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Sample records for dupic fuel compatibility

  1. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  2. Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance

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    Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

    2005-10-15

    This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor.

  3. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

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    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-04-01

    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed.

  4. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

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    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  5. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part5) - DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis

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    Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hang Bok; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the economics of the DUPIC fuel cycle using unit costs of fuel cycle components estimated based on conceptual designs. The fuel cycle cost (FCC) was calculated by a deterministic method in which reference values of fuel cycle components are used. The FCC was then analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation to get the uncertainty of the FCC associated with the unit costs of the fuel cycle components. From the deterministic analysis on the one-batch equilibrium fuel cycle model, the DUPIC FCC was estimated to be 6.55-6.72 mills/kWh for proposed DUPIC fuel options, which is a little smaller than that of the once-through FCC by 0.04-0.28 mills/kWh. Considering the uncertainty (0.45-0.51 mills/kWh) of the FCC estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cost difference between the DUPIC and once-through fuel cycle is negligible. On the other hand, the material balance calculation has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle can save natural uranium resources by -20% and reduce the spent fuel arising by -65%, compared with the once-through fuel cycle. In conclusion, the DUPIC fuel cycle possesses a strong advantage over the once-through fuel cycle from the viewpoint of the environmental effect.

  6. The DUPIC fuel development program in KAERI

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    Yang, M. S.; Park, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study describes the DUPIC fuel development program in KAERI as follows; Burning spent PWR fuel again in CANDU by DUPIC, Compatibility with existing CANDU system, Feasibility of DUPIC fuel fabrication, Waste reduction, Safeguard ability, Economics of DUPIC fuel cycle, The DUPIC fuel development program, and International prospective. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Progress of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis (II) - thermal-hydraulics

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    Park, Joo Hwan; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-03-01

    Thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the DUPIC fuel bundle with a 713 MWe Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU-6) reactor was studied by using both the single channel and sub-channel analysis methods. The single channel analysis provides the fuel channel flow rate, pressure drop, critical channel power, and the channel exit quality, which are assessed against the thermal-hydraulic design requirements of the CANDU-6 reactor. The single channel analysis by the NUCIRC code showed that the thermal-hydraulic performance of the DUPIC fuel is not different from that of the standard CANDU fuel. Regarding the local flow characteristics, the sub-channel analysis also showed that the uncertainty of the critical channel power calculation for the DUPIC fuel channel is very small. As a result, both the single and sub-channel analyses showed that the key thermal-hydraulic parameters of the DUPIC fuel channel do not deteriorate compared to the standard CANDU fuel channel.

  8. Irradiation and performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel

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    Bae, Ki Kwang; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system for the experimental verification of DUPIC fuel. The scope and content for successful accomplishment of the phase 1 objectives is established as follows : irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at HANARO using a noninstrument capsule, study on the characteristics of DUPIC pellets, development of the analysis technology on the thermal behaviour of DUPIC fuel, basic design of a instrument capsule. The R and D results of the phase 1 are summarized as follows : - Performance analysis technology development of DUPIC fuel by model development for DUPIC fuel, review on the extendability of code(FEMAXI-IV, FRAPCON-3, ELESTRESS). - Study on physical properties of DUPIC fuel by design and fabrication of the equipment for measuring the thermal property. - HANARO irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel by the noninstrument capsule development. - PIE and result analysis.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of the DUPIC fuel and its performance

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    Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hee Moon [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    This study describes thermodynamic properties of DUPIC fuel and performance. In initial state, DUPIC fuel which contains fissile materials is different from general nuclear fuel. So this study analyzed oxygen potential, thermal conductivity and specific heat of the DUPIC fuel.

  10. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development at KAERI

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    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Soo Sung; Kim, Woong Ki; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and has been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  11. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

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    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  12. A sensitivity study on DUPIC fuel composition

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    Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong

    1997-01-01

    In DUPIC fuel cycle, the spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel is refabricated as a DUPIC fuel by a dry process. Because the spent PWR fuel composition depends on the initial enrichment and burnup condition of PWR fuel, the composition of a DUPIC fuel is not uniquely defined. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing the effects of such a composition heterogeneity on core performance, a composition adjustment of DUPIC fuel was studies. The composition adjustment was made in two steps: mixing two spent PWR fuel assemblies of higher and lower {sup 239}Pu contents and blending in fresh uranium with the mixed spent PWR fuels. Because the fuel and core performances depend on both the absolute amount of fissile isotopes and the ratio of major fissile isotope contents, a parametric study was performed to determine the reference compositions of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. The reference enrichments of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu were determined such that the DUPIC core performance is comparable to that of a natural uranium core with high spent PWR fuel utilization and low fuel cycle cost. Under this condition, it is possible to utilize 90% of spent PWR fuels as the DUPIC fuel formula. On average, the amounts of slightly enriched and depleted uranium used for blending correspond to 8.6% and 10.6%, respectively, of the mass of candidate spent PWR fuels. (author). 16 refs., 30 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel

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    Kang, Kweon Ho; Yang, M. S.; Bae, K. K.; Moon, I. H.; Jung, K. C.; Song, H. S.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, D. J.; Kim, H. S

    2000-06-01

    Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel was measured using Laser Flash Method in the temperautre range from room temperature to 1350 deg C. Density of simulated DUPIC fuel used in the measurement of thermal difusivity was 10.16 g/cm{sup 3} (94.2% of theoretical density) at room temperature and diameter and thickness were 10 mm and 1 mm, respectively. Thermal diffusivity decreased from 0.01857 cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature to 0.00523 cm{sup 2}/s at 1350 deg C. Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel and UO{sub 2} and simulated spent fuel. The difference of thermal diffusivity between simulated DUPIC fule and UO{sub 2} and simulated spent fuel was high and it decreased due to temperature increase.

  14. Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel

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    Kang, Kweon Ho; Yang, M. S.; Bae, K. K.; Moon, I. H.; Jung, K. C.; Song, H. S.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, D. J.; Kim, H. S

    2000-06-01

    Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel was measured using Laser Flash Method in the temperautre range from room temperature to 1350 deg C. Density of simulated DUPIC fuel used in the measurement of thermal difusivity was 10.16 g/cm{sup 3} (94.2% of theoretical density) at room temperature and diameter and thickness were 10 mm and 1 mm, respectively. Thermal diffusivity decreased from 0.01857 cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature to 0.00523 cm{sup 2}/s at 1350 deg C. Thermal diffusivity of simulated DUPIC fuel and UO{sub 2} and simulated spent fuel. The difference of thermal diffusivity between simulated DUPIC fule and UO{sub 2} and simulated spent fuel was high and it decreased due to temperature increase.

  15. Fabrication characteristics of DUPIC fuel pellets at DFDF

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    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2002-01-01

    In this study, based on the simulated DUPIC fuel fabrication experiment and DUPIC fuel characterization experiment at PIEF, DUPIC fuel manufacturing technologies and processes have been developed at DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility, IMEF M6). Using DUPIC powder prepared by the oxidation and reduction processes, the DUPIC fuel pellets were fabricated and characterized in terms of the process parameters such as the burn-up of spent fuel, compaction pressure, sintering temperature, and sintering time. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets were characterized by 10.02 {approx} 10.43 g/cm{sup 3} of sintered density, 7.26 {approx} 9.48{mu}m of grain size, and less than Ra 0.8{mu}m of surface roughness at hot cell. The optimum DUPIC processes have been established based on the results of the experiment.

  16. Fabrication of DUPIC fuel for the 3rd irradiation test

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    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this project, based on the simulated DUPIC fuel fabrication experiment and DUPIC fuel characterization experiment at PIEF, DUPIC fuel manufacturing technologies and processes have been developed at DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility, IMEF M6). DUPIC fuel has been fabricated for the irradiation test at a research reactor. SIMFUEL and DUPIC fuel fabricated using spent PWR fuel were successfully irradiated at HANARO reactor. In this study, DUPIC fuel pellets and mini-elements were manufactured in March 2001 for the third irradiation test to closely investigate the dynamic characteristics of DUPIC fuel at a reactor core for long period. As a result of the experiment, 15 DUPIC pellets with 10.194 10.312 g/cm{sup 3} of sintered density, 3.53 {delta}9.48 {mu}m of averaged grain size, and less than Ra 0.81 {mu}m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the third irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets were loaded in a mini-element made of Zircaloy-4. The soundness of the weld of the mini-elements has been evaluated by microstructural test, helium leak test, and X-ray inspection. Three DUPIC mini-elements are currently under the third irradiation test at HANARO reactor.

  17. The 3rd irradiation test plan of DUPIC fuel

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    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Park, J. H. and others

    2001-05-01

    The objective of the 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at the HANARO is to estimate the in-core behaviour of a DUPIC pellet that is irradiated up to more than average burnup of CANDU fuel. The irradiation of DUPIC fuel is planned to start at May 21, 2001, and will be continued at least for 8 months. The burnup of DUPIC fuel through this irradiation test is thought to be more than 7,000 MWd/tHE. The DUPIC irradiation rig instrumented with three SPN detectors will be used to accumulate the experience for the instrumented irradiation and to estimate the burnup of irradiated DUPIC fuel more accurately. Under normal operating condition, the maximum linear power of DUPIC fuel was estimated as 55.06 kW/m, and the centerline temperature of a pellet was calculated as 2510 deg C. In order to assess the integrity of DUPIC fuel under the accident condition postulated at the HANARO, safety analyses on the locked rotor and reactivity insertion accidents were carried out. The maximum centerline temperature of DUPIC fuel was estimated 2590 deg C and 2094 deg C for each accident, respectively. From the results of the safety analysis, the integrity of DUPIC fuel during the HANARO irradiation test will be secured. The irradiated DUPIC fuel will be transported to the IMEF. The post-irradiation examinations are planned to be performed at the PIEF and IMEF.

  18. Development of the fabrication technology of the simulated DUPIC fuel

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    Kang, Kweon Ho; Yang, M. S.; Bae, K. K. and others

    2000-06-01

    It is important to get basic data to analysis physical properties, behavior in reactor and performance of the DUPIC fuel because physical properties of the DUPIC fuel is different from the commercial UO{sub 2} fuel. But what directly measures physical properties et al. of DUPIC fuel being resinterred simulated spent fuel through OREOX process is very difficult in laboratory owing to its high level radiation. Then fabrication of simulated DUPIC fuel is needed to measure its properties. In this study, processes on powder treatment, OREOX, compaction and sintering to fabricate simulated DUPIC fuel using simulated spent fuel are discribed. To fabricate simulated DUPIC fuel, the powder from 3 times OREOX and 5 times attrition milling simulated spent fuel is compacted with 1.3 ton/cm{sup 2}. Pellets are sintered in 100% H{sub 2} atmosphere over 10 h at 1800 deg C. Sintered densities of pellets are 10.2-10.5 g/cm{sup 3}.

  19. DUPIC fuel fabrication in shielded facilities in Korea

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    Lee, J.W.; Kim, W.K.; Kim, S.S.; Yang, M.S.; Park, H.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong-ku, Taejon City (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The DUPIC(Direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) fuel cycle is to directly refabricate the CANDU fuel from spent PWR fuel materials by thermal and mechanical processes without wet reprocessing process. The concept was proposed and termed DUPIC in joint research program between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the US Departments of State in 1992. The DUPIC fuel cycle has many advantages over direct disposal or wet reprocessing and MOX fuel cycle in terms of proliferation resistance, reduction of spent fuel accumulation and uranium resource utilization, etc. Since the material in the DUPIC fuel fabrication process is highly radioactive due to no separation of uranium, plutonium and fission products, which is an intrinsic characteristic of the DUPIC process, all fabrication and characterization processes should be performed remotely in highly shielded hot cell facilities. KAERI has developed the remote fuel fabrication equipment and has successfully completed the installation of them in the shielded facilities, called DFDF (DUPIC Fuel Development Facility), at KAERI in early 2000. Based on the fuel fabrication technologies, including powder treatment, pelletizing and laser welding, KAERI has successfully fabricated DUPIC fuel pellets and elements with various design specifications to evaluate the performance of DUPIC fuel through irradiation tests at the HANARO research reactor. This paper describes KAERI's progress in DUPIC fuel fabrication. (author)

  20. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

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    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  1. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

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    Lee, Jung Won; Yang, M. S.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology for DUPIC pellet and element satisfying the standard specification was verified through (1) the improvement of fabrication technology and equipment, (2) remote operation of fuel manufacturing and inspection equipment installed at DFDF and (3) the study on the material properties of DUPIC fuel. The blending process was newly developed for making DUPIC powder composition homogeneous, and mixing process was added to the DUPIC process flow for fabricating crack-free pellets. A series of fabrication experiments were carried out in terms of various process conditions. Based on these experimental results, the optimal process flow and conditions for DUPIC fuel fabrication were established. 6 DUPIC elements and 6 mini-elements for irradiation test in HANARO was successfully fabricated using 7.4 kg of spent PWR fuel in 2000. The process qualification tests has been performed using 10 kg of spent PWR fuel since May 2001. The optimal DUPIC fuel fabrication process meeting AECL's quality requirements has been established and qualified. Quality assurance system for DUPIC fuel fabrication was also established in cooperation of AECL.

  2. DUPIC fuel fabrication using spent PWR fuels at KAERI

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    Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung; Ko, Won Il and others

    2000-12-01

    This document contains DUPIC fuel cycle R and D activities to be carried out for 5 years beyond the scope described in the report KAERI/AR-510/98, which was attached to Joint Determination for Post-Irradiation Examination of irradiated nuclear fuel, by MOST and US Embassy in Korea, signed on April 8, 1999. This document is purposely prepared as early as possible to have ample time to review that the over-all DUPIC activities are within the scope and contents in compliance to Article 8(C) of ROK-U.S. cooperation agreement, and also maintain the current normal DUPIC project without interruption. Manufacturing Program of DUPIC Fuel in DFDF and Post Irradiation Examination of DUPIC Fuel are described in Chapter I and Chapter II, respectively. In Chapter III, safeguarding procedures in DFDF and on-going R and D on DUPIC safeguards such as development of nuclear material accounting system and development of containment/surveillance system are described in details.

  3. DUPIC fuel fabrication using spent PWR fuel at KAERI

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    Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung; Ko, Won Il and others

    2001-09-01

    This document contains DUPIC fuel cycle R and D activities to be carried out for 5 years beyond the scope described in the report KAERI/AR-510/98, which was attached to Joint Determination for Post-Irradiation Examination of irradiated nuclear fuel, by MOST and US Embassy in Korea, signed on April 8, 1999. This document is purposely prepared as early as possible to have ample time to review that the over-all DUPIC activities are within the scope and contents in compliance to Article 8(C) of ROK-U.S. cooperation agreement, and also maintain the current normal DUPIC project without interruption. Manufacturing Program of DUPIC Fuel in DFDF and Post Irradiation Examination of DUPIC Fuel are described in Chapter I and Chapter II, respectively. In Chapter 3/4y, safeguarding procedures in DFDF and on-going R and D on DUPIC safeguards such as development of nuclear material accounting system and development of containment/surveillance system are described in details.

  4. Recent Progress on the DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Technology at KAERI

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    Jung-Won Lee; Ho-Jin Ryu; Geun-Il Park; Kee-Chan Song [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Since 1991, KAERI has been developing the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The concept of a direct use of spent PWR fuel in Candu reactors (DUPIC) is based on a dry processing method to re-fabricate Candu fuel from spent PWR fuel without any intentional separation of the fissile materials and fission products. A DUPIC fuel pellet was successfully fabricated and the DUPIC fuel element fabrication processes were qualified on the basis of a Quality Assurance program. Consequently, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was verified and demonstrated on a laboratory-scale. Recently, the fuel discharge burn-up of PWRs has been extended to reduce the amount of spent fuel and the fuel cycle costs. Considering this trend of extending the fuel burn-up in PWRs, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology should be improved to process high burn-up spent fuels. Particularly the release behavior of cesium from the pellet prepared with a high burn-up spent fuel was assessed. an improved DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was experimentally established with a fuel burn-up of 65,000 MWd/tU. (authors)

  5. DUPIC nuclear fuel manufacturing and process technology development

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    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this study, DUPIC fuel fabrication technology and the active fuel laboratory were developed for the study of spent nuclear fuel. A new nuclear fuel using highly radioactive nuclear materials can be studied at the active fuel laboratory. Detailed DUPIC fuel fabrication process flow was developed considering the manufacturing flow, quality control process and material accountability. The equipment layout of about twenty DUPIC equipment at IMEF M6 hot cell was established for the minimization of the contamination during DUPIC processes. The characteristics of the SIMFUEL powder and pellets was studied in terms of milling conditions. The characteristics of DUPIC powder and pellet was studied by using 1 kg of spent PWR fuel at PIEF nr.9405 hot cell. The results were used as reference process conditions for following DUPIC fuel fabrication at IMEF M6. Based on the reference fabrication process conditions, the main DUPIC pellet fabrication campaign has been started at IMEF M6 using 2 kg of spent PWR fuel since 2000 January. As of March 2000, about thirty DUPIC pellets were successfully fabricated.

  6. Surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility (I)

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    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, C. S.; Cha, H. R.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC Surveillance System is developed to process image data and radiation data together to diagnose intelligently the transportation status of the nuclear material, which makes it possible that usual DUPIC process be carried out without interruption under the surveillance. We developed the neutron monitor for surveillance and the system which takes and processes radiation data and image data, where the system is under the test operation after installed at DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility)

  7. Preliminary safety analysis for offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing process at DFDF

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    Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S

    2000-09-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct refabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since there is a lot of highly radioactive spent fuel(200 kg) to be used in DUPIC fuel fabrication process, safety analysis on DFDF facility is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and to reduce the dose exposure to operator. This report describes the design of IMEF facility, manufacturing equipment and process, offgas treatment system necessary for DUPIC fuel manufacturing process. Also, it provides the flow chart of arising and activity for each nuclide in offgas treatment system and final arising and activity for gaseous waste discharged from offgas treatment equipment into inside of M6 cell during OREOX and sintering processes in DUPIC fuel manufacturing process.

  8. A sensitivity study on neutronic properties of DUPIC fuel

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    Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A sensitivity study has been done to determine the composition of DUPIC fuel from the viewpoint of neutronics fuel design. The spent PWR fuel compositions were generated and fissile contents adjusted by blending fresh uranium after mixing two spent PWR fuel assemblies. The {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U enrichments of DUPIC fuel were adjusted by controlling the amount of fresh uranium feed and the ratio of slightly enriched and depleted uranium in the feed uranium. Based on the material balance calculation, it is recommended that DUPIC fuel composition be such that spent PWR fuel utilization is more than 90%. A sensitivity study on the temperature reactivity coefficient of DUPIC fuel and shown that it is desirable to increase the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U contents to reduce both the fuel and coolant temperature coefficients. On the other hand, refueling simulations of the DUPIC core have shown that the channel power peaking factor, which is a measure of the reactor trip margin, increases with the total fissile content. Considering these neutronic characteristics of the DUPIC fuel, it is recommended to have enrichments of 0.45 and 1.00 wt% for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U, respectively. 3 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  9. Fabrication of DUPIC fuel for the 5th irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W. [and others

    2004-03-01

    In this study, 10 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel in December 2003. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.310{approx}10.415 g/cm{sup 3} (95.3{approx}96.3 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.76 {mu}m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 5th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The soundness of the weld of the mini-element has been confirmed by microstructural test, helium leak test, and X-ray inspection. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig are under the irradiation at HANARO reactor.

  10. Composition heterogeneity analysis for DUPIC fuel(I) - Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    The fuel composition heterogeneity effect on reactor performance parameters was assessed by refueling simulations for three DUPIC fuel options of fuel composition heterogeneity control: the fissile content adjustment, the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, and the reactivity control by natural uranium. For each DUPIC fuel option, the simulations were performed using 30 heterogeneous fuel types which were determined by the agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. The heterogeneity effect was considered during the refueling simulation by randomly selecting fuel types for the refueling operation. The refueling simulations of the heterogeneous core have shown that the key performance parameters such as the maximum channel power (MCP), maximum bundle power (MBP), and channel power peaking factor (CPPF) are close to those of the core that has single fuel type. For the three DUPIC fuel options, the uncertainties of MCP, MBP, and CPPF due to the fuel composition heterogeneity are less than 0.6, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively, including the uncertainty of the group-average fuel property. This study has shown that the three DUPIC fuel options reduces the composition heterogeneity effectively and the zone power control system has a sufficient margin to adjust the perturbations cased by the fuel composition heterogeneity. 15 refs., 28 figs.,10 tabs. (Author)

  11. Fabrication of DUPIC fuel pellets for irradiation testing in the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Park, K. I. [and others

    2003-12-01

    In this project, DUPIC fuel manufacturing processes were established, and the irradiation test of DUPIC fuel at NRU in Canada was planned for the evaluation of DUPIC fuel performance. To establish manufacturing processes satisfying the requirements of NRU irradiation test, pre-qualification test and qualification test were performed. As a result of the qualification test, the DUPIC pellet fabrication processes were qualified and accepted by AECL. 8 batches of experiments were performed to fabricate 375 DUPIC pellets satisfying the requirements of NRU irradiation test under control of the quality assurance manual complying with CAN3-Z299.2-85. Sintered densities of the fabricated DUPIC pellets ranged from 10.26 g/cm{sup 3} to 10.43 g/cm{sup 3}. The DUPIC pellets have been stored in a box filled with helium gas. The pellets will be used to fabricate DUPIC elements for the irradiation testing.

  12. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  13. Development of equipment for fabricating DUPIC fuel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Yang, M. S.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, Y. S.; Na, S. H

    1999-06-01

    The powder fabrication processes, as the first stage of manufacturing DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU) fuel, consist of the slitting of spent PWR fuel rods, REOX (Oxidation and REduction of Oxide Fuels) processing to produce the powder feedstock, the milling of the produced powder, the granulation of the milled powder, and the mixing of the granulated powder with pressing lubricants. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a hot-cell environment where the direct human access is limited to the strictest minimum due to the high radioactivity. This report describe the development of the equipment for fabricating DUPIC fuel powder. These equipment are Slitting Machine, Oxidation and Reduction (OREOX) Furnace, Mill, Roll Compactor, and Mixer. Remote design concept was applied to all the equipment for use in the M6 hot-cell of the IMEF. Mechanical design considerations and capabilities of the equipment for remote operation and maintenance are presented. First prototypes were developed and installed in the DUPIC full scale mock-up and tested using a master-slave manipulator. Redesign and reconstruction were made on each equipment based on mock-up test results. The remote technology acquired through this research was utilized in developing other equipment for DUPIC fuel fabrication, thereby improving safety and increasing productivity. This technology could also be extended to the area of remote handling equipment development for use in hazardous environments. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 21 figs.

  14. Analysis of radwaste material management options for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, H. S.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, J. W.; Yim, S. P.; Hong, D. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Baik, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Lee, E. P.; Kang, I. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This report is desirable to review management options in advance for radioactive waste generated from manufacturing experiment of DUPIC nuclear fuel as well as residual nuclear material and dismantled equipment. This report was written for helping researchers working in related facilities to DUPIC project understanding management of DUPIC radioactive waste as well as fellows in DUPIC project. Also, it will be used as basic material to prove transparency and safeguardability of DUPIC fuel cycle. In order to meet these purposes, this report includes basic experiment plan for manufacturing DUPIC nuclear fuel, outlines for DUPIC manufacturing facility and equipment, arising source and estimated amount of radioactive waste, waste classification and packing, transport cask, transport procedures. 15 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  15. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  16. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  17. Fabrication of DUPIC Fuel for the 6th Irradiation Test at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Lee, D. Y.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Jae W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, C. Y.; Yang, M. S

    2006-02-15

    In this study, 15 DUPIC pellets and two mini-elements were fabricated to precisely investigate the thermal characteristics of DUPIC fuel. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 10.221{approx}10.278 g/cm{sup 3} (94.5{approx}95.0 % of T.D.) of sintered density and less than Ra 0.96 {mu}m of surface roughness satisfying the specifications of DUPIC fuel for the 6th irradiation test have been remotely fabricated at hot cell. 5 DUPIC pellets including 3 pellets equipped with thermal sensor in the center of the pellet were loaded in a mini-element. Endcap welding of the mini-element was performed by Nd:YAG laser. The DUPIC mini-elements assembled in an instrumented rig will be irradiated at HANARO research reactor.

