Heroux, Riley; Sheppard, Michelle; Wright, Sharon B; Sawhney, Mandeep; Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Kalaidjian, Robin; Snyder, Graham M
Current professional guidelines recommend a maximum hang time for reprocessed duodenoscopes of 5-14 days. We sought to study the association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. We analyzed cultures of the elevator mechanism and working channel collected in a highly standardized fashion just before duodenoscope use. Hang time was calculated as the time from reprocessing to duodenoscope sampling. The relationship between hang time and duodenoscope contamination was estimated using a calculated correlation coefficient between hang time in days and degree of contamination on the elevator mechanism and working channel. The 18 study duodenoscopes were cultured 531 times, including 465 (87.6%) in the analysis dataset. Hang time ranged from 0.07-39.93 days, including 34 (7.3%) with hang time ≥7.00 days. Twelve cultures (2.6%) demonstrated elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination. The correlation coefficients for hang time and degree of duodenoscope contamination were very small and not statistically significant (-0.0090 [P = .85] for elevator mechanism and -0.0002 [P = 1.00] for working channel). Odds ratios for hang time (dichotomized at ≥7.00 days) and elevator mechanism and/or working channel contamination were not significant. We did not find a significant association between hang time and risk of duodenoscope contamination. Future guidelines should consider a recommendation of no limit for hang time. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guo-Qiang Zhang; Yu-Hui Zhang; Chao-Min Shen; Jin-Rong Liang
BACKGROUND:Biliary leakage after removal of a T-tube has signiifcant morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is multifactorial. The treatment and outcome of this complication vary. In the present study we evaluated the procedures and efifcacy of combined use of choledochoscope and duodenoscope in the treatment of bile peritonitis after T-tube removal. METHODS: The procedures and results of 11 cases of biliary leakage after removal of T-tube who had been treated from January 1998 to June 2004 by combined use of choledochoscope and duodenoscope were analyzed retrospectively. RESULT:After the treatment, 9 patients were cured, and 2 were reoperated on and cured. CONCLUSIONS:Biliary leakage after removal of T-tube can be cured successfully by combined use of choledochoscope and duodenoscope. Importantly, the method is simple, effective and safe, and mostly reoperation can be avoided.
Rutala, William A; Weber, David J
Recent outbreaks with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in patients who have undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have raised concerns of whether current endoscope reprocessing guidelines are adequate to ensure a patient-safe endoscope. Unlike previous outbreaks, these CRE outbreaks occurred even though manufacturer's instructions and professional guidelines were followed correctly. This article reviews why outbreaks associated with endoscopes continue to occur; what alternatives exist that might improve the margin of safety associated with duodenoscope reprocessing; and how to prevent future outbreaks associated with ERCP procedures. The advantages and disadvantages for the proposed enhancements for reprocessing duodenoscopes are reviewed as well as future strategies to prevent GI endoscope-related outbreaks.
Saraswat, V A; Kapur, B M; Vashisht, S; Tandon, R K
Duodenoscopic sphincterotomy (DS) is a well established treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in post-cholecystectomy patients, but not in patients with gallbladder in situ. The main argument against the procedure in the latter set of patients has been that by performing it, one is leaving behind the diseased gallbladder which may require further treatment. We have, however, performed 60 DS in 49 patients with gallbladder in situ. The clinical picture of these patients was characterized by abdominal pain in 79.6%, jaundice in 91.8%, history of cholangitis in 46.9%, severe acute cholangitis at the time of DS in 28.6% and a major associated illness in 10.2% of them. Adequate sphincterotomy was performed in 91.8% of the patients with successful stone extractions in 93.3% and an overall CBD clearance in 85.7%. One patient (2%) with severe acute cholangitis, who had presented in a moribund state, died despite adequate DS. Three patients (6%) experienced an exacerbation of acute cholangitis after DS, two of them requiring emergency surgery. During subsequent follow-up, elective cholecystectomy was performed in 26 (54%) patients. Five additional patients are awaiting surgery. Seventeen (36%) patients continue to have their gallbladders in situ and over a mean follow-up period of 12.8 months (range, 4-32 mos) they have remained asymptomatic except for brief episodes of biliary pain in 2 patients. It is concluded that DS relieves the symptoms of CBD stones even in patients with gallbladders in situ and may suffice for patients who are frail, elderly and who have major associated illnesses.
