver des reportages sur la pauvreté dans les collections françaises de photographies, l’article se propose de démontrer l’existence d’un autre modèle esthétique déterminant. En effet, longtemps construites à partir des modèles des Beaux-arts et du théâtre, une partie des photographies conservées du XIXe siècle est fondée sur un principe de mise en scène apparu dès les années 1850. Dans les cas des tableaux vivants, portraits et scènes de genre photographiques, les sujets sont le plus souvent puisés dans la tradition picturale, effectivement prétexte aux figures de pauvreté. Il paraissait donc intéressant de reporter la question lorsque la photographie dite « instantanée » est mise au point, à la fin du XIXe siècle, et renouvelle en profondeur les formes de l’image. On constate que si cette dernière offre l’accès très attendu à l’enregistrement direct de la réalité, elle ne fait pour autant pas disparaître la pratique, devenue traditionnelle, des mises en scène. Au contraire, celles-ci sont désormais enregistrées en pleine rue, en pleine action (petits métiers, mendiants, bohémiens et ainsi rendues plausibles grâce à un effet de « scène prise sur le vif ». Oscillant entre reportage et pittoresque, cette pratique singulière de l’instantané offre incontestablement un univers visuel original. Mais, les mêmes images investissent dans le même temps plus silencieusement les dictionnaires, revues, ouvrages scolaires, etc. Privées de leur contexte de production, elles y sont présentées avec succès comme images de documentation. Ce paradoxe amène à soulever certaines interrogations quant aux relations, plus ou moins délibérées, entretenues jusqu’à aujourd’hui par la photographie documentaire avec les canons pittoresques.Since it is very difficult to find reports on poverty in the French collections of photographs, the article

  19. Analyse technico–économique des Aliments densifies sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une étude portant sur l'influence des aliments densifiés sur la performance de croissance des boucs roux de Maradi a été conduite entre juillet 2016 à septembre 2016. Quarante deux (42) boucs ont été répartis au hasard en six lots de sept individus. Chaque lot correspond à un aliment ou traitement préparé à partir des.

  20. INFLUENCE DES TEMPERATURES OPERATIONNELLES SUR LA PERFORMANCE D’UN REFRIGERATEUR SOLAIRE A ADSORPTION QUI FONCTIONNE AVEC LE COUPLE CHARBON ACTIF-METHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SOUALMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le séchage des produits alimentaires au soleil est un moyen efficace, facile et économique pour conserver les aliments, en particulier les fruits. Le séchoir solaire est l'équipement le plus populaire pour le séchage des fruits. En raison de la nature intermittente de l'énergie solaire, le stockage de l'énergie thermique est nécessaire pour assurer un fonctionnement prolongé du séchoir. L'objectif principal de cette étude est d'évaluer l'efficacité du séchoir solaire intégré avec un lit en gravier comme stockage thermique. L’air dans ce séchoir est sucé naturellement grâce à la cheminé solaire le séchage. Le cabinet de séchage est envisagé théoriquement (CFD.La distribution de la vitesse et de la température de l'air à travers le séchoir solaire ont été présentés durant une journée d’Août et sous les conditions climatiques de Tlemcen (Algérie. L’effet de la présence d'un stockage thermique sur la distribution de la vitesse et de la température du flux d'air et de la température des figues ont été analysés. Les résultats montrent que la conception du séchoir solaire, comportant un stockage thermique augmente les capacités et le rendement du séchoir solaire, par l’augmentation du temps de séchage.

  1. Pairing quadrupolaire et propriétés des états (0+ ) des noyaux des terres rares

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, A.

    1981-01-01

    Le pairing quadrupolaire est introduit simultanément avec le pairing monopolaire et l'interaction à longue portée pour l'étude des états (0+) excités dans la région des terres rares. Les calculs sont faits dans les approximations BCS et RPA. L'influence du choix des paramètres sur les résultats est discutée. Une attention particulière a été portée sur les états (0+) possédant un rapport X0 des probabilités de transition (E0) sur (E2) supérieur à 1. Le pairing quadrupolaire est nécessaire pour...

  2. Transitional change in rat fetal cell proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin during the last stage of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Murakami, Noboru, E-mail: a0d201u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    Expression of mRNA for the ghrelin receptor, GHS-R1a, was detected in various peripheral and central tissues of fetal rats, including skin, bone, heart, liver, gut, brain and spinal cord, on embryonic day (ED)15 and ED17. However, its expression in skin, bone, heart and liver, but not in gut, brain and spinal cord, became relatively weak on ED19 and disappeared after birth (ND2). Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin facilitated the proliferation of cultured fetal (ED17, 19), but not neonatal (ND2), skin cells. On the other hand, with regard to cells from the spinal cord and hypothalamus, the proliferative effect of ghrelin continued after birth, whereas the effect of des-acyl ghrelin on neurogenesis in these tissues was lost at the ED19 fetal and ND2 neonatal stages. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the cells in the hypothalamus induced to proliferate by ghrelin at the ND2 stage were positive for nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that in the period immediately prior to, and after birth, rat fetal cells showing proliferation in response to ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are at a transitional stage characterized by alteration of the expression of GHS-R1a and an undefined des-acyl ghrelin receptor, their responsiveness varying among different tissues.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Habib; Croville, Guillaume; Kwiatek, Olivier; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Valière, Sophie; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Lo, Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Geneviève

    2014-09-18

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013. Copyright © 2014 Salami et al.

  4. Parental and peer influences on alcohol use during the transition out of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Stephen J; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2014-12-01

    Parental and peer drinking and attitudes have been identified as predictors of drinking during adolescence and the transition to college, but little is known about these influences during the transition out of college. The current study assessed the influence of parents and peers on drinking behavior in a large sample of college drinkers (N = 1,665), using a cross-lagged panel structural equation model (SEM) across 3 time-points: final year of college and annually for the following 2 years. Multigroup models were tested for White compared with Hispanic and Asian American students to determine if parental and peer influences operated similarly for these groups. Results in the full sample indicated that peer selection effects were present both during the initial transition out of college and between 1 year and 2 years postcollege. Although peer socialization effects were not present during the initial transition out of college, there was evidence of peer socialization from 1 year postcollege to 2 years postcollege. During the initial transition out of college direct effects of familial drinking on student drinking were evident, whereas family drinking indirectly impacted student drinking through peer selection from 1 year to 2 years postcollege. Multigroup analyses identified group differences only between 1 and 2 years postcollege. During this time period, peer selection and family effects on peer selection were evident among ethnic minority students but not among White students.

  5. Object shape and orientation do not routinely influence performance during language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2013-11-01

    The role of visual representations during language processing remains unclear: They could be activated as a necessary part of the comprehension process, or they could be less crucial and influence performance in a task-dependent manner. In the present experiments, participants read sentences about an object. The sentences implied that the object had a specific shape or orientation. They then either named a picture of that object (Experiments 1 and 3) or decided whether the object had been mentioned in the sentence (Experiment 2). Orientation information did not reliably influence performance in any of the experiments. Shape representations influenced performance most strongly when participants were asked to compare a sentence with a picture or when they were explicitly asked to use mental imagery while reading the sentences. Thus, in contrast to previous claims, implied visual information often does not contribute substantially to the comprehension process during normal reading.

  6. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual color is a primary factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in-situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. We used 24 genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) to investigate the effect of pigment and copigme...

  7. Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Nikki; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Lee, N. C., Krabbendam, L., Dekker, S. J., Boschloo, A. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2012). Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1(1), 43-48.

  8. Blood cell-derived tissue factor influences host response during murine endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Florquin, Sandrine; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2004-01-01

    During endotoxemia, blood coagulation becomes activated due to tissue factor (TF) expression on leukocytes and/or endothelial cells. We investigated the influence of blood cell-derived tissue factor on murine endotoxemia. Therefore, we generated mice that lack tissue factor on their blood cells by

  9. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  10. 34 CFR 85.880 - What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... upon which your debarment was based; (c) A bona fide change in ownership or management; (d) Elimination... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What factors may influence the debarring official during reconsideration? 85.880 Section 85.880 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education...

  11. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  12. Siblings' Power and Influence in Polyadic Family Conflict during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Sandra; Howe, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This study examined sibling behavior during polyadic family conflicts (involving three or more family members) by identifying operational conflict elements (i.e., roles, topic), power strategies, effective influence of power, and social domain argumentation. Polyadic conflict sequences (n = 210) were identified in 35/39 families with two siblings…

  13. ÉTUDE EXPÉRIMENTALE DES COMPORTEMENTS DE CIVELLES D’ANGUILLA ANGUILLA L. INFLUENCE DE LA DENSITÉ ET DE LA DISPONIBILITÉ EN ABRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDONNET A.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Les comportements d’émigration et d’utilisation de l’espace développés par des civelles ont été observés dans des bacs et plans d’eau expérimentaux. Dans les bacs accueillant 55 ind./m2 sans possibilité d’émigration, la densité d’abris végétaux a été contrôlée (densités d’abris basse, 2 tiges de végétation artificielle par bac ou haute, 9 tiges par bac et le suivi a duré 2 mois et demi. Dans les plans d’eau ouverts, la densité de civelles introduites a été définie selon plusieurs modalités (1,6 - 6 - 9 et 12 ind./m2 et le suivi a duré 1 mois et demi. En bacs, après une période de 5 à 6 jours, les abris sont fortement recherchés pendant environ 6 semaines, les individus montrant alors une forte grégarité. Cette dernière disparaît ensuite, les abris sont alors moins recherchés et des comportements agressifs font leur apparition. En plans d’eau, les sorties concernent en moyenne 17 % du stock initial (mini = 7 %, maxi = 35 %, interviennent rapidement et sont presque toutes dirigées vers l’amont. Leur intensité ne dépend pas de la densité initiale et apparaît plus importante dans les bassins sans herbier. Les tailles et poids moyens des émigrants sont plus importants que ceux du lot initial. Au terme du suivi, la croissance apparaît forte, hétérogène et associée à une faible survie dans les plans d’eau peu ou moyennement alevinés. Elle apparaît plus faible, homogène et associée à une bonne survie dans les bassins à forte densité initiale. Ces observations sont compatibles avec l’expression d’un comportement grégaire en condition de densité importante, comportement favorisant une croissance homogène, ayant pour conséquence de retarder l’apparition d’actes agressifs. Au contraire, dans des contextes de faible densité, l’expression rapide du potentiel de croissance de quelques individus favoriserait l’apparition d’actes agressifs.

  14. Influence of different anesthesia methods on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia method on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations. Methods: A total of 90 cases of elder patients who received orthopedic operations were randomly divided to group A, B and C, with 30 cases per group. Three groups of patients were separately given by general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for operations; The variations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, Cortisol (Cor, β-endorphin (β-EP, Angiotensin- Ⅱ(Ang-Ⅱ, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (SBP, DBP on patients in three groups before anesthesia (T0, during skin incision (T1, after skin incision (T2 and extubation after operation (T3 were compared and analyzed. Results: During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP and Ang-Ⅱlevels in 3 groups of patients were significantly higher than those during T0; SBP and DBP were significantly lower than that during T0; HR during T2 was significantly lower than that during T0; During T3, every index in 3 groups were recovered to levels close to that during T0; During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP, Ang-Ⅱ levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A. And levels in C was lower than that in B; SBP and DBP in group B and C were significantly higher than A. No HR statistical significance appeared between each group. Conclusions: During clinical anesthesia, we should choose suitable anesthesia method combined with actual situations of patients. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia had a slight influence on hemodynamics of elder orthopedics patients during operation, and it could effectively alleviate stress reaction during operation.

  15. Géographie des interfaces. Une nouvelle vision des territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Redon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Littéralement, une interface est une surface de séparation entre deux états distincts de la matière. Le terme, ayant cheminé de la physique à la biologie, et aussi désormais d’usage répandu en informatique. En géographie, l’usage du mot s’est développé dans les années 1980 et peut être défini comme un espace permettant la mise en relation de deux espaces/territoires différents, influencé par des échanges entre l’un et l’autre, et se distinguant par là-même des deux espaces contigus. Intégrant...

  16. Influence of short breathing stop on the cardiovascular system during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderienė, Kristina; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus; Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    Breathing is both a voluntary and an involuntary action, and the changes in breathing intensity or breathing stops has an influence on vegetative functions of the body during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the possible changes in cardiovascular parameters when patients shortly stopped to breath at the beginning of exercise testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two series of investigation were performed. During the first investigation, the psychomotor tonus was assessed, and the breathing frequency during exercising was monitored in the cohort of 27 healthy adult males who were recruited for the first time to be participants of exercise testing. All the participants performed the Roufier exercise test (30 squats per 45 s). A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded during exercise and first two minutes of recovery, and arterial blood pressure was measured at each minute of experiment. During the second investigation, the influence of short breathing stop for 15 s on the changes in cardiovascular functional parameters during exercise test was evaluated. RESULTS. The results obtained during the study showed that patients who had increased psychomotor tonus stopped the breathing involuntary more frequently at the beginning of exercise testing. An involuntary or voluntary breathing stop at the beginning of exercising had an influence on the dynamics of cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery: heart rate increased more slowly; lesser changes in the JT interval of electrocardiogram, a trend toward an increase in the arterial blood pressure, and a significantly slower recovery of cardiovascular parameters were documented. CONCLUSION. An involuntary breathing stop caused the changes in cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery; therefore, functional status might be assessed not so accurately.

  17. Appropriation des Tic et performance des entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lethiais , Virginie; Smati , Wided

    2009-01-01

    Quatre pages Marsouin; L'utilisation des TIC (Technologies de l'information et de la Communication) se développe dans les entreprises pour assurer des tâches de plus en plus nombreuses : la communication, la recherche d'informations, la commercialisation des produits et services, le travail en groupe, la gestion de l'entreprise, la prospection, etc. Les équipements en TIC ainsi que l'usage qui en est fait diffèrent d'une entreprise à une autre selon de nombreux critères. L'objet de ce quatre ...

  18. Marijuana exposure opportunity and initiation during college: parent and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2012-02-01

    Marijuana is the most prevalent illicit drug used by adolescents and young adults, yet marijuana initiation is rarely studied past adolescence. The present study sought to advance our understanding of parent and peer influences on marijuana exposure opportunity and incident use during college. A sample of 1,253 students was assessed annually for 4 years starting with the summer prior to college entry. More than one-third (38%(wt)) of students had already used marijuana at least once prior to college entry; another 25%(wt) initiated use after starting college. Of the 360 students who did not use marijuana prior to college, 74% were offered marijuana during college; of these individuals, 54% initiated marijuana use. Both low levels of parental monitoring during the last year of high school and a high percentage of marijuana-using peers independently predicted marijuana exposure opportunity during college, holding constant demographics and other factors (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.96, p marijuana use (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03-1.05, p marijuana initiation. Results underscore that peer influences operate well into late adolescence and young adulthood and thus suggest the need for innovative peer-focused prevention strategies. Parental monitoring during high school appears to influence exposure opportunity in college; thus, parents should be encouraged to sustain rule-setting and communication about adolescent activities and friend selection throughout high school.

  19. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  20. A narrative review of fathers' involvement during labour and birth and their influence on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Mary K; Furber, Christine; Kirk, Susan

    2015-09-01

    to identify and critically review the research literature that has examined fathers׳ involvement during labour and birth and their influence on decision making. the review follows the approach of a narrative review. Systematic searches of electronic databases Social Services Abstract, Sociological Abstracts, ASSIA, CINAHL Medline, Cochrane library, AMED, BNI, PsycINFO, Embase, Maternity and Infant care, DH-Data and the Kings Fund Database were combined with manual searches of key journals and reference lists. Studies published between 1992 and 2013 examining fathers׳ involvement during intrapartum care were included in the review. the findings of this review suggest that fathers׳ level of involvement during labour ranges from being a witness or passive observer of labour and birth to having an active supporting and coaching role. The findings also suggest that there are a number of facilitators and barriers to fathers׳ involvement during labour and birth. There are a limited number of studies that have examined fathers׳ involvement in decision making and specifically how fathers׳ influence decision making during labour and birth. future research needs to address the gap in the literature regarding fathers׳ involvement and influence on decision making to help midwives and obstetricians understand the process in order enhance the transition to parenthood for women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Étude numérique du couplage thermohydromécanique dans les roches. Influence des termes de couplage non linéaires pour un matériau isotrope linéaire Numerical Analysis of a Thermohydromechanical Coupling in Rocks. Influence of Nonlinear Coupling Terms on a Linear Isotropic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons dans ce travail une étude numérique basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, du comportement thermoporoélastique de certaines roches. Les trois effets de couplage : déformabilité de la roche, pression interstitielle et température sont pris en compte simultanément dans la résolution numérique. Une application simple sur un puits pétrolier en conditions axisymétriques est finalement présentée afin de dégager en particulier l'influence du terme de couplage convectif non linéaire, obtenu dans l'équation de diffusivité thermique, sur l'évolution de la température et de la pression interstitielle autour du forage. This article describes a finite-element method for solving the problem of nonlinear coupling between interstitial pressure and temperature during stress on a poroelastic rock. Such coupling phenomena occur during massive injection of cold water into a petroleum borehole for example. The implementation of such a numerical solution, used here with the assumption of small deformations, first requires a review of the behavior law of the material (Eq. 2. 2 and of the equations for hydraulic diffusivity (Eq. 2. 3 and thermal diffusivity (Eq. 2. 4. This last equation (2. 4 is the one containing the nonlinear coupling terms in Grad P Grad P and Grad T. Grad P. During simulation of flow at a high flow rate, these products can no longer be neglected as shown by the results in Fig. 2. The variational formulation of the problem is then determined in relation to the three equations for equilibrium, thermal diffusivity and hydraulic diffusivity. After geometric and temporal discretizations, this formulation leads to a finite-element calculating scheme resulting in the simultaneous solving of all three equations. This solution, based on the inversion of the system of equations (2. 15, requires the updating of the rigidity matrix at each time step to take nonlinear coupling into consideration. Calculations with an

  2. The Influence of Indian Ocean Atmospheric Circulation on Warm Pool Hydroclimate During the Holocene Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, J.E.; Oppo, D. W.; LeGrande, A. N.; Huang, Y.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.

    2012-01-01

    Existing paleoclimate data suggest a complex evolution of hydroclimate within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) during the Holocene epoch. Here we introduce a new leaf wax isotope record from Sulawesi, Indonesia and compare proxy water isotope data with ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) simulations to identify mechanisms influencing Holocene IPWP hydroclimate. Modeling simulations suggest that orbital forcing causes heterogenous changes in precipitation across the IPWP on a seasonal basis that may account for the differences in time-evolution of the proxy data at respective sites. Both the proxies and simulations suggest that precipitation variability during the September-November (SON) season is important for hydroclimate in Borneo. The preeminence of the SON season suggests that a seasonally lagged relationship between the Indian monsoon and Indian Ocean Walker circulation influences IPWP hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene.

  3. Radiological input during paediatric multidisciplinary team meetings and its influence on clinical patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Glyn; Pereira, John

    2016-04-01

    There is little information about the role of the radiologist at multidisciplinary team meetings; in particular their influence on patient management. To evaluate the influence of radiologists on clinical patient management during multidisciplinary meetings. Prospective data were collected over a 5-week period from multidisciplinary team meetings across four paediatric clinical domains. Radiological input was recorded for each case discussion, including the type of influence and its potential effect on clinical patient management. One hundred and forty paediatric cases were reviewed. Radiological advice was requested from the radiologist for 25.7% (N = 36) of cases. In 17.9% (N = 25) this advice was judged to have influenced clinical patient management. There were two cases where new imaging findings were discovered. Radiologists influence clinical patient management during multidisciplinary team meetings primarily by providing differential diagnoses and guidance regarding future imaging, with respect to both the necessity and the modality. Occasionally, when imaging is reviewed at these meetings, new findings are discovered that impact on patient management. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Des États Remaniés

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De fait, nous avons amorcé nos travaux après que ces deux derniers eurent téléphoné à l'un de nous (Gordon Smith) pour lui proposer de procéder à une ..... Des alliances s'y nouent et s'y dénouent au gré des intérêts — des coalitions électroniques qui influent sur la vie des gens et influencent les gouvernements de ...

  5. La cogestion des bassins versants transfrontaliers, pour favoriser la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'accès équitable à l'eau et la gestion efficace de l'eau sont des éléments essentiels au développement durable, à la protection des écosystèmes et à la stabilité ... l'exécution d'une étude des différents facteurs (aspects, instruments, secteurs et mécanismes) ayant une influence sur la conception et la coordination des.

  6. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations in Morocco during the last 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Brahim, Y.; Sifeddine, A.; Cheng, H.; Khodri, M.; Cruz, F. W., Sr.; Pérez-Zanón, N.; SHA, L.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Bouchaou, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate projections predict a substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco, while already under severe water stress. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. However, the climate processes are still poorly understood in North Africa, which makes the investigation of hydroclimate variations during the last millennium in Morocco highly requested. Here, we present the first well-dated high resolution ( 1.7 years) stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) speleothem record from southwestern Morocco, covering the last 1200 years. Our record reveals substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords, with prevailing dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), wetter conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and a trend towards dry conditions during the current warm period. These coherent regional climate signals suggest common climate controls. Statistical analyses indicate that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last millennium. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably influenced the regional climate in North Africa through the influence on Sahara Low which weakened and strengthened the mean moisture inflow from the Atlantic Ocean during the MCA and LIA respectively.

  7. La mycothérapie au Burkina Faso : État des lieux et perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit de : Daldinia eschscholzii, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma resinaceum, Phellinus pachyphloeus, Podaxis pistillaris, Lentinus squarrosulus, Lycoperdon sp et Scleroderma sp. L'analyse des données montre que le genre et l'âge des personnes interrogées n'ont pas d'influence sur la connaissance des espèces ...

  8. The influence of overweight and obesity on longitudinal trends in maternal serum leptin levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2011-02-01

    Maternal obesity influences a number of metabolic factors that can affect the course of pregnancy. Among these factors, leptin plays an important role in energy metabolism and fetal development during pregnancy. Our objective was to estimate the influence of maternal overweight/obesity on variation in the maternal serum leptin profile during pregnancy. In a prospective cohort of 143 adult gravidas with singleton pregnancies presenting for general prenatal care, we measured serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks' gestation. The longitudinal effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI, categorized as nonoverweight (≤ 26.0 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (>26.0 kg/m(2)), on serum leptin concentration were analyzed using linear mixed models. Overweight/obese women had significantly higher serum leptin concentrations than their nonoverweight counterparts throughout pregnancy (P influence leptin concentrations in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women during pregnancy. Such factors may contribute to differences in the intrauterine environment and its influence on pregnancy outcomes in the two groups.

  9. Influences des intrusions de masses d'air polaires sur le phytoplancton et le métabolisme d'une lagune tropicale

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, P.; Carmouze, Jean-Pierre

    1993-01-01

    La lagune de Saraquema, qui présente les caractéristiques d'un milieu fortement eutrophisé, est dominée par une communauté nanoplanctonique (35% Cyanophycées et 45% Prymnesiophycées), très peu diversifiée (2,5 bits.ind.-1). Les brusques changements météorologiques et hydrologiques, dus aux arrivées de fronts polaires, renforcent la haute instabilité hydroclimatique de ce milieu d'interface continental-marin et accroissent son pouvoir de sélection des espèces, de sorte que ce sont celles de pe...