  18. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel - The characteristics and the behavior of fission products in nuclear fuels including DUPIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwang Hun [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The scope of this research can be divided into 2 parts; the problems related to f.p.`s up to the stage of producing DUPIC fuels and the effects of f.p.`s on the performance of nuclear fuels including DUPIC. The dose rate study of fresh and spent DUPIC fuels is done. Ba-137 m is major gamma-ray source in spent nuclear fuels after five year cooling time. Cs-137 makes a secular equilibrium with Ba-137 m, and elimination of Cs induces the disappearance of Ba-137 m, in an hour. Hence, care should be taken in collecting Cs during OREOX process. A defect model of irradiated nuclear fuels for the oxygen potential based on the defect structure of pure urania is devised. This model can give the oxygen pressure of ambient gas during the sintering of DUPIC fuels. The thermal conductivity decreases with the content of f.p.`s. The temperature distribution of DUPIC fuels is calculated from the thermal conductivity. The higher operating temperature of DUPIC fuels urges us to study the fuel performance difference. O/M shift due to steep temperature gradient is expected. However, the shift is negligible if the non-stoichiometry is small. 55 refs., 22 tabs., 52 figs. (author)

  19. Pre-qualification experiments of DUPIC fuel pellets for irradiation testing in the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. W. and others

    2002-02-01

    DUPIC fuel manufacturing technologies and processes have been developed at DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility, IMEF M6). Using DUPIC powder prepared by the oxidation and reduction processes, the DUPIC fuel pellets and mini-elements were fabricated for the irradiation test and performance evaluation at HANARO. In this study, the irradiation test was planned for the performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel pellets and elements at NRU. To establish fabrication process satisfying the requirements of NRU irradiation test, sintered DUPIC pellets were fabricated with a variety of process parameters involving compaction pressure and characterized by the inspection system. As a result of the experiment, DUPIC pellets with 12.19 mm of diameter, 10.37{approx}10.45 g/cm{sup 3} of sintered density, and less than Ra 0.8{mu}m of surface roughness have been successfully fabricated at hot cell. The optimum DUPIC pellet fabrication process satisfying the requirements of NRU irradiation has been established based on the result of this experiment.

  20. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sul; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the second year progress of phase II of DUPIC program which aims to verify experimentally the feasibility of direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The project is to provide the experimental facilities and technologies that are required to perform the DUPIC experiment. As an early part of the project, engineering analysis of those facilities and construction of mock-up facility are described. Another scope of the project is to assess the DUPIC fuel cycle system and facilitate international cooperation. The progresses in this scope of work made during the fiscal year are also summarized in the report. 38 figs, 44 tabs, 8 refs. (Author).

  1. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of the DUPIC fuel cycle concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persiani, P. K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiative and safeguards systems. Alternative recycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products. The concepts are alternatives to either the direct long-term storage deposition of or the purex reprocessing of the spent fuels. The alternate fuel cycle concepts reviewed include: the dry-recycle processes such as the direct use of reconfigured PWR spent fuel assemblies into CANDU reactors(DUPIC); low-decontamination, single-cycle co-extraction of fast reactor fuels in a wet-purex type of reprocessing; and on a limited scale the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The nonproliferation advantages usually associated with the above non-separation processes are: the highly radioactive spent fuel presents a barrier to the physical diversion of the nuclear material; avoid the need to dissolve and chemically separate the plutonium from the uranium and fission products; and that the spent fuel isotopic quality of the plutonium vector is further degraded. Although the radiation levels and the need for reprocessing may be perceived as barriers to the terrorist or the subnational level of safeguards, the international level of nonproliferation concerns is addressed primarily by material accountancy and verification activities. On the international level of nonproliferation concerns, the non-separation fuel cycle concepts involved have to be evaluated on the bases of the impact the processes may have on nuclear materials accountancy. (author).

  2. State-of-the-Art Remote Robotic Systems in the DUPIC Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Jang Jin; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) fuel cycle technology is being developed in the DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The DFDF is a completely shielded M6 hot-cell and isolation room of the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility). As the DFDF hot-cell is active, direct human access to the in-cell is not possible because of the nature of the high radioactivity of the spent PWR fuel. All the DUPIC fuel fabrication processes and equipment operations, therefore, are conducted in a fully remote manner. Undesirable products such as spent nuclear fuel powder debris and contaminated wastes are inevitably produced during the DUPIC fuel development processes. They are deposited on the DUPIC fuel fabrication equipment and the inside floor and wall of the DFDF hot-cell and the isolation room's floor, thereby contaminating the interior of the DFDF. Such radioactive waste is required to be cleaned and disposed of to prevent the contamination from spreading inside the DFDF. The objective of this paper was to develop the remote robotic systems for a decontamination to be used in the highly radioactive zone of the DFDF, thereby completely eliminating a human's interaction with hazardous radioactive contaminants.

  3. Development of manufacturing and operating procedure for fabrication of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2003-01-01

    The manual of Manufacturing and Operating Procedure (MOP) for the fabrication of DUPIC fuel with high quality was developed based on quality assurance program with CAN3-Z299.2-85 to the extent as needed and appropriate. This manual describes a series of fabrication processes that can be applied to fabricate the DUPIC fuel and element, which cover the slitting process, powder fabrication with improved sinterability, milling and sintering processes conducted in DFDF. The qualification tests for establishing the optimal process conditions of DUPIC fuel fabrication were carried out with various process conditions such as pressing pressure. This MOP was revised twice with the support of qualification test results and a specified procedure.

  4. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters for lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel with WIMS-AECL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok; Park, Jee Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The code WIMS-AECL has been used for the lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel. The lattice parameters calculated by the code is sensitive to the choice of number of parameters, such as the number of tracking lines, number of condensed groups, mesh spacing in the moderator region, other parameters vital to the calculation of probabilities and burnup analysis. We have studied this sensitivity with respect to these parameters and recommend their proper values which are necessary for carrying out the lattice analysis of DUPIC fuel.

  5. The Design Features of the Double-Banked AMBIDEXTER Utilizing DUPIC Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Tae Kyu [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joon; Hong, Sung Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myung Hwan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae An [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Kee [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Since the on-site spent fuel storage capabilities at reactors in Korea are expected to be saturated in a few years, the government has been pressed to find a solution for the spent nuclear fuel. So far one of workable means for reducing the load would be utilizing DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The technology was developed through Korea-Canada-U.S. collaboration to utilize the LWR spent fuel for the CANDU reactor. However, by various sociopolitical reasons, the DUPIC technology has not been yet commercialized. As the other alternatives to use the DUPIC technology, Gen-IV reactors would be pertinent. In the following session, the design features of a molten salt reactor system that can burn DUPIC fuel are explained. The followings are derived as conclusions after considering all the factors; The AMDEC, compared to ORIGEN2 simulations, can calculate the nuclides concentration changes within 1% deviation in various core zones and reactor system components by using different library sets which are weighted with each neutron spectrum; Fuel-flow effects coupled with nuclear reactions is well reflected in the AMDEC.

  6. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2002-03-01

    With starting DUPIC fuel fabrication experiment by using spent fuels, 1) operation and refurbishment for DFDF (DUPIC fuel development facility), and 2) operation and improvement of transportation equipment for radioactive materials between facilities became the objectives of this study. This report describes objectives of the project, necessities, state of related technology, R and D scope, R and D results, proposal for application etc.

  7. A collaboration on extended INPRO case study of the DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Ko, W. I. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Since 1992, KAERI, AECL, United States Department of States(USDOS) and IAEA have performed the DUPIC fuel cycle development activities as an international cooperative research program, which has now been chosen as a target nuclear system for an INPRO case study. This study will focus on a further improvement and modification of the basic principles, user requirements and acceptance limits, which are defined in the IAEA-TECDOC-1434 for an evaluation of its proliferation-resistance through a proliferation-resistance assessment of the whole fuel cycle of DUPIC based on the INPRO methodology. In order to further develop an evaluation method for a proliferation-resistance based on the INPRO methodology, the basic principles, user requirements and acceptance limits of a proliferation-resistance was reviewed and quantified. Then the evaluation model (material flow, facility scale, reference fuel, etc.) of the DUPIC fuel cycle was developed and a proliferation-resistance assessment of the DUPIC fuel cycle including the PWR fuel cycle was performed by using the revised INPRO methodology in the area of a proliferation resistance. Also, the recommendations for a further improvement of INPRO methodology were suggested through examining the INPRO methodology for a proliferation resistance assessment. Through the proliferation resistance assessment of the whole fuel cycle of DUPIC including the PWR fuel cycle, the proliferation-resistance methodology was updated and re-established. And based on its experience, The research results can be used not only to evaluate and determine the future domestic proliferation-resistant fuel cycles which were derived from the GEN{sub I}V or INPRO programs but also to improve a system design to enhance its proliferation resistance. The present results will be utilized for the development of an INPRO User's Manual which is being developed as an important issue by IAEA. The credibility of the research results were ensured by the IAEA

  8. Nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks based on self-organized feature mapping. This surveillance system is stably operating for safeguards of the DUPIC (DFDF) in KAERI.

  9. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-03-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) the refurbishment for PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) and M6 hot-cell in IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility), (2) the establishment of the compatible facility for DUPIC fuel fabrication experiments which is licensed by government organization, and (3) the establishment of the transportation system and transportation cask for nuclear material between facilities. The report for this project describes following contents, such as objectives, necessities, scope, contents, results of current step, R and D plan in future and etc.

  10. Development of the manufacture and process for DUPIC fuel elements; development of the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Choi, Myong Seon; Yang, Hyun Tae; Kim, Dong Gyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jin Ho [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel element. High temperature corrosion test and the SCC test for Zircaloy-4 were performed, and also the possibility of the ultrasonic test technique was verified for the quality evaluation and control of the laser welds in the DUPIC fuel rod end cap. From the evaluation of corrosion properties with measuring the weight gain and observing oxide film of the specimen that had been in the circumstance of steam(400 .deg. C, 1,500 psi) by max. 70 days later, the weight gain of the welded specimens was larger than original tube and the weight increasing rate increased with the exposed days. For the Development of techniques for ultrasonic test, semi-auto ultrasonic test system has been made based on immersion pulse-echo technique using spherically concentrated ultrasonic beam. Subsequently, developed ultrasonic test technique is quite sensible to shape of welds in the inside and outside of tube as well as crack, undercut and expulsion, and also this ultrasonic test, together with metallurgical fracture test, has good reliance as enough to be used for control method of welding process. 43 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  11. Development of SPND-instrumented rig of HANARO irradiation test of DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. Y.; Mun, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Song, K. C.; Kang, K. H.; Jeong, I. H.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel, which was fabricated in the DFDF has been performed at HANARO. For the objectives of this irradiation test, The SPND-instrumented rig was designed and manufactured on the basis of the design specifications of the non-instrumented rig used in the last irradiation test. The newly designed irradiation rig was equipped with three Rh-type SPND sensors around DUPIC mini-elements for estimating the thermal neutron flux in the OR4 hole. Manufacturing of mini-elements and assembly of the irradiation rig were remotely done in the hot cells using the laser welding system and assembling equipments. The DUPIC rig is installed through the guide tube at the HANARO OR4 hole and the thermal neutron flux measured at that location is transmitted to the monitoring system. This irradiation test launched in June, 2001 at the HANARO OR4, and its anticipated discharge burnup is about 7,000 MWd/tHE.

  12. A study on the radioactive waste management for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, H. S.; Park, J. J.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. D.; Suh, M. Y.; Sohn, S. C.; Song, B. C.; Lee, C. H.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jo, K. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Jee, C. S.; Han, S. H.

    1997-09-01

    Part 1: The characteristics if the radioactive wastes coming from the DUPIC fuel manufacturing process were analyzed and evaluated. The gross {alpha}-activity and {alpha}-, {gamma}-spectrum of irradiated zircaloy specimens form KORI unit 1 were analyzed. In order to develop the trapping media of radioactive ruthenium oxides, trapping behavior of volatilized ruthenium oxides on various metal oxides or carbonates was analyzed. Fly ash was selected as a trapping materials for gaseous cesium. And reaction characteristics of CsNO{sub 3} and CsI with fly ash have been investigated. Also, trapping material were performed to test fly ash filter for removal of gaseous cesium under the air and hydrogen atmosphere. The applicability of fly ash to the vitrification of the spent filter was analyzed in the aspects of predictability, leachability. Good quality of Borosilicate glass was formed using Cesium spent filter. Offgas treatment system of DUPIC fuel manufacturing facility was designed and constructed in order to trap of gaseous radioactive waste from 100 batch of OREOXA furnace (the capacity : 500 g/batch). Part II: To develop chemical analysis techniques necessary for understanding chemical properties of the highly radioactive materials related to the development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology, the following basic studies were performed : dissolution of SIMFUEL (simulated fuel), determination of uranium by potentiometry and UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometry, separation of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products from uranium, individual separation for analysis of actinides, determination of free acid in a artificial dissolved solution of PWR spent fuel, group separation of fission products form uranium, individual separation of Sm from a mixed rare earth elements and measurement of its isotopes by TI-mass spectrometry, and characteristics of detectors in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) suitable for analysis of trace fission

  13. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2000-03-01

    During the first phase of R and D program conducted from 1997 to 1999, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. For the nuclear material measurement system, the performance test was finished and received IAEA approval, and now is being used in DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility(DFDF) for nuclear material accounting and control. Other systems being developed in this study were already installed in DFDF and being under performance test. Those systems developed in this study will make a contribution not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author)

  14. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors -Development of DUPIC fuel on manufacturing and quality control technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Yung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Oxidation/reduction process was established after analysis of the effect of process parameter on the sintering behavior using SIMFUEL. Process equipment was studied more detail and some of process equipment items were designed and procured. The chemical analysing method of fission products and fissile content in DUPIC fuel was studied and the behavior and the characteristics of fission products in fuel was also done. Requirement for irradiation in HANARO was analysed to prepare performance evaluation. 100 figs, 48 tabs, 170 refs. (Author).

  15. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors -Development of DUPIC fuel on manufacturing and quality control technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Yung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Oxidation/reduction process was established after analysis of the effect of process parameter on the sintering behavior using SIMFUEL. Process equipment was studied more detail and some of process equipment items were designed and procured. The chemical analysing method of fission products and fissile content in DUPIC fuel was studied and the behavior and the characteristics of fission products in fuel was also done. Requirement for irradiation in HANARO was analysed to prepare performance evaluation. 100 figs, 48 tabs, 170 refs. (Author).

  16. DUPIC facility engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Choi, J. W.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D.; Song, K. C.; Jeong, I. H.; Park, H. S.; Im, C. S.; Lee, H. M.; Moon, K. H.; Hong, K. P.; Lee, K. S.; Suh, K. S.; Kim, E. K.; Min, D. K.; Lee, J. C.; Chun, Y. B.; Paik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.; Yoo, G. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Park, J. C.

    1997-09-01

    In the early stage of the project, a comprehensive survey was conducted to identify the feasibility of using available facilities and of interface between those facilities. It was found out that the shielded cell M6 interface between those facilities. It was found out that the shielded cell M6 of IMEF could be used for the main process experiments of DUPIC fuel fabrication in regard to space adequacy, material flow, equipment layout, etc. Based on such examination, a suitable adapter system for material transfer around the M6 cell was engineered. Regarding the PIEF facility, where spent PWR fuel assemblies are stored in an annex pool, disassembly devices in the pool are retrofitted and spent fuel rod cutting and shipping system to the IMEF are designed and built. For acquisition of casks for radioactive material transport between the facilities, some adaptive refurbishment was applied to the available cask (Padirac) based on extensive analysis on safety requirements. A mockup test facility was newly acquired for remote test of DUPIC fuel fabrication process equipment prior to installation in the M6 cell of the IMEF facility. (author). 157 refs., 57 tabs., 65 figs.

  17. DUPIC fuel irradiation test and performance evaluation; the performance analysis of pellet-cladding contact fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K. I.; Kim, H. M.; Yang, K. B.; Choi, S. J. [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical models were reviewed, and selected for the analysis of nuclear fuel performance in reactor. 2 dimensional FEM software was developed. Thermal models-gap conductances, thermal conductivity of pellets, fission gas release, temperature distribution-were set and packaged into a software. Both thermal and mechanical models were interrelated to each other, and the final results, fuel performance during irradiation is obtained by iteration calculation. Also, the contact phenomena between pellet and cladding was analysed by mechanical computer software which was developed during this work. dimensional FEM program was developed which estimate the mechanical behavior and the thermal behaviors of nuclear fuel during irradiation. Since there is a importance during the mechanical deformation analysis in describing pellet-cladding contact phenomena, simplified 2 dimensional calculation method is used after the contact. The estimation of thermal fuel behavior during irradiation was compared with the results of other. 8 refs., 17 figs. (Author)

  18. Nuclear fuel materials processing in reactive gas plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jin Young; Yang, Myung Seung; Seo, Yong Dae; Kim Yong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    DUPIC fuel cycle development project in KAERI of Korea was initiated in 1991 and has advanced in relevant technologies for last 10 years. The project includes five different topics such as nuclear fuel manufacturing, compatibility evaluation, performance evaluation, manufacturing facility management, and safeguards. The contents and results of DUPIC R and D up to now are as follow: - the basic foundation was established for the critically required pelletizing technology and powder treatment technology for DUPIC. - development of DUPIC process line and deployment of 20 each process equipment and examination instruments in DFDF. - powder and pellet characterization study was done at PIEF based on the simfuel study results, and 30 DUPIC pellets were successfully produced. - the manufactured pellets were used for sample fuel rods irradiated in July,2000 in HANARO research reactor in KAERI and have been under post irradiation examination. (Hong, J. S.)

  19. Technology development for DUPIC process safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. S.; Kim, H. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Kang, H. Y.; Cha, H. R.; Byeon, K. H.; Park, Y. S.; Choi, H. N. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the strategy for DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) process safeguards, the neutron detection method was introduced to account for nuclear materials in the whole DUPIC process by selectively measuring spontaneous fission neutron signals from {sup 244}Cm. DSNC was designed and manufactured to measure the account of curium in the fuel bundle and associated process samples in the DUPIC fuel cycle. The MCNP code had response profile along the length of the CANDU type fuel bundle. It was found experimentally that the output signal variation due to the overall azimuthal asymmetry was less than 0.2%. The longitudinal detection efficiency distribution at every position including both ends was kept less than 2% from the average value. Spent fuel standards almost similar to DUPIC process material were fabricated from a single spent PWR fuel rod and the performance verification of the DSNC is in progress under very high radiation environment. The results of this test will be eventually benchmarked with other sources such as code simulation, chemical analysis and gamma analysis. COREMAS-DUPIC has been developed for the accountability management of nuclear materials treated by DUPIC facility. This system is able to track the controlled nuclear materials maintaining the material inventory in near-real time and to generate the required material accountability records and reports. Concerning the containment and surveillance technology, a focused R and D effort is given to the development of unattended continuous monitoring system. Currently, the component technologies of radiation monitoring and surveillance have been established, and continued R and D efforts are given to the integration of the components into automatic safeguards diagnostics. (author).

  20. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Kang, H. Y.; Ko, W. I. [and others

    2002-05-01

    DUPIC safeguards R and D in the second phase has focused on the development of nuclear material measurement system and its operation and verification, the development of nuclear material control and accounting system, and the development of remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system. Of them, the nuclear material measurement system was authenticated from IAEA and officially used for IAEA and domestic safeguards activities in DFDF. It was also verified that the system could be used for quality control of DUPIC process. It is recognised that the diagnostic software using neural network and remote and unmanned containment/surveillance system developed here could be key technologies to go into remote and near-real time monitoring system. The result of this project will eventually contribute to similar nuclear fuel cycles like MOX and pyroprocessing facility as well as the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards. In addition, it will be helpful to enhance international confidence build-up in the peaceful use of spent fuel material.

  1. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  2. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  3. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  4. Effect of DUPIC Cycle on CANDU Reactor Safety Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader M.A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR fuel in CANda Deuterium Uranium (CANDU reactors (DUPIC cycle is still under investigation, DUPIC cycle is a promising method for uranium utilization improvement, for reduction of high level nuclear waste, and for high degree of proliferation resistance. This paper focuses on the effect of DUPIC cycle on CANDU reactor safety parameters. MCNP6 was used for lattice cell simulation of a typical 3,411 MWth PWR fueled by UO2 enriched to 4.5w/o U-235 to calculate the spent fuel inventories after a burnup of 51.7 MWd/kgU. The code was also used to simulate the lattice cell of CANDU-6 reactor fueled with spent fuel after its fabrication into the standard 37-element fuel bundle. It is assumed a 5-year cooling time between the spent fuel discharges from the PWR to the loading into the CANDU-6. The simulation was carried out to calculate the burnup and the effect of DUPIC fuel on: (1 the power distribution amongst the fuel elements of the bundle; (2 the coolant void reactivity; and (3 the reactor point-kinetics parameters.

  5. Effect of DUPIC cycle on CANDU reactor safety parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Nader M. A. [Atomic Energy Authority, ETRR-2, Cairo (Egypt); Badawi, Alya [Dept. of Nuclear and Radiation Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Although, the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in CANda Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) cycle is still under investigation, DUPIC cycle is a promising method for uranium utilization improvement, for reduction of high level nuclear waste, and for high degree of proliferation resistance. This paper focuses on the effect of DUPIC cycle on CANDU reactor safety parameters. MCNP6 was used for lattice cell simulation of a typical 3,411 MWth PWR fueled by UO{sub 2} enriched to 4.5w/o U-235 to calculate the spent fuel inventories after a burnup of 51.7 MWd/kgU. The code was also used to simulate the lattice cell of CANDU-6 reactor fueled with spent fuel after its fabrication into the standard 37-element fuel bundle. It is assumed a 5-year cooling time between the spent fuel discharges from the PWR to the loading into the CANDU-6. The simulation was carried out to calculate the burnup and the effect of DUPIC fuel on: (1) the power distribution amongst the fuel elements of the bundle; (2) the coolant void reactivity; and (3) the reactor point-kinetics parameters.

  6. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  7. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  8. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  9. Basic Design of a LWR Fuel Compatibility Test Facility (PLUTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Hwan; Chun, Se Young; Kim, Bok Deuk; Park, Jong Kuk; Chun, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Oh, Dong Seok

    2009-04-15

    KAERI is performing a project for developing a compatibility test facility and the relevant technology for an LWR fuel assembly. It includes the compatibility test and the long term wear test for dual fuel assemblies, and the pressure drop test, uplift force test, flow-induced vibration test, damping test, and the debris filtering capability test for a single fuel assembly. This compatibility test facility of the fuel assemblies is named PLUTO from Performance Test Facility for Fuel Assembly Hydraulics and Vibrations. The PLUTO will be basically constructed for a PWR fuel assembly, and it will be considered to test for the fuel assemblies of other reactors.

  10. Dry process fuel performance technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K. (and others)

    2006-06-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase III R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, property model development of DUPIC fuel and irradiation test was carried out in Hanaro using the instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase III are summarized as follows: Fabrication process establishment of simulated DUPIC fuel for property measurement, Property model development for the DUPIC fuel, Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in Hanaro, Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis, Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (KAOS)

  11. Thermal neutron flux measurement using the DUPIC SPND-instrumented rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. Y.; Moon, J. S.; Park, H. S.; Kang, K. H.; Ryu, H. J.; Jeong, I. H.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    The 3rd irradiation test of DUPIC fuel, which was fabricated in the DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Development Facility) was performed in HANARO. For the objectives of this irradiation test, the newly designed irradiation rig was equipped with three Rh- type SPND sensors around DUPIC mini-elements for estimating the thermal neutron flux in the OR4 hole. The thermal neutron flux was measured at this location for 5 months the start of the test. The measured data were transmitted to monitoring system. We confirmed that the trend of SPND signal is well agree with that of HANARO power. The measured average thermal neutron flux is 0.45 n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot}s and the average linear power of DUPIC mini-element was estimated to be 33.5 KW/m.

  12. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ON THE DUPIC SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. KIM; H. CHA; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A safeguards system has been developed since 1993 in the course of supporting a fuel cycle process to fabricate CANDU fuel with spent PWR fuel (known as Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU, DUPIC). The major safeguards technology involved here was to design and fabricate a neutron coincidence counting system for process accountability, and also an unattended continuous monitoring system in association with independent verification by the IAEA. This combined technology was to produce information of nuclear material content and to maintain knowledge of the continuity of nuclear material flow. In addition to hardware development, diagnosis software is being developed to assist data acquisition, data review, and data evaluation based on a neural network system on the IAEA C/S system.

  13. Intelligent nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) is the facility to fabricate CANDU-type fuel from spent PWR fuel material without any separation of fissile elements and fission products. Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks. This surveillance system is operating for safeguards of the DFDF in KAERI.