Objective To analyze the effection of duodenoscopic procedures combined ulinastain on acute bili-ary pancreatitis in the early days .Methods A tatol of 120 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis were selected in this study ,40 cases treated with conservative treatment ,40 cases with early duodenoscopic procedures combined with uli-nastain ,40 cases only with early duodenoscopic therapy .Analyzed and compared recovery time of blood amylase ,ab-dominal pain relief time ,and liver function recovery time among the three groups .Results Compared with those of the other two groups ,abdominal pain relief time ,liver function ,blood amylase ,temperature recovery time and ab-dominal signs disappeared time of the duodenoscopic procedures combined with ulinastatin group were shorter ,the differences between them were significant (P0 .05) .Conclusion The early combined therapy of duodenoscopic procedures and ulinastain on acute biliary pancreatitis satisfaction ,is safe and reliable .%目的：分析早期十二指肠镜技术联合乌司他丁治疗急性胆源性胰腺炎的临床疗效。方法选择九龙坡区第二人民医院诊治的120例急性胆源性胰腺炎患者，40例保守治疗，40例早期十二指肠镜技术联合乌司他丁治疗，40例早期十二指肠镜治疗。分析比较3组患者血淀粉酶恢复时间、腹痛缓解时间、肝功能恢复时间等。结果十二指肠镜技术联合乌司他丁组与其他两组比较患者腹痛缓解时间、肝功能、血淀粉酶、体温恢复时间及腹部体征消失时间等明显缩短，差异有统计学意义（P＜0．05）。3组患者白细胞恢复时间比较差异无统计学意义（P＞0．05）。结论早期十二指肠镜技术联合乌司他丁治疗急性胆源性胰腺炎临床疗效满意，是安全可靠的治疗方法。
刘凯; 张威; 周强; 刘松阳; 李慧梅; 刘亚辉
目的：观察十二指肠镜下保留乳头括约肌功能治疗胆道蛔虫病的疗效，并探讨此方法作为治疗胆道蛔虫病首选方法的可行性。方法回顾性分析2007－2013年间经十二指肠镜在保留患者乳头括约肌功能的情况下治疗69例胆道蛔虫病患者的临床资料。结果69例胆道蛔虫病患者保留了十二指肠乳头括约肌功能，胆道蛔虫均顺利取出，2～3 d患者出院，术后常规驱虫治疗，无急性胰腺炎、出血、穿孔等并发症。结论十二指肠镜下保留患者乳头括约肌功能治疗胆道蛔虫病安全、疗效显著、手术并发症少，应考虑作为治疗胆道蛔虫病的首选治疗方法。%Objective To observe the efficacy of duodenoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter and to explore the feasibility of this technique as the preferred method for treatment of biliary ascariasis.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 69 patients with biliary ascariasis who received duodenoscopic treatment while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter in our department from 2007 to 2013.Results All the 69 patients with biliary ascariasis not only pre-served the function of the duodenal sphincter,but also had the biliary ascarids successfully removed.The patients were discharged 2-3 days later and then received conventional helminthic treatment.No patients developed complications such as acute pancreatitis,bleeding,and perforation.Conclusion Duodenoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter is safe and ef-fective and causes fewer surgical complications,so it should be considered as the preferred method for treatment of biliary ascariasis.
Humphries, Romney M.; McDonnell, Gerald
Inadequate flexible endoscope reprocessing has been associated with infection outbreaks, most recently caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Lapses in essential device reprocessing steps such as cleaning, disinfection/sterilization, and storage have been reported, but some outbreaks have occurred despite claimed adherence to established guidelines. Recommended changes in these guidelines include the use of sterilization instead of high-level disinfection or the use of routine mic...
Kovaleva, J.; Meessen, N. E. L.; Peters, F. T. M.; Been, M. H.; Arends, J. P.; Borgers, R. P.; Degener, J. E.
Endoscopes, including duodenoscopes, are medical devices that are frequently associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections. We investigated an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonos aeruginosa sepsis affecting three patients after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP).
@@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.
Ming Zhuang; Wen-Jie Zhang; Jun Gu; Ying-Bin Liu; Xue-Feng Wang
This case reports an application of conventional duodenoscope in a post pancreaticoduodenectomy patient with the help of retrieval balloon assisted enterography.The 56-year-old woman had pancreaticoduodenectomy with Child reconstruction 9 mo ago because of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and now there are recurrent enlarged lymph nodes in the anastomotic stoma of hepaticojejunostomy.Considering the patient's late-stage cancer,a plastic stent was then successfully placed there to drainage.The main challenge in this case was the extremely long afferent loop and blind cannulation through the anastomotic stoma of hepaticojejunostomy.Retrieval balloon assisted enterography is very helpful for duodenoscope going through the reconstructed intestinal tract and for the cannulation.After two weeks,the patient remained free of painful symptoms and free of fever.Liver function improved well.Four months after the placement of stent,the patient died of cachexia without jaundice,fever and abdominal pain according to her daughter's statement.