  10. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in aquatic ecosystems : influence of natural and anthropic organic matter; Biodisponibilite des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les ecosystemes aquatiques: influence de la matiere organique naturelle et anthropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourlay, C.

    2004-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems receive micro-pollutants. They also contain organic matter (OM) of natural and anthropogenic origins. The contaminant bioavailability in aquatic media is determined by the interactions between contaminants and OM. This work deals with the influence of organic matter from anthropogenic media on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been used as model contaminants, since they are widely spread in urban media. In anthropogenic media, some OM may be bio-degraded. Up to now, most researches focused on the interactions between contaminants and humic OM that are mostly non-degradable, using physico-chemical characterizations of OM. On the contrary, in this work, the biodegradability of OM was deliberately taken into account. Indeed, we assume that the contaminant affinity for OM evolves during OM biodegradation, so that pollutants may be released in a bio-available form and then may be bond again by biodegradation sub-products. In laboratory evaluation, PAH bioavailability was assessed through the measurements of the bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna. The influence of organic matter on the bioavailability of PAHs and the evolution of this influence along OM bacterial mineralization were proved, as well as the strong binding efficiency of degradation by-products. A model of observed phenomena was elaborated. These observations about urban and natural OM effect were compared to in situ PAH bioavailability measurements in the river Seine basin. In this case, the bioavailability was estimated using Semi-Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) sampling technique. (author)

  11. Protein energy malnutrition during vaccination has limited influence on vaccine efficacy but abolishes immunity if administered during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Truc; Agger, Else Marie; Cassidy, Joseph P; Christensen, Jan P; Andersen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but it is not clear how PEM influences vaccine-promoted immunity to TB. We demonstrate that PEM during low-level steady-state TB infection in a mouse model results in rapid relapse of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as increased pathology, in both Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated and unvaccinated animals. PEM did not change the overall numbers of CD4 T cells in BCG-vaccinated animals but resulted in an almost complete loss of antigen-specific cytokine production. Furthermore, there was a change in cytokine expression characterized by a gradual loss of multifunctional antigen-specific CD4 T cells and an increased proportion of effector cells expressing gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ(+) TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells). PEM during M. tuberculosis infection completely blocked the protection afforded by the H56-CAF01 subunit vaccine, and this was associated with a very substantial loss of the interleukin-2-positive memory CD4 T cells promoted by this vaccine. Similarly, PEM during the vaccination phase markedly reduced the H56-CAF01 vaccine response, influencing all cytokine-producing CD4 T cell subsets, with the exception of CD4 T cells positive for TNF-α only. Importantly, this impairment was reversible and resupplementation of protein during infection rescued both the vaccine-promoted T cell response and the protective effect of the vaccine against M. tuberculosis infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Élaboration de fibres optiques nanostructurées dopées aux ions de terres rares : influence des paramètres de fabrication sur la synthèse et la croissance des nanoparticules

    OpenAIRE

    Mauroy, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped optical fibres are commonly used to realize amplifiers. To control and modify erbium spectroscopic properties in these silica-based optical fibres, we study an original way that consists in encapsulating ions into oxide nanoparticles obtained in-situ, directly during MCVD process. The modification of the erbium local environment allows to modify spectroscopic properties. These nanoparticles appear during the fabrication with the incorporation of a nucleation agent. Thermal cycles...

  13. Parents, peers, and sexual values influence sexual behavior during the transition to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim

    2010-06-01

    Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college. The current study tested the influence of sexual values and perceived awareness and caring (PAC), or beliefs about how much parents and peers know and care about students' behavior, on sexual behavior during this transitional period. Using data from a longitudinal study, generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear model were used to examine the associations among sexual values, parental and peer PAC, and sexual behavior, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants (N = 1,847; 61% female) completed web-based surveys the summer before college matriculation and at the end of the first semester in college. Results indicated that individuals with high levels of both parental and peer PAC engaged in less frequent sexual behaviors and that PAC moderated the effect of sexual values on sexual behaviors. Furthermore, both PAC variables decreased during the transition from high school to college, and high school sexual values, parental PAC, and their interaction predicted the number of sexual partners during the first semester of college. Only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual behaviors predicted unsafe sexual behavior in college. Findings suggest that complex associations exist among perceived awareness and caring, sexual values, and sexual behaviors, and that the transition from high school to college may be an ideal time for safer-sex interventions.

  14. Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil de conception et de dimensionnement des ouvrages. ... nous avons, après la collecte des informations météorologiques, procédé : - à l'analyse des données (directions) des six stations météorologiques principales conformément aux méthodes statistiques.

  15. Transhumance en République du Bénin : états des lieux et contraintes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont également permis de voir qu'elle est confrontée à des problèmes d'alimentation, de variabilités climatiques, des textes règlementaires, de conflits et de disponibilités des infrastructures pastorales. Il ressort également que la transhumance demeure sous la forte influence des systèmes de culture surtout ...

  16. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962); Securite dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement

  17. The influence of vibrations on surface roughness formed during precision boring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzeniewski Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the analysis of vibrations on surface roughness generated during boring with the application of the conventional boring tool and one with the damper is presented. The experiments included the measurement of vibration accelerations carried out with the piezoelectric sensor, as well as the evaluation of surface roughness parameters after each machining pass. The obtained results reveal that in the investigated range, no stability loss was found. Furthermore, the growth of the rotational speed induces the increase of vibration level, as well as the growth of the differences between the vibration values generated during boring with the conventional tool and one equipped with damper. Vibrations have also the direct influence on the machined surface roughness. In case of the tool equipped with the damper, the tool’s overhang L had more intense influence than rotational speed n. However, for the conventional boring tool this dependency was unequivocal.

  18. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    , but not by beta1-adrenergic blockade. Furthermore, endurance training appears to lower the cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake and preserve cerebral oxygenation during submaximal exercise. This is possibly related to an attenuated catecholamine response. Finally, exercise promotes brain health as evidenced......This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... as evidenced by pharmacological manipulation of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Cholinergic blockade by glycopyrrolate blocks the exercise-induced increase in the transcranial Doppler determined mean flow velocity (MCA Vmean). Conversely, alpha-adrenergic activation increases that expression of cerebral...

  19. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Xerostomia during Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ken; Stevens, Jason; Yepes, Juan Fernando; Randall, Marcus E.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Feddock, Jonathan; Xi, Jing; Kryscio, Richard J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Factors influencing xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were assessed. METHODS A 6-week study of 32 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients was performed. Subjects completed the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and provided stimulated saliva (SS) at baseline, week two and at end of IMRT. Influence of SS flow rate (SSFR), calcium and mucin 5b (MUC5b) concentrations and radiation dose on xerostomia was determined. RESULTS HNC subjects experienced mean SSFR decline of 36% by visit two (N=27; p=0.012) and 57% by visit three (N=20; p=0.0004), Concentrations of calcium and MUC5b increased, but not significantly during IMRT (p>0.05). Xerostomia correlated most with decreasing salivary flow rate as determined by Spearman correlations (pxerostomia. PMID:23523462

  20. Applications biotechnologiques des mycorhizes

    OpenAIRE

    Redecker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    La symbiose mycorhizienne est une association entre un champignon mycorhizogène et une racine de plante-hôte. La mycorrhize à arbuscules (MA) est extrêmement ancienne puisqu’elle est datée de la même époque que l’apparition des plantes terrestres, il y a 460 millions d’années. Elle s’effectue entre un champignon mycorhizogène à arbuscules (CMA, phylum Glomeromycota) et plus de 80% des plantes terrestres. Les CMA sont des microorganismes ubiquitaires du sol et sont des biotrophes obligatoires ...

  1. Factors Influencing Emergency Nurses' Burnout During an Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Soo Kim, RN, PhD; Jeong Sil Choi, RN, MPH, PhD, APICN

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Emergency department (ED) nurses suffer from persistent stress after experiencing the traumatic event of exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which can subsequently lead to burnout. This study aimed to assess ED nurses' burnout level during an outbreak of MERS-CoV and to identify influencing factors in order to provide basic information for lowering and preventing the level of burnout. Methods: Study participants were ED nurses working in eight hosp...

  2. Influence of rare earth oxides on the non-isothermal crystallization of phosphosilicate melts during cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Shan, Z.T.; Fu, G.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We report a detailed calorimetric study concerning the influence of Yb2O3 and Er2O3 on the non-isothermal crystallization in phosphosilicate melts. The results show that Yb3+/Er3+ ions promote the Zn2SiO4 crystal formation, but suppress the Na3PO4 and AlPO4 formation during cooling. The non-isoth...

  3. Marijuana Exposure Opportunity and Initiation during College: Parent and Peer Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana is the most prevalent illicit drug used by adolescents and young adults, yet marijuana initiation is rarely studied past adolescence. The present study sought to advance our understanding of parent and peer influences on marijuana exposure opportunity and incident use during college. A sample of 1,253 students was assessed annually for four years starting with the summer prior to college entry. More than one-third (38%wt) of students had already used marijuana at least once prior to...

  4. Influence of pain and gender on impact loading during walking: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M.; Christensen, R.; Alkjaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Knee joint ostcoarthritis is painful and with an overweight of female incidence. The cardinal symptom is pain, which Causes compensatory gait changes, and gender differences in pain sensitivity exist. Impact loadings at heel strike during walking are suspected as a co...... of impact loadings during walking are independent of quadriceps pain in both genders. The present study does not provide any evidence of the tested variables to address the gender differences in loading rates and attenuation. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2......-factor in development of knee osteoarthritis. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental muscle pain and gender oil generation and attenuation of impact loading during walking. Methods. Ten healthy males and 10 healthy females were recruited. Impact loadings during walking were...

  5. Influence of pain and gender on impact loading during walking: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M.; Christensen, R.; Alkjaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    signals, and the relative peak acceleration reduction. Knee joint kinematics were collected using a three-dimensional movement analysis system. The study was a cross-over study and data were collected before, during, and after experimental vastus medialis pain and a control situation. Findings......-factor in development of knee osteoarthritis. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of experimental muscle pain and gender oil generation and attenuation of impact loading during walking. Methods. Ten healthy males and 10 healthy females were recruited. Impact loadings during walking were......Background. Knee joint ostcoarthritis is painful and with an overweight of female incidence. The cardinal symptom is pain, which Causes compensatory gait changes, and gender differences in pain sensitivity exist. Impact loadings at heel strike during walking are suspected as a co...

  6. Marketing Science: Formalisation et Exploitation des Connaissances Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie; Laurent, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    Le marketing est un domaine en pleine mutation. La transformation fondamentale de cette fonction de l'entreprise, suite à la décentralisation des capacités de calcul, à l'automatisation des procédures de recueil de l'information sur le comportement d'achat, ouvre de nouvelles perspectives en matière d'acquisition, de formalisation et de transfert des connaissances. Peer reviewed

  7. Fate of pathogens and micro-pollutants during organic wastes and by-products anaerobic digestion - a review; Etat des connaissances sur le devenir des germes pathogenes et des micropolluants au cours de la methanisation des dechets et sous-produits organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Ch.; Galtier, L.

    1998-09-01

    Based on 300 scientific papers, the following bibliographical research deals with the fate of micro-pollutants (pathogens, heavy metals, organic pollutants) during anaerobic digestion. Different biological and chemical mechanisms allow organic compounds elimination, except from some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals which are fixed to the solid biomass, permitting water contamination risks attenuation. Unlike mesophilic digestion, thermophilic digestion is a 'sanitation' process regarding pathogens elimination. However, mesophilic digestion offers an important reliability compared with competitive or complementary processes. In particular, energy recovery from anaerobic digestion allows temperature control and makes easier further sanitation heat treatments. In general, anaerobic digestion represents a tool which can be included in an organic waste treatment line assuming waste selection and good agricultural practices. Otherwise, sanitation problem is still badly handled by waste operators and constructors which have been consulted. Research orientations seem especially interesting in improving knowledge of real industrial processes performances. (author)

  8. Comparison of ecological instream flow and release flow downstream of dams in Quebec : the effect of dam management practices, watershed size and the season; Comparaison entre debits reserves ecologiques et debits laches en aval des barrages au Quebec : influence du mode de gestion des barrages, de la taille des bassins versants et de la saison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, F.; Assani, A.A; Matteau, M. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Geographie, Laboratoire d' hydro-climatologie et de geomorphologie fluvial; Mesfioui, M. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et d' Informatique; Roy, A.G. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-07-01

    The effect of dams on downstream ecology was examined. The authors argued that clear regulations for discharges from dams should be clearly defined. However, despite the large number of dams in Quebec on important fluvial systems, there are no studies to verify compliance downstream from these dams with standards for ecological instream flows. A study was therefore conducted to compare discharges with recommended instream flows to protect fish habitat and their life cycle. An equation for estimating the instream flows downstream from dams was presented. Three factors that influence the extent of hydrological changes caused by dams in Quebec were identified, namely dam management, watershed size and season. It was shown that there is a lack of compliance with instream flows downstream from the dams. The same 3 factors also determine the frequency of this non-compliance and the variance between the instream flows and the released flows downstream from the dams. Compared to dams associated with hydroelectric generating stations only, dams associated with reservoirs have greater variance between the instream flows and the released flows from the dam. The frequency of non-compliance and variance diminish with the size of the watersheds. The frequency when instream flows are not exceeded is also higher in spring than in winter in the two hydrologic regimes, but the variance between the two seasons is more important during an inversion regime. However, the season was found to have no influence on the variance between the instream flows and the released flows downstream from the dams. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Influence combinée des fumures organique et minérale sur la nutrition et le rendement du maïs (Zea mays: impact sur le diagnostic des carences du sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanza, KP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined Influence of Manure and Fertilizers on Nutrition and Yield of Maize (Zea mays: Impact on the Diagnosis of Primary Soil Deficiencies. A trial was carried out at Centre National de Recherche Agronomique (CNRA station in Man, in order to study the effects of combined application of fertilizers and manure on the soil fertility, yields and nutrition of corn (Zea mays. Three doses of fertilizers and five amounts of manure were tested. Combination of levels' factors corresponds to fifteen treatments. Results show that manure is the engine of the improvement of soil fertility, nutrition and yields. All chemical characteristics of the soil have been improved, notably phosphorus, calcium and the total of exchangeable base cations. Impacts of these changes on soil' fertility, plant nutrition and performance have been established. A significant increase in the absorption of phosphorus and yield, due to manure, is observed. Soil phosphoric nutrition and yield of maize are related to the dose in the soil of each of these crucial nutrients by a quadratic production function. The ignorance of factors, that limit nutrition and production, maintains a low yield levels. Correction of deficiencies by a fertilization formula, adjusted to the soil and crop, restores productivity. Organic soil maintenance is an appropriate solution to the problems of the farmer.

  10. Evidence-informed obstetric practice during normal birth in China: trends and influences in four hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of international organizations, professional groups and individuals are promoting evidence-informed obstetric care in China. We measured change in obstetric practice during vaginal delivery that could be attributed to the diffusion of evidence-based messages, and explored influences on practice change. Methods Sample surveys of women at postnatal discharge in three government hospitals in Shanghai and one in neighbouring Jiangsu province carried out in 1999, repeated in 2003, and compared. Main outcome measures were changes in obstetric practice and influences on provider behaviour. "Routine practice" was defined as more than 65% of vaginal births. Semi-structured interviews with doctors explored influences on practice. Results In 1999, episiotomy was routine at all four hospitals; pubic shaving, rectal examination (to monitor labour and electronic fetal heart monitoring were routine at three hospitals; and enema on admission was common at one hospital. In 2003, episiotomy rates remained high at all hospitals, and actually significantly increased at one; pubic shaving was less common at one hospital; one hospital stopped rectal examination for monitoring labour, and the one hospital where enemas were common stopped this practice. Mobility during labour increased in three hospitals. Continuous support was variable between hospitals at baseline and showed no change with the 2003 survey. Provider behaviour was mainly influenced by international best practice standards promoted by hospital directors, and national legislation about clinical practice. Conclusion Obstetric practice became more evidence-informed in this selected group of hospitals in China. Change was not directly related to the promotion of evidence-based practice in the region. Hospital directors and national legislation seem to be particularly important influences on provider behaviour at the hospital level.

  11. La territorialisation des politiques environnementales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amédée Mollard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le point de départ de cet article est la grande variabilité de la pollution nitrique diffuse de l’eau due à l’agriculture. Celle-ci dépend en particulier du climat, des types de sol et des systèmes de production agricole. Nos recherches réalisées de façon interdisciplinaire à partir de deux sites différents en France, montrent que cette hétérogénéité spatio-temporelle conditionne les pratiques agricoles mises en œuvre pour réduire la pollution au niveau de la norme admise. De ce fait, les pratiques les plus « coût-efficaces » diffèrent d’un territoire à l’autre, en fonction des caractéristiques locales. Ces résultats mettent donc en évidence une efficacité potentielle d’une territorialisation des politiques publiques. En théorie, de telles politiques sont considérées comme optimales par les économistes, car elles incitent les agents à moduler leurs efforts en fonction de la sensibilité du milieu. Mais, selon les études empiriques, cet avantage serait annulé par un coût élevé de mise en œuvre, de contrôle et de surveillance. Pour maintenir leur avantage sur des politiques uniformes, les politiques territorialisées devraient être mises en œuvre à un niveau spatial optimal. Un tel niveau devrait au minimum atteindre un compromis entre l’économie réalisée grâce à une modulation adaptée aux conditions locales et les sur-coûts dus à la décentralisation des solutions mises en œuvre. Cet article analyse la pertinence d’une prise en compte de ces spécificités par des politiques territorialisées. L’efficacité d’une régulation différenciée de la pollution nitrique est étudiée ici en évaluant l’importance de la variabilité spatiale des paramètres physiques et des coûts de la territorialisation.The paper starts with the wide variability of nonpoint water nitrogenous pollution generated by agriculture. This variability depends especially on climate, soil types and farming

  12. Evaluation quantitative des produits formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique Quantitative Evaluation of Products Formed During the Geochemical Evolution of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'évaluation quantitative des produits mobiles formés lors de l'évolution géochimique de la matière organique est nécessaire parce qu'on ne peut jamais retrouver ces produits en place dans. la roche où ils ont pris naissance. Ils ont, en effet, pu migrer durant l'histoire géologique, et de toute manière une fraction, importante et non connue, se perd lors de la prise des échantillons puis de leur conservation avant analyse. La connaissance de l'analyse d'un état E et d'un état plus évolué E' ne suffit pas pour reconstituer les quantités de produits formés. La pyrolyse type Rock-Eval sur kérogènes, avec détermination du carbone résiduel, permet par contre, à partir d'une hypothèse raisonnable, de calculer les hydrocarbures produits. L'analyse élémentaire permet d'y ajouter CO2, H2O, H2S et N2 (considérés comme seuls produits à côté des hydrocarbures. Une analyse chromatographique sommaire supplémentaire permet d'estimer la composition globale des hydrocarbures. Dans le cas des roches, on propose des techniques de correction de l'effet de matrice pratiquement utilisables et qui permettent de retrouver les résultats précédents, au prix d'une incertitude accrue. The mobile products formed during the geochemical evolution of organic matter must be quantitatively evaluated because these products can never be found in place in the rock where they were formed. Indeed, they may have migrated during geological history, and in any case a large and unknown fraction gets lost when samples are taken and then stored before being analysed. Knowing the elemental analysis of a state E and of a more evolved state E' does not suffice for recreating the amounts of products formed. On the other hand Rock-Eval type pyrolysis of kerogens, including the determination of the residual carbon, can be used to compute the hydrocarbons produced, on the basis of a reasonable hypothesis. Elemental analysis then enables the evaluation of CO2, H2O

  13. Influence of ovariectomy on metabolic and endocrine parameters during sexual development in the female pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, A; Louveau, I

    1997-09-01

    During pubertal maturation, the increase in blood concentrations of sexual steroids is associated with a spurt in plasma IGF-I in primates, rats and cattle. However, data on the influence of sex steroids on plasma IGF-I during this physiological period are contradictory. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to understand better the relationships between pubertal development, energy metabolic regulation and the IGF-I/IGFBP system in crossbred gilts (Large White x Landrace). Circulating concentrations of hormones and metabolites were examined in ovariectomized (n = 6) and sham-operated females (n = 9) during sexual development. Surgery and first blood samplings were performed at 70 days of age. Growth curves were similar in ovariectomized and entire females. First oestrus and ovulation occurred between 178 and 209 days in entire gilts. From 84 days of age, plasma FSH concentration was lower in sham-operated than in ovariectomized gilts (P feedback exerted by ovarian secretions on the gonadotrophin axis in entire gilts. Preprandial concentration of plasma glucose was not influenced by age whereas plasma free fatty acids decreased with age (P gilts. Plasma IGF-I and 43-39 kDa IGFBP levels increased whereas plasma 34 kDa IGFBP decreased with age (P gilts (P > 0.1). This experiment shows that gonadal steroids are not involved or play only a minor role in the control of IGF-I and IGFBP plasma levels during pubertal development in the female pig.

  14. Reported Pain During Labour - A Qualitative Study of Influencing Factors among Parturient During Confinement in Private or Government Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Ravishankar, M; Hemanthkumar, V R

    2016-03-01

    Labour pain is distressing and it produces undue side effects both to the mother and the baby. The incidence is high in developing countries like India where the awareness about labour analgesia is still lacking. It is to find out the incidence of labour pain and the influence of various described factors on pain with a comparison between patients admitted in a government set up with a private set up in a south Indian semi-urban area. Two hundred continuous uneventful normal deliveries each in a Government (group G) and a private hospital (group P) were enrolled for the study. The reported pain during labour was noted 6-7 hours after delivery by interacting with the patient. The factors like age of the mother, sex and weight of the baby, literacy, socioeconomic status, the use of oxytocics and analgesia were evaluated. The incidence of severe pain was more in group G (43.5%) than group P (12%). There was no analgesic intervention in 68.5% in group G while it was 13.5% (27/200) in group P. Even among these 27 patients who did not receive analgesics, only three parturients reported severe pain. Even administration of analgesics in a Government set up did not decrease pain to a significant extent. There were richer and more literate patients in group P. Booked cases were less in group G. Logistic regression analyses to find out factors which influenced pain in either group was used. Gravida, analgesic intervention and admission in a Govt. hospital influenced the pain experience of the parturient. There was minimal antenatal preparation in both the groups. There were no post partum complications. Mothers suffered from labour pain to a significant extent and there is an urgent need for awareness about labour analgesia. Primigravida, admission in a Govt. set up and analgesic interventions were the factors which influenced pain than others. Patients admitted in Govt. hospitals suffered more pain with less analgesic intervention possibly due to illiteracy. The increased

  15. Surface Water Qualit: Revisiting Nitrate Concentrations in the Des Moines River: 1945 and 1976-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, G.F.; Libra, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent compilations of historical and contemporary riverine nitrate (NO3) concentrations indicate that concentrations in many rivers in the north-central USA increased during the second half of the 20th century. The Des Moines River near Des Moines, Iowa, however, was reported to have had similar NO3 concentrations in 1945 and the 1980s, in spite of substantially greater N input to the watershed during the latter period. The objective of this study was to reconsider the comparison of historical and contemporary NO3 concentrations in the Des Moines River near Des Moines in light of the following: (i) possible errors in the historical data used, (ii) variations in methods of sample collection, (iii) variations in location of sampling, and (iv) additional data collected since 1990. We discovered that an earlier study had compared the flow-weighted average concentration in 1945 to arithmetic annual average concentrations in the 1980s. The intertemporal comparison also appeared to be influenced by differences in sample collection methods and locations used at different times. Depending on the model used and the estimated effects of composite sample collection, the 1945 arithmetic average NO3 concentration was between 44 and 57% of the expected mean value at a similar water yield during 1976-2001. The flow-weighted average NO3 concentration for 1945 was between 54 and 73% of the expected mean value at a similar water yield during 1976-2001. The difference between NO3 concentrations in 1945 and the contemporary period are larger than previously reported for the Des Moines River.