  14. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.G. [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  15. Development of the fabrication technology of the simulated fuel-I, 15,000MWd/tU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S

    2001-04-01

    It is important to get basic data to analysis physical properties, behavior in reactor and performance of the DUPIC fuel because physical properties, fission gas release, grain growth and et al. of the DUPIC fuel is different from the commercial UO2 fuel. But what directly measures physical properties et al. of DUPIC fuel being resinterred simulated spent fuel through OREOX process is very difficult in laboratory owing to its high level radiation. Then fabrication of simulated DUPIC fuel is needed to measure its properties. In this study, the sintering characterization of wet milled powder for 24 hours to fabricate 15,000MWd/tU equivalent burnup simulated fuel.

  16. Compatibility Studies of Hydrogen Peroxide and a New Hypergolic Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Jennifer; Villegas, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    Several preliminary materials compatibility studies have been conducted to determine the practicality of a new hypergolic fuel system. Hypergolic fuel ignites spontaneously as the oxidizer decomposes and releases energy in the presence of the fuel. The bipropellant system tested consists of high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) and a liquid fuel blend consisting of a hydrocarbon fuel, an ignition enhancer and a transition metal catalyst. In order for further testing of the new fuel blend to take place, some basic materials compatibility and HTP decomposition studies must be accomplished. The thermal decomposition rate of HTP was tested using gas evolution and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Materials were analyzed for compatibility with hydrogen peroxide including a study of the affect welding has on stainless steel elemental composition and its relation to HTP decomposition. Compatibility studies of valve materials in the fuel blend were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the materials.

  17. Development of DUPIC safeguards technology; development of web based nuclear material accounting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. T.; Choi, S. H.; Choi, S. J. [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop the web-based digital image processing system with the client/server architecture based on TCP/IP to be able to search and manage image data at the remote place. This system provides a nuclear facility with the ability to track the movement of nuclear material and to control and account nuclear material at anywhere and anytime. Also, this system will be helpful to increase the efficiency of safeguards affairs. The developed web-based digital image processing system for tracking the movement of nuclear material and MC and A can be applied to DUPIC facility. The result of this project will eventually contribute to similar nuclear facilities as well as the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards. In addition, it will be helpful to enhance international confidence build-up in the peaceful use of spent fuel material. 15 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D.; Janke, Christopher J.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel A.; Keiser, James R.; Gaston, Katherine

    2016-08-18

    Bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 degrees C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.

  19. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program. Topical report: Cathode compatibility tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

  20. Alternative Fuels Compatibility with Army Equipment Testing - Existent Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    isooctane /toluene blend was proposed as a surrogate to mimic the expected low aromatic content of the 50/50 synthetic/petroleum blends. Table 3...Jet A Solvent Blends (Fuel Surrogates) CL12-3310 Fuel B 70/30 isooctane / toluene CL12-3311 Fuel D 60/40 isooctane / toluene CL12-3312 Fuel XX...90/10 isooctane / toluene proposed surrogate to mimic low aromatic content blends *JP-8 blends: ~1 mg/L Stadis 450, 15 mg/L DCI-4A, 0.15 vol

  1. A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors -Fuel management and safety analysis-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Boh Wook; Choi, Hang Bok; Lee, Yung Wook; Cho, Jae Sun; Huh, Chang Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The reference DUPIC fuel composition was determined based on the reactor safety, thermal-hydraulics, economics, and refabrication aspects. The center pin of the reference DUPIC fuel bundle is poisoned with natural dysprosium. The worst LOCA analysis has shown that the transient power and heat deposition of the reference DUPIC core are the same as those of natural uranium CANDU core. The intra-code comparison has shown that the accuracy of DUPIC physics code system is comparable to the current CANDU core design code system. The sensitivity studies were performed for the refuelling schemes of DUPIC core and the 2-bundle shift refuelling scheme was selected as the standard refuelling scheme of the DUPIC core. The application of 4-bundle shift refuelling scheme will be studied in parallel as the auto-refuelling method is improved and the reference core parameters of the heterogeneous DUPIC core are defined. The heterogeneity effect was analyzed in a preliminary fashion using 33 fuel types and the random loading strategy. The refuelling simulation has shown that the DUPIC core satisfies the current CANDU 6 operating limits of channel and bundle power regardless of the fuel composition heterogeneity. The 33 fuel types used in the heterogeneity analysis was determined based on the initial enrichment and discharge burnup of the PWR fuel. 90 figs, 62 tabs, 63 refs. (Author).

  2. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  3. A study on decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, E. P

    2000-09-01

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, The experiments in PIEF have been completed. It is supposed to dismantle and decontaminate the installed equipment by the end of year 2000. Since all of DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must br performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. Firstly, This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment(power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/ transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order.

  4. The results of decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Cho, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, E. P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, the experiments in PIEF have been completed. Since all DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must be performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment (power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order. 7 refs., 42 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  5. Comparison of thermal compatibility between atomized and comminuted U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo-Seog; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kuk, II-Hyun [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    Thermal compatibility of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuels were evaluated up to 2600 hours in the temperature range from 250 to 500{degrees}C, and compared with that of comminuted U{sub 3}Si. Atomized U{sub 3}Si showed better performance in terms of volume expansion of fuel meats. The reaction zone of U{sub 3}Si and Al occurred along the grain boundaries and deformation bands in U{sub 3}Si particles. Pores around fuel particles appeared at high temperature or after long-term annealing tests to remain diffusion paths over the trench of the pores. The constraint effects of cladding on fuel rod suppressed the fuel meat, and reduced the volume expansion.

  6. Compatibility study between U-UO2 cermet fuel and T91 cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sudhir; Kaity, Santu; Khan, K. B.; Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G. K.

    2016-12-01

    Cermet is a new fuel concept for the fast reactor system and is ideally designed to combine beneficial properties of both ceramic and metal. In order to understand fuel clad chemical compatibility, diffusion couples were prepared with U-UO2 cermet fuel and T91 cladding material. These diffusion couples were annealed at 923-1073 K for 1000 h and 1223 K for 50 h, subsequently their microstructures were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). It was observed that the interaction between the fuel and constituents of T91 clad was limited to a very small region up to the temperature 993 K and discrete U6(Fe,Cr) and U(Fe,Cr)2 intermetallic phases developed. Eutectic microstructure was observed in the reaction zone at 1223 K. The activation energy for reaction at the fuel clad interface was determined.

  7. Feasibility Study on the Sodium Compatibility Test for Fuel Cladding of SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Shin, Sang Hun; Park, Sang Gyu; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), a reactor that uses fast neutrons as a fission process, is considered one of the most probable candidates in next-generation reactors because it can maximize the uranium utilization when compared to conventional water reactor. Liquid sodium is used as a coolant in a SFR, because it has superior efficiency of fast neutron economy and high thermal conductivity, which enables a high power core design. However, previous research reported that fuel cladding materials like austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) react sodium coolant so that it results in the loss of the thickness, intergranular attack, and carburization or decarburization process to induce the change of the mechanical property. Fuel cladding, a seamless tube which has approximately 0.5mm in thickness and 3m in length is the component which covers fuel to protect radioactive species from being released. Because of its smaller thickness, the mechanical properties of the cladding are easily affected by the small changes of material property. This paper summarizes the status of sodium-material compatibility facility and proposes the optimal option in the case of the SFR fuel cladding. Previous researches revealed that assessing in-situ mechanical property is important in the case of cladding material owing to its dimensional characteristic. Optimal test method for assessing sodium compatibility of the cladding tube can be proposed that pressurized creep test under the controlled liquid sodium environment.

  8. A study on the fission product release behavior during DUPIC pellet fabrication and the characteristics of cesium trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Geun Il; Nam, Seung Hee; Park, Jang Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-11-15

    During the OREOX and sintering process in DUPIC fuel fabrication, fission products would be released from the spent fuel material. Radioactivity measurement using gamma spectrometry technique was performed to identify the radionuclide species released from the spent fuel material at high temperatures up to 1700 deg. C. It was revealed that Cs-137 is the main fission product released from the spent fuel material, and about 99% of Cs-137 is released during sintering process. Therefore, the trapping characteristics of inactive cesium using the fly ash filter in off-gas stream at high temperature was investigated in terms of reaction temperature, carrier gas and gas velocity. The amount of trapped cesium by the fly ash filter was increased with increasing reaction temperature, whereas it was decreased with increasing gas velocity.

  9. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  10. Enhancement in open-circuit voltage of implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell by improving the anodic catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ando, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsuki; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell that generates an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 880 mV. The developed fuel cell is solid-catalyst-based and manufactured from biocompatible materials; thus, it can be implanted to the human body. Additionally, since the cell can be manufactured using a semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process, it can also be manufactured together with CMOS circuits on a single silicon wafer. In the literature, an implantable CMOS-compatible glucose fuel cell has been reported. However, its OCV is 192 mV, which is insufficient for CMOS circuit operation. In this work, we have enhanced the performance of the fuel cell by improving the electrocatalytic ability of the anode. The prototype with the newly proposed Pt/carbon nanotube (CNT) anode structure successfully achieved an OCV of 880 mV, which is the highest ever reported.

  11. Compatibility of Fuels and Radicals Found in Plasma Jets for Improved Premixed Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohji; Shimotani, Kouhei; Shuzenji, Kiyotaka; Kakami, Akira; Tachibana, Takeshi

    We examined the compatibility of radicals contained in plasma jets to fuels through ignition and combustion tests for dimethyl ether (DME)/air and methane (CH4)/air mixtures with oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) as the plasma torch feedstocks. The experiment showed that the DME/air mixture was ignited/combusted with less plasma jet (P.J.) power than the CH4/air mixture and that the O2 P.J. is more effective than the N2 P.J., with a more distinct difference in effectiveness for the CH4/air mixture in contrast to the DME/air mixture. Plasma jets with fewer feedstock flow rates were more effective, presumably due to the greater amount of radical production under the conditions tested. Numerical estimation on the amount of radicals and ignition delay time demonstrates that the superiority of the O2 P.J. is not necessarily only due to the effectiveness of the O radicals, but also due to the fact they were produced easier and with less power, and that the effect and behavior according to amount is different for fuels. This is most likely because they depend on the reaction mechanism of each mixture, all of which match well with the experimental results.

  12. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  13. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  14. Simulation of Fluid Flows through the Irradiation Test Rig for DUPIC Mini-element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Yoon, Churl; Lee, Chul Yong; Song, Kee Chan

    2006-02-15

    The flow characteristic of the irradiation test rigs has been investigated by using a commercial CFD code, CFX-5.7(Ansys Inc.). The test rigs had been developed and fabricated to irradiate the DUPIC mini-elements in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. First, the fluid flow through the DUPIC-2 test rig was calculated and compared with an experimental data. The computed pressure drops across the DUPIC-2 test rig match well with the experimental data. Then, a CFD analysis has been performed for the fluid flow through the newly-designed DUPIC-6 test rig. As results of the prediction, it is estimated that the mass flow rate is 8.0 kg/s under the pressure drop across the DUPIC-6 test rig of 215.5 kPa. The corresponding the maximum vibration displacement is expected to be around 50 {open_square}m, which satisfies the license limit with large margin.

  15. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  16. Test program on the release characteristics of Kr-85 from remote fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the release kinetics of Kr-85 fission gas during DUPIC fuel fabrication process using spent fuel materials, the test equipment and its procedure was developed. The purpose of this test involves the measurement of Kr-85 released during OREOX process in DUPIC fuel fabrication as well as the analysis of fission- gas release kinetics with the variation of fuel fabrication conditions. Gas monitoring system installed inside glove box was located at out-cell of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility) at which OREOX and tube furnaces have already installed inside hot cell. The use of glove box is aimed for preventing a gas release from sampling gas line under negative pressure. Based on the allowable discharge concentration of Kr-85 to environment and the preliminary analysis assuming total released amount a year, environmental impact according to Kr-85 measuring test would be minimal.

  17. Thermal compatibility studies of U 3Si 2 dispersion fuels prepared with centrifugally atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Hofman, Gerard L.; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    The interaction between atomized U 3Si 2 and aluminum in dispersion fuel samples has been characterized and compared with that of comminuted U 3Si 2. Fuel samples with atomized powder showed a smaller volume increase compared to those with the comminuted powder, irrespective of heat treatment, and volume fraction of U 3Si 2 powder. The possible reasons for this seem to be as follows: (1) the smaller specific surface area of the atomized spherical powder compared to the irregular comminuted powder translating in a smaller U 3Si 2-Al interface area for the former affecting what appears to be a diffusion-controlled interaction process, (2) the atomized fuel samples also contain lower fraction of as-fabricated porosity than the comminuted fuel samples, which may enhance the restraint force in the swelling fuel meat, (3) the comminuted powder particles have distinctive aluminum penetration paths in the form of deformation zones that originated from the comminution process. There appear to be two pronounced penetration paths of aluminum into atomized U 3Si 2 powder; (1) through the phase interface, leaving a central unreacted island, (2) along grain boundaries, leaving several unreacted islands.

  18. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system.

  19. Determination of Compatibility of Some Biodiesel Properties Produced under Turkey Conditions to Standards and Effects of Fuel Spraying Amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Guven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, viscosity values that is one of the rheological properties of biodiesel samples that have been produced under Turkey conditions. In addition to this, specific weight values that are effective on directly to engine performance curves were also determined. Compatibility of these values to standards were examined. Kinematic viscosity measurements at two different temperatures namely 20 and 40 °C were carried out to determine the effect of temperature on viscosity change. Density measurements according to the standard at 15 °C was also set. In this study, eight biodiesel samples were collected from markets (4 of them are enrolled to Industry and Commerce provincial Directorates, the other four are not registered, and 1 diesel sample as comparison sample were used. In addition to viscosity and specific weight measurements, effect of viscosity and specific weight changes on the amount of fuel sprayed from injector by using 3 different types injectors that are used in different brand widely used tractor engines was determined. In addition to these effects of fuel with different density and viscosity on distribution of sprayed fuel in combustion chamber was determined by manufacturing a model combustion chamber that has identical with tractor combustion chambers. According to research results, increasing of the temperature decreased the viscosity values highly. Including the registered samples, in the great majority of biodiesel samples viscosity and specific weight values were determined to be non-standard. Due to high specific weight and viscosity, amount the sprayed fuel were found higher for all injector and biodiesel samples compared to sprayed diesel amount. According to distrubition in combustion chamber, the highest fuel amount was found for biodiesel 9 that has the maximum viscosity. Diesel was spryed the furthest points in combustion chamber and its distribution was found more homogenity compared with those biodiesel samples.

  20. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    , for as high as 1600 °C, the non-reactive LM was experimentally confirmed not to show any chemical reaction with air or moisture in the air. This experimental work confirmed the excellent compatibility behaviors between the LM as a PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete in the high-temperature regime.

  1. Chemical compatibility between UO2 fuel and SiC cladding for LWRs. Application to ATF (Accident-Tolerant Fuels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, James; Guéneau, Christine; Alpettaz, Thierry; Sauder, Cédric; Brackx, Emmanuelle; Domenger, Renaud; Gossé, Stéphane; Balbaud-Célérier, Fanny

    2017-04-01

    Silicon carbide-silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are considered to replace the current zirconium-based cladding materials thanks to their good behavior under irradiation and their resistance under oxidative environments at high temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic analysis of the UO2±x/SiC system is performed. Moreover, using two different experimental methods, the chemical compatibility of SiC towards uranium dioxide, with various oxygen contents (UO2±x) is investigated in the 1500-1970 K temperature range. The reaction leads to the formation of mainly uranium silicides and carbides phases along with CO and SiO gas release. Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry is used to measure the gas release occurring during the reaction between UO2+x and SiC powders as function of time and temperature. These experimental conditions are representative of an open system. Diffusion couple experiments with pellets are also performed to study the reaction kinetics in closed system conditions. In both cases, a limited chemical reaction is observed below 1700 K, whereas the reaction is enhanced at higher temperature due to the decomposition of SiC leading to Si vaporization. The temperature of formation of the liquid phase is found to lie between 1850 < T < 1950 K.

  2. The 4th irradiation test of dry process fuel in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. Y.; Moon, J. S.; Kang, K. H.; Jung, I. H.; Song, K. C.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The 4th irradiation test of dry process pellet using non-instrumented rig is being performed in the HANARO research reactor. Among the three mini-elements for the 4{sup th} irradiation test, the element No.1 is dedicated to the extended irradiation of the DUPIC pellets irradiated in the 3{sup rd} irradiation test, the element No.2 and No.3 are used for the comparative analysis on the in-core behaviors of simulated DUPIC fuel and actual DUPIC fuel. For these purposes, the irradiated rig of the 3{sup rd} irradiation test was disassembled in a hot cell to select the element No.1. Also the SIMFUEL that is fabricated in the DUPIC laboratory is welded by laser in a welding chamber and the DUPIC fuel that is remotely fabricated in DFDF is welded by a laser method as done in the second and third irradiation tests. The rig was remotely assembled using a rig assembler and loaded into the OR5 hole. Since June 2002, the 4{sup th} irradiation test is being performed.

  3. Enthalpy and void distributions in subchannels of PHWR fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. W.; Choi, H.; Rhee, B. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Two different types of the CANDU fuel bundles have been modeled for the ASSERT-IV code subchannel analysis. From calculated values of mixture enthalpy and void fraction distribution in the fuel bundles, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction were found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundle that could be used in CANDU reactors. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. Experiment on the improvement of OREOX process for fabrication of dry recycling nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, S. S.; Park, G. I. [and others

    2004-01-01

    The OREOX(Oxidation and REduction of OXide fuel) process has been performed to fabricate dry recycling(DUPIC ; Direct Use of spent PWR fuel In CANDU reactor) nuclear fuel pellets by using spent PWR fuel. Generally, sinterable DUPIC powder has been manufactured from spent PWR fuel pellets by the 3 cycles of oxidation and reduction treatment. The OREOX process is one of the most important processes for DUPIC pellet fabrication. A lot of time more than 37 hours as well as a lot of reaction gas is required to perform 3 cycles of OREOX treatments. In this experiment, 1 cycle OREOX process was adopted to improve the powdering process of DUPIC pellet manufacturing processes. As a result of experiment, the densities of pellets sintered at 1800 .deg. C for 10 hours ranged from 10.15 to 10.22 g/cm{sup 3}(93.8{approx}94.5 % of T.D.). The pellets were sintered again to increase the sintered density. The sintered densities of pellets re-sintered at 1850 .deg. C for 7 hours ranged from 10.27 to 10.33 g/cm{sup 3}(94.9{approx} 95.5 % of T.D)

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  6. The re-instrumentation irradiation test of nuclear fuel using fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Joung, C. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Choo, K. N. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    This report is the status art report on re-instrumentation. The main techniques described in this report are technology that is developed in Norway HALDEN and domestic research facilities. Although re-instrumentation is not gone vigorously after 1990, HALDEN's re-instrumentation equipment was made until recently. In the meantime, re-instrumentation research was gone in domestic, but irradiation test did not performed actually. But DUPIC fuel irradiation is similar to re-instrumentation, so the irradiation test can be utilized directly to the Fuel Test Loop

  7. A state of the art report on the decontamination technology for dry ice blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Kim, K. H.; Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Yang, M. S.; Nam, S. H.; Kim, M. J

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct reprocessing fabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since DUPIC fuel fabrication process includes powder handling process of highly radioactive spent fuel, decontamination of highly radioactive particulates from all types of surfaces such as DUPIC fuel manufacturing equipment, hot cell floor, tools is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and reduce the dose exposure to operator, This report describes various technologies for dry ice blasting. It provides the fundamentals of dry ice blasting decontamination and technical review of dry ice blasting on the radioactive decontamination.

  8. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  9. Development of a chromatographic method for the study of the stability and compatibility of Mexican fuel oils; Desarrollo de un metodo cromatografico para el estudio de estabilidad y compatibilidad de combustoleos mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass Amador, Georgina; Panama Tirado, Luz Angelica [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-11-01

    In Mexico, the largest part of the generated electric energy comes from the use of residual heavy oils known as fuel oils which have suffered quality degradation due to a combination of factors, among which stands out the changes in the refining process. It is necessary to develop methods capable of indicating the instability (formation of sediment or viscosity increase during storage or heating) or incompatibility (formation of sediment in mixing two or more fuel oils) of the fuel oils employed in fossil fuel power plants. This work objective was to develop an alternative test for the study of the compatibility and/or stability of Mexican fuel oils using high resolution liquid chromatography (CLAR) and so to determine structural aspects of the fuel oil that determine its stability. Since the formation of sediments occurs when the dissolving ability of the fuel is inadequate to keep the asphaltenes in solution, it is important to know the solvent power degree or aromaticity of the diluent; so, in the first part of this work the attention was centered in the determination of the profile of aromatic compounds of the fuel oil diluents, the other part was dedicated to the determination of the distribution profile the molecular weights of the asphaltenes present in the fuel oils. The profiles of the aromatic fraction, as well as of the molecular weight distribution were determined using liquid chromatography, in which a variety of columns and solvents were used. A combination of routine tests was accomplished, such as asphaltenes content, toluene equivalence, viscosity, etc., in order to obtain correlation with the chromatographic method developed. In this article it is only discussed the section corresponding to the obtainment of the profile of aromatics content in the fuel oils. It has been found a correlation among the asphaltenes content, toluene equivalence, aromaticity profiles and stability. As a direct consequence, it is expected to be able to predict the

  10. CANDU advanced fuel R and D programs for 1997 - 2006 in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H.C.; Yang, M.S.; Sim, K-S.; Yoo, K.J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    KAERI has a comprehensive product development program of CANFLEX and DUPIC fuels to introduce them into CANDU reactors in Korea and a clear vision of how the product will evolve over the next 10 years. CANDU reactors are not the majority of nuclear power plants in Korea, but they produce significant electricity to contribute Korea's economic growth as well as to satisfy the need for energy. The key targets of the development program are safety enhancement, reduction of spent fuel volume, and economic improvements, using the inherent characteristics and advantages of CANDU technology The CANFLEX and DUPIC R and D programs are conducted currently under the second stage of Korea's Nuclear Energy R and D Project as a national mid- and long-term program over the next 10 years from 1997 to 2006. The specific activities of the programs have taken account of the domestic and international environment concerning on non-proliferation in the Peninsula of Korea. As the first of the development products in the short-term, the CANFLEX-NU fuel will be completely developed jointly by KAERI/AECL and will be useful for the older CANDU-6 Wolsong unit 1. As the second product, the CANFLEX-0.9 % equivalent SEU fuel is expected to be completely developed within the next decade. It will be used in CANDU-6 reactors in Korea immediately after the development, if the existing RU in the world is price competitive with natural uranium. The DUPIC R and D program, as a long term program, is expected to demonstrate the possibility of use of used PWR fuel in CANDU reactors in Korea during the next 10 years. The pilot scale fabrication facility would be completed around 2010. (author)

  11. Development of DUPIC fuel on manufacturing and quality control technology- Improvement of sinterability and microstructure control of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Joong; Jee, Young Ah; Lee, Sung Min; Rhee, Young Woo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    In this study, the densification and grain growth mechanisms of UO{sub 2+x} in H{sub 2} at 1700 deg C and in CO{sub 2} at 1100 deg C have been investigated including the measure of the grain size and density of the specimens. Form the measured data, the mechanism of densification and grain growth were determined by applying available kinetic equation that express the relations between densification and grain growth. In the both atmospheres of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, it was determined that the densification was controlled by lattice diffusion and grain growth by the surface diffusion of atoms around pores. The grain growth behavior of SrTiO{sub 3}, a model system with nonstoichiometry, has been studied in terms of sintering atmosphere and dopants. The normal grain growth appeared to be occurring when dopants were segregated at the grain interface while the abnormal grain growth occurred without any segregation. As a result, a strong relation between the abnormal grain growth= in oxide system and the space charge potential and dopant segregation was determined. The TEM result showed that many dislocations were located near the abnormal grains and a thin liquid film was present in most of the grain boundaries. 75 refs., 32 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  12. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel - Improvement of sinterability and microstructure control of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Joong; Jee, Young Aa; Lee, Sung Min; Lee, Young Woo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The effect of initial particle size on densification and grain growth has been analyzed and scaling law at final stage sintering has been derived. In case of densification by lattice diffusion and grain growth by surface diffusion in U O{sub 2} sintering, the densification determines the grain growth rate with increasing oxygen partial pressure. When relative densification rate to grain growth rate increases, the grain growth rate is also found to increase. The mechanism of U O{sub 2} sintering in C O{sub 2} atmosphere has been determined by measuring the density and grain size with time. The densification appears to by controlled by grain boundary diffusion and grain growth by surface diffusion or solute drag of grain boundary. 56 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs. (author)

  13. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  15. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  16. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  17. The state of the art on the dry decontamination technologies applicable to highly radioactive contaminants and their needs for the national nuclear fuel cycle developent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K.W.; Won, H.J.; Jung, C.H.; Chol, W.K.; Kim, G.N.; Moon, J.K

    2000-12-01

    This report is intended to establish their needs to support the dry decontamination activities applicable to highly radioactive contaminants based on the requirement of technologies development suggested from the national nuclear fuel cycle projects, such as DUPIC, advanced spent fuel management and long-lived radionuclides conversion. The technology needs associated with decontamination addressed the requirements associated with the efficiency of decontamination technology, the reduction of secondary wastes, applicabilities and the remote operation. And also, Characterization and decontamination technologies for various contaminants are reviewed and analysed. Based on the assessment, Unit dry decontamination processes are selected and the schematic flow diagram for decontamination of highly radioactive contaminants.