  16. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Paloma; Garbín, Raíssa Rigo; Santos, Catielma Nascimento; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Rigo, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers' anxiety on their children's anxiety during dental care. Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT) scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%). Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%). Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%). Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children's anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers' anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  17. Influence sur les imbrûlés solides de composés métalliques particuliers et du taux de dispersion des asphaltènes dans les fuels lourds Influence of Unburned Solids Made of Unusual Metal Compounds and of the Asphaltene Dispersion Rate in Heavy Fuel Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La diversité croissante des origines de bruts a conduit, en combustion, a prendre en considération dans les modèles la teneur en métaux en plus du carbone Conradson ou des asphaltènes au C7 dans les fuels lourds. De tels modèles ont été développés par Exxon (1979 et Shell (1981 notamment. Des travaux récents faits à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP sur une chaudière de 2 MW ont montré l'influence de composés métalliques particuliers présents dans le fuel oil sous forme de sulfures imprégnant des particules de carbone poreux. Ces microparticules peuvent être générées lorsque l'on applique des conditions opératoires sévères à la viscoréduction de fuels résiduaires en présence d'hydrogène et d'un catalyseur approprié. Ces microparticules se sont révélées très actives en combustion et ont montré que la concentration du métal n'était pas le seul facteur à prendre en considération mais que la manière dont il était combiné pouvait être prépondérante. Pour étendre le domaine d'application des modèles, d'autres paramètres comme les conditions de fonctionnement de la chaudière et l'atomisation du fuel ont été pris en compte en plus des paramètres d'influence propres au fuel (travaux du Laboratoire Énergie du MIT publications 1986. En ce qui concerne la prédiction d'émissions particulaires une méthode complémentaire aux tests de résidu de Conradson et d'insolubilité à l'heptane normal a été appliquée à I'IFP dans le cadre d'un programme de valorisation des huiles lourdes en association avec les compagnies pétrolières Elf et Total France. Cette méthode consiste à évaluer à la microscopie électronique par transmission le taux de dispersion des asphaltènes, selon une méthode développée par Total France (M. Peyrot. Il existe une relation entre ce taux de dispersion et l'émission particulaire. Ce phénomène a été nettement observé dans le cas de fuels lourds constitués par

  18. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  19. Understanding the Influence of Parkinson Disease on Adolf Hitler's Decision-Making during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Kim, Christopher; Agarwal, Nitin; Lieber, Bryan; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Common symptoms of PD include a reduction in control of voluntary movements, rigidity, and tremors. Such symptoms are marked by a severe deterioration in motor function. The causes of PD in many cases are unknown. PD has been found to be prominent in several notable people, including Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany and Führer of Nazi Germany during World War II. It is believed that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic PD throughout his life. However, the effect of PD on Adolf Hitler's decision making during World War II is largely unknown. Here we examine the potential role of PD in shaping Hitler's personality and influencing his decision-making. We purport that Germany's defeat in World War II was influenced by Hitler's questionable and risky decision-making and his inhumane and callous personality, both of which were likely affected by his condition. Likewise his paranoid disorder marked by intense anti-Semitic beliefs influenced his treatment of Jews and other non-Germanic peoples. We also suggest that the condition played an important role in his eventual political decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... bicarbonate (Bicarb, 1 m; 350–500 ml) or an equal volume of normal saline (Sal) was infused intravenously at a constant rate during a ‘2000 m' maximal ergometer row in six male oarsmen (23 ± 2 years; mean ± s.d.). During the Sal trial, pH decreased from 7.41 ± 0.01 at rest to 7.02 ± 0.02 but only to 7.36 ± 0...

  1. Influence des catalyseurs hétérogènes sur le coprocessing d'un lignite du Berguedà avec un résidu de distillation sous vide Influence of Heterogeneous Catalysts on the Coprocessing of Berguedà Lignite with a Vacuum Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moros A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie le co-traitement catalytique sous atmosphère d'hydrogène d'un lignite de la Catalogne (Espagne avec un résidu de distillation sous vide, en utilisant sept catalyseurs hétérogènes différents. Cinq d'entre eux sont de conception propre : quatre à base de fer avec des quantités respectives de 6, 10, 18 et 25 % en poids d'oxydes et un à base de fer-molybdène avec des quantités de 25 et 10 % respectivement. Tous ces catalyseurs sont déposés sur gamma-alumine. Les deux autres sont des catalyseurs commerciaux d'hydrotraitement à base de cobalt-molybdène et nickel-molybdène. Des essais à blanc ont été également réalisés avec de la gamma-alumine et sans catalyseur. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que la performance des catalyseurs a été modifiée à cause de la présence d'une grande quantité de matière minérale contenue dans le charbon. Ces résultats sont confirmés par le fait que les trois valeurs maximales de conversion du charbon ont été obtenues lors de l'utilisation du catalyseur à base de fer à 25 %, avec ou sans molybdène, et sans catalyseur. Le pourcentage de fer dans les autres catalyseurs n'affecte pas de façon significative la conversion du charbon ou la production d'huile. Par ailleurs, la production d'huile augmente lors de l'utilisation des catalyseurs commerciaux d'hydrotraitement, mais la qualité des produits obtenus ne diffère pas réellement de celle obtenue avec les autres catalyseurs. Seven different heterogeneous catalysts are tested for the catalytic coprocessing of a Catalan lignite with vacuum residue under atmosphere of hydrogen. Four of these catalysts were iron-based catalysts supported on gamma-alumina with increasing loading of iron oxide. The fifth was a bimodal catalyst of iron and molybdenum. The last two catalysts were commercial hydrotreatment catalysts. Also, tests were conducted with gamma-alumina and without catalyst. The experimental results show that

  2. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  3. Influence des solvants aromatiques sur les propriétés optiques du bleu de phtalocyanine de cuivre en milieu pictural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Actuellement, cinq formes de bleu de phtalocyanine de cuivre sont utilisées comme pigments artistiques: PB15, :1, :2, :3, :4, et :6. PB15 qui correspond à la forme la plus utilisée après PB15 :3 est sujette à la cristallisation. Ce phénomène qui s’observe plus particulièrement en présence de solvants aromatiques entraîne un glissement de teinte du bleu vers le vert et une perte du pouvoir couvrant du pigment. Or, l’usage de solvants aromatiques dans le champ de la conservation-restauration de peintures de chevalet est relativement commun. Citons par exemple, le toluène et les xylènes qui entrent dans la composition de certains mélanges de solvants, de certains types vernis (Laropal A81 et d’adhésifs (Beva 371. C'est pourquoi il est nécessaire d’effectuer une recherche de manière à déterminer si les conditions d’utilisation des solvants aromatiques en conservation-restauration provoquent la cristallisation de PB15. Dans cet article, les premiers résultats obtenus sur des échantillons de PB15, :1, :2, :3, :4 et :6 en poudre sont présentés. Les cinq formes susmentionnées ont été examinées sous microscope polarisant et analysées par spectroscopie infrarouge à transformée de Fourier et diffraction de rayons X, avant et après leur immersion dans les solvants aromatiques, de façon à pouvoir comparer les propriétés optiques et chimiques.Currently, five forms of copper phthalocyanine blue, PB15, :1, :2, :3, :4, and :6, are used as artistic pigments. PB15, the most widespread form afterwards PB15:3 is prone to crystallisation. This phenomenon changes the metastable α form into a coarsely crystalline form with an attendant loss of tinctorial strength. Crystal growth can occur in many media but is most often seen in paints containing aromatic solvents. The use of aromatic solvents as part of conservation treatments of paintings is relatively common. For example, the toluene and  the xylenes found

  4. Examining the Principles of Influence on Safer Sex Communication During Casual and Committed Sexual Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Rinaldi-Miles, Anna; Quick, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    Teens and young people are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections. Understanding how relationship context may moderate the effectiveness of safer sex communication strategies among this demographic is important information for practitioners striving to promote safer sex behaviors. In this study, focus groups (N = 9) with college students were conducted and analyzed to examine the relation between 6 principles of influence (authority, consistency, liking, reciprocity, scarcity, and social proof) and safer sex communication during committed and casual sexual encounters. Results revealed that with the exceptions of social proof and consistency, the principles of influence were endorsed more frequently for casual than committed sexual encounters. For casual sexual encounters, the principles of authority, reciprocity, and scarcity arose as influential principles. For committed sexual encounters, the principles of consistency, liking, and reciprocity arose as influential principles. These results are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications.

  5. Emotion and narrative fiction: Interactive influences before, during, and after reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Raymond A; Oatley, Keith; Djikic, Maja; Mullin, Justin

    2011-08-01

    Emotions are central to the experience of literary narrative fiction. Affect and mood can influence what book people choose, based partly on whether their goal is to change or maintain their current emotional state. Once having chosen a book, the narrative itself acts to evoke and transform emotions, both directly through the events and characters depicted and through the cueing of emotionally valenced memories. Once evoked by the story, these emotions can in turn influence a person's experience of the narrative. Lastly, emotions experienced during reading may have consequences after closing the covers of a book. This article reviews the current state of empirical research for each of these stages, providing a snapshot of what is known about the interaction between emotions and literary narrative fiction. With this, we can begin to sketch the outlines of what remains to be discovered.

  6. Ion bombardment during thin film deposition and its influence on mechanical and chemical surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G. K.; Ensinger, W.

    1991-07-01

    Directed energy in the form of energetic ion beams is an excellent tool for the modification of thin film and interface properties. The easy control of ion beam parameters causes the high flexibility of the technique. The influence of ion bombardment during deposition of thin films and coatings (IBAD) on their mechanical and chemical behaviour is reviewed in this article. Firstly the controlled production of IBAD films or multilayers with well defined composition is described. Secondly the influence of ion bombardment on selected properties is considered. Adhesion, stress and structure or texture and their dependence on process parameters are discussed. Thirdly the role of adhesion, stress and porosity of films for their use for corrosion and oxidation protection is treated. Finally in the conclusion an attempt is made to define the present status of IBAD techniques compared with other PVD processes.

  7. Contribution to the study of hard, low-density pyrolytic carbons; Contribution a l'etude des carbones pyrolytiques de variete dure et de faible densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, F.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Apparent contradictions in the properties of pyrolytic carbons obtained at 1600 deg C (hardness and graphitization) are studied. It is shown that structure of the deposit is turbostratic with high internal stresses ({delta}{sup -2}), and it graphitizes (by thermal treatment over 2000 deg C) in a similar manner to graphitisable carbon. Because the deposit forms lamellar compounds, it is presumed that the structure is similar to that of graphitisable carbon. Since it is not structure dependant, the hardness originates from the 'growth texture' and is not comparable with the hardness of a non-graphitisable carbon. The pyrolytic carbon studied is composed of regions, on the overage a few microns across, formed by the stacking of small carbon platelets, interlocked and showing a preferred orientation. The mis-orientation of the various regions produces general disorientation. We estimate that the introduction of the particles of some material such as thermal black which are observed in the electron microscope are responsible for the mis-orientation. The density and hardness of the deposit are a result of the interlocking of platelets, which creates a closed porosity and prevents any sliding of the atomic planes. (author) [French] On etudie les proprietes apparemment contradictoires du pyrocarbone 1600 deg C, durete et graphitabilite. On montre que le pyrocarbone possede la structure d'un carbone turbostratique a fort taux de distorsion et qu'il subit, par traitement a des temperatures superieures a 2000 deg C, une transformation de graphitation comparable a celle que l'on observe sur les cokes graphitables. Comme le pyrocarbone forme de plus des composes d'insertion, sa structure est comparable a celle d'un carbone graphitable. La durete, qui n'a pas d'origine structurale, est donc liee a la 'texture de croissance' du depot et ne peut etre comparee a celle d'un coke dur et non graphitable. Le pyrocarbone etudie

  8. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan L Dewar

    Full Text Available Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2% and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11% decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29% and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20% were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  9. Influence of fasting during moult on the faecal microbiota of penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y; Krause, Lutz; Trathan, Phil; Dann, Peter; Smith, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Many seabirds including penguins are adapted to long periods of fasting, particularly during parts of the reproductive cycle and during moult. However, the influence of fasting on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has not been investigated in seabirds. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the microbial composition and diversity of the GI microbiota of fasting little (Eudyptula minor) and king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) penguins during early and late moult. The results from this study indicated that there was little change in the abundance of the major phyla during moult, except for a significant increase in the level of Proteobacteria in king penguins. In king penguins the abundance of Fusobacteria increases from 1.73% during early moult to 33.6% by late moult, whilst the abundance of Proteobacteria (35.7% to 17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (19.5% to 11%) decrease from early to late moult. In little penguins, a decrease in the abundances of Firmicutes (44% to 29%) and an increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes (11% to 20%) were observed from early to late moult respectively. The results from this study indicate that the microbial composition of both king and little penguins alters during fasting. However, it appears that the microbial composition of king penguins is more affected by fasting than little penguins with the length of fast the most probable cause for this difference.

  10. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  11. The influence of achievement before, during and after medical school on physician job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-10-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationship between physicians' prior achievements (before, during and after medical school) and job satisfaction, and tested the two lines of reasoning that prior achievements influence job satisfaction positively or negatively, respectively. The participants were graduates who started their medical training in 1982 (n = 147), 1983 (n = 154), 1992 (n = 143) and 1993 (n = 153). We operationalised job satisfaction as satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with 13 cognitive, affective and instrumental aspects of the participants' jobs. The measures of achievement before, during and after medical school included pre-university grade point average, study progress and a residency position in the specialty of first choice, respectively. We included the effect of curriculum type (problem-based learning versus traditional), gender and years of experience as moderator variables. Higher achievers before and during medical school were more satisfied about their income (β = .152, p job satisfaction. The direction of the influences depended on the job satisfaction aspect in question, which indicates that it is important to distinguish between aspects of job satisfaction. To optimize job satisfaction of high achievers, it is important for graduates to obtain their preferred specialty. Furthermore, it is vital to provide them with enough opportunities for further development.

  12. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Martensitic Transformation During Hot Stamping of Complex Structure Auto Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhan; Song, Yanli; Hua, Lin; Lu, Jue

    2017-04-01

    The ultra-high strength steel auto parts manufactured by hot stamping are widely applied for weight reduction and safety improvement. During the hot stamping process, hot forming and quenching are performed in one step wherein plastic deformation and phase transformation simultaneously take place and affect each other. Thereinto, the influence of deformation on martensitic transformation is of great importance. In the present paper, the influence of plastic deformation on martensitic transformation during hot stamping of complex structure auto parts was investigated. For this purpose, a B-pillar reinforced panel in B1500HS steel was manufactured by hot stamping, and the process was simulated by finite element software based on a thermo-mechanical-metallurgical coupled model. Considering various deformation degrees, the microstructures and mechanical properties at four typical locations of the hot stamped B-pillar reinforced panel were detected. The results show that the martensitic content and the microhardness increase with the increase in the deformation amount. There are two reasons causing this phenomenon: (1) the increase in mechanical driving force and (2) the increased probability of the martensitic nucleation at crystal defects. The x-ray diffraction analysis indicates the carbon enrichment in retained austenite which results from the carbon diffusion during the low-carbon martensite formation. Furthermore, the carbon content decreases with the increase in the deformation amount, because the deformation of austenite suppresses the carbon diffusion.

  13. Influence des acides gras polyinsaturés n-3 et des antioxydants alimentaires sur les acides gras de la viande et la lipoperoxydation chez le bovin en finition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauchart Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze, on beef lipids and FA and on beef colour, the impact of extruded linseed (rich in n-3 PUFA given alone or with rapeseed (rich in n-3 and n-6 PUFA and in 18:1 n-9 in association or not with antioxidants given to Normand (fat breed cull cows during the finishing period. Dietary linseeds significantly increased proportions of 18:3 n-3 (+56 and +36 % respectively, total trans 18:1 (+66 and +105 %; and of 9cis, 11trans 18:2 (CLA (+50 and +41 % in LT muscle of which 18:3 n-3 and CLA are known to be beneficial for the human health. Addition of antioxidants (vitamin E plus plant extracts rich in polyphenols, PERP reinforced the stimulating effect of lipid supplements on proportions of the three considered FA (18:3 n-3, total trans 18:1, 9cis, 11trans 18:2 in total lipids of both muscles. Dietary n-3 PUFA reduced the resistance capacity of plasma against lipoperoxidation (–11 % favouring peroxidized products formations such as conjugated dienes (×1.75 and malonedialdehyde (MDA, ×2. Intensity of beef lipoperoxidation (estimated by MDA level tended to be higher in meats packaged under modified atmosphere rich in oxygen (70 % in the linseed group (2.96 μg/g of tissue compared to that of the control group (2.19 μg/g of tissue, P = 0.1. Dietary vitamin E provided with PERP effectively protected beef against lipoperoxidation, even in beef packagings with O2. Beef under air packaging from cows given the linseed supplement had a higher redness value than that from control cows. In the case of animals given lipid supplemented diets and submitted to an emotional stress, beef packaged under air or modified atmosphere rich in O2 had a lower redness than that of the same animals given lipids associated to antioxidant supplements. We concluded that the dietary strategy combining addition of n-3 PUFA and of the antioxidant mixture in diets would avoid major risks of lipoperoxidation and alteration of colour in beef products

  14. Experimental study of the aluminum droplet combustion under forced convection. Influence of the gaseous atmosphere; Etude experimentale de la combustion des gouttes d'aluminium en convection forcee. Influence de l'atmosphere gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarou-Kanian, V.

    2003-12-15

    Because of its high energetic power, the combustion of aluminum particles in solid propellant rocket motors improves the efficiency of heavy-lift launcher as Ariane 5. Aluminum particles burn in a gaseous atmosphere essentially composed of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, HCl, H{sub 2}, and CO, at high pressure (P=60-70 atm) and high temperature (T>3000 K). In the present work, we have been particularly interested in the influence of the gaseous atmosphere on the different burning processes both in the gas-phase and at the aluminum droplet surface. An experimental set-up was developed in order to describe precisely, thanks to several analysis techniques (high-speed camera, pyrometry, spectrometry, SEM, nuclear activation) the combustion of aerodynamically levitated millimetric aluminum droplets in gas mixtures with compositions close to the propellant ones (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}). The main result is that each species plays a different role in the aluminum combustion. The water vapor has the biggest influence in the gas-phase process due to the production of hydrogen facilitating the heat and mass diffusion between the flame and the droplet. Nitrogen is essentially acting in surface reactions with the formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) and oxynitride (AlON) which may completely cover the droplet and stop the gas-phase combustion. Carbon dioxide has a double effect. On the one hand, CO{sub 2} burns in the flame, but it is less efficient than H{sub 2}O because the heat and mass transfer properties are poorer for CO than for H{sub 2}. On the other hand, a carbon dissolution phenomenon occurs in the aluminum droplet during burning which may reach saturation (20-25% molar) and involves a carbon rejection at the surface leading to the end of the gas-phase combustion. (author)

  15. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  16. Influence of temperature on the activity of ciliated cells during exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldetorp, L.; Haakansson, C.H.; Baldetorp, B.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the early effects of ionizing irradiation has been analysed using the trachea of the rabbit. ATP is assumed to be released by the effect of irradiation on the mitochondrial membranes, which increases the mucociliary activity in the epithelium, registered second-by-second during irradiation performed st 20 degC, 30 degC, 37 degC and 40 degC. The early effects of irradiation depended on the temperature, while hyperthermia does not potentiate this condition. A possible explanation is that phosphofructokinase, which is probably stimulated by irradiation, is inactivated at lower temperatures. (author)

  17. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    For the consideration of the effects on radioactive contamination of agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident, the wet interception coefficients for the plants were derived, and the previous dynamic food chain model was also modified. From the results, radioactive contamination of agricultural products was greatly decreased by rainfall, and it decreased dramatically according to increase of rainfall amount. It means that the predictive contamination in agricultural products using the previous dynamic food chain model, in which dry interception to the plants is only considered, can be overestimated. Influence of rainfall on the contamination of agricultural products was the most sensitive for 131 I, and the least sensitive for 90 Sr

  18. L’influenza delle norme e delle sanzioni sui fenomeni di consumo e dipendenza da droga / L’influence des normes et des sanctions sur les phénomènes de consommation de drogues et de dépendance / The influence of norms and sanctions on drug abuse and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the relationship between norms and sanctions, on the one hand, and drug addiction, on the other. It highlights three implications for: a the weakness of the deterrent value of the rules prohibiting the use of drugs in the current socio-cultural context; b the therapeutic issue that engages in the framework in the execution of the sentence for the drug addicted offender; c assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation of drug addicts in the execution of sentence. Particular attention is given to socio-cultural perspectives and social policy. The importance of evaluation is established in order to implement effective preventive and rehabilitative programs.Questo contributo analizza il rapporto fra norme e sanzioni, da un lato, e stati di tossicodipendenza, dall’altro, cogliendo tre implicazioni concernenti: a la debolezza del valore deterrente delle norme che vietano il consumo di droghe nell’attuale contesto socio-culturale; b la questione terapeutica che si innesta nel quadro coercitivo della privazione della libertà per il tossicodipendente autore di reato; c la valutazione dei differenti percorsi riabilitativi del tossicodipendente che entra nel circuito penale. In chiave critica viene data particolare attenzione agli aspetti socio-culturali e alle prospettive di politica sociale. E’ sottolineata l’importanza della ricerca valutativa al fine di implementare programmi, sia di tipo preventivo che riabilitativo, che possano garantire livelli soddisfacenti di efficienza e di efficacia.Cet article analyse la relation entre les normes et les sanctions, d’un côté, et la toxicomanie, de l’autre. Le texte met en évidence trois implications concernantes : a la faiblesse de la valeur dissuasive des règles qui interdisent la consommation des drogues; b la question thérapeutique qui s'engage pour le délinquant toxicomane dans le contexte de la privation de liberté; c l'évaluation des différentes démarches de r

  19. Contribution a la comprehension de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et du laitier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houehanou, Ernesto C.

    similaires apres 4 et 6 annees de service. La microstructure des betons en service a ete analysee au moyen du microscope a balayage electronique (MEB). Les resultats montrent que la qualite du murissement influence grandement la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons contenant de la cendre volante et de laitier surtout lorsqu'ils sont soumis ' aux essais acceleres en laboratoire. La duree du pretraitement humide est un parametre cle de la durabilite a l'ecaillage des betons testes en laboratoire. Le pretraitement humide correspond a la duree totale du murissement humide (100% HR) et de la periode de presaturation. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. Pour les deux methodes d'essai, l'allongement du pretraitement humide a 28 jours ameliore la resistance a l'ecaillage de tous les types de betons et en particulier celle des betons avec cendres volantes. La periode de presaturation de 7 jours de la procedure NQ 2621-900 a un effet similaire a celui d'un murissement humide de meme longueur. Un murissement humide de 28 jours apparait optimal et conduit a une estimation plus realiste de la resistance a l'ecaillage reelle des betons. Pour une meme duree de pretraitement humide, les procedures NQ 2621-900 et ASTM C672 donnent des resultats equivalents. L'utilisation d'un moule a fond drainant n'a pas d'effet sur la resistance a l'ecaillage des betons de cette etude. Bien que le murissement dans l'eau saturee de chaux offre toute l'eau requise pour favoriser le developpement des proprietes du beton et l'amelioration de sa durabilite a l'ecaillage, elle lessive cependant les ions alcalins ce qui diminue defavorablement l'alcalinite et le pH de la solution interstitielle de la pate de ciment pres de la surface exposee. L'utilisation d'un agent de murissement protege mieux les betons contenant de la cendre volante et ameliore

  20. Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome on plantar pressure in the foot rollover process during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aliberti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is one of the most common knee disorders among physically active young women. Despite its high incidence, the multifactorial etiology of this disorder is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome on plantar pressure distribution during the foot rollover process (i.e., the initial heel contact, midstance and propulsion phases of the gait. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven young adults, including 22 subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (30 ± 7 years, 165 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 12 kg and 35 control subjects (29 ± 7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 60 ± 11 kg, volunteered for the study. The contact area and peak pressure were evaluated using the Pedar-X system (Novel, Germany synchronized with ankle sagittal kinematics. RESULTS: Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome showed a larger contact area over the medial (p = 0.004 and central (p = 0.002 rearfoot at the initial contact phase and a lower peak pressure over the medial forefoot (p = 0.033 during propulsion when compared with control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to a foot rollover pattern that is medially directed at the rearfoot during initial heel contact and laterally directed at the forefoot during propulsion. These detected alterations in the foot rollover process during gait may be used to develop clinical interventions using insoles, taping and therapeutic exercise to rehabilitate this dysfunction.

  1. Does body posture during tree felling influence the physiological load of a chainsaw operator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywiński, Witold; Jelonek, Tomasz; Tomczak, Arkadiusz; Jakubowski, Marcin; Bembenek, Mariusz

    2017-09-21

    Holding determined body postures during work is connected with muscles activity. The more forced the posture, the larger the number of muscles taking an active part in holding and stabilizing the work posture. During logging, the greatest share of awkward (forced) working postures occurs in tree felling by chainsaw. A group of 10 experienced fellers aged 47.5±7.3 (37 - 59-years-old) was studied. Heart rate (HR) was measured during simulation of felling activity in 4 working postures: back bent forward with straight legs (stoop), back bent forward with bent legs (flexed-stoop), squat and kneeling on one knee (half-kneel). The lowest value of HR was noticed for squatting - 114.1 bpm, then for kneeling on one knee - 116.3 bpm. HR during felling in a standing posture with straight legs amounted to 121.5 bpm and for standing with bent legs 125.3 bpm. For all studied postures the differences in average HR values were statistically significant at pposture during tree felling by chainsaw has influence on the level of physiological workload of an operator. Standing bent forward body postures cause higher heart response than squatting and half-kneeling.

  2. Soutien des activités de recherche par le truchement de l'Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Influence sur les politiques : Cette série d'activités contribuera à renforcer la capacité de l'Instituto Desarrollo et du CADEP d'influencer les politiques. Des ateliers et des séminaires adaptés aux spécificités propres aux différents intervenants dans la sphère des politiques seront organisés dans le but de renforcer les liens ...

  3. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  4. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  5. Influence of The Arrangement of Materials and Microstructural Analysis During FSW of AZ80A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevvel P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce defect free weldments with improved properties during friction stir welding of dissimilar Mg alloys. The influence of the anisotropic arrangement of materials when AZ80A Mg alloy is taken as advancing side and AZ91C Mg alloy as retreating side and vice versa with respect to their mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics were investigated. The effects of various FSW parameters on the quality of these joints were also analyzed and best optimized FSW parameters were suggested. Defect free sound joints with excellent mechanical properties were produced when AZ80A Mg alloy was positioned at retreating side. At the same time, it seems a little bit difficult to obtain good quality joints with the contrary arrangement of materials. These investigations revealed that materials having inferior plastic deformability must be kept at the advancing side to obtain sound joints during FSW of dissimilar alloys of Magnesium.

  6. The Influence of Concentrative Meditation Training on the Development of Attention Networks during Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti eBaijal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate if concentrative meditation training (CMT offered during adolescent development benefits subsystems of attention using a quasi-experimental design. Attentional alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring were examined using the Attention Network Test (ANT in 13, 14, and 15 yo children who received CMT as part of their school curriculum (CMT Group: N=79 vs. those who received no such training (Control Group: N=76. Alerting and conflict monitoring, but not orienting, differed between the CMT and Control Group. Only conflict monitoring demonstrated age-related improvements, with smaller conflict effect scores in older vs. younger participants. The influence of CMT on this system was similar to the influence of developmental maturity, with smaller conflict effects in the CMT vs. Control group. To examine if CMT might also bolster conflict-triggered upregulation of attentional control, conflict effects were evaluated as a function of previous trial conflict demands (high conflict vs. low conflict. Smaller current trial conflict effects were observed when previous conflict was high vs. low, suggesting that similar to adults, when previous conflict was high (vs. low children in this age-range proactively upregulated control so that subsequent trial performance was benefitted. The magnitude of conflict-triggered control upregulation was not bolstered by CMT but CMT did have an effect for current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials. Thus, CMT’s influence on attention may be tractable and specific; it may bolster attentional alerting, conflict monitoring and reactive control, but does not appear to improve orienting.

  7. Neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on public goods game donations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Van Dijk, Eric; Güroğlu, Berna; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-06-01

    A unique feature of adolescent social re-orientation is heightened sensitivity to peer influence when taking risks. However, positive peer influence effects are not yet well understood. The present fMRI study tested a novel hypothesis, by examining neural correlates of prosocial peer influence on donation decisions in adolescence. Participants (age 12-16 years; N = 61) made decisions in anonymous groups about the allocation of tokens between themselves and the group in a public goods game. Two spectator groups of same-age peers-in fact youth actors-were allegedly online during some of the decisions. The task had a within-subjects design with three conditions: (1) EVALUATION: spectators evaluated decisions with likes for large donations to the group, (2) Spectator: spectators were present but no evaluative feedback was displayed and (3) Alone: no spectators nor feedback. Results showed that prosocial behavior increased in the presence of peers, and even more when participants received evaluative feedback from peers. Peer presence resulted in enhanced activity in several social brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction (TPJ), precuneus and superior temporal sulcus. TPJ activity correlated with donations, which suggests similar networks for prosocial behavior and sensitivity to peers. These findings highlight the importance of peers in fostering prosocial development throughout adolescence. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  9. Premature melt solidification during mold filling and its influence on the as-cast structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Ahmadein, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2018-03-01

    Premature melt solidification is the solidification of a melt during mold filling. In this study, a numerical model is used to analyze the influence of the pouring process on the premature solidification. The numerical model considers three phases, namely, air, melt, and equiaxed crystals. The crystals are assumed to have originated from the heterogeneous nucleation in the undercooled melt resulting from the first contact of the melt with the cold mold during pouring. The transport of the crystals by the melt flow, in accordance with the socalled "big bang" theory, is considered. The crystals are assumed globular in morphology and capable of growing according to the local constitutional undercooling. These crystals can also be remelted by mixing with the superheated melt. As the modeling results, the evolutionary trends of the number density of the crystals and the volume fraction of the solid crystals in the melt during pouring are presented. The calculated number density of the crystals and the volume fraction of the solid crystals in the melt at the end of pouring are used as the initial conditions for the subsequent solidification simulation of the evolution of the as-cast structure. A five-phase volume-average model for mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification is used for the solidification simulation. An improved agreement between the simulation and experimental results is achieved by considering the effect of premature melt solidification during mold filling. Finally, the influences of pouring parameters, namely, pouring temperature, initial mold temperature, and pouring rate, on the premature melt solidification are discussed.

  10. Transient fatigue is not influenced by ball-in-play time during elite rugby league matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M; Thomson, E; Highton, J; Twist, C

    2017-03-13

    The capacity to sustain high-speed running is important for rugby league players. Transient fatigue, described as a reduction in high-speed running in the 5-min after a peak 5-min period, is a phenomenon observed during rugby league matches. This concept has recently been questioned based on the proposed confounding influence of ball-in-play time during these periods. Therefore, this study examined the changes in high-speed running (> 14 km[BULLET OPERATOR]h) of elite rugby league players, as well as ball-in-play time, during the peak, subsequent and mean 5-min periods of five competitive matches using 5 Hz GPS devices. The suitability of ball-in-play time as a covariate was also evaluated. The high-speed running and ball-in-play time was different between peak (26.7 ± 5.5 m[BULLET OPERATOR]min and 177 ± 37 s) and subsequent (12.1 ± 6.2 m[BULLET OPERATOR]min and 147 ± 37 s) 5-min periods (P 0.05) between ball-in-play time and high-speed running and ball-in-play time was not independent of the match period. This study has reaffirmed the presence of transient fatigue during elite rugby league matches but questioned the influence of ball-in-play time as a confounding factor. These observations have implications for the design of appropriate training practices and informing tactical strategies employed by coaches. Most importantly, any practitioner wishing to measure transient fatigue could follow a similar statistical approach taken herein and, based on the current findings would not need to account for ball-in-play time as a confounding variable.

  11. Influence of the sulfidation procedure on the performance and the selectivity of hydro-treating catalysts; Influence de la procedure de sulfuration sur la performance et la selectivite des catalyseurs d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, S.

    2004-10-15

    This work is part of a general effort to reduce the sulfur content of fuels to satisfy new European regulations. The objective was to determine the influence of several activating agents during sulfidation on the activity of hydro-desulfurization (HDS) catalysts. Indeed, sulfidation is a critical step to achieve a good level of HDS activity on sulfide catalysts. Under industrial conditions, the activation by organo-sulfide compounds would be more beneficial to obtain active catalysts than the use of hydrogen sulfide. A systematic study of the various operational parameters of the activation process was thus carried out by comparing precisely activation by H{sub 2}S or by organo-sulfides. This study reveals that the recognized advantage of organo-sulfides compounds has not a 'purely chemical origin' but would be more probably related to a heating and/or thermodynamic effect which depends on the processes and on the implementation of sulfidation under the industrial conditions. (author)

  12. Doping influence by some transition elements on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste glasses; Influence du dopage par certains elements de transition sur les effets d'irradiation dans des verres d'interet nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florent, Olivier

    2006-06-15

    High-level waste glasses are submitted to auto-irradiation. Modelling it using external irradiations on simple glasses revealed defects production and non negligible structural changes. This thesis aims at determining the impact of a more complex composition on these effects, especially the influence of adding polyvalent transition metals. Silicate, soda-lime and alumino-borosilicate glasses are doped with different iron, chromium and manganese concentrations then {beta} irradiated at different doses up to 10{sup 9} Gy. Non doped glasses show an increase of their density and polymerisation coupled with a molecular oxygen and point defects production. Adding 0.16 mol% Fe decreases the amount of defects by 85 % and all irradiation effects. A Fe{sup 3+} reduction is also observed by EPR, optical absorption and indirectly by Raman spectroscopy. A higher than 0.32 mol% Fe concentration causes complete blockage of the evolution of polymerisation, density and defect production. The same results are obtained on chromium or manganese doped glasses. An original in situ optical absorption device shows the quick decrease of Fe{sup 3+} amount to a 25 % lower level during irradiation. Stopping irradiation causes a lower decrease of 65 %, suggesting a dynamic (h{sup 0}/e-) consuming equilibrium. He{sup +} and Kr{sup 3+} ions and {gamma} irradiated glasses tend to confirm these phenomena for all kind of irradiation with electronic excitations. (author)

  13. Terminologie des indices boursiers

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Yeught, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Les indices boursiers sont omniprésents en anglais financier. Les plus importants sont universellement familiers mais leur nature et leur fonctionnement restent largement méconnus. Des distinctions (average/index, narrow index/broad index, price-weighted/market value-weighted, all share/ composite/ subindex) permettront à l’angliciste de spécialité d’adapter à chaque indice la terminologie française ou anglaise qui lui correspond. Des remarques sur des erreurs courantes, un mini-glossaire, un...

  14. Agent d'administration des subventions (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fournir des interprétations novatrices des politiques, règlements administratifs et procédures du CRDI lorsqu'il s'agit de résoudre des situations délicates en raison de l'emplacement et de la portée géographiques, de l'appréciation des risques institutionnels et de la méthodologie d'un projet. Au besoin, assurer la liaison ...

  15. Influence of relative humidity during coating on polymer deposition and film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Elena; Felton, Linda A

    2016-08-20

    The influence of relative humidity in the pan during coating on polymer deposition and film formation was investigated. Four tablet substrates, differing in hydrophobicity, porosity, and surface roughness, were prepared and coated with Eudragit(®) RS/RL 30 D (8:2 ratio). The spray rate and atomization air pressure were varied to create two distinct micro-environmental conditions in the coating pan. PyroButton data logging devices placed directly in the pan were found to more accurately reflect the relative humidity to which tablets were exposed in comparison to measurements taken at the exhaust. Polymer deposition was shown to be influenced by the properties of the substrate, rather than the processing conditions used during coating, with higher polymer weight gains observed for the more porous tablets. Differences in the film-tablet interface and in the release performance of the coated products, however, were attributed to both the relative humidity in the pan and tablet porosity. Overall, this study demonstrated that a more humid coating process (86% vs 67%) promoted surface dissolution and physical mixing of the tablet ingredients with the forming film and the extent of this phenomenon was dependent on the tablet porosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of sports flooring and shoes on impact forces and performance during jump tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Bomfim, Joao; Theisen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements) and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps) on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF) conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring), SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003). In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR) during ankle jumps (p = 0.006) and multi-jumps (psports flooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.

  17. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  18. The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Собота

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for different fly ash – saline water proportions. Tested fly-ash from Siersza power plant has typical properties (grain size distribution curve, density for ashes used for backfilling mixtures preparation. Increase of fluid (water salinity modifies fluid viscosity. Brine in comparison with pure water retains as liquid with increased viscosity. Increased viscosity can influence on the mixture ash-brine properties for example causing flocculation effect. Also changeable salinity has an influence on proper determination of resistance (frictional coefficient λ during mixtures flow in pipelines because it depends on Reynolds number which depends on liquid viscosity. Increase of fly-ash concentrations in fly-ash – brine mixtures cause increase of energy losses.

  19. Influence of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy on the learning and memory for adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Dui; Li, Bei-Ping; Han, Yuan; Tian, Yun-Ping; Wu, Liang; Wang, Hang

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the indirect influence of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy on the learning and memory of adult offspring mice. Thirty pregnant C57 mice were randomly divided into either the control group (CON) or the nicotine group (NIC), with 15 mice each. The CON group was given access to drug-free water, and the NIC group was given 60 g/ml nicotine in drinking water. Sixteen adult mice were randomly selected from the 8 litters for Morris water maze test. The level of products of related factors in the hippocampus of mice in the NIC and the CON groups were compared using the 1 H-MRS method. The escape latency time that the adult offspring mice in the NIC group took in the place navigation test was significantly longer than that of the CON group. In addition, the NIC group took longer time to arrive at the plate than the CON group (P0.05), while the expression levels of α7nACh protein in the hippocampus of the NIC group was significantly lower than that in the CON group (P0.05). Therefore, exposure to nicotine during pregnancy can cause damage to the learning ability of adult offspring mice but do not significantly influence their working memory.

  20. Influence of maternal anxiety on child anxiety during dental care: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Busato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Anxiety is usually classified as a disorder of neurotic nature and is often related to contexts of stress, which may include worries, motor tension and autonomic hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of mothers’ anxiety on their children’s anxiety during dental care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at in a private dentistry school in the south of Brazil. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used. All mothers of children undergoing treatment were invited to participate in this study. Data to investigate anxiety related to dental treatment among the children were collected through applying the Venham Picture Test (VPT scale. For the mothers, the Corah scale was applied. A self-administered sociodemographic questionnaire with questions about demographic, behavioral, oral health and dental service variables was also used. RESULTS: 40 mother-child pairs were included in the study. The results showed that 40% of the children were anxious and 60% of the mothers were slightly anxious. Local anesthesia was the procedure that caused most anxiety among the mothers, making them somewhat uncomfortable and anxious (60%. Family income higher than R$ 1,577.00 had an influence on maternal anxiety (75.6%. Maternal anxiety had an influence on child anxiety (81.3%. CONCLUSION: Most of the children showed the presence of anxiety, which ranged from fear of dental care to panic, inferring that maternal anxiety has an influence on children’s anxiety. Dental procedures did not interfere with the mothers’ anxiety, but caused positive feelings, whereas they affected the children more.

  1. Nanosized titanium dioxide influences copper-induced toxicity during aging as a function of environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Haigis, Ann-Cathrin; Höger, Johanna; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO2 -NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72 h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO2 -NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO2 -NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO2 -NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. The influence of subcutaneous fat in the skin temperature variation rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thermography records the skin temperature, which can be influenced by: muscle mass and subcutaneous fat layer. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subcutaneous fat layer in the skin temperature variation rate, during exercise. Methods This is a short-longitudinal study that involved 17 healthy male trained volunteers. Volunteers were divided in two groups. The first called GP1 with nine volunteers (biceps brachii skinfold thickness < 4 mm and the second called GP2 with eight volunteers (biceps brachii skinfold thickness from 4 to 8 mm. Both groups performed three sets with 16 repetitions of unilateral biceps brachii bi-set exercise with dominant arm (eight repetitions of biceps curls and another eight of biceps hammer curls, with dumbbells, and with load of 70% of 1RM. The rest time between sets was 90s. Results The skin temperature variation rate (variation of temperature / time was 3.59 × 10-3 ± 1.47 × 10-3 °C/s for GP1 and 0.66 × 10-3 ± 4.83 × 10-3 °C/s for GP2 (p = 0.138 considering all moments. For the period after set 1 until the end of set 3, skin temperature variation rate was 5.11 × 10-3 ± 2.57 × 10-3 °C/s for GP1 and 1.88 × 10-3 ± 3.60 × 10-3 °C/s for GP2 (p = 0.048. Subcutaneous fat layer also influences the skin temperature at resting (p = 0.044. Conclusion Subjects with lower subcutaneous fat layer have a higher skin temperature variation rate during exercise than those with higher subcutaneous fat layer.

  3. Low Temperature Rheological Behavior of Umbarka Waxy Crude and Influence of Flow Improver Etude du comportement rhéologique du brut paraffinique d'Umbarka à basse température et de l'influence d'un additif pour l'amélioration des caractéristiques d'écoulement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gamal I. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The low temperature flow properties; pour point and rheological parameters; have been determined for untreated and additive treated Umbarka waxy crude. The rheological characteristics of the crude showed non-Newtonian yield pseudoplastic flow behavior and pronounced thixotropic effect. Viscometric data are fitted to Bingham, Casson and Herschel-Bulkley plastic flow models using linear and non-linear computer regression analysis. Herschel parameters showed inconsistent results whereas Casson equation fitted the data reasonably well. Treatment of the crude with flow improver ameliorated both rheological properties and pour point but in a different manner. The influence of the additive on the rheology of the crude is greatly affected by shear rate. The thixotropic phenomenon of the crude is likely to be temperature-dependent in addition to the other controlling factors. L'objet de cette étude est de déterminer les caractéristiques du brut paraffinique d'Umbarka, avec et sans additif pour l'amélioration de l'écoulement, à savoir, l'écoulement à basse température, le point d'écoulement, et les données rhéologiques. Les caractéristiques rhéologiques du brut font apparaître un comportement d'écoulement pseudoplastique avec une limite élastique non newtonienne ainsi qu'un effet thixotropique accusé. Une corrélation a été établie entre les données viscométriques et les modèles d'écoulement plastique de Bingham, Casson et Herschel-Bulkley en utilisant une analyse de régression informatique linéaire et non linéaire. Si les paramètres de Herschel conduisent à des résultats incohérents, l'équation de Casson, en revanche, permet d'établir une corrélation raisonnablement satisfaisante des données. Le traitement du brut à l'aide d'un additif d'amélioration de l'écoulement a des répercussions positives, quoique différentes, sur les propriétés rhéologiques et le point d'écoulement. Les effets de l'additif sur la rh

  4. Les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance de l’auditeur externe: une étude exploratoire auprès des préparateurs de l’information financière tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Mohamed Ali Brahim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à déterminer les facteurs d’influence de l’indépendance perçue de l’auditeur externe. Afin d’atteindre notre objectif nous avons menée une analyse fondée sur une première phase qualitative et une deuxième quantitative. Cette dernière repose sur un questionnaire adressé à 87 préparateurs d’information financière tunisiens. Notre étude a révélé que les préparateurs de l’information financière construisent leurs perception en privilégiant essentiellement la réputation de l’auditeur externe, suivi par la taille du cabinet, le contrôle de la profession et la responsabilité juridique, les liens personnels, les incompatibilités, les honoraires, la dépendance financière et la rotation des auditeurs.

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on frontal lobe oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Patrice; Pelletier, Claudine; Martin, Mickaël; Gagné, Nathalie; Poirier, Paul; Ainslie, Philip N; Caouette, Manon; Bussières, Jean S

    2014-06-01

    Although utilization of vasopressors recently has been associated with reduced cerebral oxygenation, the influence of vasopressors on cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with diabetes is unknown. The aim of this study was to document the impact of norepinephrine and phenylephrine utilization on cerebral oxygenation in patients with and without diabetes during cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective, clinical study. Academic medical center. Fourteen patients with diabetes and 17 patients without diabetes undergoing cardiac surgery. During cardiopulmonary bypass, norepinephrine (diabetics n = 6; non-diabetics n = 8) or phenylephrine (diabetics n = 8; non-diabetics n = 9) was administered intravenously to maintain mean arterial pressure above 60 mmHg. Mean arterial pressure, venous temperature, arterial oxygenation, and frontal lobe oxygenation (monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy) were recorded before anesthesia induction (baseline) and continuously during cardiopulmonary bypass. Frontal lobe oxygenation was lowered to a greater extent in diabetics versus non-diabetics with administration of norepinephrine (-14±13 v 3±12%; pfrontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics but not in patients without diabetes. Administration of phenylephrine also were associated with a trend towards a greater reduction in frontal lobe oxygenation in diabetics. The clinical implications of these findings deserve future consideration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  8. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  9. Influence of motor imagination on cortical activation during functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare; Osuagwu, Bethel A; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagination (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can activate the sensory-motor cortex through efferent and afferent pathways respectively. Motor imagination can be used as a control strategy to activate FES through a brain-computer interface as the part of a rehabilitation therapy. It is believed that precise timing between the onset of MI and FES is important for strengthening the cortico-spinal pathways but it is not known whether prolonged MI during FES influences cortical response. Electroencephalogram was measured in ten able-bodied participants using MI strategy to control FES through a BCI system. Event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERS/ERD) over the sensory-motor cortex was analysed and compared in three paradigms: MI before FES, MI before and during FES and FES alone activated automatically. MI practiced both before and during FES produced strongest ERD. When MI only preceded FES it resulted in a weaker beta ERD during FES than when FES was activated automatically. Following termination of FES, beta ERD returns to the baseline level within 0.5s while alpha ERD took longer than 1s. When MI and FES are combined for rehabilitation purposes it is recommended that MI is practiced throughout FES activation period. The study is relevant for neurorehabilitation of movement. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  11. Influence de la variété, du temps de stockage et du taux de natron sur la cuisson des graines de niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Variety, Storage Time and Natron Percentage on the Cooking Time of Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Seed. The present study is focussed on the influence of the variety, the time of storage and the natron percentage on the cooking time of cowpea seed. Firstly, a physicochemical analysis has been made on the four retained varieties. Then a test of cooking to the water of these different varieties has been achieved. Of the gotten results, it comes out again that the cooking time depends on the varieties. Among the used varieties, the KVX 30- 309-6G cooks 30 minutes after boiling point, while the TN 27-80 requires a maximum time of 40 minutes. This study also shows that the time of storage influences the cooking time of the seeds. The oldest seeds cook less quickly and also present an index swelling more important. Finally this work shows that the use of the natron decreases the cooking time of the dry beans. However, a dose critical of natron beyond which all increase of the natron is without effect on the cooking time exists. On the nutritional plan one observes that the use of the natron in the water of cooking brings mineral elements notably of the Na+ ions that can have a damaging effect on health when the dose is high.