  18. Weyl compatible tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Mantica, Carlo A

    2012-01-01

    The algebraic condition of Riemann compatibility for symmetric tensors generalizes the differential Codazzi condition, but preserves much of the geometric content. The compatibility condition can be extended to other curvature tensors. This paper is about Weyl compatible tensors and vectors. In particular it is shown that the existence of a Weyl compatible vector implies the Weyl tensor to be algebraically special, and it is a necessary and sufficient condition for the magnetic part to vanish. Some theorems (Derdzinski and Shen, Hall) are extended to the broader hypothesis of Weyl or Riemann compatibility. Weyl compatibility includes conditions that were investigated in the literature of general relativity (as McIntosh et al.). Hypersurfaces of pseudo Euclidean spaces provide a simple example of Weyl compatible Ricci tensor.

  19. 76 FR 39095 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... aggressive toward certain materials than independent fuel constituents, with maximum polymer swelling... Engineer (P.E.) to make a compatibility determination. Although using P.E.s to determine compatibility...

  20. Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

    2008-07-01

    This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature

  1. Analysis of Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-11-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) has been evaluated for the five nuclear fuel cycle systems, potentially deployable in Korea in the future, using the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes suggested in the TOPS report. Unidimensional Utility Theory (UUT) was used in the calculation of utility value for each of the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes, and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a decision tool with multiple objectives, was used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of each nuclear fuel cycle system. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Elicitation (EE) were utilized in the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes. Among the five nuclear fuel cycle systems evaluated, the once-through fuel cycle system showed the highest level of proliferation resistance, and Pyroprocessing-SFR fuel cycle system showed the similar level of proliferation resistance with the DUPIC fuel cycle system, which has two time higher level of proliferation resistance compared to that of the thermal MOX fuel cycle system. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to make up for the uncertainty associated with the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes.

  2. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K. K.; Yang, M. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  3. Three-component U-Pu-Th fuel for plutonium irradiation in heavy water reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peel Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses concepts for three-component fuel bundles containing plutonium, uranium and thorium for use in pressurised heavy water reactors, and cases for and against implementation of such a nuclear energy system in the United Kingdom. Heavy water reactors are used extensively in Canada, and are deploying within India and China, whilst the UK is considering the use of heavy water reactors to manage its plutonium inventory of 140 tonnes. The UK heavy water reactor proposal uses a mixed oxide (MOX fuel of plutonium in depleted uranium, within the enhanced CANDU-6 (EC-6 reactor. This work proposes an alternative heterogeneous fuel concept based on the same reactor and CANFLEX fuel bundle, with eight large-diameter fuel elements loaded with natural thorium oxide and 35 small-diameter fuel elements loaded with a MOX of plutonium and reprocessed uranium stocks from UK MAGNOX and AGR reactors. Indicative neutronic calculations suggest that such a fuel would be neutronically feasible. A similar MOX may alternatively be fabricated from reprocessed <5% enriched light water reactor fuel, such as the fuel of the AREVA EPR reactor, to consume newly produced plutonium from reprocessing, similar to the DUPIC (direct use of PWR fuel in CANDU process.

  4. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  5. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  6. Catalytic nanoarchitectonics for environmentally compatible energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Abe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally compatible energy management is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Low-temperature conversion of chemical to electrical energy is of particular importance to minimize the impact to the environment while sustaining the consumptive economy. In this review, we shed light on one of the most versatile energy-conversion technologies: heterogeneous catalysts. We establish the integrity of structural tailoring in heterogeneous catalysts at different scales in the context of an emerging paradigm in materials science: catalytic nanoarchitectonics. Fundamental backgrounds of energy-conversion catalysis are first provided together with a perspective through state-of-the-art energy-conversion catalysis including catalytic exhaust remediation, fuel-cell electrocatalysis and photosynthesis of solar fuels. Finally, the future evolution of catalytic nanoarchitectonics is overviewed: possible combinations of heterogeneous catalysts, organic molecules and even enzymes to realize reaction-selective, highly efficient and long-life energy conversion technologies which will meet the challenge we face.

  7. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  8. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  9. RESEARCH FOR THE AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE (R4RQ) Delivery Order 0006: Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels and Energy Exploratory Research and Development (APFEERD) Sub Task: Review of Materials Compatibility Tests of Synthesized Hydrocarbon Kerosenes and Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    the USAF 88th Air Base Wing (88 ABW) Public Affairs Office (PAO) and is available to the general public, including foreign nationals. Copies may be... exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. *Disseminated copies will show...9 3.1.5.3 Summary of Fuel Exposure on Sealants ................................... 11 3.1.6 O-Rings

  10. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  11. Exploring Interpersonal Compatibility in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann

    This study investigated William Schutz's three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior and compatibility (FIRO) to determine its validity as a group measure of compatibility. Data were collected from 248 students enrolled in a multi-section course in small group communications at a large midwestern university. Subjects self-selected…

  12. 麻疯树籽油生物柴油-0#柴油混合燃料与橡胶、塑料的兼容性%Compatibility of rubbers and plastics in Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel-0#diesel blended fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家栋; 尚琼; 鲁厚芳; 梁斌

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel derived from transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil has a good application prospect as a renewable energy. To analyze and evaluate the compatibility of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel and its blends of petroleum diesel with materials which were used in transportation,storage and application,interactions between eight materials (four types of rubbers and four types of plastics) and Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel-0#diesel were analyzed. The results showed that acid value and viscosity of fuels met national standards after immersion for 28-56 days. Fluorine rubber showed a good compatibility with the fuels,its weight and hardness changed a little,the increase rate of thickness was less than 18.00%,and the decrease rate of tensile strength was less than −22.00%. On the contrary,chloroprene rubber,EPDM rubber and butadiene acrylonitrile rubber were incompatible with the fuels for a long time. The changes of thickness and weight of four types of plastics were small,and their mechanical properties showed good stability.%  麻疯树籽油是制备生物柴油的优良原料油,由其制得的生物柴油具有良好的应用前景。为了分析和评价在运输、储存和使用过程中麻疯树籽油生物柴油与材料的相互影响,本文主要考察了4种橡胶和4种塑料分别与麻疯树籽油生物柴油-0#柴油混合燃料的相互作用及影响。试验结果表明:生物柴油混合燃料与材料接触28~56天后,其酸值和运动黏度仍满足国家标准要求;氟橡胶质量、硬度变化小,厚度的变化率小于18.00%,拉伸强度变化率小于−22.00%,有较好的耐甲酯性,而氯丁橡胶、三元乙丙橡胶及丁腈橡胶不能长期使用;生物柴油混合燃料对4种塑料厚度、质量的影响较小,其稳定性较好。

  13. Compatibility of conditionally specified models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Yun

    2010-04-01

    A conditionally specified joint model is convenient to use in fields such as spatial data modeling, Gibbs sampling, and missing data imputation. One potential problem with such an approach is that the conditionally specified models may be incompatible, which can lead to serious problems in applications. We propose an odds ratio representation of a joint density to study the issue and derive conditions under which conditionally specified distributions are compatible and yield a joint distribution. Our conditions are the simplest to verify compared with those proposed in the literature. The proposal also explicitly construct joint densities that are fully compatible with the conditionally specified densities when the conditional densities are compatible, and partially compatible with the conditional densities when they are incompatible. The construction result is then applied to checking the compatibility of the conditionally specified models. Ways to modify the conditionally specified models based on the construction of the joint models are also discussed when the conditionally specified models are incompatible.

  14. Compatible quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  15. Compatible quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R.; Hohenberg, P. C.

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  16. Irradiation characteristics examination technology development of irradiated nuclear material and high burn-up fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choo, Y. S.; Oh, Y. W. [and others

    2002-12-01

    The research and development for the first year of the project are performed through specialization of researchers, information from aborad and international cooperation, securement of advanced nuclear technology, development and installation of test equipment, application of external man-power, establishment of advanced test techniques, and certified test method. 1. Absolute efficiency measurement examination technology development of gamma scanning system 2. Sample preparation technology development of SEM and EPMA for micro-structural observation and chemical composition analysis 3. Irradiated high burn-up nuclear fuel transportation and test for PWR 4. Development of hot cell examination techniques and equipment 5. Acquirement of KOLAS system. In addition to the project, the following activities are carried out as follows; - PIE of Hanaro fuel(KH99H-001) - PIE of U-Mo advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of Hi-MET advanced nuclear fuel irradiated at Hanaro - PIE of DUPIC project - Hot cell examination of Hanaro irradiated capsule - Leaching test of PWR fuels - Surveillance test of PWR vessels - Mechanical test of CANDU pressure tubes.

  17. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  18. COMPATIBILITY OF BENTONITE AND DNAPLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compatibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), trichloroethylene (TCE), methylene chloride (MC), and creosote with commercially available sodium bentonite pellets was evaluated using stainless steel, double-ring, falling-head permeameters. The Hydraulic conductiv...

  19. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  20. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-02

    Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  1. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry (AMCIL) is a microgravity compatible liquid / liquid vapor, two-phase laundry system with water jet...

  2. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  3. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  4. Spatial compatibility and affordance compatibility in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Yu; Sato, Fumiyasu; Hiraoka, Yuya; Suzuki, Shingo; Niyama, Yoshitsugu

    2016-12-01

    A deterioration in information-processing performance is commonly recognized in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Although the enhancement of cognitive skills in patients with schizophrenia is important, the types of external stimuli that influence performance have not received much attention. The aim of present study was to clarify the effects of spatial and affordance compatibility in patients with schizophrenia, compared with those in healthy people. The subjects (25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls) participated in two experiment examining the effects of the spatial location of stimuli and the action-relevance of objects. The results showed that the effect of spatial compatibility was similar in both the patients and the controls, whereas the influence of action-relevant objects was not highlighted in either patients with chronic schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings provide important evidence of a normal spatial compatibility effect in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, further research examining the affordance compatibility effect is needed, taking into consideration the symptomatology and the severity of the social functioning level in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  6. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  7. Compatibility optimization of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  8. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  9. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Dhaliwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR, and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR, and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin. These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the ethanol blended gasoline mixtures were used: (a gasoline containing 5% ethanol (E5, which is commercial form of gasoline available in India, and (b gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10. The above materials were immersed in E5 and E10 for 500 hrs at 55°C. A set of eight different properties in E5 and E10 (visual inspection, weight change, volume change, tensile strength, percent elongation, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness were measured after completion of 500 hrs and compared with reference specimens (specimens at 55°C without fuel and specimens at ambient conditions. Variation observed in different materials with respect to the above eight properties has been used to draw inference about the compatibility of these elastomeric/polymer materials with E10 fuel vis-à-vis E5 fuels. The data presented in this study is comparative in nature between the results of E10 and E5.

  10. Korean efforts towards an environment friendly back-end nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.S.; Hwang, Y.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    In Korea, sixteen nuclear reactors are in operation and by 2015, a total of twenty-six nuclear reactors will be in operation. The current nuclear share occupies about 29.2 % of the total generating capacity of electricity and 43.1 % of the total production of electricity. The active nuclear program causes an inevitable increase in the build-up of radioactive waste, including spent fuel. Therefore, reliable and effective management of radioactive waste and spent fuel has become a key to the continuous growth of the nuclear power program. By the end of 2000, a total of 57,270 drums of LILW were generated from the nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the total amount of LILW from NPPs, RI applications from more than 1,500 users, and decommissioning shall increase to around a quarter of a million drums by 2020. Also, the cumulative amount of spent fuel reached 4,760 MTU by the end of 2000 and will jump to 18,615 MTU by 2020. According to the new national planning, AFR storage facilities for spent fuels shall be built by 2016 and a repository for LILW radioactive disposal shall be in operation by 2008. Even though Korea has a ''wait and see policy'' for spent fuel management, several alternative studies on spent fuel management such as DUPIC have been carried out. In parallel, R and D activities to develop the needed technologies for the permanent disposal of spent fuel and HLW have been implemented. In addition, active R and D on the treatment of radioactive waste from the various nuclear fuel cycles as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are in progress. Many of these studies are pursued in the form of regional as well as international cooperation. (author)

  11. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  12. Physics-compatible numerical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Koren; Abgrall, Remi; Pavel, Bochev; Jason, Frank; Blair, Perrot

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Physics-compatible numerical methods are methods that aim to preserve key mathematical and physical properties of continuum physics models in their finite-dimensional algebraic representations. They include methods which preserve properties such as energy, monotonicity, maximum principles, symmetries, and involutions of the continuum models. Examples are mimetic methods for spatial discretizations, variational and geometric integrators, conservative finite-volume and f...

  13. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  14. COMPATIBLE EXTENSIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina GEORGESCU

    2003-01-01

    In 1930 Szpilrajn proved that any strict partial order can be embedded in a strict linear order.This theorem was later refined by Dushnik and Miller (1941), Hansson (1968), Suzumura (1976),Donaldson and Weymark (1998), Bossert (1999). Particularly Suzumura introduced the important concept of compatible extension of a (crisp) relation. These extension theorems have an important role in welfare economics. In particular Szpilrajn theorem is the main tool for proving a known theorem of Richter that establishes the equivalence between rational and congruous consumers. In 1999 Duggan proved a general extension theorem that contains all these results. In this paper we introduce the notion of compatible extension of a fuzzy relation and we prove an extension theorem for fuzzy relations. Our result generalizes to fuzzy set theory the main part of Duggan's theorem. As applications we obtain fuzzy versions of the theorems of Szpilrajn, Hansson and Suzumura. We also prove that an asymmetric and transitive fuzzy relation has a compatible extension that is total, asymmetric and transitive.Our results can be useful in the theory of fuzzy consumers. We can prove that any rational fuzzyconsumer is congruous, extending to a fuzzy context a part of Richter's theorem. To prove that acongruous fuzzy consumer is rational remains an open problem. A proof of this result can somehowuse a fuzzy version of Szpilrajn theorem.

  15. Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology, program review, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell program is to advance the SPE fuel cell technology in four target areas. These areas are: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility.

  16. [Compatibility determinations Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides two compatibility determinations; one stated that the proposed agricultural practices (row crop farming) are compatible with Refuge...

  17. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  18. 21 CFR 606.151 - Compatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compatibility testing. 606.151 Section 606.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Compatibility testing. Standard operating procedures for compatibility testing shall include the following:...

  19. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  20. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  1. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  2. 49 CFR 176.154 - Fueling (bunkering).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fueling (bunkering). 176.154 Section 176.154... (bunkering). (a) Class 1 (explosive) materials, except those in compatibility group S, may not be loaded or unloaded when fueling (bunkering) is in progress except with the prior authorization of the COTP, and...

  3. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  4. A status of installation and operational experience of safeguards equipment for DFDF safeguards implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, H. Y.; Ko, W. I.; Song, D. Y.; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility (DFDF) fabricates CANDU-type fuel directly out of spent PWR fuel material with no alternation of composition of spent fuel throughout the whole process. DFDF belong to 'Other Facilities' among the 13 facilities types under IAEA safeguards criteria and is a unique facility type in the world because the DUPIC process has no separation activity of fission products from process materials. For the IAEA safeguards implementation of DFDF, facility was developed the DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter (DSNC) and DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Monitor(DSNM) for accountancy of SNM in DUPIC fuel and a monitoring of DUPIC fuel, respectively. These instruments were used jointly between IAEA and facility operator authorized by IAEA and installed at DFDF. And facility operator and IAEA also installed and operated the surveillance systems for DFDF surveillance each other. This paper describes the status of installation and operational experience of safeguards equipment for DFDF safeguards implementation.

  5. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  7. Advanced fast reactor fuels program. Second annual progress report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.D. (comp.)

    1978-12-01

    Results of steady-state (EBR-II) irradiation testing, off-normal irradiation design and testing, fuel-cladding compatibility, and chemical stability of uranium--plutonium carbide and nitride fuels are presented.

  8. Design and in-core fuel management of reload fuel elements for reactors made by other manufacturers. Auslegung und Einsatzplanung von Nachlade-Brennelementen fuer Reaktoren anderer Hersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, A.; Urban, P.

    1990-12-01

    By the end of 1990 Siemens had performed fuel element designs and in-core fuel management for 94 operating cycles in 27 pressurized and boiling water reactors of other manufacturers. Together with the client different fuel element designs are developed and proof is furnished of the reactor physics compatibility of different fuel elements from various producers, and of plant safety. (DG).

  9. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  10. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study...... was conducted to determine the congruence of an organisation's value and IT value compatibility. This study found that there was a high correspondence in the organisational structure and practice dimensions; however, there were organisational culture disparities. The cultural disparities reflected the self...

  11. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility... and EC invite your views on how to promote greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility...

  12. A Characterization of P-Compatible Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Chajda; Klaus Denecke; Shelly L. Wismath

    2007-01-01

    P-Compatibility is a hereditary property of identities which generalizes the properties of normality and externality of identitiesChajda characterized the normalization of a variety by an algebraic construction called a choice algebraIn this paper, we generalize this characterization to the least P-compatible variety P(V) determined by a variety V for any partition P using P-choice algebrasWe also study the clone of (strongly) P-compatible n-ary terms of a variety V, and relate identities of this clone to (strongly) P-compatible hyperidentities of the variety V.

  13. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  14. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  15. Dissociating compatibility effects and distractor costs in the additional singleton paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture) is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low-load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high-load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  16. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  17. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  18. 40 CFR 280.32 - Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 280.32 Section 280.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL...) General Operating Requirements § 280.32 Compatibility. Owners and operators must use an UST system made...

  19. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  20. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-07-12

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  1. Electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2006-11-08

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), as compared to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), improves tolerance to impurities in the fuel, but also creates challenges in the development of suitable materials for the various fuel cell components. In response to these challenges, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) are being developed to reduce high-temperature material requirements, which will extend useful lifetime, improve durability and reduce cost, while maintaining good fuel flexibility. A major challenge in reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs is the development of solid electrolyte materials with sufficient conductivity to maintain acceptably low ohmic losses during operation. In this paper, solid electrolytes being developed for solid oxide fuel cells, including zirconia-, ceria- and lanthanum gallate-based materials, are reviewed and compared. The focus is on the conductivity, but other issues, such as compatibility with electrode materials, are also discussed. (author)

  2. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  3. [Survey of research on acupoints compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Ren

    2010-05-01

    The research papers that meet the criteria of evidence-based medicine and randomized controlled trial were retrieved in Chinese journals data bases (CNKI knowledge network) from 1992 to 2009. Twenty-five papers indicate that acupoints compatibility rules are closely related to organism regional anatomy, nerve, the blood vessel and the endocrine gland; acupoints compatibility rules produce synergism, inhibit or antagonistic effect that affect the clinical effectiveness. The acupoints compatibility rules based on experimental researches are applied to clinic practice is the key to improve the acupuncture clinical effectiveness.

  4. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  5. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  6. The evolution of polymorphic compatibility molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de

    1995-01-01

    Several primitive colonial organisms distinguish self from nonself by means of polymorphic compatibility molecules bearing similarity to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The evolution of such polymorphisms is generally explained in terms of resistance to parasites. Ignoring parasites, I d

  7. CMOS Compatible Ultra-Compact Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss <1dB at telecommunication wavelengths.......A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss

  8. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Tze-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  9. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  10. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  11. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  12. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  13. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  14. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  15. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    1999-01-01

    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  16. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence, the proc......This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence....... The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  17. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  18. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  19. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...... be improved at a very early stage of the process. It is also revealed what parameters are the most important ones when considering compatibility. It was observed that a change of capacitance in the collection grid shifts the resonance peaks. A change in WT transformer capacitances influences the admittance...

  20. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  1. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  2. 14 CFR 150.23 - Noise compatibility programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise compatibility programs. 150.23... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.23 Noise compatibility programs. (a) Any airport operator who has submitted...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters to..., cable system operators shall briefly explain, the types of channel compatibility problems that...

  4. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart....

  5. Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Mortars for repair and maintenance of historic masonry have to meet specific requirements. Several authors have made contributions, however many cases of failure show that there still is quite a lack of knowledge on the compatibility of repair mortars for historic masonry. The diagnosis of the cause

  6. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatible grouping. 3.7 Section 3.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  7. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis of sexual selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey E.; Johnson, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Why females assess ornaments when choosing mates remains a central question in evolutionary biology. We hypothesize that the imperative for a choosing female to find a mate with nuclear oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes that are compatible with her mitochondrial OXPHOS genes drives the evolution of ornaments. Indicator traits are proposed to signal the efficiency of OXPHOS function thus enabling females to select mates with nuclear genes that are compatible with maternal mitochondrial genes in the formation of OXPHOS complexes. Species-typical pattern of ornamentation is proposed to serve as a marker of mitochondrial type ensuring that females assess prospective mates with a shared mitochondrial background. The mitonuclear compatibility hypothesis predicts that the production of ornaments will be closely linked to OXPHOS pathways, and that sexual selection for compatible mates will be strongest when genes for nuclear components of OXPHOS complexes are Z-linked. The implications of this hypothesis are that sexual selection may serve as a driver for the evolution of more efficient cellular respiration. PMID:23945683

  8. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    , presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...

  9. 36 CFR 1193.51 - Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility. 1193.51 Section 1193.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... user to easily turn any microphone on and off to allow the user to intermix speech with TTY use. (e...

  10. Component-compatibility in historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandee, M.; Roos, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    -The problems of reconstructing historical relationships for areas of endemism from distributional data for groups of taxa and the cladistic relationships among the members of those groups can be solved by applying the two principles of parsimony and mutual inclusion or exclusion (compatibility) of

  11. Compositionality and Compatibility of Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    goal is to add a representation and support for the functional aspects of service contracts to the existing non-functional aspects. Further, we investigate how to analyze, verify and validate service contracts laying emphasis on the compositionality and compatibility of service contracts....

  12. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...

  13. Compatibility testing of energetic materials, which technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Schrader, M.A.; Steen, A.C. van der

    1999-01-01

    Compatibility is an important safety aspect related to the production and storage of energetic materials. To test different combinations of materials a simple test method with clear criteria is advisable. At the last ESTAC the use of microcalorimetry and the vacuum stability test for the

  14. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  15. A Note on (In)Compatibility Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sequoiah-Grayson, Sebastian; Pelis, M; Puncochar,

    2011-01-01

    Non-symmetric incompatibility relations, or non-symmetric compatibility relations, are a standard method for introducing a split negation pair on a frame. Another standard method is to reject commutation for the frame. The first task is to examine the relationship between non-symmetric incompatibili

  16. [MRI compatibility of deep brain stimulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy develops rapidly in clinical application. The structures of deep brain stimulator and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment are introduced, the interactions are analyzed, and the two compatible problems of radio frequency (RF) heating and imaging artifact are summarized in this paper.