  12. Influence of bird feces to water quality in paddy fields during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Masunaga, T.; Mori, Y.; Ide, J.

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of migratory birds such as tundra swan came to the paddy fields for overwintering in recent years in the study area. They stayed in paddy fields during night time for sleeping and used around the fields as a feeding ground during day time. During the birds stay, it was observed that water pooled in the paddy fields gradually turned green and gave off a bad smell. In this study, we tried to estimate the influence of the bird’s feces to water quality in the paddy fields. The study area is in the southeastern portion of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. In several paddy fields, puddling procedure was executed after harvesting rice and then water was stored in the paddy fields during winter season. This is because of being easier of farming activities such as weeding next season and of avoiding using pesticide for weeding with rising of environmental awareness. Water in the paddy fields was collected once or twice a month from the target fields and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in 2007. In the study in 2006, as water was sampled once a week and the changes in the water quality had been grasped, we paid attention to behavior of the birds in a day in the field investigation in 2007. The number of the birds was counted once an hour from visible 7 am to 6 pm once a month. In addition to this, fresh feces were sampled from the fields and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in the feces. As results, average water qualities of TN, TP, and TOC from November 2007 to March 2008 showed very high concentrations compared with a river water concentration used as irrigation water. More than 70% of TN in the water was ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, comparing with a standard fertilizer amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for paddy fields during irrigation period, it was estimated that the amount of nitrogen excreted by the bird’s feces during the winter season was equivalent to the standard fertilizer amount and the

  13. Asia Research News 2015 présente des projets financés par le CRDI

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Pakistan, des chercheurs examinent l'influence des rôles sexospécifiques sur différents types de violence dans les villes afin de trouver des solutions et de les diffuser ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens.

  14. Visual attention during the evaluation of facial attractiveness is influenced by facial angles and smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seol Hee; Hwang, Soonshin; Hong, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2018-05-01

    To examine the changes in visual attention influenced by facial angles and smile during the evaluation of facial attractiveness. Thirty-three young adults were asked to rate the overall facial attractiveness (task 1 and 3) or to select the most attractive face (task 2) by looking at multiple panel stimuli consisting of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° rotated facial photos with or without a smile for three model face photos and a self-photo (self-face). Eye gaze and fixation time (FT) were monitored by the eye-tracking device during the performance. Participants were asked to fill out a subjective questionnaire asking, "Which face was primarily looked at when evaluating facial attractiveness?" When rating the overall facial attractiveness (task 1) for model faces, FT was highest for the 0° face and lowest for the 90° face regardless of the smile ( P < .01). However, when the most attractive face was to be selected (task 2), the FT of the 0° face decreased, while it significantly increased for the 45° face ( P < .001). When facial attractiveness was evaluated with the simplified panels combined with facial angles and smile (task 3), the FT of the 0° smiling face was the highest ( P < .01). While most participants reported that they looked mainly at the 0° smiling face when rating facial attractiveness, visual attention was broadly distributed within facial angles. Laterally rotated faces and presence of a smile highly influence visual attention during the evaluation of facial esthetics.

  15. Influence of Humic Acid on 1-Aminopyrene Ecotoxicity During Solar Photolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Min Hwang

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: 1-Aminopyrene (1-AP, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, is a major metabolite during biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene by microflora in natural environment and in the guts of animals and humans. Under UV-A irradiation, 1-AP has been shown to cause light-induced DNA single strand cleavage. Humic acids (HA in aquatic ecosystems can influence the bioavailability, toxicity, and fate of organic xenobiotics. Therefore, photochemical fate and effect of PAH in natural aquatic environment may differ significantly across sites. The objectives of this study are to assess the time course (TC; 18 and 90 minutes influence of HA (0, 20, and 60 ppm on microbial ecotoxicity of 1-AP (0 and 10 μM during solar photolysis process (PP. Microbial ecotoxicity of 1-AP during different time courses in the presence and absence of HA was measured with spread plate counting and microbial mineralization of 14C-D-glucose. The experimental results were analyzed as factorial arrangements of treatment in a complete randomized design using General Linear Model by SAS. LSMEANS was used to separate means or combination of means. Significant effect on glucose mineralization was found by the following treatment interactions 1-AP*TC, 1-AP*PP, TC*PP, HA*1-AP*TC, HA*1-AP*PP, and HA*1-AP*TC*PP. The treatment interaction HA*1-AP was the only one affecting spread plate counting. In the groups exposed to 1-AP (10 μM, microbial heterotrophic mineralization of 14C-D-glucose was significantly inhibited in the presence of HA in light and in darkness. Exposure to HA in light and darkness, however, did not necessarily inhibit bacterial viability at the HA concentration range assayed. Therefore, inhibition on microbial activity could have been caused by multiple factors, instead of toxicity of HA alone.

  16. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  17. Die Wahrheit des Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stolleis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rezensiertes Werk: Raul Hilberg, Die Quellen des Holocaust. Entschlüsseln und Interpretieren. Deutsch von Udo Rennert, Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer 2002, 256 S., ISBN 3-10-033626-7

  18. Influence of opioids on LH secretion in gilts during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrasa, S; Kalamarz, H; Tilton, J E; Ziecik, A J

    1992-12-01

    The effect of endogenous opioid peptides (EOP) on LH secretion is variable during different physiological states. A series of experiments concerning the role of EOP on LH secretion in cyclic gilts was performed. They were comprised of (1) an administration of an opioid antagonist or agonist in gilts during the estrous cycle and in ovariectomized (OVX) gilts in which the LH surge was induced with estradiol benzoate (EB) and (2) in vitro studies on GnRH release from the stalk median eminence (SME) of cyclic gilts and OVX estrogen and progesterone primed gilts in response to naloxone (NAL). Naloxone and met-enkephalin analogue (FK 33-824) administration as a single independent injections did not affect LH secretion during the early (Day 16) or late (Day 19 or 20) follicular phase. However, continuous infusion of FK 33-824 for 4 h decreased LH secretion during the infusion period on Day 19 of the estrous cycle. Morphine also exerts an inhibitory effect on the EB-induced LH surge during the positive feedback phase (60-64 h after EB administration) in OVX gilts. On the contrary, NAL infusion in OVX gilts during the negative feedback phase (30-34 h after EB administration) did not alter LH secretion. A single injection of FK 33-824 in luteal phase gilts decreased the number of LH pulses for a 3 h period. This allows to hypothesize that EOP participates in the regulation of pulsatile LH secretion in pigs during the luteal phase. In vitro studies indicate that influence of EOP on LH secretion also takes place at the SME level. GnRH efflux from the SME of gilts during the luteal and late follicular phases was augmented in the presence of NAL. Unexpectedly, the priming of OVX gilts with estrogens caused the highest increase in GnRH release from the SME in vitro in response to NAL. These results confirm the variety of functional links between the opioid system and LH secretion in gilts during different stages of the estrous cycle.

  19. Bringing patients' social context into the examination room: an investigation of the discussion of social influence during contraceptive counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kira; Minnis, Alexandra M; Lahiff, Maureen; Schmittdiel, Julie; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although social networks are an increasingly recognized influence on contraceptive use, little is known about if and how social influences are discussed during women's contraceptive counseling visits. We performed a mixed-methods analysis of audio recordings of contraceptive counseling visits. We examined predictors of discussion of social influence arising in a contraceptive counseling visit and analyzed the content and process of social influence discussions. Social influences were mentioned in 42% of the 342 visits included in the sample, with these discussions most commonly initiated by patients. Younger patients were more likely to have social influence mentioned than older patients. The content of social influence focused on side effects and adverse events, with the sources of influence being predominantly patients' friends and the media, with little input from partners. Providers were more likely to engage around the content of the social influence than the social influence itself. The frequency with which social influence was mentioned in these visits supports the importance of women's social context on their contraceptive decision making. However, the fact that patients initiated the discussion in the majority of cases suggests that providers may not recognize the relevance of these influences or may not be comfortable engaging with them. Increasing providers' ability to elicit and engage patients about their social context with regard to contraception could enhance providers' ability to understand women's contraceptive preferences and provide appropriate counseling to address their specific concerns or questions. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Key words: cathode sputtering magnetron; thin films; nanostructure; corrosion; alloys Fe-Si. 1. INTRODUCTION. Les alliages de fer–Silicium (FexSiy) sont des matériaux importants, largement répandus dans des circuits électroniques et magnétiques, et jouissent d‟un excellent rapport qualité/prix. Ce succès est lie aux.

  1. typologie des parcs agroforestiers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    AU SENEGAL : TYPOLOGIE DES PARCS AGROFORESTIERS. I. COLY1, L. E. AKPO1, D. SARR1, R. MALOU2, H. DACOSTA3 et F. DIOME4. 1Faculté des Sciences et ... Mots clés : Agro-écologie, parcs agro forestiers, typologie, Bas fonds de la Néma, Sénégal. .... afin d'en distinguer les sous unités, et d'en établir.

  2. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    1 mai 2011 ... microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB) et la diffraction des rayons X (DRX). Nous avons effectué des essais d‟oxydation à haute température sur trois alliages binaires FeAl à 1 000 oC, dans une atmosphère d'air de laboratoire et à pression atmosphérique. Les essais d‟oxydation menés à 1000 °C ...

  3. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    déclin avec le développement de la chimie de synthèse, toutefois les effets indésirables des médicaments ont ravivé l‟intérêt des scientifiques pour les plantes médicinales. C‟est ainsi que de nouvelles recherches ont vu le jour, notamment de l‟espoir de traiter certaines maladies infectieuses par les huiles essentielles.

  4. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    profondes aux fosses abyssales représentant ainsi un important réservoir de biodiversité. .... des animaux menacés de l‟IUCN (Union. Internationale pour la Conservation de la. Nature) comporte plus de 100 ..... lacunes de notre compréhension des capacités de réponses et d‟adaptation de la biodiversité. Jackson et al.

  5. Studies in Petroleum Composition Changes in the Nature of Chemical Constituents During Crude Oil Distillation Études de la composition du pétrole Changements de nature des constituants chimiques au cours de la distillation du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available As one part of a research program investigating the composition of petroleum feedstocks, a detailed investigation has been made of the influence of distillation on the distribution of nitrogen, metals and coke precursors originally in a heavy crude oil. This work also allows an assessment to be made of the influence of thermal effects (i. e. still-pot temperature on functionality distribution. In all senses of the word, the distillation process concentrates nitrogen, metals, coke precursors and, other functionalities in the residuum. Furthermore, the distillation process causes some minor molecular alterations to the feedstock constituents. This information is not only relevant for laboratory studies of process effects but also for laboratory studies of recovery operations that may be greatly influenced by functionality occurrence and distribution in crude oils. Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche sur la composition des charges de pétrole, l'influence de la distillation sur la répartition de l'azote, des métaux et de produits de tête présents au départ dans les huiles brutes lourdes, a été étudiée en détail. Ce travail permet également d'évaluer l'influence des effets thermiques (c'est-à-dire la température de l'évaporateur sur la répartition des groupements fonctionnels. Dans tous les sens du terme, le processus de distillation concentre l'azote, les métaux et les produits de tête ainsi que d'autres groupes fonctionnels du résidu. De plus, le processus de distillation provoque des modifications moléculaires mineures des constituants de la charge. Cette information concerne les études de laboratoire portant sur les effets du processus mais aussi celles qui sont consacrées aux opérations de récupération pouvant être influencées notablement par la présence et la répartition de groupes fonctionnels dans les huiles brutes.

  6. Influence of hydrides orientation on strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4; Influence de l'orientation des hydrures sur les modes de deformation, d'endommagement et de rupture du zircaloy-4 hydrure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, A

    2005-09-15

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300 C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embrittlement depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress. This investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress on strain, damage and failure mechanisms. Macroscopic and SEM in-situ ring tensile tests are performed on cladding tube material (unirradiated cold worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4) hydrided with about 200 and 500 wppm hydrogen, and with different main hydrides orientation: either parallel or perpendicular to the circumferential tensile direction. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. Neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the global and local strain modes are significantly affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are strongly modified. Indeed, only 200 wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fail in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases sample reach at least 750 MPa before necking and final failure, in ductile or brittle mode. To model this particular heterogeneous material behavior, a non-coupled damage approach which takes into account the anisotropic distribution of the hydrides is proposed. Its parameters are identified from the macroscopic strain field measurements and a

  7. Factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary angiography with DSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Zhu; Yi Xu; Tongfu Yu; Hai Xu; Jinhua Tang; Dehang Wang; Dogra, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Background: CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in diagnosing coronary arterial disease. Delay time and density of the coronary arteries related with patient-specific factors are essential for getting an optimal CTA image. Purpose: To investigate various factors influencing delay time and coronary arterial density during coronary CTA with dual source CT. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixteen consecutive subjects who underwent cardiac DSCT with retrospective ECG-gating were included. Factors including gender, age, height, weight, transversal cardiac diameter (TCD), transversal thoracic diameter (TTD), heart rate (HR), body surface area (BSA = [weight x height/3600]1/2) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR = TCD/TTD) were recorded, measured and calculated before administration of contrast media during coronary CT angiography. Delay time was determined as duration from the beginning of the injection to the density in the descending aorta at the level of right main pulmonary artery reaching a threshold of 100 HU. Coronary arterial density was measured at the mid portion of the right coronary artery. Regression analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to investigate the influence of these factors on delay time and coronary arterial density. Results: Delay time decreased with an increasing HR and it was shorter in women than men. Delay time increased with an increasing TCD. Delay time could be predicted by the formula: DT = 16.651-0.110 x HR + 1.902 x gender + 0.394 x TCD (where DT is abbreviation for delay time, gender is 0 for women and 1 for men). Coronary arterial density decreased with an increasing HR and weight. Coronary arterial density could be predicted by the formula: CAD = 923.42-4.099 x HR-3.293 x weight (CAD = coronary arterial density). There was no relationship between the other factors mentioned above and delay time or coronary arterial density. Conclusion: Delay time is influenced by HR, gender and TCD. Coronary arterial density

  8. DISTRIBUTIONS STATISTIQUES DE LA PLUVIOMETRIE ET MISE EN EVIDENCE DE L’INFLUENCE DU RELIEF (Cas des Monts de Tlemcen, Nord-Ouest Algérien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MEGNOUNIF

    1999-12-01

          Dans la présente étude , nous avons essayé de mettre en évidence l’influence d’une chaîne montagneuse (Monts de Tlemcen, considérée comme barrière pluviométrique, par les modèles de distribution statistiques d’une chronologie de données pluviométriques mesurées dans cinq stations différentes, trois en plein montagnes, les deux autres de part et d’autre, respectivement sur l’Ubac et l’Adret.

  9. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  10. Influence des conditions d'engorgement du sol sur l'évolution de l'état hydrique de jeunes plants d'Epicéa (Picea abies L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, André; Levy, G.

    1981-01-01

    De jeunes plants d’Epicéa ont été soumis à différents types d’engorgement : nappe en surface ou à différentes profondeurs, > (barbotage d’air ou renouvellement quotidien de l’eau) ou non. L’état hydrique des plants a été évalué au moyen de la pression de sève, soit en conditions de transpiration nulle (pression de base), soit lorsqu’il y a transpiration. Les principaux résultats sont les suivants : - la pression de base des plants (mesures nocturnes) diminue au cours des premiers jours ...

  11. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-30

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world's largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Influence of emotional balance during a learning and recall test in horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoli, Manuel; Pageat, Patrick; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Monneret, Philippe; Giacalone, Aline; Sighieri, Claudio; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    Modern day horse-human relationships entail different types of sport and riding activities, which all require learning. In evaluating the interaction between learning and emotions, studying normal coping strategies or adaptive responses to the surroundings is critical. 34 horses were involved in a cognitive test, in the absence of physical effort, to analyze performance, as well as physiological and behavioral responses related to learning, memorization and recall, associated to the capacity to reverse a learned model. Synthetic Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) was used in 17 horses in order to modulate their emotional state and evaluate differences in cognitive-emotional response during cognitive effort in comparison to the control group (placebo group). Both groups showed statistically significant changes in heart rate during the test, indicating emotional and physio-cognitive activation. The EAP group produced fewer errors and made more correct choices, showing behaviors related to increased attention, with less influence from environmental stimuli. The capacity to learn to learn, as shown in the bibliography, allows animals to establish conceptual learning, when a normal or positive emotional state (in this case modulated by semiochemicals) is used to control limbic system activation and, consequently, decrease stressful/fearful reactions, resulting in better learning capacities during the cognitive test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Kholid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to examine the political par- ticipation of social media users particularly of Facebook and Twitter during the 2014 Indonesian presidential election. The data collection was per- formed through survey with accidental sampling methods. Samples were taken from population of undergraduate students of political and social sci- ences faculty at five universities in Yogyakarta namely UGM, UIN Sunan Kalijaga, UMY, UNY and UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. Using statistic descriptive, this research conceptualizes the political participation of social media users while the relations of social me- dia and political participation is analyzed through OLS Regression. The findings indicated that the level of political participation of the social media users during the election was categorized as good. How- ever, the facilities offered by the two social media applications were not maximally used to supporting political participation activities. On the other hand, the result OLS regression shows that there were positive and significant correlations and influences of social media towards the political participation of its users during the election even though the per- centage was small.

  14. Social dimension and complexity differentially influence brain responses during feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Gittenberger, Marianne; Lamm, Claus

    2017-10-30

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback. No effects of social dimension or complexity were found for task performance. In contrast, Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes were sensitive to both factors, with larger FRN and P300 amplitudes after social compared to non-social stimuli, and larger FRN amplitudes after complex positive than non-complex positive stimuli. P2 amplitudes were solely sensitive to feedback valence and social dimension. Subjectively, social complex stimuli were rated as more motivating than non-social complex ones. Independently of each other, social dimension and visual complexity influenced amplitude variation during performance monitoring. Social stimuli seem to be perceived as more salient, which is corroborated by P2, FRN and P300 results, as well as by subjective ratings. This could be explained due to their given relevance during every day social interactions.

  15. Influence of fillers on mechanical properties of filled rubbers during ageing by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planes, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the evolution of mechanical properties and the prediction of the lifetime of material environment is a recurring problem. This question is very important to develop polymer formulations used for electrical cables in nuclear power plants. Thus it is important to know the evolution of materials when they are submitted to usual conditions in nuclear power plants. There are in literature some studies concerning the ageing by gamma irradiation of unfilled elastomer but the addition of fillers in the material can have consequences on the evolution of the mechanical properties during irradiation. Thus this work concerns the study of the ageing by gamma irradiation of filled rubbers and the identification of the role of fillers in the degradation mechanisms. The studied matrix, which commonly used for the type of application is EPDM. The fillers are: nano-scopic silica and aluminium trihydrate. Their surfaces have been treated in order to understand the role of filler-matrix interfaces during ageing. To evaluate the influence of fillers on the degradation mechanisms and on the evolution of the mechanical properties, the evolution during ageing of these materials filled or not has been studied for an ageing by irradiation: they have been physico-chemically, micro-structurally and mechanically characterized at various levels of ageing [fr

  16. Influence of coating on nanocrystalline magnetic properties during high temperature thermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekdim, Atef, E-mail: atef.lekdim@univ-lyon1.fr; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-05-15

    Since their birth or mergence the late 1980s, the nanocrystalline ultrasoft magnetic materials are taking a great importance in power electronic systems conception. One of the main advantages that make them more attractive nowadays is their ability to be packaged since the reduction of the magnetostrictive constant to almost zero. In aircraft applications, due to the high component compactness and to their location (for example near the jet engine), the operating temperature increases and may reach easily 200 °C and more. Consequently, the magnetic thermal ageing may occur but is, unfortunately, weakly studied. This paper focuses on the influence of the coating (packaging type) on the magnetic nanocrystalline performances during a thermal ageing. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics of two types of nanocrystalline cores (naked and coated) during a thermal activated ageing (100, 150 and 200 °C). Based on a dedicated monitoring protocol, a large magnetic characterization has been done and analyzed. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena. - Highlights: • The coating impacts drastically the magnetic properties during thermal ageing. • Irreversible ageing phenomena after the total coating breakage. • The deteriorations are related to the storage of the magnetoelastic anisotropy.

  17. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence des phosphates naturels sur la qualité et la biodégradation d'un compost de pailles de maïs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lompo, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Indigenous Phosphate on Maize Straw Compost Quality and Biodegradation. Soil organic matter and phosphorus scarcities are the main constraints for intensification of crop production in Burkina Faso. To propose an adequate method to produce good quality organic matter, a study, in controlled conditions, was conducted using a Lixisol to evaluate the biodegradation of composts made of maize straw, rock phosphate, animal manure and a synthesis inoculum (SI. Composts obtained from composting maize crop residues + manure ± SI had C/N of 19 and 18, respectively. Influence of composts produced on soil CO2 production was related to the type of compost and to nitrogen application. An increase of 53% of CO2 production due to nitrogen application was observed when compost produced with manure and SI was incorporated in the soil. This increase was 118% with incorporation of the compost obtained with manure, SI and rock phosphate. These results suggest that there is potential to produce high quality organic inputs by composting maize straw in presence of rock phosphate.

  19. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties; Durabilite des materiaux cimentaires: modelisation de l'influence des equilibres physico-chimiques sur la microstructure et les proprietes mecaniques residuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E

    2004-09-15

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  20. Influence of Temperature and Water Activity on Deleterious Fungi and Mycotoxin Production during Grain Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Mohamed; Kim, Ki Deok

    2017-12-01

    Cereal grains are the most important food source for humans. As the global population continues to grow exponentially, the need for the enhanced yield and minimal loss of agricultural crops, mainly cereal grains, is increasing. In general, harvested grains are stored for specific time periods to guarantee their continuous supply throughout the year. During storage, economic losses due to reduction in quality and quantity of grains can become very significant. Grain loss is usually the result of its deterioration due to fungal contamination that can occur from preharvest to postharvest stages. The deleterious fungi can be classified based on predominance at different stages of crop growth and harvest that are affected by environmental factors such as water activity (a w ) and eco-physiological requirements. These fungi include species such as those belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium that can produce mycotoxins harmful to animals and humans. The grain type and condition, environment, and biological factors can also influence the occurrence and predominance of mycotoxigenic fungi in stored grains. The main environmental factors influencing grain fungi and mycotoxins are temperature and a w . This review discusses the effects of temperature and a w on fungal growth and mycotoxin production in stored grains. The focus is on the occurrence and optimum and minimum growth requirements for grain fungi and mycotoxin production. The environmental influence on aflatoxin production and hypothesized mechanisms of its molecular suppression in response to environmental changes are also discussed. In addition, the use of controlled or modified atmosphere as an environmentally safe alternative to harmful agricultural chemicals is discussed and recommended future research issues are highlighted.

  1. Influence of pH on extracellular matrix preservation during lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Balestrini, Jenna L; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Liping; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.

  2. Am Beginn des Hausbaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    Architectural developments during the Neolithic period show important innovations, e.g., the discovery and use of the right angle and the use of activity floors placed on top of each other. Although these developments influenced our building history and our understanding of architecture in genera...

  3. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  4. Factors Influencing Emergency Nurses' Burnout During an Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2016-12-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses suffer from persistent stress after experiencing the traumatic event of exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which can subsequently lead to burnout. This study aimed to assess ED nurses' burnout level during an outbreak of MERS-CoV and to identify influencing factors in order to provide basic information for lowering and preventing the level of burnout. Study participants were ED nurses working in eight hospitals designated for treating MERS-CoV-infected patients in Korea. We performed multiple regression analysis to explore the factors influencing burnout. The ED nurses' burnout was affected by job stress (β=0.59, pburnout. ED nurses taking care of MERS-CoV-infected patients should be aware that burnout is higher for nurses in their divisions than nurses in other hospital departments and that job stress is the biggest influential factor of burnout. To be ready for the outbreak of emerging contagious diseases such as MERS-CoV, efforts and preparations should be made to reduce burnout. Job stress should be managed and resolved. Working conditions for mitigating job stress and systematic stress management programs should be provided, and hospital resources for the treatment of MERS-CoV need to be reinforced. Moreover, promoting support from family and friends is required. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  6. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. Associated risk factors and influence of pelvic floor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Martin, Sergio; Pascual-Fernandez, Angela; Alvarez-Colomo, Cristina; Calvo-Gonzalez, Raul; Muñoz-Moreno, Marife; Cortiñas-Gonzalez, Jose Ramon

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) before pregnancy, in the third trimester and postpartum. To analyze its influence on quality of life and associated potential risk factors and the efficacy of pelvic floor exercises. Prospective study in 413 pregnant women. The modified ICIQ-SF incontinence questionnaire was given to the pregnant women at the end of the third quarter. This questionnaire was administered by telephone at 3 and 6 months postpartum. The influence of several risk factors for UI in pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed. Patients with persistent UI at 6 months postpartum were trained to do pelvic floor exercises. Patients with UI before pregnancy were excluded from the study. UI in the third trimester was 31%. Analyzed risk factors did not condition a higher percentage of UI. Prevalence of UI was 11.3% at 3 months postpartum and 6.9% at 6 months. 70% of the incontinent patients already had it during pregnancy and it appeared de novo post-delivery in 30% of the patients. Prevalence of UI after delivery was higher in women with UI in pregnancy and lower in caesarean cases. Most women improved with pelvic floor exercises. Analysed risk factors did not significantly increase UI in pregnancy. Prevalence of UI after delivery is higher in women with UI in pregnancy and lower in caesarean cases. Postpartum pelvic floor exercises for three months in patients with persistent stress UI at 6 months postpartum clearly improved the degree of continence.

  7. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosurfactants during in situ bioremediation: factors that influence the production and challenges in evalution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesaro, Andressa; Machado, Thaís Strieder; Cappellaro, Ângela Carolina; Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Thomé, Antônio; Colla, Luciane Maria

    2017-09-01

    Research on the influence of biosurfactants on the efficiency of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil is continuously growing. Despite the constant progress in understanding the mechanisms involved in the effects of biosurfactants, there are still many factors that are not sufficiently elucidated. There is a lack of research on autochthonous or exogenous microbial metabolism when biostimulation or bioaugmentation is carried out to produce biosurfactants at contaminated sites. In addition, studies on the application of techniques that measure the biosurfactants produced in situ are needed. This is important because, although the positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also studies where no effect or negative effects have been observed. This review aimed to examine some studies on factors that can improve the production of biosurfactants in soils during in situ bioremediation. Moreover, this work reviews the methodologies that can be used for measuring the production of these biocomposts. We reviewed studies on the potential of biosurfactants to improve the bioremediation of hydrocarbons, as well as the limitations of methods for the production of these biomolecules by microorganisms in soil.

  9. [The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Julius; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The Influence of Media Consumption During Early Childhood on Media Use and Psychological Disorders in Adolescence There are many studies that suggest that there is a link between high media consumption and psychological, physiological and social disorders. Nevertheless, there are also inconsistent results, methodical limitations and a lack of longitudinal studies. The present study analyses habits of media consumption in children and adolescents, the influence of different early childhood risk factors on the use of the media in adolescence and the links between early childhood media consumption and disorders in adolescence. The source of the data is the longitudinal project Future Family III. 249 families participated in the last data collection in the adolescence. Adolescents use the media more than five hours per day on average, nearly fifty percent of these adolescents can be considered as internet addicted and a majority consumes violent contents. A low socioeconomic status, low socio-emotional competences and low intelligence of the child as well as unfavorable educational style and psychological stress of the mother are risk factors for the media use in adolescence. Adolescents with a migration background have an increased risk of internet and computer game dependency. On the other hand, the overall utilization of media in the early childhood has only a low predictive power. The results indicate that these connections seem to be more complex than assumed. There is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to get a better understanding of the consequences of media consumption.

  10. The influence of red pepper powder on the density of Weissella koreensis during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Min Seok; Ahn, Tae-Young; Lee, Eui Seok; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-10-26

    Weissella koreensis is a psychrophilic bacterium that is the dominant species found in kimchi and exhibits anti-obesity effects via its production of ornithine. In this study, we mined the genome of W. koreensis KACC15510 to identify species-specific genes that can serve as new targets for the detection and quantification of W. koreensis in kimchi. A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set for the membrane protein-encoding gene of W. koreensis KACC15510 was designed and investigated to quantify its sensitivity and specificity for detecting the bacterium in kimchi. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using genomic DNA from eight isolates of W. koreensis, 11 different species of Weissella and 13 other reference lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains. In addition, red pepper powder was observed to strongly influence the density of W. koreensis during kimchi fermentation.

  11. Influences from the Huns on Scandinavian Sacrificial Customs during 300-500 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Votive offerings may be our main source of knowledge concerning the religion of the Iron Age before the Vikings. An important question is the connection between two kinds of sacrificial finds, i.e. horse sacrifices and burial offerings. They are contemporary and they share the same background. They can both be traced back to the Huns. This means that in all probability religious ideas occurred in southern Scandinavia during the fourth to the sixth century which were strongly influenced by the Huns, who were powerful in Central Europe at that time. The explanation of this is probably that some Scandinavians, for instance by serving as mercenaries, had come in contact with the Huns and, at least to some extent, assimilated their ways of thinking and their religious ideas.

  12. Influence of music on performance and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise preceded by fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on time to exhaustion and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercise performed in fatigued and non-fatigued conditions. Fourteen healthy men performed moderate-intensity exercise (60% Wmax) until exhaustion under four different conditions: with and without pre-fatigue (induced by 100 drop jumps) and listening and not listening to music. Time to exhaustion was lower in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition regardless listening to music. Similarly, RPE was higher in the fatigued than the non-fatigued condition, but music had no effect. On the other hand, listening to music decreased the associative thoughts regardless of fatigue status. Heart rate was not influenced by any treatment. These results suggest that listening to music changes attentional focus but is not able to reverse fatigue-derived alteration of performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Siblings' Power and Influence in Polyadic Family Conflict During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Sandra; Howe, Nina

    2017-06-01

    This study examined sibling behavior during polyadic family conflicts (involving three or more family members) by identifying operational conflict elements (i.e., roles, topic), power strategies, effective influence of power, and social domain argumentation. Polyadic conflict sequences (n = 210) were identified in 35/39 families with two siblings (aged 4 and 6) and their parents observed at home. The dominant conflict topic, siblings' use of power and power strategy executed in relation to social domain argumentation, revealed unique qualities of conflict in the polyadic family context; effective use of power strategies to facilitate favorable outcomes differed by sibling birth order. Our account presents a nuanced view of the intricacies of polyadic family conflict, which provides unique opportunities for children's learning and socialization by siblings and parents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) influences spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfang; Beauchemin, Myriam; Bertrand, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Functional analysis of a series of phosphorylation mutants reveals that Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) influences cell entry into anaphase and mitotic exit in taxol-exposed cells compared with cells expressing wild-type Bcl-xL or a series of other phosphorylation mutants, an effect that appears to be independent of its anti-apoptotic activity. During normal mitosis progression, Bcl-xL(Ser62) is strongly phosphorylated by PLK1 and MAPK14/SAPKp38α at the prometaphase, metaphase, and the anaphase boundaries, while it is de-phosphorylated at telophase and cytokinesis. Phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) localizes in centrosomes with γ-tubulin and in the mitotic cytosol with some spindle-assembly checkpoint signaling components, including PLK1, BubR1, and Mad2. In taxol- and nocodazole-exposed cells, phospho-Bcl-xL(Ser62) also binds to Cdc20- Mad2-, BubR1-, and Bub3-bound complexes, while Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) does not. Silencing Bcl-xL expression and expressing the phosphorylation mutant Bcl-xL(Ser62Ala) lead to an increased number of cells harboring mitotic spindle defects including multipolar spindle, chromosome lagging and bridging, aneuploidy with micro-, bi-, or multi-nucleated cells, and cells that fail to resolve undergo mitosis within 6 h. Together, the data indicate that during mitosis, Bcl-xL(Ser62) phosphorylation impacts on spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, influencing chromosome stability. Observations of mitotic cells harboring aneuploidy with micro-, bi-, or multi-nucleated cells, and cells that fail to resolve undergo mitosis within 6 h were also made with cells expressing the phosphorylation mutant Bcl-xL(Ser49Ala) and dual mutant Bcl-xL(Ser49/62Ala).

  15. Influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on pacing strategies during game-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Walker, Ben; Walker, Shane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of prior knowledge of exercise duration on the pacing strategies employed during game-based activities. Twelve semiprofessional team-sport athletes (mean ± SD age 22.8 ± 2.1 y) participated in this study. Players performed 3 small-sided games in random order. In one condition (Control), players were informed that they would play the small-sided game for 12 min and then completed the 12-min game. In a 2nd condition (Deception), players were told that they would play the small-sided game for 6 minutes, but after completing the 6-min game, they were asked to complete another 6 min. In a 3rd condition (Unknown), players were not told how long they would be required to play the small-sided game, but the activity was terminated after 12 min. Movement was recorded using a GPS unit sampling at 10 Hz. Post hoc inspection of video footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. Higher initial intensities were observed in the Deception (130.6 ± 3.3 m/min) and Unknown (129.3 ± 2.4 m/min) conditions than the Control condition (123.3 ± 3.4 m/min). Greater amounts of high-speed running occurred during the initial phases of the Deception condition, and more low-speed activity occurred during the Unknown condition. A moderately greater number of total skill involvements occurred in the Unknown condition than the Control condition. These findings suggest that during game-based activities, players alter their pacing strategy based on the anticipated endpoint of the exercise bout.

  16. Factors influencing decision-making around family presence during resuscitation: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors impacting family presence during resuscitation practices in the acute care setting. Family presence during resuscitation was introduced in the 1980s, so family members/significant others could be with their loved ones during life-threatening events. Evidence demonstrates important benefits; yet despite growing support from the public and endorsement from professional groups, family presence is practiced inconsistently and rationales for poor uptake are unclear. Constructivist grounded theory design. Twenty-five health professionals, family members and patients informed the study. In-depth interviews were undertaken between October 2013-November 2014 to interpret and explain their meanings and actions when deciding whether to practice or participate in FPDR. The Social Construction of Conditional Permission explains the social processes at work when deciding to adopt or reject family presence during resuscitation. These processes included claiming ownership, prioritizing preferences and rights, assessing suitability, setting boundaries and protecting others/self. In the absence of formal policies, decision-making was influenced primarily by peoples' values, preferences and pre-existing expectations around societal roles and associated status between health professionals and consumers. As a result, practices were sporadic, inconsistent and often paternalistic rather than collaborative. An increased awareness of the important benefits of family presence and the implementation of clinical protocols are recommended as an important starting point to address current variations and inconsistencies in practice. These measures would ensure future practice is guided by evidence and standards for health consumer safety and welfare rather than personal values and preferences of the individuals 'in charge' of permissions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influences of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on the Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge during Bioleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhou, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play important roles in regulating the dewaterability of sludge. This study sought to elucidate the influence of EPS on the dewaterability of sludge during bioleaching process. Results showed that, in bioleaching system with the co-inoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 (A. t+A. f system), the capillary suction time (CST) of sludge reduced from 255.9 s to 25.45 s within 48 h, which was obviously better than the controls. The correlation analysis between sludge CST and sludge EPS revealed that the sludge EPS significantly impacted the dewaterability of sludge. Sludge CST had correlation with protein content in slime and both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers, and the decrease of protein content in slime and decreases of both protein and polysaccharide contents in TB-EPS and Slime+LB+TB layers improved sludge dewaterability during sludge bioleaching process. Moreover, the low sludge pH (2.92) and the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase were another two factors responsible for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during bioleaching. This study suggested that during sludge bioleaching the growth of Acidithiobacillus species resulted in the decrease of sludge pH, the increasing distribution of Fe in the solid phase, and the decrease of EPS content (mainly including protein and/or polysaccharide) in the slime, TB-EPS, and Slime+LB+TB layers, all of which are helpful for sludge dewaterability enhancement. PMID:25050971

  18. NO INFLUENCE OF HYPOXIA ON COORDINATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY AND LOCOMOTOR RHYTHMS DURING ROWING AT MODERATE INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fabre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides neuro-mechanical constraints, chemical or metabolic stimuli have also been proposed to interfere with the coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. In the light of the conflicting data observed in the literature, this study aimed to assess whether acute hypoxia modifies the degree of coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms during rowing exercises in order to investigate competitive interactions between neuro-mechanical (movement and chemical (hypoxia respiratory drives. Nine male healthy subjects performed one submaximal 6-min rowing exercise on a rowing ergometer in both normoxia (altitude: 304 m and acute hypoxia (altitude: 2877 m. The exercise intensity was about 40 % and 35 % (for normoxia and hypoxia conditions, respectively of the individual maximal power output measured during an incremental rowing test to volitional exhaustion carried out in normoxia. Metabolic rate and minute ventilation were continuously collected throughout exercise. Locomotor movement and breathing rhythms were continuously recorded and synchronized cycle-by-cycle. The degree of coordination was expressed as a percentage of breaths starting during the same phase of the locomotor cycle. For a same and a constant metabolic rate, acute hypoxia did not influence significantly the degree of coordination (mean ± SEM, normoxia: 20.0 ± 6.2 %, hypoxia: 21.3 ± 11.1 %, p > 0.05 while ventilation and breathing frequency were significantly greater in hypoxia. Our results may suggest that during rowing exercise at a moderate metabolic load, neuro-mechanical locomotion-linked respiratory stimuli appear "stronger" than peripheral chemoreceptors- linked respiratory stimuli induced by hypoxia, in the context of our study

  19. Air mass origins influencing TTL chemical composition over West Africa during 2006 summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Law

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace gas and aerosol data collected in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL between 12–18.5 km by the M55 Geophysica aircraft as part of the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa during the summer monsoon in August 2006 have been analysed in terms of their air mass origins. Analysis of domain filling back trajectories arriving over West Africa, and in the specific region of the flights, showed that the M55 flights were generally representative of air masses arriving over West Africa during the first 2 weeks of August, 2006. Air originating from the mid-latitude lower stratosphere was under-sampled (in the mid-upper TTL whilst air masses uplifted from central Africa (into the lower TTL were over-sampled in the latter part of the campaign. Signatures of recent (previous 10 days origins were superimposed on the large-scale westward flow over West Africa. In the lower TTL, air masses were impacted by recent local deep convection over Africa at the level of main convective outflow (350 K, 200 hPa and on certain days up to 370 K (100 hPa. Estimates of the fraction of air masses influenced by local convection vary from 10 to 50% depending on the method applied and from day to day during the campaign. The analysis shows that flights on 7, 8 and 11 August were more influenced by local convection than on 4 and 13 August allowing separation of trace gas and aerosol measurements into "convective" and "non-convective" flights. Strong signatures, particularly in species with short lifetimes (relative to CO2 like CO, NO and fine-mode aerosols were seen during flights most influenced by convection up to 350–365 K. Observed profiles were also constantly perturbed by uplift (as high as 39% of air masses from the mid to lower troposphere over Asia, India, and oceanic regions resulting in import of clean oceanic (e.g. O3-poor or polluted air masses from Asia (high O3, CO, CO2 into West Africa. Thus, recent uplift of CO

  20. Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble/sorgho sans tanins issue de trois nouvelles varietes cultivees au Senegal et mise au point de pains a base de farines composees (ble/sorgho)

  1. Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais minéraux sur la croissance, le développement et le rendement du manioc ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) en zone forestière du Cameroun.

  2. Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation d'un mortier de terre-ciment pour les murs mis en oeuvre selon la technique du pisé · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Mamba, R Nzengwa, I Tsomgme. Influence des additions minérales sur la résistance mécanique des mortiers ...

  3. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-12-31

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  4. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  5. Attitudes des éleveurs et sensibilité des systèmes d'élevage face aux sécheresses dans les Alpes françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dobremez

    2011-01-01

    conducted among livestock farmers to identify these measures and analyses were carried out to characterise the attitudes of livestock farmers to drought conditions and to evaluate changes in the sensitivity of their livestock farming systems. With the exception of those farms with extensive irrigated areas, all the farms are seeking solutions to deal with the risks arising from droughts. One solution is to purchase fodder to compensate for the decrease in the harvests that normally provide animal feed in the winter; the amounts purchased vary with the length of wintering required. For the grazing periods, the high mountain livestock breeders and the dairy systems of the Northern Alps rely above all on extending and over-sizing the pasture areas in relation to the needs of the herds. The livestock farms of the Southern Alps also rely on the diversity of vegetation areas and a certain flexibility in the practices used to adapt to conditions experienced during the year. A succession of dry years could result in more radical breakdowns in the livestock systems. It should also be remembered that climate change is only one of the factors influencing the types of changes taking place on farms.

  6. Influence de l'orientation des hydrures sur les modes de déformation, d'endommagement et de rupture du Zircaloy-4 hydruré.

    OpenAIRE

    Racine , Aude

    2005-01-01

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300°C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embitterment depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrid...

  7. Influence de la pression et de la non-idéalité des gaz dans le calcul d'un réacteur d'ammoniac Influence of Gas Pressure and Non-Iddeality on Designing an Ammonia Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheiderman B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mélange gazeux qui parcourt un réacteur de synthèse d'ammoniac présente des écarts notables par rapport aux gaz idéaux. On a établi les équations de calcul d'un réacteur à gradient thermique optimum en tenant compte de l'influence de ces écarts sous trois pressions d'opération (150, 300 et 500 atm.. On a vérifié que les corrections principales à effectuer sont dues à la fugacité; les autres sont d'une importance moindre, et affectent surtout le contrôle du réacteur. En outre, on a mis en évidence l'influence considérable de la pression totale. The gaseous mixture flowing through an ommonia synthesis reactor shows considerable divergences from the behovior of ideal gases. These divergences are examined at three operating pressures (150, 300 and 500 atm, and the corresponding design equations for an optimum temperature progression are determined. The main diver gences are those caused by fugacity. The others are of lesser importance. At the same time, the great influence of total pressure is demonstrated.

  8. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1% were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9% were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30 and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21 and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29. However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03 and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05 than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  9. Influence of aerosol-cloud interaction on austral summer precipitation over Southern Africa during ENSO events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchith, R. D.; Sivakumar, V.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we are investigating the role of aerosols-and clouds in modulating the austral summer precipitation (December-February) during ENSO events over southern Africa region for the period from 2002 to2012 by using satellite and complimentary data sets. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and Cloud radiative forcing (CRF) shows distinct patterns for El-Nina and La-Nina years. Further analysis were carried out by selecting the four Southern Africa regions where the precipitation shows remarkable difference during El-Nino and La-Nina years. These regions are R1 (33°S-24°S, 18°E-30°E), R2 (17°S-10°S, 24°E-32°E), R3 (19°S-9°S, 33°E-41°E) and R4 (7°S-0°S, 27°E-36°E). Aerosol Optical depth (AOD) shows considerable differences during these events. In region R1, R2 and R3 AOD shows more abundance in El-Nino years as compared to La-Nina years where as in R4 the AOD shows more abundance in La-Nina years. Cloud Droplet Effective radius (CDER) shows higher values during La-Nina years over R1, R2 and R3 regions but in R4 region CDER shows higher values in El-Nino years. Aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated both for fixed cloud liquid water path (CLWP) and for fixed cloud ice path (CIP) bins, ranging from 1 to 300 gm -2 at 25 gm -2 interval over all the selected regions for El-Nino and La-Nina years. The results indicate more influence of positive indirect effect (Twomey effect) over R1 and R3 region during El-Nino years as compared to La-Nina years. This analysis reveals the important role of aerosol on cloud-precipitation interaction mechanism illustrating the interlinkage between dynamics and microphysics during austral summer season over southern Africa.

  10. [Influence of balance exercises during an attention task on fear of falling among frail elderly fallen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Itsushi

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the fear of falling may be a more serious problem than actual falling among frail elderly people. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not it is possible to influence the fear of falling among frail elderly people who previously had fallen, by balance exercises under attention tasks. The subjects were 22 frail elderly people in nursing homes (3 men and 19 women, mean age 83.1+/-5.2 SD) who had fallen. Written informed consent was given for participation in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups at random: the balance exercise group (the control group) and the balance exercise during an attention task (the attention group). Balance exercise continued for 10 weeks, consisting of one 5 minute session, 3 times weekly. The control and intervention subjects were evaluated using the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up & Go Test (TUGT) and walking speed, before the program, at the end of the trial, and 10 weeks after the program. There was no change in walking speed in either group, and difference in TUGT of the control group was observed. We found improvement in FRT and TUGT of the attention group. The FES decreased in the attention group. These findings indicate that balance exercise during an attention task can improve standing posture balance in frail elderly people who have fallen. These results also suggest that it is important to intervene in both motor function and attention function to decrease the fear of falling.