  17. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Amie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  18. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  19. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  20. Is automatic imitation a specialized form of stimulus-response compatibility? Dissociating imitative and spatial compatibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ty W; Longo, Matthew R; Bertenthal, Bennett I

    2012-03-01

    In recent years research on automatic imitation has received considerable attention because it represents an experimental platform for investigating a number of interrelated theories suggesting that the perception of action automatically activates corresponding motor programs. A key debate within this research centers on whether automatic imitation is any different than other long-term S-R associations, such as spatial stimulus-response compatibility. One approach to resolving this issue is to examine whether automatic imitation shows similar response characteristics as other classes of stimulus-response compatibility. This hypothesis was tested by comparing imitative and spatial compatibility effects with a two alternative forced-choice stimulus-response compatibility paradigm. The stimulus on each trial was a left or right hand with either the index or middle finger tapping down. Speeded responses were performed with the index or middle finger of the right hand in response to the identity or the left-right spatial position of the stimulus finger. Two different tasks were administered: one that involved responding to the stimulus (S-R) and one that involved responding to the opposite stimulus (OS-R; i.e., the one not presented on that trial). Based on previous research and a connectionist model, we predicted standard compatibility effects for both spatial and imitative compatibility in the S-R task, and a reverse compatibility effect for spatial compatibility, but not for imitative compatibility, in the OS-R task. The results from the mean response times, mean percentage of errors, and response time distributions all converged to support these predictions. A second noteworthy result was that the recoding of the finger identity in the OS-R task required significantly more time than the recoding of the left-right spatial position, but the encoding time for the two stimuli in the S-R task was equivalent. In sum, this evidence suggests that the processing of spatial

  1. Calculation of the Thermal Parameters and Change in The Share of Emissions of Harmful Substances During Combustion of Water-Fuel Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, S. Y.; Berg, V. I.; Petryakov, V. A.; Mostovaya, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The article investigates the possibility to improve efficiency and ecological compatibility of fuel oil with use water-fuel emulsion. The calculation of the thermal parameters and change in the share of emissions of harmful substances during combustion of water-fuel emulsion and optimal water content in water-fuel emulsion.

  2. The compatibility of telehealth with health-care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuononvirta, Tiina; Timonen, Markku; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Timonen, Olavi; Ylitalo, Kirsti; Kanste, Outi; Taanila, Anja

    2011-01-01

    There is no clear understanding about the concept of technology adoption in the health-care environment. Compatibility is one of the factors affecting telehealth adoption. We investigated the key factors of telehealth's compatibility with health centre activities. Qualitative research was carried out in 2007-2009, with 55 interviews in seven health centres and in one special care hospital. The people interviewed were physicians, nurses and physiotherapists. After analysing the interview material, we concluded that compatibility has three aspects: individual, process and organizational compatibility. Individual compatibility was manifested in four different ways: from the viewpoints of professionals, patients, communication and cooperation. Three aspects of process compatibility were introduced: scheduling, resources and complexity of processes. Modest organizing efforts with telehealth and even a lack of interest can be expressions of organizational compatibility. Functional and user-friendly technology is a basic precondition for telehealth compatibility. With thorough organizing, most of the compatibility challenges can be solved.

  3. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  4. CMOS compatible nanoscale nonvolatile resistance switching memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Hyun; Lu, Wei

    2008-02-01

    We report studies on a nanoscale resistance switching memory structure based on planar silicon that is fully compatible with CMOS technology in terms of both materials and processing techniques employed. These two-terminal resistance switching devices show excellent scaling potential well beyond 10 Gb/cm2 and exhibit high yield (99%), fast programming speed (5 ns), high on/off ratio (10(3)), long endurance (10(6)), retention time (5 months), and multibit capability. These key performance metrics compare favorably with other emerging nonvolatile memory techniques. Furthermore, both diode-like (rectifying) and resistor-like (nonrectifying) behaviors can be obtained in the device switching characteristics in a controlled fashion. These results suggest that the CMOS compatible, nanoscale Si-based resistance switching devices may be well suited for ultrahigh-density memory applications.

  5. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  6. Paleogeographical reconstructions compatible with Earth dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the study of the possibility of an increase in the size of the Earthbecause of a still unknown process. After a previous recognition of the existence in the Pacific of shape conformities in a number of pairs of continental and oceanic boundaries (Scalera, 1991, 1993a, a search for compatibility of these results with independent data sets, paleomagnetic and geological and paleontological was undertaken. The conclusion is that the Earth's dilatation is compatible with the used data, while nothing can be affirmed with certainty about the dilatation process or its continuity or discontinuity through geological time. A tentative model of the evolution of the trench-arc-backarc systems has been provided, tuning it in agreement with a dilatational planet.

  7. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution o...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  8. Ofloxacin intravenous. Compatibility with other antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janknegt, R; Stratermans, T; Cilissen, J; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M

    1991-10-18

    The physical and chemical compatibility of ofloxacin (infusion solution 100 ml = 200 mg) with amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, tobramycin, gentamicin, clindamycin, vancomycin, ceftazidime and piperacillin was investigated. Upon admixture with flucloxacillin a precipitate formed between 7 and 24 hours. No other physical or chemical incompatibilities were observed with any of the other combinations. Ofloxacin may be safely combined with the tested antimicrobial drugs, except for flucloxacillin.

  9. Making nonlocal reality compatible with relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that hypothetic nonlocal reality responsible for nonlocal quantum correlations between entangled particles cannot be consistent with relativity. I review the most frequent arguments of that sort, explain how they can all be circumvented, and present an explicit Bohmian model of nonlocal reality (compatible with quantum phenomena) that fully obeys the principle of relativistic covariance and does not involve a preferred Lorentz frame.

  10. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    OpenAIRE

    Tzika Aria; Astrakas Loukas; Weinberg Brian; Triantafyllou Christina; Muto Andrew; Khanicheh Azadeh; Mavroidis Constantinos

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR) compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, mo...

  11. Microwave spectrum compatibility in planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmeth, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of solar system exploration, basic functions of the Deep Space Network (DSN), deep space microwave links, space research compatibility problems, and DSN's interference susceptibility. To maintain the operational integrity of competing radio systems using the microwave spectrum, the technology must extend to make possible the shared use of the spectral ranges without the ill effects of interferences. Suggestions are given which are only examples of many possible techniques that can eliminate or reduce interferences.

  12. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  13. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  14. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Petach, Trevor A.; Baum, Brian K.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  15. Development of the CANDU high-burnup fuel design/analysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Sim, K. S.; Oh, D. J.; Park, J. H.; Jun, J. S.; Yoo, K. J.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains all the information related to the development of the CANDU advanced fuel, so-called CANFLEX-NU, which is composed of 43 elements with natural uranium fuel. Also, it contains the compatibility study of CANFLEX-RU which is considered as a CANDU high burnup fuel. This report describes the mechanical design, thermalhydraulic and safety evaluations of CANFLEX fuel bundle. (author). 38 refs., 24 tabs., 74 figs.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program, phase 1/1A. [design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell was studied for the purpose of improving the characteristics of the technology. Several facets were evaluated, namely: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility. Demonstrated advances were incorporated into a full scale hardware design. A single cell unit was fabricated. A substantial degree of success was demonstrated.

  17. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  18. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  19. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  20. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  1. [Miscellaneous Compatibility Determinations : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linked through this record are compatibility determinations from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal between the years 2005 and 2014. Included is a 2005 Compatibility...

  2. Shuttle Communications and Tracking, Avionics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    deSilva, K.; Hwu, Shian; Kindt, Kaylene; Kroll, Quin; Nuss, Ray; Romero, Denise; Schuler, Diana; Sham, Catherine; Scully, Robert

    2011-01-01

    By definition, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the capability of components, sub-systems, and systems, to operate in their intended electromagnetic environment, within an established margin of safety, and at design levels of performance. Practice of the discipline itself incorporates knowledge of various aspects of applied physics, materials science, and engineering across the board, and includes control and mitigation of undesirable electromagnetic interaction between intentional and unintentional emitters and receivers of radio frequency energy, both within and external to the vehicle; identification and control of the hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and fuels and propellants; and vehicle and system protection from the direct and indirect effects of lightning and various other forms of electrostatic discharge (ESD) threats, such as triboelectrification and plasma charging. EMC is extremely complex and far-reaching, affecting in some degree every aspect of the vehicle s design and operation. The most successful efforts incorporate EMC design features and techniques throughout design and fabrication of the vehicle s structure and components, as well as appropriate operational considerations with regard to electromagnetic threats in the operational environment, from the beginning of the design effort to the end of the life cycle of the manufactured product. This approach yields the highest design performance with the lowest cost and schedule impact.

  3. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...prices ever higher, and perhaps lead to intermittent fuel shortages as production fluctuates. Clearly, this competition for resources also provides oil...producers multiple options for selling their products, and raises the possibility that the US could face shortages resulting from shifts in

  4. Optical glass compatibility for the design of apochromatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gruescu C.; Nicoara I.; Popov D.; Bodea R.; Hora H.

    2008-01-01

    The design of apochromatic systems is difficult because of two problems: the glass sorts compatibility and the c1/ca arbitrary input ratio. The optical glass manufacturers offer a wide range of sorts, so that the choice of triplet compatible glasses becomes itself an important separate problem. The paper provides a solution of mathematical modeling for the glass compatibility and, practically, analyses the sorts presented by Schott GmbH. The original software provided 22 compatible glass trip...

  5. Dealumination treatment of zeolite for krypton gas adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Shin, Seol Woo; Park, Jang Jin; Lee, Ho Hee; Yang, Myoung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The concept of the direct use of spent fuel in CANDU reactors (DUPIC) is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU fuel from spent PWR fuel material. The heart of the DUPIC fuel cycle is the OREOX (Oxidation and Reduction of Oxide fuels) process. During this dry process, uranium from spent PWR fuel is oxidized and reduced to a fine powder, which forms the starting material for fabrication of DUPIC fuel pellets. During the OREOX process of DUPIC fuel fabrication, krypton is released as a noble fission gas. As fuel burnup proceeds, more fission products are formed. About 15 % of the fission products are inert gases such as xenon and krypton. The dealumination of zeolite is examined in this study in order to know that the structural changes in zeolite and the effect of krypton adsorption on zeolite.

  6. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... individual compatibility problems. (d) Cable operators shall provide such equipment at the request...

  7. 49 CFR 175.78 - Stowage compatibility of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage compatibility of cargo. 175.78 Section 175... Loading, Unloading and Handling § 175.78 Stowage compatibility of cargo. (a) For stowage on an aircraft..., Compatibility Group S, explosives are permitted to be transported aboard a passenger aircraft. Only...

  8. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and purpose. Sec. B150.3Requirement for noise map. Sec....

  10. Are Automatic Imitation and Spatial Compatibility Mediated by Different Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P.; Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Automatic imitation or "imitative compatibility" is thought to be mediated by the mirror neuron system and to be a laboratory model of the motor mimicry that occurs spontaneously in naturalistic social interaction. Imitative compatibility and spatial compatibility effects are known to depend on different stimulus dimensions--body…

  11. Compatibility testing of vacuum seal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P. A.; Rodin, W. A.

    1993-05-01

    Small scale materials compatibility testing was conducted for three elastomers considered for use as vacuum seal materials: Adiprene MOCA-cured; Adiprene Cyanacured; and Sylgard silastic rubber. The tests were conducted using orthogonal array designed experiments for each of the elastomers placed in contact with three materials commonly used during weapon disassembly operations: Duxseal, Sylgard 186 grease, and 2-propyl alcohol. The test results indicated that only the 2-propyl alcohol had a significant effect on the elastomer hardness and physical properties. The alcohol had the largest effect on the two Adiprene materials, and the silastic rubber was the least affected.

  12. Compatible Relaxation and Coarsening in Algebraic Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J J; Falgout, R D

    2009-09-22

    We introduce a coarsening algorithm for algebraic multigrid (AMG) based on the concept of compatible relaxation (CR). The algorithm is significantly different from standard methods, most notably because it does not rely on any notion of strength of connection. We study its behavior on a number of model problems, and evaluate the performance of an AMG algorithm that incorporates the coarsening approach. Lastly, we introduce a variant of CR that provides a sharper metric of coarse-grid quality and demonstrate its potential with two simple examples.

  13. Study of Electromagnetism Compatibility of Bleeper Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transmitted power will decrease, cross-modulate distortion and inter-modulate distortion will be caused and antenna pattern will shift if transmitted antennas are fixed together. All these will lead to the alteration of area coverage. According to the basic theory of electromagnetism compatibility a computer model is established. We do some quantitative analysis of the problems above and give total number, arrangement mode and distance between antennas of bleeper station that operate at 150 MHz. The relation of these factors above are also given. All these are basis of the arrangement of antenna group of bleeper station.

  14. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    This research examines how consumers with a creative mind-set are persuaded by advertising claims construed at different levels (i.e., abstract vs. concrete ad claims). Across four experiments, we show that consumers with a creative mindset are more persuaded by ad claims construed at a level...... incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  15. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  16. Thorium nuclear fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Do, Jae Bum; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Kyoung Kyum; Choi, In Kyu; Lee, Jae Won; Song, Woong Sup; Kim, Heong Woo

    1998-03-01

    Since thorium produces relatively small amount of TRU elements after irradiation in the reactor, it is considered one of possible media to mix with the elements to be transmuted. Both solid and molten-salt thorium fuel cycles were investigated. Transmutation concepts being studied involved fast breeder reactor, accelerator-driven subcritical reactor, and energy amplifier with thorium. Long-lived radionuclides, especially TRU elements, could be separated from spent fuel by a pyrochemical process which is evaluated to be proliferation resistance. Pyrochemical processes of IFR, MSRE and ATW were reviewed and evaluated in detail, regarding technological feasibility, compatibility of thorium with TRU, proliferation resistance, their economy and safety. (author). 26 refs., 22 figs

  17. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  18. Cesium chloride compatibility testing program: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G.H.

    1989-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the geologic disposal of the doubly encapsulated cesium chloride (CsCl) produced at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). Reliable estimates of long-term corrosion of the inner capsule material by the CsCl under repository storage conditions are needed to assess the hazards associated with geologic disposal of the fission product Cs. The Cesium Chloride Compatibility Program was carried out at PNL to obtain the short-term corrosion data required to accurately estimate long-term attack. In the compatibility tests six standard WESF CsCl capsules were placed vertically in individual insulated containers and allowed to self-heat to a nominal maximum 316L SS/CsCl interface temperature of 450{degree}C. The capsules were held at temperature for times ranging from 0.25 to 6 years. When a test was completed, the capsule was removed from the container and sectioned. Four samples were cut from the inner capsule at prescribed locations and subjected to metallographic examination. Corrosion was determined from photomicrographs of the samples. 16 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Integrated environmentally compatible soldering technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Iman, R.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, H.C.; Sorensen, N.R.; Vianco, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    Chemical fluxes are typically used during conventional electronic soldering to enhance solder wettability. Most fluxes contain very reactive, hazardous constituents that require special storage and handling. Corrosive flux residues that remain on soldered parts can severely degrade product reliability. The residues are removed with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or other hazardous solvents that contribute to ozone depletion, release volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, or add to the solvent waste stream. Alternative materials and processes that offer the potential for the reduction or elimination of cleaning are being developed to address these environmental issues. Timing of the effort is critical, since the targeted chemicals will soon be heavily taxed or banned. DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE/EM) has supported Sandia National Laboratories` Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID). Part of the ECM program involves the integration of several environmentally compatible soldering technologies for assembling electronics devices. Fluxless or {open_quotes}low-residue/no clean{close_quotes} soldering technologies (conventional and ablative laser processing, controlled atmospheres, ultrasonic tinning, protective coatings, and environmentally compatible fluxes) have been demonstrated at Sandia (SNL/NM), the University of California at Berkeley, and Allied Signal Aerospace-Kansas City Division (AS-KCD). The university demonstrations were directed under the guidance of Sandia staff. Results of the FY93 Soldering ID are presented in this report.

  20. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design for Powertrain Control Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ming; CUI Tao; LIU Bo-lan; ZHANG Fu-jun

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the electromaagnetic compatibility of powertrain control module (PCM),a system procedure of vehicular PCM electromagnetic alteration is presented in this paper.First of all,the box of the PCM is divided into different cabins to eliminate interferences between power supply circuit,analog circuit and digital circuit.Secondly,the working principle and electromagnetic (EM) characters of all the signals adopted by a typical PCM are analyzed.Then according to specific electromagnetic characters,different measures are adopted in corresponding signal process circuits or signal transfer cables,such as ground layout designing,power supply protecting,signal shielding and drive cable interference suppressing.Finally,further improvement may also needed regarding to practical electromagnetic compatibility test effects.The final test shows that,with all the measures mentioned above,the conducted emission of a PCM can be reduced by 20 dB;meanwhile,the radiated emission can be reduced by 30 dB comparing to the original system.

  1. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  2. Environmental effects of DFDF normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A DUPIC nuclear fuel is a newly developed fuel for CANDU reactors based on the concept of refabrication of spent PWR fuel by a dry process. Because a spent PWR fuel, a highly radioactive material, is used as a starting material, the experimental verification of DUPIC nuclear fuel fabrication requires an appropriate facility which should satisfy engineering requirements and guarantees safe operation. DUPIC nuclear fuel development team modified M6 hot-cell in IMEF to construct the dedicated facility(DFDF) for the experiment. The experiment with spent PWR fuel have been conducted since January of 2000. Environmental effects of DFDF normal operation have been investigated when DUPIC nuclear fuel is fabricated with the maximum capacity of 50 kg U/yr. The analysis results of the radiological safety of DFDF facility have shown that both national regulation limit and IMEF design criteria are satisfied.

  3. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  4. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  5. Ensuring Query Compatibility with Evolving XML Schemas

    CERN Document Server

    Genevès, Pierre; Quint, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    During the life cycle of an XML application, both schemas and queries may change from one version to another. Schema evolutions may affect query results and potentially the validity of produced data. Nowadays, a challenge is to assess and accommodate the impact of theses changes in rapidly evolving XML applications. This article proposes a logical framework and tool for verifying forward/backward compatibility issues involving schemas and queries. First, it allows analyzing relations between schemas. Second, it allows XML designers to identify queries that must be reformulated in order to produce the expected results across successive schema versions. Third, it allows examining more precisely the impact of schema changes over queries, therefore facilitating their reformulation.

  6. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  7. Compatibility of embryonic stem cells with biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita; Naujoks, Christian; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich; Ommerborn, Michelle; Lammers, Lydia

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal bone defects and atrophy of the jaws in an aging population are of special concern. Tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and biomaterials may offer new therapeutic options. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of ESCs with biomaterials and the influence of biomaterials on the osteogenic gene expression profile.Therefore, ESCs are cultured with various biomaterials. The cytocompatibility of murine ESCs is measured regarding the proliferation of the cells on the materials by CyQUANT assay, the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and the influence on the gene expression by real time PCR.The results show that insoluble collagenous bone matrix, followed by beta-tricalciumphosphate, is most suitable for bone tissue engineering regarding cell proliferation, and phenotype. The gene expression analysis indicates that biomaterials do influence the gene expression of ESCs.Our results provide new insight into the cytocompatibility of ESCs on different scaffolds.

  8. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  9. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  10. The resupply interface mechanism RMS compatibility test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stewart W.; Gallo, Frank G.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft on-orbit servicing consists of exchanging components such as payloads, orbital replacement units (ORUs), and consumables. To accomplish the exchange of consumables, the receiving vehicle must mate to the supplier vehicle. Mating can be accomplished by a variety of docking procedures. However, these docking schemes are mission dependent and can vary from shuttle bay berthing to autonomous rendezvous and docking. Satisfying the many docking conditions will require use of an innovative docking device. The device must provide fluid, electrical, pneumatic and data transfer between vehicles. Also, the proper stiffness must be obtained and sustained between the vehicles. A device to accomplish this, the resupply interface mechanism (RIM), was developed. The RIM is a unique device because it grasps the mating vehicle, draws the two vehicles together, simultaneously mates all connectors, and rigidizes the mating devices. The NASA-Johnson Manipulator Development Facility was used to study how compatible the RIM is to on orbit docking and berthing. The facility contains a shuttle cargo bay mockup with a remote manipulator system (RMS). This RMS is used to prepare crew members for shuttle missions involving spacecraft berthing operations. The MDF proved to be an excellant system for testing the RIM/RMS compatibility. The elements examined during the RIM JSC test were: RIM gross and fine alignment; berthing method sequence; visual cuing aids; utility connections; and RIM overall performance. The results showed that the RIM is a good device for spacecraft berthing operations. Mating was accomplished during every test run and all test operators (crew members) felt that the RIM is an effective device. The purpose of the JSC RIM test and its results are discussed.

  11. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  12. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  13. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law; Die Kernbrennstoffsteuer ist verfassungsgemaess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-02-13

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  14. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the synth

  15. Status of the atomized uranium silicide fuel development at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Park, H.D.; Kuk, I.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    While developing KMRR fuel fabrication technology an atomizing technique has been applied in order to eliminate the difficulties relating to the tough property of U{sub 3}Si and to take advantage of the rapid solidification effect of atomization. The comparison between the conventionally comminuted powder dispersion fuel and the atomized powder dispersion fuel has been made. As the result, the processes, uranium silicide powdering and heat treatment for U{sub 3}Si transformation, become simplified. The workability, the thermal conductivity and the thermal compatibility of fuel meat have been investigated and found to be improved due to the spherical shape of atomized powder. In this presentation the overall developments of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuel and the planned activities for applying the atomizing technique to the real fuel fabrication are described.

  16. Status of advanced carbide fuels: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis

    2002-01-01

    Solid solution, mixed uranium/refractory metal carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, so called ternary carbide or tri-carbide fuels have great potential for applications in next generation advanced nuclear power reactors. Because of their high melting points, high thermal conductivity, improved resistance to hot hydrogen corrosion, and good fission product retention, these advanced nuclear fuels have great potential for high performance reactors with increased safety margins. Despite these many benefits, some concerns regarding carbide fuels include compatibility issues with coolant and/or cladding materials and their endurance under the extreme conditions associated with nuclear thermal propulsion. The status of these fuels is reviewed to characterize their performance for space nuclear power applications. Results of current investigations are presented and as well as future directions of study for these advanced nuclear fuels. .

  17. Development of Melting Crucible Materials of Metallic Fuel Slug for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Lee, C. T.; Oh, S. J.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, C. B.; Ko, Y. M.; Woo, W. M

    2010-01-15

    The fabrication process of metallic fuel for SFR(sodium fast reactor) of Generation-IV candidate reactors is composed of the fabrication of fuel pin, fuel rod, and fuel assembly. The key technology of the fabrication process for SFR can be referred to the fabrication technology of fuel pin. As SFR fuel contains MA(minor actinide) elements proceeding the recycling of actinide elements, it is so important to extinguish MA during irradiation in SFR, included in nuclear fuel through collection of volatile MA elements during fabrication of fuel pin. Hence, it is an imminent circumstance to develop the fabrication process of fuel pin. This report is an state-of art report related to the characteristics of irradiation performance for U-Zr-Pu metallic fuel, and the apparatus and the technology of conventional injection casting process. In addition, to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional injection casting and the U-Zr-Pu fuel, new fabrication technologies such as the gravity casting process, the casting of fuel pin to metal-barrier mold, the fabrication of particulate metallic fuel utilizing centrifugal atomization is surveyed and summarized. The development of new U-10Mo-X metallic fuel as nuclear fuel having a single phase in the temperature range between 550 and 950 .deg. C, reducing the re-distribution of the fuel elements and improving the compatibility between fuel and cladding, is also surveyed and summarized.

  18. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Wireless Sensor Network Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper is concerned with the sensor nodes’ hardware design of the wireless sensor network.We focus on the electromagnetic compatibility design of the printed circuit board.In this paper,we will give a schematic diagram first,and then,according to the layout,wiring rules and the knowledge of electromagnetic compatibility, we will present the design of the printed circuit board which has a good characteristic of electromagnetic compatibility.

  19. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  20. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  1. Compatibility Determination [Public Use on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determinations for wildlife observation and photography, interpretation and environmental education, hunting, fishing, forest management (timber sales...

  2. [Magnetic resonance compatibility research for coronary mental stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Li; Wang, Shuo; Shang, Ruyao; Wang, Chunren

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.

  3. 19 CFR 10.62b - Aircraft turbine fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person making the certification possesses evidence (documentary or electronic) available for Customs... electronically, in a format compatible with Customs electronic record-keeping systems. (h) Recordkeeping. The... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft turbine fuel. 10.62b Section...

  4. Plasma-driven dissociation of CO2 for fuel synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Waldo; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Wolf, Bram; Peeters, Floran; Welzel, Stefan; Bekerom, van den Dirk; Harder, den Niek; Goede, Adelbert; Graswinckel, Martijn; Groen, Pieter Willem; Kopecki, Jochen; Leins, Martina; Rooij, van Gerard; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Sanden, van de Richard

    2016-01-01

    Power-to-gas is a storage technology aiming to convert surplus electricity from renewable energy sources like wind and solar power into gaseous fuels compatible with the current network infrastructure. Results of CO2 dissociation in a vortexstabilized microwave plasma reactor are presented. The micr

  5. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  6. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  7. Oxygen Compatibility Assessment of Components and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel; Sparks, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazards are inherent in oxygen systems and a storied history of fires in rocket engine propulsion components exists. To detect and mitigate these fire hazards requires careful, detailed, and thorough analyses applied during the design process. The oxygen compatibility assessment (OCA) process designed by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) can be used to determine the presence of fire hazards in oxygen systems and the likelihood of a fire. This process may be used as both a design guide and during the approval process to ensure proper design features and material selection. The procedure for performing an OCA is a structured step-by-step process to determine the most severe operating conditions; assess the flammability of the system materials at the use conditions; evaluate the presence and efficacy of ignition mechanisms; assess the potential for a fire to breach the system; and determine the reaction effect (the potential loss of life, mission, and system functionality as the result of a fire). This process should be performed for each component in a system. The results of each component assessment, and the overall system assessment, should be recorded in a report that can be used in the short term to communicate hazards and their mitigation and to aid in system/component development and, in the long term, to solve anomalies that occur during engine testing and operation.