  11. Influence of substituents in vinyl groups on reactivity of parylene during polymerization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freza, Sylwia; Skurski, Piotr; Bobrowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The MCSCF calculations indicate that both triplet and singlet state of biradical di-para-xylylene can exist during polymerization of parylene in gas phase and both can potentially react with vinyl molecules. The singlet-state open-shell dimer turned out to exhibit multiconfigurational character. In the case of triplet state of the dimer two mechanisms of the reactions with various species containing vinyl groups have been examined at the B3LYP/6-31G level. The kinetic and thermodynamical barriers have been estimated for the reaction path involving the π-bond cleavage as well as for the route describing the hydrogen atom transfer. It was found that the overall reactions are thermodynamically favorable, whereas appropriate kinetic barriers for certain derivatives are very small (close to 0 kcal/mol) which in turn makes allowances for easy reactivity under accessible conditions. The calculated mechanisms indicate the influence of substituents in vinyl groups for reactivity of parylene during LPCVD process.

  12. Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Norton, Andrea C; Overy, Katie; Winner, Ellen; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-15

    Two major influences on how the brain processes music are maturational development and active musical training. Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating music processing have typically focused on either categorical differences between "musicians versus nonmusicians" or "children versus adults." In the present study, we explored a cross-sectional data set (n=84) using multiple linear regression to isolate the performance-independent effects of age (5 to 33 years) and cumulative duration of musical training (0 to 21,000 practice hours) on fMRI activation similarities and differences between melodic discrimination (MD) and rhythmic discrimination (RD). Age-related effects common to MD and RD were present in three left hemisphere regions: temporofrontal junction, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior part of the intraparietal sulcus, regions involved in active attending to auditory rhythms, sensorimotor integration, and working memory transformations of pitch and rhythmic patterns. By contrast, training-related effects common to MD and RD were localized to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus/planum temporale, an area implicated in spectrotemporal pattern matching and auditory-motor coordinate transformations. A single cluster in right superior temporal gyrus showed significantly greater activation during MD than RD. This is the first fMRI which has distinguished maturational from training effects during music processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of facial feedback during a cooperative human-robot task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura; Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Salesse, Robin N; Bortolon, Catherine; Słowiński, Piotr; Zhai, Chao; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Di Bernardo, Mario; Capdevielle, Delphine; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Bardy, Benoit G; Billard, Aude; Raffard, Stéphane

    2017-11-03

    Rapid progress in the area of humanoid robots offers tremendous possibilities for investigating and improving social competences in people with social deficits, but remains yet unexplored in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the influence of social feedbacks elicited by a humanoid robot on motor coordination during a human-robot interaction. Twenty-two schizophrenia patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls underwent a collaborative motor synchrony task with the iCub humanoid robot. Results revealed that positive social feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor coordination in the control participants compared to non-social positive feedback. This facilitatory effect was not present in schizophrenia patients, whose social-motor coordination was similarly impaired in social and non-social feedback conditions. Furthermore, patients' cognitive flexibility impairment and antipsychotic dosing were negatively correlated with patients' ability to synchronize hand movements with iCub. Overall, our findings reveal that patients have marked difficulties to exploit facial social cues elicited by a humanoid robot to modulate their motor coordination during human-robot interaction, partly accounted for by cognitive deficits and medication. This study opens new perspectives for comprehension of social deficits in this mental disorder.

  14. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: Data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Garry J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of highly infectious equine influenza. Government disease control measures were put in place to control, contain, and eradicate the disease; these measures included movement restrictions and quarantining of properties. This study was conducted to assess the psycho-social impacts of this disease, and this paper reports the prevalence of, and factors influencing, psychological distress during this outbreak. Methods Data were collected using an online survey, with a link directed to the affected population via a number of industry groups. Psychological distress, as determined by the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale, was the main outcome measure. Results In total, 2760 people participated in this study. Extremely high levels of non-specific psychological distress were reported by respondents in this study, with 34% reporting high psychological distress (K10 > 22, compared to levels of around 12% in the Australian general population. Analysis, using backward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis, revealed that those living in high risk infection (red zones (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57–2.55; p Conclusion Although, methodologically, this study had good internal validity, it has limited generalisability because it was not possible to identify, bound, or sample the target population accurately. However, this study is the first to collect psychological distress data from an affected population during such a disease outbreak and has potential to inform those involved in assessing the potential psychological impacts of human infectious diseases, such as pandemic influenza.

  15. Changes in ganglion cell physiology during retinal degeneration influence excitability by prosthetic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Alice; Ratliff, Charles; Sampath, Alapakkam; Weiland, James

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. Approach. Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain intact, so direct electrical stimulation from prosthetic devices offers the possibility for visual restoration. Since inner retinal physiology changes during degeneration, we characterize physiological properties and responses to electrical stimulation in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of both wild type mice and the rd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration. Main results. Our aggregate results support previous observations that elevated thresholds characterize diseased retinas. However, a physiology-driven classification scheme reveals distinct sub-populations of ganglion cells with thresholds either normal or strongly elevated compared to wild-type. When these populations are combined, only a weakly elevated threshold with large variance is observed. The cells with normal threshold are more depolarized at rest and exhibit periodic oscillations. Significance. During degeneration, physiological changes in RGCs affect the threshold stimulation currents required to evoke action potentials.

  16. Influence of virtual reality on postural stability during movements of quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Corinne G C; Carpenter, Mark G; Küng, Ursula M; Honegger, Flurin; Wiederhold, Brenda; Allum, John H J

    2009-02-27

    Balance problems during virtual reality (VR) have been mentioned in the literature but seldom investigated despite the increased use of VR systems as a training or rehabilitation tool. We examined the influence of VR on body sway under different stance conditions. Seventeen young subjects performed four tasks (standing with feet close together or tandem stance on firm and foam surfaces for 60s) under three visual conditions: eyes open without VR, eyes closed, or while viewing a virtual reality scene which moved with body movements. Angular velocity transducers mounted on the shoulder provided measures of body sway in the roll and pitch plane. VR caused increased pitch and roll angles and angular velocities compared to EO. The effects of VR were, for the most part, indistinguishable from eyes closed conditions. Use of a foam surface increased sway compared to a firm surface under eyes closed and VR conditions. During the movements of quiet stance, VR causes an increase in postural sway in amplitude similar to that caused by closing the eyes. This increased sway was present irrespective of stance surface, but was greatest on foam.

  17. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Phillips, Scott Findlay, Mykolas Kavaliauskas, Marie Clare Grant

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD age: 23.1 (3.0 years, height: 1.83 (0.07 m, body mass (BM: 86.3 (13.5 kg completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p 0.05. No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint.

  18. [The influences of interaction during online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the influences of online gaming on sociability and aggression in real life. It was hypothesized that the effects of online gaming would differ depending on the interaction style of the online-gamers. Online-gamers in Japan (n = 1 477) were asked to respond to questionnaires that measured interaction style during online gaming, the effects of sociability and aggression, as well as social and individual orientation in real life. Factor analysis of the scores for interaction style extracted five factors. Covariance structure analysis indicated that sociable interactions such as "Broadening relations" and "Feeling of belonging" promoted sociability in real life. In addition, "Release from daily hassles" promoted sociability and decreased aggression. In contrast, non-sociable and aggressive interactions decreased sociability and increased aggression. The results also suggested that a social orientation in real life promoted sociable interactions during game playing, while an individual orientation promoted non-sociable and aggressive interactions. These results supported the hypotheses and suggested that online gaming resulted in positive outcomes for those who are socially, but negative outcomes for those who are not.

  19. Influence of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on tibialis anterior activity during walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambour, Mélanie; Caux-Dedeystère, Alexandre; Devanne, Hervé; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe; Delval, Arnaud

    2016-03-11

    To determine whether or not modulation of the excitability of the M1 region controlling the lower limb (using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; TMS) would change the TA's activity during gait and the effect of aging on this change. In three separate sessions, participants underwent different repetitive TMS (rTMS) protocols (sham stimulation, intermittent theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and continuous TBS) delivered over the M1 region controlling the lower limb muscles, using a focal, figure-of-eight coil. Before and after rTMS, the TA's activity was recorded using surface electrodes while participants walked at a freely chosen speed and at an imposed speed on a treadmill. Cortical excitability was assessed by characterizing input-output (IO) curves, after fitting the relationship between motor evoked potential amplitude and stimulus intensity with a Boltzmann sigmoidal equation. We did not observe any effects of rTMS in terms of TA activation during locomotion, gait parameters or IO curves in either healthy young adults or elderly adults. Elderly patients presented lower excitability of cortical TA representation area. Modulation of TA activity by TBS was ineffective contrary to what is observed for upper limbs. Interindividual variability in the effects of rTMS on TA activation, activation of the TA before the rTMS and/or differences in the depth of the cortical representation of the TA could have influenced the results and should be taken into account for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the Generating and Influencing Factors of Vertical Cracking in Abutments during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the causes of cracking in abutments subject to concrete shrinkage and temperature variation during the construction process and to determine factors affecting the mechanical properties of the abutment, nonlinear calculations capturing abutment behavior are conducted with Midas/FEA software. Using these calculations, the cracking mechanism is identified, and the influence of the evaluated factors is analyzed. It is concluded that the deformation between the pile cap and abutment backwall as constrained by a pile foundation when subjected to concrete shrinkage and temperature changes is the basic cause of abutment cracks during construction; these cracks form over the piles and develop upward. For a given reinforcement ratio, the distribution of horizontal crack-control steel using small, closely spaced bars is more beneficial. When pile-bearing capacity meets the standard, the width of the generated cracks tends to decrease with the decrease in the diameter of the piles. The existence of a postcast strip in the abutment backwall also contributes to the decrease in the depth of the crack. Finally, the impact of age difference between the pile cap concrete and abutment backwall concrete on cracking is inconsequential.

  1. Influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the phase evolution during Bi-2212 wire melt processing

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C.; Rikel, M.O.; Kadar, J.; Doerrer, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.; Jiang, J.; Kametani, F.; Hellstrom, E.E.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the oxygen partial pressure pO2 up to 5.5 bar on the phase changes that occur during melt processing of a state-of-the-art Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire. Phase changes have been monitored in situ by high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that the stability of Bi-2212 phase is reduced with increasing pO2. For pO2>1 bar a significant amount of Bi-2212 phase decomposes upon heating in the range 400 to 650 °C. The extent of decomposition strongly increases with increasing pO2, and at pO2=5.5 bar Bi-2212 decomposes completely in the solid state. Textured Bi-2212 can be formed during solidification when pO2 is reduced to 0.45 bar when the precursor is molten. Since the formation of current limiting second phases is very sensitive to pO2 when it exceeds 1 bar, we recommend to reduce the oxygen partial pressure below the commonly used pO2=1 bar, in order to increase the pO2 margins and to make the overpressure process more robust.

  2. Extra intestinal influences on exhaled breath hydrogen measurements during the investigation of gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D G; Binfield, P; De Belder, A; O'Brien, J; Warren, S; Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    During the clinical investigation of patients with gastrointestinal disease by exhaled breath hydrogen measurement, the occurrence of inexplicable variations in recorded hydrogen values led to a search for extra intestinal factors which were capable of adversely influencing breath hydrogen concentration and impairing the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Serial breath samples were collected from normal subjects under a variety of conditions which might occur during routine clinical study, including, hyperventilation, exercise, cigarette smoking, and carbohydrate ingestion. Breath hydrogen concentrations were consistently reduced by hyperventilation (p less than 0.01) and exercise (p less than 0.05). Cigarette smoking, in contrast, caused a marked rise in measured breath hydrogen (p less than 0.01), as did oral carbohydrate (p less than 0.05). Prior bactericidal mouthwash abolished this carbohydrate associated rise, suggesting that the hydrogen was the result of fermentation by oropharyngeal bacteria. Because, in all instances, the changes in breath hydrogen were of sufficient magnitude to interfere with data interpretation, it is recommended that these factors are eliminated, whenever possible, from conditions of study.

  3. Reseau des polygones de bord des indicateurs de performance d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La fonction maintenance hospitalière a des composantes spécifiques qui la rendent de plus en plus complexe et fastidieuse. La politique d'une maintenance biomédicale repose sur des piliers et des leviers propres à une meilleure exploitation des dispositifs médicaux dans un système de santé. Trois niveaux de leviers ...

  4. Impact des microcredits sur les conditions sociosanitaires des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cependant, très peu d'étude se focalisent sur leurs impacts réels sur les conditions de vies des bénéficiaires de leurs services. C'est à ce propos que la présente recherche se donne comme objectif de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des impacts des microcrédits - un des services offert par les IMF - sur les ...

  5. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  6. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Morita

    Full Text Available Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C, control (37.5°C, or high (39°C temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C. The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to

  7. Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the middle and upper troposphere during INTEX-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Jaegle, L.; Hudman, R.; Turquety, S.; Jacob, D.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Blake, D.; Browell, E.; Brune, W.; Ren, X.; Cohen, R.; Dibb, J.; Fuelberg, H.; Porter, M.; Huey, G.; Singh, H.; Wennberg, P.

    2005-12-01

    We analyze aircraft observations obtained during INTEX-A (1 July - 14 August 2004) with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry to understand the influence of Asian pollution in the middle and upper troposphere over the United States (US) during summer. We apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the observations and find 4 major types of airmasses: Asian, lower stratospheric, convection/lightning, and background. PCA identifies five major Asian pollution plumes during INTEX-A, consistent with results from the GEOS-CHEM model and back-trajectories. The geographic distributions of the Asian plumes span from the remote northeastern Pacific to the US east coast, where they join the local pollution outflow to the North Atlantic. The major trans-Pacific transport mechanisms were export in warm conveyor belts of mid-latitude cyclones as well as deep convection followed by advection in the middle and upper troposphere, with differing transport times (3-10 days), transport altitudes (5-11 km), and chemical compositions. On average, observed mixing ratios were significantly enhanced in Asian plumes compared to background airmasses in the middle and upper troposphere: CO (ΔCO = 19 ppbv relative to 94 ppbv for background aimasses), O3 (ΔO3 = 26 ppbv, background = 74 ppbv), PAN (ΔPAN = 270 pptv, background = 335 ppbv), HNO3 (ΔHNO3 = 125 pptv, background = 237 pptv), C2H6 (ΔC2H6 = 180 pptv, background = 744 pptv), C2H2 (ΔC2H2 = 93 pptv, background = 84 pptv), HCN (ΔHCN = 146 pptv, background = 271 pptv), and CH3OH (ΔCH3OH = 1006 pptv, background = 1364 pptv). Individual Asian plumes have very different ΔO3/ΔCO ratios, ranging from -0.27 to 1.11. Some of the very large O3 enhancements appear to be due to mixing of Asian airmasses with lower stratospheric air. Through detailed case studies, we will examine the influence of transport pathways, chemical evolution, wet deposition, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the composition of these Asian

  8. Rethinking College Students' Self-Regulation and Sustained Attention: Does Text Messaging during Class Influence Cognitive Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora; Wang, Y. Ken; Klausner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether texting during class influences students' cognitive learning. A theoretical model was proposed to study the relationships among college students' self-regulation, texting during class, sustained attention to classroom learning, and cognitive learning (i.e., grade-oriented academic performance and experience-oriented…

  9. Influence of military low-level flight noise on the inner ear of guinea pigs. Der Einfluss von militaerischem Tieffluglaerm auf das Innenohr des Meerschweinchens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrig, W.; Meyer, P.; Kuhl, K.D.; Schmidt, R.; Gruetzmacher, W. (Greifswald Univ. (Germany). HNO-Klinik); Ising, H. (BGA, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Ishi, K.; Merker, H.J. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie)

    1992-03-01

    The influence of different rises in noise level and - in cases of the repeated passage of aircraft - the impact of varying intervals between the events was to be investigated. The experimental animals used were pigmented guinea pigs of 250 to 500 grammes body weight. The auditory thresholds were measured on the anaesthesized animals by derivation of the acoustically evoked brain stem potentials from the EEGs. For the noise exposure of the animals, two types of military low-level flight noise were used: one flight overhead with a rise in noise level of 7.5 dB/s, and a second one with 75 dB/s.-unlike other cases of damage to the inner ear through noise, the damage sustained in this case was not restricted to the basal convolution but was observed in all four cochlear convolutions. This suggests a particularity of the harmful effect of low-level flight noise, which it is planned to follow up in the future. (orig./MG).

  10. Physiology of the larynx; Physiologie des Larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denk, D.M. [Univ. HNO-Klinik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Abt. Phoniatrie-Logopaedie; Swoboda, H. [Univ. HNO-Klinik, Wien (Austria). Klinische Abt. Allgemeine HNO; Steiner, E. [Univ. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)]|[Inst. Fruehwald, St. Poelten (Austria). Diagnosezentrum

    1998-02-01

    The larynx consists of the cartilaginous-osseous framework, elastic membranes and ligaments, joints, muscles, nerves, vessels, and interior cavity. The laryngeal functions are the protection of the airway during swallowing, respiration (i.e. maintainance of the airway) and phonation. During the pharyngeal phase of swallowing the swallow reflex induces a laryngeal closure in three levels and a superior-anterior movement of the larynx and hyoid bone. The laryngeal airway is maintained by the circumference of the cricoid cartilage. Phonation is the phylogenetically recent function of the larynx and was made possible by the laryngeal descent. The sound production is explained according to the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory. The diagnostics of laryngeal diseases is performed in close cooperation between otorhinolaryngology and radiology. For diagnostic purposes, the physiology of the larynx requires to take into account not only morphological, but also functional aspects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Kehlkopf besteht aus einem knorpelig-knoechernen Stuetzgeruest, elastischen Membranen und Baendern, Gelenken, Muskulatur, Nerven, Gefaessen und Schleimhaut. Seine intakte Funktion ermoeglicht ein aspirationsfreies Schlucken durch den schlucksynchronen Atemwegsverschluss, die Sicherstellung des Atemweges und die Stimmgebung. Der Schluckreflex loest in der pharyngealen Phase des Schluckaktes einen dreietagigen Larynxverschluss und eine superior-anteriore Bewegung von Hyoid und Larynx aus. Die Atmung wird durch die Zirkumferenz des Ringknorpels sichergestellt. Die phylogenetisch juengste Funktion des Larynx, die Phonation, wurde durch die evolutionaere Deszension des Larynx ermoeglicht. Die myoelastisch-aerodynamische Theorie der Stimmerzeugung erklaert das Zustandekommen der Stimmlippenschwingungen. Die Physiologie des Kehlkopfes erfordert, dass in der Diagnostik von Kehlkopferkrankungen, die in enger Kooperation zwischen HNO-Heilkunde und Radiologie durchgefuehrt wird, neben

  11. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  12. Physiological Aging Influence on Brain Hemodynamic Activity during Task-Switching: A fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Roberta; Cutini, Simone; Cerasa, Antonio; Gramigna, Vera; Olivadese, Giuseppe; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Task-switching (TS) paradigm is a well-known validated tool useful for exploring the neural substrates of cognitive control, in particular the activity of the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex. This work is aimed at investigating how physiological aging influences hemodynamic response during the execution of a color-shape TS paradigm. A multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure hemodynamic activity in 27 young (30.00 ± 7.90 years) and 11 elderly participants (57.18 ± 9.29 years) healthy volunteers (55% male, age range: (19-69) years) during the execution of a TS paradigm. Two holders were placed symmetrically over the left/right hemispheres to record cortical activity [oxy-(HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) concentration] of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the dorsal premotor cortex (PMC), and the dorso-medial part of the superior frontal gyrus (sFG). TS paradigm requires participants to repeat the same task over a variable number of trials, and then to switch to a different task during the trial sequence. A two-sample t -test was carried out to detect differences in cortical responses between groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of age on the prefrontal neural activity. Elderly participants were significantly slower than young participants in both color- ( p aging. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the HbO mean concentration of switching task in the PMC ( p = 0.01, β = -0.321) and of shape single-task in the sFG ( p = 0.003, β = 0.342) were the best predictors of age effects. Our findings demonstrated that TS might be a reliable instrument to gather a measure of cognitive resources in older people. Moreover, the fNIRS-related brain activity extracted from frontoparietal cortex might become a useful indicator of aging effects.

  13. The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

    2011-05-11

    The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates.

  14. Influence of maternal thyroid hormones during gestation on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Nora K.; Entringer, Sonja; Heim, Christine; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Kathmann, Norbert; Buss, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play an obligatory role in many fundamental processes underlying brain development and maturation. The developing embryo/fetus is dependent on maternal supply of TH. The fetal thyroid gland does not commence THs synthesis until mid gestation, and the adverse consequences of severe maternal TH deficiency on offspring neurodevelopment are well established. Recent evidence suggests that even more moderate forms of maternal thyroid dysfunction, particularly during early gestation, may have a long-lasting influence on child cognitive development and risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, these observed alterations appear to be largely irreversible after birth. It is, therefore, important to gain a better understanding of the role of maternal thyroid dysfunction on offspring neurodevelopment in terms of the nature, magnitude, time-specificity, and context-specificity of its effects. With respect to the issue of context specificity, it is possible that maternal stress and stress-related biological processes during pregnancy may modulate maternal thyroid function. The possibility of an interaction between the thyroid and stress systems in the context of fetal brain development has, however, not been addressed to date. We begin this review with a brief overview of TH biology during pregnancy and a summary of the literature on its effect on the developing brain. Next, we consider and discuss whether and how processes related to maternal stress and stress biology may interact with and modify the effects of maternal thyroid function on offspring brain development. We synthesize several research areas and identify important knowledge gaps that may warrant further study. The scientific and public health relevance of this review relates to achieving a better understanding of the timing, mechanisms and contexts of thyroid programming of brain development, with implications for early identification of risk, primary prevention and intervention. PMID

  15. Influence of the hold period on the fuel rod behaviour during a power ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourreau, S.; Lansiart, S.; Couffin, P.; Verdeau, C.; Decroix, G.M.; Grandjean, M.-C.; Hugot, H.; Mermaz, F.; Van Schel, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three examples of power ramp tests performed in the OSIRIS experimental reactor, located at Saclay (France). The rods tested during these experiments stem from the same segmented 'mother' rod, pre-irradiated for two cycles in a French PWR. They underwent very similar power transient conditions, except for the hold time at Ramp Terminal Level (RTL) - respectively 41.5 kW/m (J12/2), 40.7 kW/m (J12/4) and 39.5 kW/m (J12/5) for RTL, but zero (J12/2), 16 minutes (J12/4) and 12 hours (J12/5) for the hold time at RTL. No failure was detected for any of the three experiments despite the relatively high mechanical stress applied to the cladding in the case of J12/2. Moreover, although no hold time was maintained at RTL, a permanent deformation clearly appeared on the clad during the power transient. An analysis of the cladding deformation has also been undertaken concerning the J12/2, J12/4 and J12/5 experiments. This study was realized by carrying out post-calculations of the three experiments with a 2D fuel modelling code using the finite element method. The computations satisfactorily reproduce the influence of hold time on the cladding deformation during the power transients, especially for the J12/2 and J12/4 experiments with hold times enclosing the failure times experimentally observed for power ramp tests. For the hold time of 12 hours, the micrographic observations of the fuel, compared to the case of the 16 minutes hold time, support the hypothesis of weak but noticeable gaseous swelling. (author)

  16. The influence of antioxidant postharvest treatment on content of biologically active substances during storage of cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Priss

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment with antioxidant compositions on the content of biologically active substances during storage of cucumbers is investigated. It was found that the use of the proposed treatment inhibits the activity of ascorbate oxidase by 15–18%, which allows to slow down the decomposition of ascorbic acid by 1.5 times. The content of ascorbic acid in the experimental fruit after storage for 28 days is 1.4 times higher than in the control after 21 days of storage. It was found that in the cucumbers 11–14 sm long, the synthesis of polyphenols continued in the period of storage.  The intensity of accumulation of phenolic substances proved to be different in the treated and control groups. It was shown that thermal treatment with antioxidants slowed the growth rate of total polyphenols by 20% relative to control, indicating inhibition of maturation processes. It was revealed that the activity o polyphenol oxidase during the storage of treated fruits was slowing down. It has been established that the application of said treatment substantially inhibits the degradation of chlorophylls. Rapid loss of chlorophyll caused yellowing and loss of consumer properties in the control groups after 2 weeks of storage. In processed cucumbers only 21 days of storage revealed a decrease in the concentration of chlorophyll in relation to the moment of laying. At day 28 the amount of chlorophylls in the experimental fruit is at the same level as in the control after a week of storage. It has been found that the use of the proposed treatment slows the degradation of carotenoids. The quantity of carotenoids in experimental cucumbers at the end of storage is 21–23% higher than in the control ones. The compensatory function of ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic substances during storage of cucumber fruits is proved.