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  9. BARRIERS TO COMMERCIALIZATION OF PASSIVE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS: A REVEIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. SHRIVASTAVA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are electro-chemical reactors which realize the direct conversion of the chemical energy of reactants to electrical energy, with high efficiency and high environmental compatibility. This article is concerned with one of the most advance fuel cells- direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. We present a comprehensive review on the commercialization barriers of passive DMFCs. The paper also summarizes past research efforts and possible future directions towards these problems.

  10. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or...

  11. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  12. Graph Triangulations and the Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Vakati, Sudheer

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the compatibility of a collection of unrooted phylogenetic trees as a question of determining whether a graph derived from these trees --- the display graph --- has a specific kind of triangulation, which we call legal. Our result is a counterpart to the well known triangulation-based characterization of the compatibility of undirected multi-state characters.

  13. CMOS-compatible LVOF-based visible microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a CMOS-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF) visible micro-spectrometer. The CMOS-compatible post process for fabrication of the LVOF has been used for integration of the LVOF with a CMOS chip containing a 128-element photodiode array and readout circuitry. Fabricati

  14. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  15. 14 CFR 36.3 - Compatibility with airworthiness requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. 36.3 Section 36.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Compatibility with airworthiness requirements. It must be shown that the aircraft meets the...

  16. 47 CFR 68.112 - Hearing aid-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility. 68.112 Section 68.112 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED... Hearing aid-compatibility. (a) Coin telephones. All new and existing coin-operated telephones,...

  17. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Compatibility testing. 493.863 Section 493.863 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.863 Standard; Compatibility testing. (a) Failure to attain...

  18. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...

  19. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  20. 46 CFR 154.552 - Cargo hose: Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Compatibility. 154.552 Section 154.552 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.552 Cargo hose: Compatibility. Liquid and vapor cargo hoses must: (a) Not chemically...

  1. Morphology and Compatibility of Compatibilized Polyethersulfone and Polycarbonate Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-bo; JIANG Dong; WU Wei-chun; JIANG Zhen-hua

    2005-01-01

    A PES-PC(polyethersulfone-polycarbonate) multi block random copolymer was synthesized with two oligomers, polyethersulfone and polycarbonate. The effects of the copolymer, as a compatibilizer, on the morphology and compatibility of the PES-PC blends were investigated. It was found that the addition of this copolymer to the PES-PC blends could improve their compatibility.

  2. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible... for export) or imported for use in the United States after August 16, 1989, must be hearing...

  3. 47 CFR 68.414 - Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. 68.414... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.414 Hearing aid-compatibility: Enforcement. Enforcement of §§ 68.4 and 68.112 is hereby delegated to those...

  4. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  5. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  6. Impact of compatibility on the organization of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Deok-Sun

    2013-08-01

    Distinct relationships such as activation, inhibition, cooperation, and competition are not established independently but in a correlated manner in complex systems. Thus the patterns of one type of interaction may reflect the impacts of other classes of interactions, but its quantitative understanding remains to be done. Referring to the plant-pollinator mutualistic networks, here we propose and investigate the structural features of a model bipartite network, in which the mutualistic relationship between two different types of nodes is established under the influence of the compatibility among the nodes of the same type. Interestingly, we find that the degree distributions obtained for extremely broad compatibility distributions are similar to those for a constant compatibility, both of which deviate from those for the Gaussian compatibility distributions. We present the analytic arguments to explain this finding. Also the dependence of the topological similarity of two nodes on their compatibility is illustrated. We discuss the application of our findings to complex systems.

  7. Determining Compatibilities of Reactive Dyes in Pad Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠天民

    2001-01-01

    Compatibilities of reactive dyes were conventionally shown by exhausting curves. But the change of proportion of dyes in padding dyebath was difficult for pad dyeing to be described by these curves. In this paper, a kind of simulation of pad dyeing process was used to determine dyestuff compatibility in pad dyeing for ramie and linen fabrics. Seven reactive dyes were divided into three groups and tested., The group with Cibacron Yellow C - 2R, Red C - R, and Blue C - R showed very good compatibility both for ramie and linen,and the other two groups of dyes gave out correspondingly low compatibilities in the pad dyeing tests. The results of the method for determining the compatibility of dyes displayed good consistency with the actul pad dyeing process.

  8. Characterization of an Auto-Compatible Default Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU DaoYun(许道云); DING DeCheng(丁德成); ZHANG MingYi(张明义)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an equivalence condition for deciding whether a default theory isan auto-compatible default one is presented. Under the condition, the existence of extension of anauto-compatible default theory is a natural result. By introducing a well-ordering over the set D ofdefault rules, the extensions of an auto-compatible default theory (D, W) can be computed directly.The condition represents clearly the characterization of an auto-compatible default theory, andsome properties about auto-compatible default theory, such as semi-monotonicity, become naturalcorollaries. Based on the characterization, the revision of default beliefs is discussed to ensure theexistence of extension of the default theory, and the method is applied to investigate stable modelsof a general logic program.

  9. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue

    2006-02-01

    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  10. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  11. Inheritance of self-compatibility in almond: breeding strategies to assure self-compatibility in the progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; Dicenta, F

    2003-03-01

    To assure self-compatibility in the progenies, three different crosses were conducted for the first time in an almond breeding programme: self-pollination (266 descendants from 30 families), crosses between parents sharing an S-allele (108 descendants from five families) and crosses with homozygous self-compatible parents (62 descendants from five families). Depending on the cross, self-compatibility in the progenies was determined by observing pollen tube growth (by means of fluorescence microscopy), stylar S-RNases analysis or allele-specific PCR. The results obtained fit with the accepted hypothesis of inheritance of self-compatibility and the three crossing strategies used ensured 100% of self-compatible descendants. These strategies increase the efficiency of the breeding programme and avoid the laborious task of evaluating this characteristic. From the breeding point of view, self-fertilisation and crosses between relatives tend to produce inbreeding. Furthermore, these methods reduce the possibilities of choosing the parental combination. The use of homozygous self-compatible parents does not have any of these disadvantages. As far as we know, this is the first time that allele-specific PCR has been used for early selection of self-compatible seedlings. The advantages and disadvantages of the three methodologies used to determine self-compatibility are discussed.

  12. SILICON COMPATIBLE ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONATORS: DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Continuous advancement in wireless technology and silicon microfabrication has fueled exciting growth in wireless products. The bulky size of discrete vibrating mechanical devices such as quartz crystals and surface acoustic wave resonators impedes the ultimate miniaturization of single-chip transceivers. Fabrication of acoustic wave resonators on silicon allows complete integration of a resonator with its accompanying circuitry.  Integration leads to enhanced performance, better functionality with reduced cost at large volume production. This paper compiles the state-of-the-art technology of silicon compatible acoustic resonators, which can be integrated with interface circuitry. Typical acoustic wave resonators are surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators.  Performance of the resonator is measured in terms of quality factor, resonance frequency and insertion loss. Selection of appropriate piezoelectric material is significant to ensure sufficient electromechanical coupling coefficient is produced to reduce the insertion loss. The insulating passive SiO2 layer acts as a low loss material and aims to increase the quality factor and temperature stability of the design. The integration technique also is influenced by the fabrication process and packaging.  Packageless structure using AlN as the additional isolation layer is proposed to protect the SAW device from the environment for high reliability. Advancement in miniaturization technology of silicon compatible acoustic wave resonators to realize a single chip transceiver system is still needed. ABSTRAK: Kemajuan yang berterusan dalam teknologi tanpa wayar dan silikon telah menguatkan pertumbuhan yang menarik dalam produk tanpa wayar. Saiz yang besar bagi peralatan mekanikal bergetar seperti kristal kuarza menghalang pengecilan untuk merealisasikan peranti cip. Silikon serasi  gelombang akustik resonator mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk menggantikan unsur

  13. Physical Compatibility of Propofol-Sufentanil Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbytovská, Jarmila; Gallusová, Jana; Vidlářová, Lucie; Procházková, Kamila; Šimek, Jan; Štěpánek, František

    2017-03-01

    instability that could lead to particle enlargement; thus, fat embolism should not be a risk after their intravenous application. However, our long-term stability study revealed differences between commercially available preparations containing the same active ingredient; some of the mixtures showed an increase in particle size and polydispersity over a longer period. Although our results should not be generalized beyond the particular propofol-sufentanil preparations and concentrations studied here, they do suggest that, as a general principle, a compatibility study should be performed for any preparation before the first intravenous application to exclude the risk of droplet aggregation.

  14. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  15. Fuel cells - from the laboratory to the road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H. [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell faces stiff competition from existing automotive powerplants and other Hybrid APUs. To be successful, the Fuel Cell will have to demonstrate real customer advantages such as fuel economy and emissions. The PEM technology has an inherent advantage over other powerplants in both thermal efficiency and emission performance, and as such fits in very well with the future regulations that strive to clean up the environment. In addition, it will need to be cost competitive and provide acceptable performance. The majority of development activity on PEM Fuel Cells to date has concentrated primarily in the area of Stack refinement and optimization with improvements coming in higher power densities and higher specific power. To make the Fuel Cell compatible with an automotive environment the entire system will need to be analyzed, understood, and then engineered to work together in an efficient manner.

  16. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  17. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  18. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  19. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  20. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  1. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. To date, our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. This report provides summaries of the progress toward evaluation of the viscosity impacts of lubricity additives, completion of both experimental systems and a summary of the plan for completion of the project objectives.

  2. Automatic imitation? Imitative compatibility affects responses at high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Imitation involves matching the visual representation of another's action onto the observer's own motor program for that action. However, there has been some debate regarding the extent to which imitation is "automatic"-that is, occurs without attention. Participants performed a perceptual load task in which images of finger movements were presented as distractors. Responses to target letter stimuli were performed via finger movements that could be imitatively compatible (requiring the same finger movement) or incompatible with the distractor movements: In this common stimulus-response compatibility manipulation, the stimulus set comprises images of the response movements, producing an imitative compatibility effect. Attention to the distractor movements was manipulated by altering perceptual load through increasing the number of nontarget letter stimuli. If imitation requires attention, then at high perceptual load, imitative compatibility should not affect response times. In contrast, imitative compatibility influenced response times at high perceptual load, demonstrating that distractor movements were processed. However, the compatibility effect was reversed, suggesting that longer response times at high perceptual load tap into an inhibitory stage of distractor movement processing. A follow-up experiment manipulating temporal delay between targets and distractor movements supported this explanation. Further experiments confirmed that nonmovement distractor stimuli in the same configuration produced standard perceptual load effects and that results were not solely due to effector compatibility. These data suggest that imitation can occur without attention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  4. Investigation of the Compatibility Between ADS Target Material With Coolant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At present, the program of the compatibility study on ADS project of China Institute of Atomic Energy is focused on the compatibility tests for the tungsten with water and sodium. An ADS verification facility is proposed in next phase of ADS project, an existent swimming pool reactor will be repack as the subcritical reactor system, and tungsten will be used as the target. On the other hand, our CEFR is being constructed now, it may be one of the options as the subcritical reactor system of ADS, thus, it is necessary to understand the compatibility characteristics of tungsten with sodium and water.

  5. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value.

  6. NMR STUDY ON THE COMPATIBILITY OF ACR/PVC BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoqing; QIU Lingshi; WANG Dongsheng; WANG Yuanshen

    1988-01-01

    A 300MHz solid NMR study on the compatibility of ACR (poly (methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylate),in the ratio of 1:1)-PVC (poly (vinyl chloride)) blends is reported. Spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2)relaxation time of ACR, PVC and their blends are recorded in the temperature range from 215K to 355K.Experimental results indicate that ACR and PVC are compatible with each other and the domain size is smaller than 25 nm, but heterogeneities of molecular dimensions still exist. Some problems of mechanism of compatibility and data analysis are also discussed.

  7. Compatibility of Soybean Protein and Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈婕; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2004-01-01

    Bicomponent fibers were wet-spun from soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol). The fiber was brittle and showed a high frequency of breakage upon drawing and the bad compatibility between soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) was thought to be the causes for the poor drawability. Our effort was then to study the soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution, with the aim of trying to improve the components' compatibility and to determine the proper solution condition for dissolving them.The effects of alkali, sodium sulfite and urea on the compatibility of the solution were examined.

  8. SPATIAL COMPATIBLE USER GROUPING ALGORITHM FOR MULTIUSER MIMO SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Niu Zhisheng

    2007-01-01

    A spatial compatible user grouping algorithm is proposed to reduce CoChannel Interference (CCI) in Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) multiuser Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)systems. We evaluate the interferences among users by use of distances between row spaces spanned by users' channel matrixes, then control frequency sharing according to the compatible user grouping algorithm. Results show that the row space distance algorithm outperforms others because it can fully utilize the information from users' channel matrixes, especially the matrix structure information. The results also prove that the algorithm based on channel matrix structure analysis is a better candidate for spatial compatibility approximation.

  9. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  10. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  11. COMPATIBILITY OF PVC WITH POLYURETHANES OF DIFFERENT SOFT SEGMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fengfei; ZHANG Xian; HU Shiru; MA Dezhu; LUO Xiaolie; XU Mao

    1988-01-01

    Blends of PVC and polyurethanes with four different soft segments of molecular weight 1000 were prepared and studied by dynamic mechanical and DSC techniques. It was found that the compatibility of PVC with segmented polyurethanes was related to the mixing of PVC molecules and the soft segments of the polyurethanes. Polyester based polyurethanes are more compatible with PVC than polyether based polyurethanes. Solution cast blends of PVC with PCL-polyurethane (1/2/1) exhibit single and narrow glass transition, while the blends with PPO-polyurethane (1/2/1) are completely incompatible. The compatibility was found to decrease with increasing hard segment content for all the polyurethanes used. The methods of blend preparation may change the compatibility of PVC/PU blends through their influence on the mixing or demixing of the hard and soft segments.

  12. Optical glass compatibility for the design of apochromatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruescu C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of apochromatic systems is difficult because of two problems: the glass sorts compatibility and the c1/ca arbitrary input ratio. The optical glass manufacturers offer a wide range of sorts, so that the choice of triplet compatible glasses becomes itself an important separate problem. The paper provides a solution of mathematical modeling for the glass compatibility and, practically, analyses the sorts presented by Schott GmbH. The original software provided 22 compatible glass triplets. The authors explored the possibilities of enlarging the c1/ca ratio from the value 0.6 indicated in the literature to a range of [0.5…0.8]. Therefore, they designed and analyzed a set of 88 triplets. A correct glass choice can insure twice-larger apertures than the traditional ones for best quality apochromats (diffraction-limited.

  13. Standards for compatibility of printed circuit and component lead materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Study of packaging of microminiature electronic components reveals methods of improving compatibility of lead materials, joining techniques, transfer molding concepts, printed circuit board materials, and process and material specifications.

  14. [Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan]: Compatibility Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document states that the actions proposed in the 2000 Florida Panther NWR Comprehensive Conservation Plan are compatible with Refuge goals.

  15. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    高木, 康夫; 米沢, 憲造; 村山, 大; 西村, 信孝; 花田, 雄一; 山崎, 謙一

    2010-01-01

    .... The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC...

  16. Compatibility Determination : Hunting of migratory birds and resident game

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Compatibility Determination for the Minnesota Valley NWR and WMD proposed Hunting Plan. Refuge purposes are outlined and proposed hunting activities are...

  17. Strain compatibility assessment for SRB sprayable ablator MSA-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tensile and compressive strain compatibility testing was performed on as-sprayed samples of the Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster external ablator material, MSA-1. Strain gages on the aluminum substrate were used to monitor strain. Strain compatibility was determined as the percent strain in the substrate at first visual evidence of MSA-1 failure. The 1/8-in. MSA-1, baselined for large areas of the SRB external skin, was characterized by a strain compatibility of 1.5 to 1.8 percent, which far exceeded the yield range of the metal substrate. Thicker MSA-1 applications (1.4 to 3/8 in.) were characterized by a lower level of strain compatibility, which appeared to be a manifestation of application limitations.

  18. Energetics and Compatibility of Plasticizers in Composite Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rm. Muthiah; U. I. Somasundaran; T. L. Verghese; V. A. Thornas

    1989-01-01

    ...) ter polymer andhydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) have been reported. The compatibility of all the plasticizers on HTPB binder was also studied at different concentration levels and temperatures using Brookfield viscometer and reported. The mechanism of plasticization is also reviewed.

  19. Nonclassical Symmetries for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations via Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa F. El-Sabbagh; Ahmad T. Ali

    2011-01-01

    The determining equations for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of nonlinear partial differential equations with arbitrary order can be obtained by requiring the compatibility between the original equations and the invariant surface conditions. The (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation, Boussinesq equation, and the dispersive wave equations in shallow water serve as examples i11ustrating how compatibility leads quickly and easily to the determining equations for their nonclassical symmetries.

  20. IMPACT OF DME-DIESEL FUEL BLEND PROPERTIES ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Andre Boehman; Kimberly Wain; Wallis Lloyd; Joseph M. Perez; Donald Stiver; Joseph Conway

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this research program are to develop information on lubricity and viscosity improvers and their impact on the wear mechanisms in fuel injectors operating on blends of dimethyl ether (DME) and diesel fuel. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In the shuttle bus project, we have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Our strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. In this project, we have sought to develop methods for extending the permissible DME content in the DME-diesel blends without experiencing rapid injector failure due to wear. Our activities have covered three areas: examination of the impact of lubricity additives on the viscosity of DME, development of a high-pressure lubricity test apparatus for studies of lubricity and viscosity improvers and development of an injector durability stand for evaluation of wear rates in fuel injectors. The first two of these areas have resulted in valuable information about the limitations of lubricity and viscosity additives that are presently available in terms of their impact on the viscosity of DME and on wear rates on injector hardware. The third area, that of development of an injector durability test stand, has not resulted in a functioning experiment. Some information is provided in this report to identify the remaining tasks that need to be performed to make the injector stand operational. The key observations from the work are that when blended at 25 wt.% in either diesel fuel or Biodiesel fuel, DME requires more than 5 wt

  1. Backward compatibility effects in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Alan A; Maquestiaux, François; Festini, Sara B; Frazier, Kathryn; Krimmer, Patricia J

    2016-07-01

    In many dual-task situations, responses to the second of two tasks are slowed when the time between tasks is short. The response-selection bottleneck model of dual-task performance accounts for this phenomenon by assuming that central processing of the second task is blocked by a bottleneck until central processing of Task 1 is complete. This assumption could be called into question if it could be demonstrated that the response to Task 2 affected the central processing of Task 1, a backward response compatibility effect. Such effects are well-established in younger adults. Backward compatibility effects in older (as well as younger) adults were explored in two experiments. The first experiment found clear backward response compatibility effects for younger adults but no evidence of them for older adults. The second experiment explored backward stimulus compatibility and found similar effects in both younger and older adults. Evidence possibly consistent with some pre-bottleneck processing of Task 2 central stages also was found in the second experiment in both age groups. For younger adults, the results provide further evidence falsifying the claim of an immutable response selection bottleneck. For older adults, the evidence suggested that Task 2 affects Task 1 when there is stimulus compatibility but not when there is response compatibility.

  2. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  3. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  4. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facility's production process.

  5. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY: Environmental... tank (UST) compatibility requirement as it applies to UST systems storing gasoline containing greater... underground storage tank systems greater clarity in demonstrating compatibility of their tank systems...

  6. Monomethylhydrazine versus hydrazine fuels - Test results using a 100 pound thrust bipropellant rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Stechman, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A test program was performed to evaluate hydrazine (N2H4) as a fuel for a 445 Newton (100 lbf) thrust bipropellant rocket engine. Results of testing with an identical thruster utilizing monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are included for comparison. Engine performance with hydrazine fuel was essentially identical to that experienced with monomethylhydrazine although higher combustor wall temperatures (approximately 400 F) were obtained with hydrazine. Results are presented which indicate that hydrazine as a fuel is compatible with Marquardt bipropellant rocket engines which use monomethylhydrazine as a baseline fuel.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  8. Compatibility of technologies with regulations in the waste management of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Part I. Initial information base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Kolba, V.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the information base that was collected and reviewed in preparation for carrying out an analysis of the compatibility with regulations of waste management technologies for disposal of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Based on the review of this literature, summaries are presented here of waste-form characteristics, packaging, transportation, and disposal methods. Also discussed are regulations that might apply to all operations involved in disposal of the four nuclides, including the processing of irradiated fuel in a fuel reprocessing plant, packaging, storage, transport, and final disposal. The compliance assessment derived from this information is reported in a separate document. 309 references.

  9. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    thermophysical properties of the fuel and their compatibility with the reactor coolant, with corresponding differences in the challenges presented to the reactor developers. Accident phenomena are discussed for the sodium-cooled fast reactor based on the mechanistic progression of conditions from accident initiation to accident termination, whether a benign state is achieved or more severe consequences are expected. General principles connecting accident phenomena and fuel properties are developed from the oxide and metal fuel safety analyses, providing guidelines that can be used as part of the evaluation for selection of fuel type for the sodium-cooled fast reactor.

  10. A rocket-based combined-cycle engine prototype demonstrating comprehensive component compatibility and effective mode transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; He, Guoqiang; Liu, Peijin; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Lele

    2016-11-01

    A rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine was designed to demonstrate its broad applicability in the ejector and ramjet modes within the flight range from Mach 0 to Mach 4.5. To validate the design, a prototype was fabricated and tested as a freejet engine operating at flight Mach 3 using hydrocarbon fuel. The proposed design was a single module, heat sink steel alloy model with an interior fuel supply and active control system and a fully integrated flowpath that was comprehensively instrumented with pressure sensors. The mass capture and back pressure resistance of the inlet were numerically investigated and experimentally calibrated. The combustion process and rocket operation during mode transition were investigated by direct-connect tests. Finally, the comprehensive component compatibility and multimodal operational capability of the RBCC engine prototype was validated through freejet tests. This paper describes the design of the RBCC engine prototype, reviews the testing procedures, and discusses the experimental results of these efforts in detail.

  11. Image Theory's Compatibility Test and Evaluations of the Status Quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond; Bissell; Beach

    1998-01-01

    The research on image theory's concept of progress decisions about either (1) the acceptability of the status quo vis a desired state or (2) the acceptability of movement toward a desired state has been limited to the laboratory. To demonstrate the feasibility of research on nonlaboratory, job-related progress decisions and to develop methods for doing it with minimal intrusion on participant work time, two experiments examined evaluations of the status quo vis a desired state in the context of three organizations: a controller's office, a pretrial services office, and a chain of fast food restaurants. Experiment 1 used fairly elaborate, time consuming methods in the controller's office and pretrial services office to measure the compatibility between participants' images of desirable supervision and their images of current supervision as well as their satisfaction with both supervision and with the organization. In both cases, as compatibility decreased, satisfaction decreased, but satisfaction with the organization appeared to derive from satisfaction with supervision rather than directly from compatibility. Experiment 2 measured the same concepts in the fast food chain using simple, single-item methods, obtaining roughly the same results as Experiment 1, except that it also demonstrated that hope for change can mitigate the effects of incompatibility on satisfaction. These results provide evidence for the role of compatibility in decision making and for the feasibility of using simple methods of measuring compatibility, acceptability, and hope in nonlaboratory research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  13. Reversed effects of spatial compatibility in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müsseler, Jochen; Aschersleben, Gisa; Arning, Katrin; Proctor, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Effects of spatial stimulus-response compatibility are often attributed to automatic position-based activation of the response elicited by a stimulus. Three experiments examined this assumption in natural scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants performed simulated driving, and a person appeared periodically on either side of the road. Participants were to turn toward a person calling a taxi and away from a person carelessly entering the street. The spatially incompatible response was faster than the compatible response, but neutral stimuli showed a typical benefit for spatially compatible responses. Placing the people further in the visual periphery eliminated the advantage for the incompatible response and showed an advantage for the compatible response. In Experiment 3, participants made left-right joystick responses to a vicious dog or puppy in a walking scenario. Instructions were to avoid the vicious dog and approach the puppy or vice versa. Results again showed an advantage for the spatially incompatible response. Thus, the typically observed advantage of spatially compatible responses was reversed for dangerous situations in natural scenes.

  14. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  15. Physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of aluminum nitride insulator coatings for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1996-04-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of various concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. Based on the requirements for an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the MHD pressure drop during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, AlN was selected as a candidate coating material for the Li self-cooled blanket concept. This report discusses the results from an ongoing study of physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical compatibility of AlN electrical insulator coatings in a liquid Li environment. Details are presented on the AlN coating fabrication methods, and experimental data are reported for microstructures, chemistry of coatings, pretreatment of substrate, heat treatment of coatings, hardness data for coatings, coating/lithium interactions, and electrical resistance before and after exposure to lithium. Thermodynamic calculations are presented to establish regions of stability for AlN coatings in an Li environment as a function of O concentration and temperature, which can aid in-situ development of AlN coatings in Li.

  16. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  17. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  18. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  19. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  20. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  1. Monolithic CMOS-compatible zero-index metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Vulis, Daryl I; Reshef, Orad; Camayd-Muñoz, Philip; Yin, Mei; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko; Mazur, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Zero-index materials exhibit exotic optical properties that can be utilized for integrated-optics applications. However, practical implementation requires compatibility with complementary metallic-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. We demonstrate a CMOS-compatible zero-index metamaterial consisting of a square array of air holes in a 220-nm-thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. This design is achieved through a Dirac-cone dispersion. The metamaterial is entirely composed of silicon and offers compatibility through low-aspect-ratio structures that can be simply fabricated in a standard device layer. This platform enables mass adoption and exploration of zero-index-based photonic devices at low cost and high fidelity.

  2. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  3. Compatibility and kidney transplantation: the way to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxiadis, Ilias I N

    2012-01-01

    Long lasting debates in the past questioned the relevance of any sort of compatibility in post mortal kidney transplantation. It is for no say that fully compatible transplants have the highest chances for a long patient and graft survival. In the present report the use of HLA-DR as a representative of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II genes in the allocation of organs is discussed. The major arguments are the easiness to offer to patients a compatible graft in a relatively short waiting time, an increase in graft survival, the less sensitization during the transplantation period, and the lower waiting time for a retransplant. Even if the number of organ donors remains the same a lowering of the mean waiting time is expected because of the longer period of graft survival.

  4. Compatibility of novel blends from polyolefin and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-sheng(杨伏生); ZHOU An-ning(周安宁)

    2004-01-01

    Melt blends of low-density polyethylene(LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate(EVA) and coal with various compositions were prepared through reactive extrusion. The rheological behaviour was studied with respect to the effect of blend ratio, shear rate using a rheometer to gain an understanding of processing parameters controlling industrial application. Compatibility was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results revealed that LDPE/EVA/coal is a partly compatible system showing pseudo-plastic behaviour, increase in viscosity with increased coal content appeares evident only at low shear rate region, viscosity tends to keep consistent approximately but irrelates to coal content at higher shear rate. Blends viscosity and compatibility are attibuted to changes in LDPE crystalline structure and entanglement, together with interaction between macromolecular aliphatic chains in coal and amorphous phase in LDPE and EVA at the boundaries of phases, which comes forth during the rearrangement process of the crystalline structure.

  5. The Compatibility in Optic Fiber Smart Concrete and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The compatibility between a fiber optical sensor and concrete structure in the optic fiber smart concrete is studied.The methods of improving the compatibility are proposed based on theory analysing, and a novel fiber optical sensor was developed. The experimental results show that the novel structure of fiber optical sensor and the scheme of the protecting layer of epoxy resin bed composite not only enable the sensor to be applied in strict environment, but also can monitor the beginning propagation and breaking of concrete cracks. The results also indicate that the sensor will maintain its properties in the case of large deformation and that it has the high compatibility with concrete structure and can meet special needs of the intelligent materials and structure.

  6. Compatibility of repair mortar with migrating corrosion inhibiting admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjegovic, D.; Ukrainczyk, V. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Ukrainczyk, B. [LGM, Zagreb (Croatia); Miksic, B. [CORTEC Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    One of the methods for corrosion protection of reinforced concrete is the use of migrating corrosion inhibitor as an admixture in repair mortars. The admixture must be effective for corrosion protection and compatible with polymers added to repair mortar to improve properties of fresh and hardened mortar. This paper presents experimental results on compatibility of a migrating corrosion inhibitor added to two repair mortars based on an inorganic binder modified with polymers. The influence of a migrating inhibitor on the properties of fresh and hardened mortars was tested. The effectiveness on reinforcement corrosion protection has been tested according to ASTM G 109. Test results prove that the investigated migrating inhibitor is compatible with repair mortars and that it delays corrosion of the reinforcement.

  7. Compatibility and sex in a snail-schistosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J P

    2001-04-01

    Knowledge of the genetics underlying resistance to parasitic infection has important repercussions for our understanding of infection dynamics and the mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution. The aim here was to determine for a Biomphalaria glabrato-Schistosoma mansoni system whether (1) resistance is dominant over susceptibility, (2) it is possible to crossbreed snails to be simultaneously resistant and/or susceptible to more than one parasite strain and (3) compatibility genotype affects reproductive strategy. Using replicate snail strains artificially selected for either resistance or susceptibility to single replicate parasite strains, individual snails from each line were paired with a selected partner of matched or non-matched compatibility status and cross-breeding was identified by RAPD-PCR. The resulting compatibility phenotype of all offspring was determined. Support for all 3 hypotheses were obtained. The results are discussed in terms of their applied and theoretical implications.

  8. Almost compatible observables in quantum tests of contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Kleinmann, Matthias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake [Institutionen foer Systemteknik och Matematiska Institutionen, Linkoepings Universitet (Sweden); Kirchmair, Gerhard; Zaehringer, Florian; Gerritsma, Rene; Blatt, Rainer; Roos, Christian [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The Kochen-Specker-Theorem proves that in a hidden variable description of a quantum system, the value of a particular property (observable) depends on the context in which the value is to be revealed. The conflict here is between the hidden variable approach and the theory of quantum mechanics. In order to establish this conflict as the inability to employ a hidden variable description of an actual experiment, it has been suggested to extend the notion of non-contextuality to sequential measurements of compatible observables. However, in an experimental implementation the requirement of perfect compatibility cannot be reached. We show that this ''compatibility loophole'' can be addressed and that a recent experiment using trapped ions then excludes a large class of non-contextual hidden variable models.

  9. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  10. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  11. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  12. Compatible finite element spaces for geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Compatible finite elements provide a framework for preserving important structures in equations of geophysical fluid dynamics, and are becoming important in their use for building atmosphere and ocean models. We survey the application of compatible finite element spaces to geophysical fluid dynamics, including the application to the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations, and the three-dimensional compressible Euler equations. We summarise analytic results about dispersion relations and conservation properties, and present new results on approximation properties in three dimensions on the sphere, and on hydrostatic balance properties.

  13. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  14. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chunle; Bell, Bryn; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2016-09-01

    Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon) and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  15. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  16. Future fossil fuel electricity generation in Europe: options and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzimas, E.; Georgakaki, A.; Peteves, S.D.

    2009-07-01

    The study investigates the development of the fossil fuel fired power generation in Europe up to 2030 and identifies the critical factors that influence its evolution. Through the application of the least-cost expansion planning methods, the technology and fuel mix of fossil fuel power plant portfolios emerging from the twenty-four techno-economic scenarios are described. The different scenarios present alternative views for the role of non-fossil fuel power generation, the development of the world fuel and carbon markets and the carbon capture power generating technologies. The study estimates the needs for new fossil fuel capacity and identifies the optimal power plant mix for all possible combinations of the cases mentioned above. The impacts of the resulting portfolios on the objectives of the European energy policy are assessed using as indicators the capital investment fo the construction of the required capacity, the fuel consumption, the composition of the fuel mix, the CO{sub 2} emission levels, and the average production cost of electricity from the fossil fuelled fleet. The report finds that high CO{sub 2} prices need to be maintained and carbon capture technology must be developed and become commercialised. If these conditions re met and medium or high fossil fuel prices prevail, the portfolio of fossil fuel power plants that will be deployed will be compatible wit the European goal for the development of a more sustainable and secure energy system. The key conclusion is that for a sustainable and secure energy system we need to invest, both in the increase of non-fossil fuel power generation and to ensure that carob n capture and storage technologies are ready to be deployed when needed. 46 refs.,

  17. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  18. A Study of the Relationship of Student-Teacher Compatibility on Student Achievement in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterday, Kenneth E.; Paul, Oliver Daye

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of seven levels of student-teacher compatibility with student achievement found a positive significant relationship between total compatibility and compatibility in the personal need for inclusion with student achievement. Limited evidence was also found for a relationship between achievement and pupil-teacher compatibility in the…

  19. Wear analysis of diesel-engine fuel-injection pumps from military ground equipment fueled with Jet A-1. Interim report Jan-May 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, P.I.

    1991-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense has adopted the single fuel for the battlefield concept. During Operation Desert Shield/Storm, Jet A-1 replaced diesel in many applications. A simultaneous increase in fuel injection pump failures was observed during that operation. Prior to its introduction, a number of studies had indicated that JP-8 is compatible with the current fleet of ground equipment. This report forms part of an ongoing study to define the fuel lubricity requirements of ground equipment. The report also details the wear and failure mechanisms observed from used pumps. The results indicate that, although Jet A-1 does increase wear, many other failure mechanisms are also prevalent.

  20. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  1. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  2. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  3. Compatible solutes in lactic acid bacteria subjected to water stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the research project described in this thesis was to investigate the protective effect of compatible solutes on tactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Dried preparations of lactic acid bacteria are applied as starter cultures in feed and food industries. Dried starter cultures compare

  4. On a conjecture of compatibility of multi-states characters

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Perfect phylogeny consisting of determining the compatibility of a set of characters is known to be NP-complete. We propose in this article a conjecture on the necessary and sufficient conditions of compatibility: Given a set $\\mathcal{C}$ of $r$-states full characters, there exists a function $f(r)$ such that $\\mathcal{C}$ is compatible iff every set of $f(r)$ characters of $\\mathcal{C}$ is compatible. Some previous work showed that $f(2)=2$, $f(3)=3$ and $f(r) \\ge r-1$. Gusfield et al. 09 conjectured that $f(r) = r$ for any $r \\ge 2$. In this paper, we present an example showing that $f(4) \\ge 5$ and then a closure operation for chordal sandwich graphs. The later problem is a common approach of perfect phylogeny. This operation can be the first step to simplify the problem before solving some particular cases $f(4), f(5), ... $, and determining the function $f(r)$.

  5. Relationship Between Patient Therapist Compatibility and Treatment Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, Suzanne Marie

    1970-01-01

    Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation scale scores were used to assign a high and a low compatibility psychiatric patient to each of 24 therapists. It was concluded that by use of matching procedures a higher level of interpersonal attraction can be promoted between patients and their therapists, but the significance of therapist patient…

  6. Macromolecular unfolding properties in presence of compatible solutes

    CERN Document Server

    Smiatek, Jens; Heuer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present Molecular Dynamics simulations of Chymotrypsin inhibitor II and PEO in presence of compatible solutes. Our results indicate that the the native compact state of the studied macromolecules is stabilized in presence of hydroxyectoine. We are able to explain the corresponding mechanism by a variation of the solvent properties for higher hydroxyectoine concentrations. Our results are validated by detailed free energy calculations.

  7. Creative Commons licenses and design: are the two compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Jasserand

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses whether Creative Commons licences are applicable to and compatible with design. The first part focuses on the peculiar and complex nature of a design, which can benefit from a copyright and a design protection. This shows how it can affect the use of Creative Commons licences.

  8. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  9. 36 CFR 13.118 - Cabin site compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cabin site compatibility. 13.118 Section 13.118 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.118 Cabin site...

  10. Time Course Analyses Confirm Independence of Imitative and Spatial Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Imitative compatibility, or automatic imitation, has been used as a measure of imitative performance and as a behavioral index of the functioning of the human mirror system (e.g., Brass, Bekkering, Wohlschlager, & Prinz, 2000; Heyes, Bird, Johnson, & Haggard, 2005; Kilner, Paulignan, & Blakemore, 2003). However, the use of imitative…

  11. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  12. Operation Compatibility: A Neglected Contribution to Dual-Task Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannebakker, Merel M.; Band, Guido P. H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in parallel. In 2 psychological refractory period…

  13. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  14. Spectral measurement using IC-compatible linear variable optical filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Grabarnik, S.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Hedsten, K.; Enoksson, P.; Correia, J.H.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the functional and spectral characterization of a microspectrometer based on a CMOS detector array covered by an IC-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF). The Fabry-Perot LVOF is composed of 15 dielectric layers with a tapered middle cavity layer, which has been

  15. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  16. Measures and electromagnetic compatibility; Mesures en compatibilite electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, A. [Centre Technique de TDF (France); Mardiguian, M.

    1998-09-01

    Since january 1996, the electrical compatibility is becoming more and more important with the european regulation (documented by the CE label) on electromagnetic disturbances. After the definitions and the classification of electromagnetic disturbances, the electrical appliances disturbances measure (radio frequencies and low frequencies, calibrating, appropriate instrumentation, operating conditions) and the immunity testing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  17. Creative Commons licenses and design: are the two compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses whether Creative Commons licences are applicable to and compatible with design. The first part focuses on the peculiar and complex nature of a design, which can benefit from a copyright and a design protection. This shows how it can affect the use of Creative Commons licences.

  18. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  19. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    properties of the other fuels are varied systematically beyond the specification limits imposed on the reference fuels, principally in the direction of...lower hydrogen content- Comparison of fuel nozzles, Figurae ,6.32. shows stronger dependence bet- ween oeiseslona and hydrogen content for airblast and

  20. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  2. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  3. Unimodular sequence design under frequency hopping communication compatibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Peng; Cui, Guolong; Kong, Lingjiang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-12-01

    The integrated design for both radar and anonymous communication has drawn more attention recently since wireless communication system appeals to enhance security and reliability. Given the frequency hopping (FH) communication system, an effective way to realize integrated design is to meet the spectrum compatibility between these two systems. The paper deals with a unimodular sequence design technique which considers optimizing both the spectrum compatibility and peak sidelobes levels (PSL) of auto-correlation function (ACF). The spectrum compatibility requirement realizes anonymous communication for the FH system and provides this system lower probability of intercept (LPI) since the spectrum of the FH system is hidden in that of the radar system. The proposed algorithm, named generalized fitting template (GFT) technique, converts the sequence optimization design problem to a iterative fitting process. In this process, the power spectrum density (PSD) and PSL behaviors of the generated sequences fit both PSD and PSL templates progressively. Two templates are established based on the spectrum compatibility requirement and the expected PSL. As noted, in order to ensure the communication security and reliability, spectrum compatibility requirement is given a higher priority to achieve in the GFT algorithm. This algorithm realizes this point by adjusting the weight adaptively between these two terms during the iteration process. The simulation results are analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER), PSD, PSL, and signal-interference rate (SIR) for both the radar and FH systems. The performance of GFT is compared with SCAN, CAN, FRE, CYC, and MAT algorithms in the above aspects, which shows its good effectiveness.

  4. Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  6. Ullage Compatible Optical Sensor for Monitoring Safety Significant Malfunctions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant emphasis has been placed on aircraft fuel tank safety following the TWA Flight 800 accident in July 1996. Upon investigation, the National Transportation...

  7. Basic EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) Technology Advancement for C3 Systems - Model Revision for IEMCAP (Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Leviatan and A. T. Adams, The Response of a Two-Wire Transmission Line to Incident Field and Voltage Excitation, Including the Effects of Higher Order Hodes...AFB, NY. [20] W. R. Johnson, A. K. Thomas , et. al., Development of a Space Vehicle Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility Specification, NASA

  8. Transacting generation attributes across market boundaries: Compatible information systems and the treatment of imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2002-11-01

    Voluntary markets for ''green'' power, and mandatory policies such as fuel source disclosure requirements and renewables portfolio standards, each rely on the ability to differentiate electricity by the ''attributes'' of the generation. Throughout North America, electricity markets are devising accounting and verification systems for generation ''attributes'': those characteristics of a power plant's production such as fuel source and emissions that differentiate it from undifferentiated (or ''commodity'') electricity. These accounting and verification systems are intended to verify compliance with market mandates, create accurate disclosure labels, substantiate green power claims, and support emissions markets. Simultaneously, interest is growing in transacting (importing or exporting) generation attributes across electricity market borders, with or without associated electricity. Cross-border renewable attribute transactions have advantages and disadvantages. Broad access to markets may encourage more renewable generation at lower cost, but this result may conflict with desires to assure that at least some renewable resources are built locally to achieve either local policy goals or purchaser objectives. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for those interested in and struggling with cross-border renewable attribute transactions. The report assesses the circumstances under which renewable generation attributes from a ''source'' region might be recognized in a ''sink'' region. The report identifies several distinct approaches that might be used to account for and verify attribute import and export transactions, and assesses the suitability of these alternative approaches. Because policymakers have often made systems ''compatibility'' between market areas a pre-requisite to allowing cross

  9. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  10. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also

  11. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  12. Fabrication and Quality Inspection of U-10wt.%Zr Fuel Rod for Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Park, Jeong Yong; Lee, Chan Bock [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. Metal fuels such as U-Zr alloy have been considered as a starting driver fuel for a proto-type Gen-IV sodium cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) in Korea. To confirm the design and fabrication technologies of metallic fuels with FMS cladding for the loading of metallic fuel in PGSFR, an irradiation test will be performed in BOR-60 in Russia in 2016. In this study, U-10wt.%Zr fuel rods using low enrichment uranium (LEU) have been fabricated and inspected in quality for the fuel verification of PGSFR. Fuel slugs per melting batch without casting defects were fabricated by development of the advanced casting technology and evaluation tests. The optimal GTAW welding conditions and parameters were also established through lots of experiments. And, the qualification test carried out to prove the weld quality of end plug welding of the metallic fuel rods. The wire wrapping of metallic fuel rods for the irradiation test was successfully accomplished in KAERI. So, PGSFR fuel rods for the irradiation test in BOR-60 have been soundly fabricated in KAERI.

  13. Stewardship and fireshed assessment: a process for designing a landscape fuel treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard Bahro; Klaus H. Barber; Joseph W. Sherlock; Donald A. Yasuda

    2007-01-01

    Natural resource land managers today face a difficult challenge of developing a cohesive fuels and vegetation management strategy that addresses the widely acknowledged wildfire threat. Treatments must also be compatible with a wide variety of other land management goals, such as managing for wildlife habitat, watersheds, and forest health. In addition, funding will...

  14. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  15. The Design and Manufacturing Report of Non-Instrumented Rig for Dual-cooled Annular Fuel Irradiation Test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Lim, Ik Sung; Kim, Sun Ki; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo; Seo, Chul Gyo; Park, Chan Kook

    2008-09-15

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit advanced performance in High Performance Fuel Technology Development as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented rig designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO OR hole. This non- instrumented rig was confirmed the compatibility of HANARO and the integrity of rig structure, and satisfied the quality assurance requirements. This non- instrumented rig is adopt to the irradiation test for double cooled annular fuel pellet in HANARO.

  16. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  17. Preparation of anionic polyurethane nanoparticles and blood compatible behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian

    2012-05-01

    The anionic polyurethane nanoparticles (APU-NPs) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization method. It was found that the average size of the prepared APU-NPs is about 84 nm, and the APU-NPs have zeta-potential of -38.9 mV. The bulk characterization of synthesized APU-NPs was investigated by FTIR. The blood compatibility of APU-NPs was characterized by in vitro for coagulation tests, complement activation, platelet activation, cytotoxicity experiments, and hemolysis assay. The results showed that the APU-NPs synthesized in this paper are blood compatible with low level of cell cytotoxicity, and the results were significant for their potential use in vivo.

  18. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: Weiwang_Ly@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  19. Compatible plant-aphid interactions: how aphids manipulate plant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, Philippe; Brunissen, Laurence; Rusterucci, Christine; Vincent, Charles; van Bel, Aart; Dinant, Sylvie; Girousse, Christine; Faucher, Mireille; Bonnemain, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    To access phloem sap, aphids have developed a furtive strategy, their stylets progressing towards sieve tubes mainly through the apoplasmic compartment. Aphid feeding requires that they overcome a number of plant responses, ranging from sieve tube occlusion and activation of phytohormone-signalling pathways to expression of anti-insect molecules. In addition to bypassing plant defences, aphids have been shown to affect plant primary metabolism, which could be a strategy to improve phloem sap composition in nutrients required for their growth. During compatible interactions, leading to successful feeding and reproduction, aphids cause alterations in their host plant, including morphological changes, modified resource allocation and various local as well as systemic symptoms. Repeated salivary secretions injected from the first probe in the epidermal tissue up to ingestion of sieve-tube sap may play a crucial role in the compatibility between the aphid and the plant.

  20. On Rate-Compatible Punctured Turbo Codes Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montorsi Guido

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and compare some design criteria for the search of good systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo code (RCPTC families. The considerations presented by S. Benedetto et al. (1998 to find the "best" component encoders for turbo code construction are extended to find good rate-compatible puncturing patterns for a given interleaver length . This approach is shown to lead to codes that improve over previous ones, both in the maximum-likelihood sense (using transfer function bounds and in the iterative decoding sense (through simulation results. To find simulation and analytical results, the coded bits are transmitted over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel using an antipodal binary modulation. The two main applications of this technique are its use in hybrid incremental ARQ/FEC schemes and its use to achieve unequal error protection of an information sequence.

  1. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M

    2006-04-01

    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.

  2. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Mukundan, T; Muthurajan, H; Sikder, A K; Gandhe, B R; Rao, A Subhananda

    2009-01-30

    This paper briefly reviews the literature work reported on the environmentally compatible green energetic materials (GEMs) for defence and space applications. Currently, great emphasis is laid in the field of high-energy materials (HEMs) to increase the environmental stewardship along with the deliverance of improved performance. This emphasis is especially strong in the areas of energetic materials, weapon development, processing, and disposal operations. Therefore, efforts are on to develop energetic materials systems under the broad concept of green energetic materials (GEMs) in different schools all over the globe. The GEMs program initiated globally by different schools addresses these challenges and establishes the framework for advances in energetic materials processing and production that promote compliance with environmental regulations. This review also briefs the principles of green chemistry pertaining to HEMs, followed by the work carried out globally on environmentally compatible green energetic materials and allied ingredients.

  3. Poset pinball, GKM-compatible subspaces, and Hessenberg varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, Megumi

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three main goals. First, we set up a general framework to address the problem of constructing module bases for the equivariant cohomology of certain subspaces of GKM spaces. To this end we introduce the notion of a GKM-compatible subspace of an ambient GKM space. We also discuss poset-upper-triangularity, a key combinatorial notion in both GKM theory and more generally in localization theory in equivariant cohomology. With a view toward other applications, we present parts of our setup in a general algebraic and combinatorial framework. Second, motivated by our central problem of building module bases, we introduce a combinatorial game which we dub poset pinball and illustrate with several examples. Finally, as first applications, we apply the perspective of GKM-compatible subspaces and poset pinball to construct explicit and computationally convenient module bases for the $S^1$-equivariant cohomology of all Peterson varieties of classical Lie type, and subregular Springer varieties of Lie type...

  4. PEG-grafted PVA Membrane and Its Blood Compatibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Gu; YAO Qi-zhi; DONG Li-quan; MA Feng

    2011-01-01

    Preparation and blood compatibility of different shape polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)membrane were investigated.Firstly,the tabular and tubular[polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)capillary as supporter]PVA membranes were prepared; then,methoxy polyethylene glycol(mPEG)was grafted onto the surface of the PVA membranes.The effects of the shape,structure and properties of the membrane surface on blood compatibility were studied in detail.The experiment results show that mPEG modified PVA membranes,especially mPEG modified tubular membrane,could availably repel the adhesion of the platelets.In addition,the anticoagulant mechanism of mPEG with a steric repulsion effectiveness was confirmed further via different grafting methods.