  17. The Influence of verbalization on the pattern of cortical activation during mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnhofer, Sabrina; Braunstein, Verena; Ebner, Franz; Koschutnig, Karl; Neuper, Christa; Reishofer, Gernot; Ischebeck, Anja

    2012-03-12

    The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T was to investigate the influence of the verbal-visual cognitive style on cerebral activation patterns during mental arithmetic. In the domain of arithmetic, a visual style might for example mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results, and a verbal style might mean, that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated. In this study, we investigated, first, whether verbalizers show activations in areas for language processing, and whether visualizers show activations in areas for visual processing during mental arithmetic. Some researchers have proposed that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left angular gyrus (AG), two areas involved in number processing, show some domain or modality specificity. That is, verbal for the left AG, and visual for the left and right IPS. We investigated, second, whether the activation in these areas implied in number processing depended on an individual's cognitive style. 42 young healthy adults participated in the fMRI study. The study comprised two functional sessions. In the first session, subtraction and multiplication problems were presented in an event-related design, and in the second functional session, multiplications were presented in two formats, as Arabic numerals and as written number words, in an event-related design. The individual's habitual use of visualization and verbalization during mental arithmetic was assessed by a short self-report assessment. We observed in both functional sessions that the use of verbalization predicts activation in brain areas associated with language (supramarginal gyrus) and auditory processing (Heschl's gyrus, Rolandic operculum). However, we found no modulation of activation in the left AG as a function of verbalization. Our results confirm that strong verbalizers use mental speech as a form of mental imagination more strongly than weak verbalizers. Moreover, our results

  18. Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, Nir; Hofstein, Avi

    This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors: the field trip quality and the Novelty space (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose Novelty Space was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose Novelty Space had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the Novelty Space factors.Received: 23 March 1993; Revised: 24 January 1994;

  19. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  20. Influence of hormonal status on substrate utilization at rest and during exercise in the female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Duché, Pascale; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    During exercise, substrate utilization plays a major role in performance and disease prevention. The contribution of fat and carbohydrates to energy expenditure during exercise is modulated by several factors, including intensity and duration of exercise, age, training and diet, but also gender. Because sex hormone levels change throughout a woman's lifetime (in connection with puberty, the menstrual cycle, use of oral contraceptives and menopause), the female population has to be considered specifically in terms of substrate utilization, and metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise. Before puberty, there is no difference between males and females when it comes to substrate oxidation during exercise. This is not the case during adulthood, since women are known to rely more on fat than men for the same relative intensity of exercise. Among adult women, the menstrual cycle and use of oral contraceptives may influence substrate oxidation. While some authors have noted that the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is connected with greater lipid oxidation, compared with the follicular stage, other authors have found no difference. Among oral contraceptive users, fat oxidation is sometimes increased during prolonged exercise with a concomitant rise in lipolytic hormones, as well as growth hormone. If this result is not always observed, the type of oral contraceptive (monophasic vs triphasic) and hormone doses may be implicated. Menopause represents a hormonal transition in a woman's life, leading to a decline in ovarian hormone production. A decrease in fat oxidation is consequently observed, and some studies have demonstrated a similar respiratory exchange ratio during prolonged exercise in postmenopausal women and in men. As is the case during puberty, no sex difference should thus appear after menopause in the absence of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Results concerning women who take HRT remain conflicting. HRT may act on fat loss by increasing lipid

  1. Domestication de Vitex doniana Sweet. (Verbenaceae: influence du type de substrat, de la stimulation hormonale, de la surface foliaire et de la position du nœud sur l’enracinement des boutures uninodales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapongmetsem Pierre Marie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Résumé: La zone des hautes savanes guinéennes du Cameroun regorge de nombreux produits forestiers non ligneux de haute valeur ajoutée au rang desquels Vitex doniana Sweet. est une essence fruitière très valorisés par les populations locales. Malgré son importance dans le milieu paysan, elle vit encore à l’état sauvage et rares sont les travaux scientifiques qui se sont intéressés à sa domestication et sa culture. Afin de contribuer à sa domestication, une série de trois essais en pépinière ont été conduits pour évaluer l’effet du substrat (mélange terre noire/Sciure, terre noire/sable et sable sciure, de l’auxine (Contrôles, les boutures traitées à l’AIB, de la surface foliaire(0, 183, 214, 234 et 642 cm2 et de la position du nœud (N1,N2, N3, N4 et N5 sur l’enracinement des boutures juvéniles de V. doniana. Les résultats montrent que les substrats terre noire/sable et terre noire/sciure sont les plus performants pour l’enracinement à la sixième (0,0204<0,05, septième (0,0066<0,01 et huitième semaines (0,0248<0,05. La surface foliaire ainsi que la position du nœud influencent significativement (0,000 < 0,001 l’aptitude d’enracinement des boutures. L’enracinement le plus élevé (65,57% est enregistré chez les boutures ayant une surface foliaire égale à 234 cm2. S’agissant des boutures prélevées aux positions 2 et 3, le taux d’enracinement est de 68,31 % et 61,32% respectivement. Le plus important nombre de racines (5 par bouture est obtenu avec la même surface foliaire et du nœud de la position 2 (7 racines tandis que la plus longue racine est enregistrée chez les boutures ayant 182 cm2 (5,7cm et à la position 2 (4,58 cm. Ces résultats suggèrent qu’il est possible de développer les clones génétiquement supérieurs de Vitex doniana pour une utilisation en agroforesterie comme source potentiel de produits forestiers non ligneux. Mots clés: Domestication, Fruitier local

  2. The Drosophila Huntington's disease gene ortholog dhtt influences chromatin regulation during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Kevin N; Di Stefano, Luisa; Maher, Robert C; Zhu, Hui; Macdonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Walker, James A

    2015-01-15

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT, the gene encoding huntingtin. Evidence from both human genotype-phenotype relationships and mouse model systems suggests that the mutation acts by dysregulating some normal activity of huntingtin. Recent work in the mouse has revealed a role for huntingtin in epigenetic regulation during development. Here, we examine the role of the Drosophila huntingtin ortholog (dhtt) in chromatin regulation in the development of the fly. Although null dhtt mutants display no overt phenotype, we found that dhtt acts as a suppressor of position-effect variegation (PEV), suggesting that it influences chromatin organization. We demonstrate that dhtt affects heterochromatin spreading in a PEV model by modulating histone H3K9 methylation levels at the heterochromatin-euchromatin boundary. To gain mechanistic insights into how dhtt influences chromatin function, we conducted a candidate genetic screen using RNAi lines targeting known PEV modifier genes. We found that dhtt modifies phenotypes caused by knockdown of a number of key epigenetic regulators, including chromatin-associated proteins, histone demethylases (HDMs) and methyltransferases. Notably, dhtt strongly modifies phenotypes resulting from loss of the HDM dLsd1, in both the ovary and wing, and we demonstrate that dhtt appears to act as a facilitator of dLsd1 function in regulating global histone H3K4 methylation levels. These findings suggest that a fundamental aspect of huntingtin function in heterochromatin/euchromatin organization is evolutionarily conserved across phyla. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identification of chemical processes influencing constituent mobility during in-situ uranium leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.R.; Hostetler, C.J.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    In-situ leaching of uranium has become a widely accepted method for production of uranium concentrate from ore zones that are too small, too deep, and/or too low in grade to be mined by conventional techniques. One major environmental concern that exists with in-situ leaching of uranium is the possible adverse effects mining might have on regional ground water quality. The leaching solution (lixiviant), which extracts uranium from the ore zone, might also mobilize other potential contaminants (As, Se, Mo, and SO 4 ) associated with uranium ore. Column experiments were performed to investigate the geochemical interactions between a lixiviant and a uranium ore during in-situ leaching and to identify chemical processes that might influence contaminant mobility. The analytical composition data for selected column effluents were used with the MINTEQ code to develop a computerized geochemical model of the system. MINTEQ was used to calculate saturation indices for solid phases based on the composition of the solution. A potential constraint on uranium leaching efficiency appears to be the solubility control of schoepite. Gypsum and powellite solubilities may limit the mobilities of sulfate and molybdenum, respectively. In contrast, the mobilities of arsenic and selenium were not limited by solubility constraints, but were influenced by other chemical interaction between the solution and sediment, perhaps adsorption. Bulk chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on both the original and leached ores. Using these analyses together with the column effluent data, mass balance calculations were performed on five constituents based on solution chemical analysis and bulk chemical and γ-spectroscopy analysis for the sediment. 6 references, 10 figures, 10 tables

  4. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organizational and human dynamics heavily influence and even constrain the engineering effort for large-scale complex systems.

  5. The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Lynn Martin, Carol; Cook, Rachel E; Hanish, Laura D

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents actively evaluate their identities during adolescence, and one of the most salient and central identities for youth concerns their gender identity. Experiences with peers may inform gender identity. Unfortunately, many youth experience homophobic name calling, a form of peer victimization, and it is unknown whether youth internalize these peer messages and how these messages might influence gender identity. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of homophobic name calling on changes over the course of an academic year in adolescents' gender identity. Specifically, this study extends the literature using a new conceptualization and measure of gender identity that involves assessing how similar adolescents feel to both their own- and other-gender peers and, by employing longitudinal social network analyses, provides a rigorous analytic assessment of the impact of homophobic name calling on changes in these two dimensions of gender identity. Symbolic interaction perspectives-the "looking glass self"-suggest that peer feedback is incorporated into the self-concept. The current study tests this hypothesis by determining if adolescents respond to homophobic name calling by revising their self-view, specifically, how the self is viewed in relation to both gender groups. Participants were 299 6th grade students (53% female). Participants reported peer relationships, experiences of homophobic name calling, and gender identity (i.e., similarity to own- and other-gender peers). Longitudinal social network analyses revealed that homophobic name calling early in the school year predicted changes in gender identity over time. The results support the "looking glass self" hypothesis: experiencing homophobic name calling predicted identifying significantly less with own-gender peers and marginally more with other-gender peers over the course of an academic year. The effects held after controlling for participant characteristics (e.g., gender), social

  6. Le statut politique des petits territoires insulaires à vocation touristique a-t’il une influence sur leur performance économique et sociale ? Approche comparative Does political status of small island tourist economies have an influence on their economic and social performance ? Comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Dupont

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le paradigme du développement dans les Petites Economies Insulaires se définit par divers facteurs. Parmi ces derniers figurent entre-autres, le statut politique et le niveau de développement touristique atteint par ces territoires. Cette étude, en croisant diverses analyses a pour but d’évaluer et de comparer empiriquement à l’aide de vingt-cinq indicateurs socio-économiques et démographiques, l’influence de différentes variables et plus particulièrement de celle relative au statut politique sur la performance économique et sociale de deux groupes de territoires, l’un composé de seize petits espaces insulaires de la Caraïbe et du Pacifique, politiquement dépendants et l’autre, de dix-neuf îles des mêmes régions qui ont accédé à la souveraineté. D’une part, les résultats montrent que : comme variable explicative, le statut politique associé à d’autres facteurs intervient pour les deux-tiers dans la performance économique et sociale de ces îles. D’autre part, ils indiquent que les territoires insulaires politiquement dépendants sont économiquement plus prospères, socialement plus avancés, et démographiquement d’une plus grande maturité que ceux ayant acquis leur souveraineté. Toutefois, ces résultats ne doivent en aucun cas être interprétés comme des arguments contre la décolonisation, qui demeure une démarche moralement et universellement soutenable. Enfin, ils montrent également que les îles dépendantes qui bénéficient d’une large autonomie politique affichent en moyenne des résultats économiques et sociaux bien meilleurs que celles qui restent politiquement et centralement très liées à leur métropole, cas notamment de la Guadeloupe et de la Martinique pour lesquelles, en guise d’illustration nous proposons dans le cadre de leur probable évolution statutaire, un modèle de gouvernance qui, au plan politique soit le mieux adapté aux caractéristiques socio-économiques et

  7. Contribution à l’identification des déterminants fondamentaux en évaluation des banques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Habba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier étudie l’influence des facteurs fondamentaux sur l’évaluation des banques. Dans un premier temps, nous avons sélectionné, sur la base d’une revue de la littérature, les caractéristiques fondamentales susceptibles d’influencer l’évaluation des banques. Ensuite, nous avons estimé un modèle économétrique mettant en relation la valeur des banques et six variables explicatives à l’aide de l’économétrie des données de panel. L’échantillon est constitué d’un panel de 82 banques cotées entre 2005 et 2013. Les résultats obtenus montrent qu’il existe une influence très significative de la qualité du portefeuille bancaire de crédits, du niveau de capitalisation, du niveau de diversification du portefeuille d’activités, de l’efficience et de la taille de la banque sur l’évaluation des firmes bancaires.

  8. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure; Etude des transferts du tritium atmospherique chez la laitue: Etude cinetique, etat d'equilibre et integration du tritum sous forme organique lors d'une exposition atmospherique continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.

    2009-11-30

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author) [French] Ce travail de these a concerne l'etude des phenomenes d'absorption et d'incorporation sous forme organique du tritium dans un vegetal de consommation courante, la laitue (Lactuca sativa L.), en reponse a une exposition atmospherique. Il apparait que la voie foliaire joue un role primordial dans l'absorption du tritium au sein de l'eau tissulaire des plants. Quels que soient le stade de developpement des plants et les conditions d'eclairement, le temps necessaire pour atteindre l'equilibre des concentrations dans l'eau libre et dans la vapeur d'eau de l'air est de plusieurs heures; le rapport des concentrations est alors de

  9. The salience network causally influences default mode network activity during moral reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M.; D’Esposito, Mark; Kayser, Andrew S.; Grossman, Scott N.; Poorzand, Pardis; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale brain networks are integral to the coordination of human behaviour, and their anatomy provides insights into the clinical presentation and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease, which targets the default mode network, and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, which targets a more anterior salience network. Although the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about ‘personal’ moral dilemmas, patients with Alzheimer’s disease give normal responses to these dilemmas whereas patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia give abnormal responses to these dilemmas. We hypothesized that this apparent discrepancy between activation- and patient-based studies of moral reasoning might reflect a modulatory role for the salience network in regulating default mode network activation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize network activity of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and healthy control subjects, we present four converging lines of evidence supporting a causal influence from the salience network to the default mode network during moral reasoning. First, as previously reported, the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about ‘personal’ moral dilemmas, but patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia producing atrophy in the salience network give abnormally utilitarian responses to these dilemmas. Second, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia have reduced recruitment of the default mode network compared with healthy control subjects when deliberating about these dilemmas. Third, a Granger causality analysis of functional neuroimaging data from healthy control subjects demonstrates directed functional connectivity from nodes of the salience network to nodes of the default mode network during moral reasoning. Fourth, this Granger causal influence is diminished in

  10. Influence of age on postural sway during different dual-task conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eBergamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dual-task performance assessments of competing parallel tasks and postural outcomes are growing in importance for geriatricians, as it is associated with predicting fall risk in older adults. This study aims to evaluate the postural stability during different dual-task conditions including visual (SMBT, verbal (CBAT and cognitive (MAT tasks in comparison with the standard Romberg’s open eyes position (OE. Furthermore, these conditions were investigated in a sample of young adults and a group of older healthy subjects to examine a potential interaction between type of secondary task and age status. To compare these groups across the four conditions, a within-between mixed model ANOVA was applied. Thus, a stabilometric platform has been used to measure center of pressure velocity (CoPV, sway area (SA, antero-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML oscillations as extents of postural sway. Tests of within-subjects effects indicated that different four conditions influenced the static balance for CoPV (p<0.001, SA (p<0.001. Post-hoc analyses indicated that CBAT task induced the worst balance condition on CoPV and resulted in significantly worse scores than OE (-11.4%; p<0.05, SMBT (-17.8% p<0.01 and MAT (-17.8% p<0.01 conditions; the largest SA was found in OE, and it was statistically larger than SMBT (-27.0%, p<0.01 and MAT (-23.1%; p<0.01. The between-subjects analysis indicated a general lower balance control in the group of elderly subjects (CoPV p<0.001, SA p<0.002, while, the mixed model ANOVA did not detect any interaction effect between types of secondary task and groups in any parameters (CoPV p=0.154, SA p=0.125. Postural sway during dual-task assessments was also found to decrease with advancing age, however, no interactions between aging and types of secondary tasks were found. Overall, these results indicated that the secondary task which most influenced the length of sway path, as measured by postural stability was a simple verbal

  11. The salience network causally influences default mode network activity during moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, Winston; Wilson, Stephen M; D'Esposito, Mark; Kayser, Andrew S; Grossman, Scott N; Poorzand, Pardis; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2013-06-01

    Large-scale brain networks are integral to the coordination of human behaviour, and their anatomy provides insights into the clinical presentation and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, which targets the default mode network, and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, which targets a more anterior salience network. Although the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about 'personal' moral dilemmas, patients with Alzheimer's disease give normal responses to these dilemmas whereas patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia give abnormal responses to these dilemmas. We hypothesized that this apparent discrepancy between activation- and patient-based studies of moral reasoning might reflect a modulatory role for the salience network in regulating default mode network activation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize network activity of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and healthy control subjects, we present four converging lines of evidence supporting a causal influence from the salience network to the default mode network during moral reasoning. First, as previously reported, the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about 'personal' moral dilemmas, but patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia producing atrophy in the salience network give abnormally utilitarian responses to these dilemmas. Second, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia have reduced recruitment of the default mode network compared with healthy control subjects when deliberating about these dilemmas. Third, a Granger causality analysis of functional neuroimaging data from healthy control subjects demonstrates directed functional connectivity from nodes of the salience network to nodes of the default mode network during moral reasoning. Fourth, this Granger causal influence is diminished in patients with

  12. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  13. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le screening phytochimique des feuilles et des fleurs de cette plante, effectuée pour la première fois, a révélé la présence des alcaloïdes, des flavonoïdes, des tanins catéchiques, des terpènes, des coumarines et des composés cyanogénétiques. Quant aux saponines et les quinones libres, ils sont présents chez les fleurs ...

  14. Insémination artificielle bovine par synchronisation des chaleurs au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Tester l'efficacité du protocole CRESTARND chez les vaches locales au Burkina Faso. Il s'agit de déterminer le taux de synchronisation des chaleurs et de gestation à l'insémination artificielle en milieu éleveur de la Région des Cascades et d'analyser ses facteurs d'influence afin de proposer des solutions ...

  15. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Résumé. Dans ce travail, on s‟intéresse à l‟effet des concentrations du xanthane, du caséinate de sodium et du tween 20 sur les propriétés rhéologiques, ... macromolécules des deux biopolymères, par effet du volume exclu, auquel cas, les ..... 25 (4), 743-749. [8] Gast A.P., Hall C.K., Russel W.B.,. 1983. Polymer-induced ...

  16. Liste des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1 – Importations en charbon américain en Europe de l’Ouest de 1946 à 1958 .47 2 – Organisation des demandes d’allocations de charbon allemand auprès de l’eco. 75 3 – Consommations de charbon allemand dans les zones occidentales de l’Allemagne d’octobre à décembre 1945. 86 4 – Production, exportations et consommation nationale apparente du charbon allemand dans la zone britannique en 1945 et 1946. 90 5 – Total des importations de charbons allemand et américain de janvier à avril 1946. 99 6 – I...

  17. Table des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Tableau 1 : Production nationale d'alcool avant 1919 68 Tableau 2 : Production nationale d'alcool après 1939 (Source : Martraire, 1955, A.D. 77 : Az 7086) 71 Tableau 3 : Les surfaces agricoles disponibles en France en 2004 123 Tableau 4 : Le régime fiscal des carburants et des biocarburants en 2005 et 2006 (source : ADEME) 175 Tableau 5 : Exemple de coût de production de biocarburants (Source : Stéphane His (IFP), Les biocarburants en Europe, 2004) 176 Tableau 6 : L’application de la directiv...

  18. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENT CONCENTRATION ON THE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC BIOMASS ESTIMATION DURING SUBMERGED GROWTH OF Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the surface-active agent Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monoleate on the dispersed growth of Mycobacterium bovis - BCG - was studied. The slopes of the bacterial dry mass / absorbance curves, were significantly reduced, by the increase of the Tween 80 concentration in the medium. Such an influence was probably due to the effect Tween 80 had on the average size of bacterial clumps during the culture carried out in a bench fermenter

  19. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.

  20. Influence of Knowledge of Task Endpoint on Pacing and Performance During Simulated Rugby League Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highton, Jamie; Mullen, Thomas; Twist, Craig

    2017-10-01

    To examine the influence of knowledge of exercise duration on pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play. Thirteen male university rugby players completed 3 simulated rugby league matches (RLMSP-i) on separate days in a random order. In a control trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 2 × 23-min bouts (separated by 20 min) of the RLMSP-i (CON). In a second trial, participants were informed that they would be performing 1 × 23-min bout of the protocol but were then asked to perform another 23-min bout (DEC). In a third trial, participants were not informed of the exercise duration and performed 2 × 23-min bouts (UN). Distance covered and high-intensity running were higher in CON (4813 ± 167 m, 26 ± 4.1 m/min) than DEC (4764 ± 112 m, 25.2 ± 2.8 m/min) and UN (4744 ± 131 m, 24.4 m/min). Compared with CON, high-intensity running and peak speed were typically higher for DEC in bout 1 and lower in bout 2 of the RLMSP-i, while UN was generally lower throughout. Similarly, DEC resulted in an increased heart rate, blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion than CON in bout 1, whereas these variables were lower throughout the protocol in UN. Pacing and performance during simulated rugby league match play depend on an accurate understanding of the exercise endpoint. Applied practitioners should consider informing players of their likely exercise duration to maximize running.