  5. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  6. Augmenting drug-carrier compatibility improves tumour nanotherapy efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Fay, François; Hak, Sjoerd; Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Jose; Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Goode, Brandon; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Weinstein, Harel; Fayad, Zahi A.; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A major goal of cancer nanotherapy is to use nanoparticles as carriers for targeted delivery of anti-tumour agents. The drug-carrier association after intravenous administration is essential for efficient drug delivery to the tumour. However, a large number of currently available nanocarriers are self-assembled nanoparticles whose drug-loading stability is critically affected by the in vivo environment. Here we used in vivo FRET imaging to systematically investigate how drug-carrier compatibility affects drug release in a tumour mouse model. We found the drug's hydrophobicity and miscibility with the nanoparticles are two independent key parameters that determine its accumulation in the tumour. Next, we applied these findings to improve chemotherapeutic delivery by augmenting the parent drug's compatibility; as a result, we achieved better antitumour efficacy. Our results help elucidate nanomedicines' in vivo fate and provide guidelines for efficient drug delivery.

  7. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  8. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  9. S3c, prototipos de vivienda construidos por componentes compatibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes González, J. Miguel

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the construction by compatible components about? Which are its plants? Which results and answers does it add? Which consequences and implications does it lead to? To these other questions related with the subject, this work tries to give answer, not by definitions and generalities which would fail in the field of a theoretical disquisition but by a review of determined prototypes and projects of dwellings built during the last ten years, which will lead us, on base of its descriptions, to expose out in particular: — Methodological conditions: "open orders". — Technological conditions: "compatible compounds". — Trade conditions: "open prefabrication". — Transformation conditions: actualization?¿Qué es la construcción por componentes compatibles? ¿En qué consiste? ¿Cuáles son sus planteamientos? ¿Qué resultados y respuestas aporta? ¿Qué consecuencias e implicaciones conlleva? A estas y otras cuestiones relacionadas con el tema tratan de dar respuesta estas páginas, pero recurriendo para ello no a definiciones y generalidades que podrían sucumbir en el mundo de las disquisiciones teóricas, sino haciendo referencia a prototipos y proyectos concretos de vivienda realizados en la última década que servirán para, a partir de su descripción, exponer las particulares condiciones que de los mismos se desprenden: — Metodológicas: ''órdenes abiertos". — Tecnológicas: ''componentes compatibles". — De mercado: "prefabricación abierta". — Transformación: ¿actualización?

  10. Preparation and Blood Compatibility of Oxidized-chitosan Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Dong YANG; Jiu Gao YU; Yong Guo ZHOU; Pei Guo LI

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan membrane was modified by the selective oxidization of chitosan molecules on its surface with NO2 gas. FTIR spectra indicated there were plenty of-COOH and -COO- groups on the modified membrane surface. The SEM study showed the modified membrane surface was rough rather than smooth as chitosan membrane. All antithrombosis test, hemolysis test and blood cell morphology observation with SEM revealed that modified chitosan membranes have superior blood compatibility to chitosan.

  11. A compatibility study of FEFO with various containment materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between FEFO (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal) and a number of organic and metallic materials was evaluated at 22 and 74 C for up to 8 months. The metals included common structural alloys and elemental metals that the extrudable explosive might contact in its service life. The organic materials included flexible materials for use as collapsible extrusion membranes or permeation barriers, rigid engineering resins (matrices for composite vessels), and polymer viscosity modifiers.

  12. Is the right to health compatible with sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Reidpath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are fundamental public health challenges and trade–offs that need to be confronted for the achievement of the highest attainable standard of health and the sustainability agendas to be compatible. The trade–offs arise because, at a population level, the highest attain-able standard of health is a standard that is achieved (or progressively realised through unsustainable levels of consumption.

  13. Object affordance and spatial-compatibility effects in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Adam; Tipper, Steven P; Dick, Jeremy P R; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Movement in Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongly influenced by sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated two features of visual stimuli known to affect response times in healthy individuals; the spatial location of an object (the spatial effect) and its action-relevance (the 'affordance' effect). Poliakoff et al. (2007) found that while PD patients show normal spatial effects, they do not show an additional affordance effect. Here we investigated whether these effects are driven by facilitation or inhibition, and whether the affordance effect emerges over a longer time-course in PD. Participants (24 PD and 24 controls) viewed either a lateralised door handle (affordance condition), a lateralised abstract stimulus (spatial condition), or a centrally presented baseline stimulus (baseline condition), and responded to a colour change in the stimulus occurring after 0 msec, 500 msec or 1000 msec. The colour change indicated whether to respond with the left or right hand, which were either spatially compatible or incompatible with the lateralised stimulus orientation in the affordance and spatial conditions. The baseline condition allowed us to assess whether compatibility effects were driven by facilitation of the compatible response or inhibition of the incompatible response. The results indicate that stimulus orientation elicited faster responses from the nearest hand. For controls, the affordance effect was stronger and driven by facilitation, whilst the spatial condition was driven by inhibition. In contrast, the affordance and spatial-compatibility effects did not differ between conditions in the PD group and both were driven by facilitation. This suggests that the PD group responded as if all stimuli were action-relevant, and may have implications for understanding the cueing of movement in PD.

  14. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Drobyshev, Alexei L.; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfu...

  15. Miniaturised Spotter-Compatible Multicapillary Stamping Tool for Microarray Printing

    CERN Document Server

    Drobyshev, A L; Zasedatelev, A S; Drobyshev, Alexei L; Verkhodanov, Nikolai N; Zasedatelev, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    Novel microstamping tool for microarray printing is proposed. The tool is capable to spot up to 127 droplets of different solutions in single touch. It is easily compatible with commercially available microarray spotters. The tool is based on multichannel funnel with polypropylene capillaries inserted into its channels. Superior flexibility is achieved by ability to replace any printing capillary of the tool. As a practical implementation, hydrogel-based microarrays were stamped and successfully applied to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance.

  16. OpenSimulator Interoperability with DRDC Simulation Tools: Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    conversion. iv These tools include Blender, AutoCAD , 3DS Max and SketchUp. Thus, DRDC use case (1) was demonstrated as feasible. However...supplementary support for the creation of content and resources compatible with OpenSimulator. These include programs such as Blender, GIMP, AutoCAD , 3DS MAX...support the PDS, PDMS, ACIS (.sat), MicroStation (.dgn), and AutoCAD (.dwg) formats, but not COLLADA directly [14]. An important limitation of

  17. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    optimize engine performance and emissions. Fuel injectors contain an actuator, pintle (or needle), and nozzle. The most common actuator is a solenoid ...Introduction Fuel injectors have a long history in metering fuel in modern engines by either port fuel injection (PFI) or direct fuel injection (DFI...Compared with a carburetor, fuel injectors have more accurate fuel delivering capability, thus giving engineers and technicians more flexibility to

  18. Compatibility studies of metallic materials with lithium-based oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, P.; Dienst, W.

    1988-07-01

    The compatibility of Li 2O, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3 with the cladding materials AISI 316, 1.4914, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625 was investigated at 800-1000°C for annealing times up to 1000 h. A controlled oxygen reactivity was established by adding 1 mol% NiO per mole Li 2O to the Li-based oxides. In addition, some compatibility tests were performed at 600-900°C on Be, which is of interest as a neutron multiplier material, with Li 2SiO 3 as well as AISI 316. Li 2O accounted for the strongest cladding attack, followed by Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2SiO 3. In the absence of NiO, Li 2SiO 3 caused no chemical interactions at all. With respect to the cladding materials, there was no considerable difference in the reaction rates of AISI 316, Hastelloy X and Inconel 625. However, the steel 1.4914 was clearly more heavily attacked at and above 800°C. The compatibility of Be with Li 2SiO 3 or AISI 316 seems to be tolerable up to about 650°C. At higher temperatures a liquid Li suicide phase is formed which results in strong local attack and penetration into Li 2SiO 3.

  19. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  20. Blood compatibility of polyurethane surface grafted copolymerization with sulfobetaine monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Rongbing, Bian; Ling, Tong; Jian, Shen; Sicong, Lin

    2004-07-01

    Surface modification is an effective way to improve the hemocompatibility and remain bulk properties of biomaterials. Recently, polymer tailed with zwitterions was found having good blood compatibility. In this study, the grafting copolymerization of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane surface was obtained through two steps. In the first step, polyurethane film coupled with vinyl groups was obtained through the reaction between the carboxyl group of acrylic acid (AA) and the NH-urethane group of polyurethane by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC). In the second step, sulfobetaine was grafted copolymerization on the surface using AIBN as an initiator. The reaction process was monitored with ATR-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra. The wettability of films was investigated by water contact angle measurement. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was evaluated by platelet adhesion in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and protein absorption in bovine fibrinogen (BFG). Low platelet adhesion was observed on the grafted films incubated in PRP for 1 and 3 h, respectively. The protein absorption was reduced on the grafted films after incubated in bovine fibrinogen for 2 h. All of these results revealed that the improved blood compatibility was obtained by grafting copolymerization with zwitterionic monomer of sulfobetaine onto polyurethane film. In addition, introducing vinyl groups onto surface through DCC and AA is a novel method to functionalize polyurethane for further modification.

  1. Compatibility of novel blends from polyolefin and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Zhou, A. [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China). School of Material Science and Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Melt blends of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and coal with various compositions were prepared through reactive extrusion. The rheological behaviour was studied with respect to the effect of blend ratio, shear rate using a rheometer to gain an understanding of processing parameters controlling industrial application. Compatibility was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that LDPE/EVA/coal is a partly compatible system showing pseudo-plastic behaviour, increase in viscosity with increased coal content appears evident only at low shear rate, viscosity tends to keep consistent approximately but varies with coal content at higher shear rate. Viscosity and compatibility of blends are attributed to changes in LDPE crystalline structure and entanglement, together with interaction between macromolecular aliphatic chains in coal and amorphous phase in LDPE and EVA at the boundaries of phases, which appears during the re-arrangement process of the crystalline structure. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  3. Compatibility of Ten Elite Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude N’Zi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One way of boosting cocoa productivity which has plummeted over the last decade in Côte d’Ivoire is to introduce high performing clones. Preliminary observations have indicated that these new clones have differing growth patterns and agronomic traits in the field. Assessing their compatibility is of paramount importance since these clones will be made available to the farmers in the near future. This study was conducted in Soubré, southwest of Côte d’Ivoire, to evaluate the compatibility of ten new cocoa clones (coded as C1, C8, C9, C14, C15, C16, C17, C18, C20, and C21. A half diallel design consisting of 10 self-pollinations and 45 inter-crosses, replicated three times, was used. Results showed significant differences among clones for pollination success. Out of the ten clones evaluated, six (C1, C8, C9, C15, C17 and C21 were self-compatible. With a 39% mean pollination success, C9 was quite interesting because it has been reported to be among the highest yielding clones. Introduction of improved germplasm will go a long way towards enhancing productivity in Côte d’Ivoire, radically impact farmers’ livelihoods, and contribute significantly to a more reliable supply of cocoa beans for chocolate manufacturers.

  4. [Bonding compatibility between adhesive systems and composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, L; Scaminaci Russo, D; Landi, D

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse bonding compatibility between photo- and self-polymerising composite resins ad two-step total-etch (one component) adhesive systems with a different activation method. Thirty healthy extracted molars were cut transversally to obtain sixty flat dentin surfaces. The acid conditioned surfaces were bonded with Scotchbond 1 (3M), Excite (Vivadent) or Excite DSC (Vivadent). A cylinder of composite resin (3 mm diameter and 4 mm height) was constructed on each adhesive layer using photopolymerised Tetric Ceram (Vivadend) and dual Luxacore (DMG) but activated only chemically. The samples were subjected to the shear bond test. The fracture surfaces obtained were classified by type and site in the stereomicroscope. Twelve samples representing each group were further prepared for the SEM. The data obtained from the test, the microscopic investigation and statistical analysis (ANOVA and Bonferroni) seem to confirm the presence of a reduced bonding compatibility between one-component adhesive systems and self-polymerising composites. This incompatibility is evident for the adhesive Scotchbond 1 and limited for Excite, while it seems to be overcome by Excite DSC which appears to bond well with both Tetric Ceram and Luxacore. Adhesive-composite incompatibility seems to depend on the activation method of the composite as well as on that of the adhesive system. The chemical compatibility bet-ween these two materials is influenced not only by the chemical composition of the adhesive, but also by that of the composite.

  5. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  6. Fitness consequences of parental compatibility in the frog Crinia georgiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziminski, Martin A; Roberts, J Dale; Simmons, Leigh W

    2008-04-01

    Theory suggests that multiple mating by females can evolve as a mechanism for acquiring compatible genes that promote offspring fitness. Genetic compatibility models predict that differences in fitness among offspring arise from interactions between male and female haplotypes. Using a cross-classified breeding design and in vitro fertilization, we raised families of maternal and paternal half-siblings of the frog Crinia georgiana, a species with a polyandrous breeding system and external fertilization. After controlling for variation in maternal provisioning, we found significant effects of interacting parental haplotypes on fertilization success, and nonadditive genetic effects on measures of offspring fitness such as embryo survival, and survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis. Additive genetic variation due to males and females was negligible, and not statistically significant for any of the fitness traits measured. Combinations of parental haplotypes that resulted in high rates of fertilization produced offspring with higher embryo survival and rapid juvenile development. We suggest that a gamete recognition mechanism for selective fertilization by compatible sperm may promote offspring fitness in this system.

  7. The effects of actinide based fuels on incremental cross sections in a Candu reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale, A.C.; Ball, M.R.; Novog, D.R.; Luxat, J.C., E-mail: morreaac@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: ballmr@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: novog@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel such as the extraction of actinide materials for use in mixed oxide fuels is a key component of reducing the end waste from nuclear power plant operations. Using recycled spent fuels in current reactors is becoming a popular option to help close the fuel cycle. In order to ensure safe and consistent operations in existing facilities, the properties of these fuels must be compatible with current reactor designs. This paper examines the features of actinide mixed oxide fuel, TRUMOX, in a CANDU reactor. Specifically, the effect of this fuel design on the incremental cross sections related to the use of adjuster rods is investigated. The actinide concentrations studied in this work were based on extraction from thirty year cooled spent fuel and mixed with natural uranium to yield a MOX fuel of 4.75% actinide by weight. The incremental cross sections were calculated using the DRAGON neutron transport code. The results for the actinide fuel were compared to those for standard natural uranium fuel and for a slightly enriched (1% U-235) fuel designed to reduce void reactivity. Adjuster reactivity effect calculations and void reactivity simulations were also performed. The impact of the adjuster on reactivity decreased by as much as 56% with TRUMOX fuel while the CVR was reduced by 71% due to the addition of central burnable poison. The incremental cross sections were largely affected by the use of the TRUMOX fuel primarily due to its increased level of fissile material (five times that of NU). The largest effects are in the thermal neutron group where the Σ{sub T} value is increased by 46.7%, the Σ{sub ny)} values increased by 13.0% and 9.9%. The value associated with thermal fission, υΣ{sub f}, increased by 496.6% over regular natural uranium which is expected due to the much higher reactivity of the fuel. (author)

  8. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  9. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  10. Solid electrolytic fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Masayasu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Kamisaka, Mitsuo; Notomi, Kei.

    1989-04-21

    Concerning a solid electrolytic fuel cell with a gas permeable substrate pipe, a fuel electrode installed on this substrate pipe and an air electrode which is laminated on this fuel electrode with the electrolyte in between, the existing fuel cell of this kind uses crystals of CaMnO3, etc. for the material of the air electrode, but its electric resistance is big and in order to avert this, it is necessary to make the film thickness of the air electrode big. However, in such a case, the entry of the air into its inside worsens and the cell performance cannot develop satisfactorily. In view of the above, in order to obtain a high performance solid electrolytic fuel cell which can improve electric conductivity without damaging diffusion rate of the air, this invention proposes with regard to the aforementioned solid electrolytic fuel cell to install a heat resistant and conductive member inside the above air electrode. 6 figs.

  11. Spiral cooled fuel nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

    2012-09-25

    A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

  12. Simulated coal-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.H.

    1992-07-01

    In previous work, International Fuel Cells Corporation (EFC) found interactions between molten carbonate fuel cell cathode materials being considered as replacements for the presently used nickel oxide and matrix materials. Consequently, this work was conducted to screen additional new materials for mutual compatibility. As part of this program, experiments were performed to examine the compatibility of several candidate, alternative cathode materials with the standard lithium aluminate matrix material in the presence of electrolyte at cell potentials. Initial cathode candidates were materials lithium ferrite, yttrium iron garnet, lithium manganite and doped ceria which were developed by universities, national laboratories, or contractors to DOE, EPRI, or GRI. These investigations were conducted in laboratory scale experiments. None of the materials tested can directly replace nickel oxide or indicate greater stability of cell performance than afforded by nickel oxide. Specifically: (1) no further work on niobium doped ceria is warranted; (2) cobalt migration was found in the lithium ferrite cathode tested. This could possibly lead to shorting problems similiar to those encountered with nickel oxide; (3) Possible shorting problems may also exist with the proprietary dopant in YIG; (4) lithium ferrite and YIG cathode were not single phase materials. Assessment of the chemical stability, i.e., dopant loss, was severely impeded by dissolution of these second phases in the electrolyte; and (5) Magnesium doped lithium manganite warrants further work. Electrolytes should contain Mg ions to suppress dopant loss.

  13. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  14. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  15. Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-27

    other transportation industries, such as trucking. The PFQA could also be used in fuel blending operations performed at petroleum, ethanol and biodiesel plants. ...used to identify fuel type and determine performance properties. The Phase I measurements identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and...identified the best spectral resolution, spectral region and sample path length to differentiate between diesel and jet fuels, as well as to determine

  16. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...University of North Dakota EERC – UOP – General Electric (GE) – Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non- competitive with

  17. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  18. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  19. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  20. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  1. Rethinking nuclear fuel recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Frank N

    2008-05-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains plutonium which can be extracted and used in new fuel. To reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste, the U.S. Department of Energy has proposed reprocessing spent fuel in this way and then "burning" the plutonium in special reactors. But reprocesssing is very expensive. Also, spent fuel emits lethal radiation, whereas separated plutonium can be handled easily. So reprocessing invites the possibility that terrorists might steal plutonium and construct an atom bormb. The authors argue against reprocessing and for storing the waste in casks until an underground repository is ready.

  2. Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toay, Leo

    2004-01-01

    In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

  3. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  4. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  5. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  6. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Aggregated Uses in the Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determination finding that aggregated uses are compatible with Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge purposes. Aggregated uses include: boating...

  7. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY... compliance with the Federal compatibility requirement for UST systems storing gasoline greater than...

  8. Biodiesel feasibility study: An evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Biodiesel, derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, is composed of saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters. In spite of having some application problems, recently it is being considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels in internal combustion engine. From scientific literatures, this paper has collected and analyzed the data on both advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel over conventional diesel. Since the aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiesel feasibility in automobiles, the first section is dedicated to materials compatibility in biodiesel as compared to that in diesel. The highest consensus is related to enhanced corrosion of automotive parts due to its compositional differences. In the subsequent sections, data on performance, emission and engine durability have been analyzed and compared. In this case, the highest consensus is found in reducing emissions as well as in increasing moving parts sticking, injector coking and filter plugging. This paper has also summarized the factors of biodiesel in contributing these technical performances. (author)

  9. Development of ODS FeCrAl for Compatibility in Fusion and Fission Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pint, B. A.; Dryepondt, S.; Unocic, K. A.; Hoelzer, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12-15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  10. A BioBrick compatible strategy for genetic modification of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Patrick M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant biotechnology can be leveraged to produce food, fuel, medicine, and materials. Standardized methods advocated by the synthetic biology community can accelerate the plant design cycle, ultimately making plant engineering more widely accessible to bioengineers who can contribute diverse creative input to the design process. Results This paper presents work done largely by undergraduate students participating in the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM competition. Described here is a framework for engineering the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with standardized, BioBrick compatible vectors and parts available through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://www.partsregistry.org. This system was used to engineer a proof-of-concept plant that exogenously expresses the taste-inverting protein miraculin. Conclusions Our work is intended to encourage future iGEM teams and other synthetic biologists to use plants as a genetic chassis. Our workflow simplifies the use of standardized parts in plant systems, allowing the construction and expression of heterologous genes in plants within the timeframe allotted for typical iGEM projects.

  11. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  12. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  13. Compatibility of the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge with Composite Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Mueller, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency mass gauge (RFMG) is a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge being developed at NASA for possible use in long-duration space missions utilizing cryogenic propellants. As part of the RFMG technology development process, we evaluated the compatibility of the RFMG with a graphite-epoxy composite material used to construct propellant tanks. The key material property that can affect compatibility with the RFMG is the electrical conductivity. Using samples of 8552IM7 graphite-epoxy composite, we characterized the resistivity and reflectivity over a range of frequencies. An RF impedance analyzer was used to characterize the out-of-plane electrical properties (along the sample thickness) in the frequency range 10 to 1800 MHZ. The resistivity value at 500 MHz was 4.8 ohm-cm. Microwave waveguide measurements of samples in the range 1.7 2.6 GHz, performed by inserting the samples into a WR-430 waveguide, showed reflectivity values above 98. Together, these results suggested that a tank constructed from graphite-epoxy composite would produce good quality electromagnetic tank modes, which is needed for the RFMG. This was verified by room-temperature measurements of the electromagnetic modes of a 2.4 m diameter tank constructed by Boeing from similar graphite-epoxy composite material. The quality factor Q of the tank electromagnetic modes, measured via RF reflection measurements from an antenna mounted in the tank, was typically in the range 400 Q 3000. The good quality modes observed in the tank indicate that the RFMG is compatible with graphite-epoxy tanks, and thus the RFMG could be used as a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge in such tanks filled with cryogenic propellants.

  14. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  15. 46 CFR 150.160 - Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.160 Carrying a cargo as an exception to the compatibility chart. The Operator of a vessel having on board a cargo carried as an exception under §...

  16. 49 CFR 350.333 - What are the guidelines for the compatibility review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the guidelines for the compatibility... the compatibility review? (a) The State law or regulation must apply to all segments of the motor... regulations reviewed for the CDL compliance report are excluded from the compatibility review. (c)...

  17. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  18. 47 CFR 68.224 - Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility. 68.224 Section 68.224 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... § 68.224 Notice of non-hearing aid compatibility. Every non-hearing aid compatible telephone...

  19. 47 CFR 64.608 - Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones... Provision of hearing aid compatible telephones by exchange carriers. In the absence of alternative suppliers in an exchange area, an exchange carrier must provide a hearing aid compatible telephone, as...

  20. 47 CFR 68.415 - Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control... Procedures § 68.415 Hearing aid-compatibility and volume control informal complaints. Persons with complaints... complaints regarding rules in this part pertaining to hearing aid compatibility and volume control, may...

  1. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  2. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  3. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10...

  4. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  5. Solar Fuel Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  6. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  7. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  8. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  9. Fuel cells: Operating flexibly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Moo

    2016-09-01

    Fuel cells typically function well only in rather limited temperature and humidity ranges. Now, a proton exchange membrane consisting of ion pair complexes is shown to enable improved fuel cell performance under a wide range of conditions that are unattainable with conventional approaches.

  10. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  11. Solar fuel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; West, William C.

    2017-01-17

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  12. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  13. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  14. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  15. PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

  16. Satellite antenna layout and optimization in electromagnetic compatibility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshuo; Xie, Shuguo; Liu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the main factors that impact the layout of satellite antenna. The uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) is used to establish mathematical model for calculating the coupling of satellite antenna, and set up the objective function of the placement optimization. The genetic algorithm incorporating high-frequency simulation to minimize antenna coupling by optimally positioning satellite antenna is described in detail. The results of antenna placement on a realistic satellite show that this method is effective in the optimal design of satellite antenna layout for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility.

  17. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  18. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments.

  19. Affine transformations from aerial photos to computer compatible tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, F. G.; Mack, A. R.; Crosson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    During the development of a project to estimate wheat production, it became necessary to pull data, corresponding to particular fields in a test site, off an ERTS computer compatible tape. Aerial photographs and topographic maps were on hand for the test site. A method was devised, using an affine transformation, to relate the aerial photographs or topographic maps to the tapes. One can thereby access data on the tape corresponding to regions covered by only a few pixels. The theory can be used for the registration of two tapes for the same area and for the geometric correction of images.

  20. Advanced Machinery Liquid Metal Wetting, Cleaning and Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    barium doped NaK 7 8 at temperatures to lOO 0 C for 250 and 500 hours. Doping of the liquid metal created no compatibility... metal - solid metal interface specific contact resistance (ck). Two liquid metal compositions were used, NaK 7 8 and barium doped NaK 7 8 . The...three with NaK - barium as the liquid metal and eight with NaK . They were ranked in ascending value of mean interface specific contact