Kamiya, Toshiaki; Justiniano, Mario; Durán, Abel; Uechi, Chikara
From June 1985 to June 1999, 120 patients were diagnosed by means of panendoscopy, choledocoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as having biliary and pancreatic ascariasis. All duodenoscopic procedures were performed under fluoroscopic control. Endoscopic extraction was successful in 99 of 108 (92%) patients, some of whom had had previous endoscopic sphincterotomy. The endoscopic accessories used were a basket catheter, polypectomy snare, and balloon catheter. Because no significant complications were observed after this endoscopic treatment, we recommend endoscopic extractions for biliary ascariasis.
Ban, Tesshin; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshimasa
The SpyGlass DS system is currently used as a direct video cholangioscope for biliary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In general, the SpyGlass DS cholangioscope is passed through the working channel of a duodenoscope and inserted into a bile duct via duodenal papilla. However, the procedure has been challenging in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy due to the retrograde route through a potentially tortuous afferent limb. A therapeutic colonoscope with variable stiffness can offer alternative guidance for SpyGlass DS cholangioscope in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Parsi, Mansour A
Peroral cholangioscopy is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of various biliary disorders. Peroral cholangioscopy can be performed by using a dedicated cholangioscope that is advanced through the accessory channel of a duodenoscope, or by direct insertion of a small-diameter endoscope into the bile duct. Direct peroral cholangioscopy refers to insertion of an ultraslim endoscope directly into the bile duct for visualization of the biliary mucosa and lumen. This approach provides a valuable and economic solution for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the biliary tree. Compared to ductoscopy using a dedicated cholangioscope, the direct approach has several advantages and disadvantages. In this editorial, I discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and possible future developments pertaining to direct peroral cholangioscopy. PMID:24527174
Lee, Tae Hoon; Hwang, Jae Chul; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Yoo, Byung Moo; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sun-Joo
Endoscopic sphincterotomy may be limited in Billroth II gastrectomy because of difficulty in orientating the duodenoscope and sphincterotome as a result of altered anatomy. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic transpapillary large balloon dilation (EPBD) without preceding sphincterotomy for removal of large CBD stones in Billroth II gastrectomy. Between March 2010 and February 2011, one-step EPBD under cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy was performed in patients who had undergone Billroth II gastrectomy at two tertiary referral centers. Main outcome measurements were successful duct clearance and EPBD-related complications. Successful access to major duodenal papilla was performed in 13 patients, but successful selective CBD cannulation was achieved in 12 patients (92.3%). Median maximum transverse stone size was 11.5 mm (10 to 14 mm). The mean number of stones was 2 (1-5). The median CBD diameter was 15 mm (12 to 19 mm). Mean procedure time from successful biliary access to complete stone removal was 17.8 min. Complete duct clearance was achieved in all patients. Four patients (33.3%) needed one more session of ERCP for removal of remnant stones. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia in two patients and minor bleeding in another occurred. Without preceding sphincterotomy, one-step EPBD (≥10 mm) under cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy may be safe and effective for the removal of large stones (≥10 mm) with CBD dilatation in Billroth II gastrectomy.
Kanemitsu, Keiji; Ogawa, Akihisa; Hatori, Tsuruo; Imasaka, Takayuki; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Inden, Ken; Hatta, Masumitsu; Nakamura, Ichiro; Hirayama, Yoshihiro; Kaku, Mitsuo
Validation of sterilization is an important step before clinical use of medical equipment. Adequate validation of sterilization of the endoscope has not been reported. One reason for this is the lack of suitable devices for validation. The VDES (validation device for endoscope sterilization; Olympus prototype model, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) was designed in two types (type A and type B) and resembles gastroscopes and duodenoscopes, respectively. Each type consists of inner and outer tubing and a central capsule containing a biological indicator. The device was designed to examine the effectiveness of low-temperature sterilizers, such as ethylene oxide gas, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and low-temperature steam with formaldehyde (LTSF) sterilizer. The aim of this study was to validate the sterilization of GI endoscopes by the LTSF sterilizer. Sterilization was assessed using both types of VDES after a 60-min application of LTSF. Culture of the biological indicator confirmed the complete eradication of the bacteria in a total of 10 experiments with each type of VDES after LTSF sterilization. Our results confirm that the LTSF sterilizer may sterilize endoscopes currently distributed by Olympus. Commercialization of VDES will make it possible to evaluate the reliability of sterilization when it is set in the sterilization device with endoscopes.
Pathogen transmissions via flexible endoscopes have been documented in the literature and have been historically related to human error or omission of steps in the reprocessing cycle. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report challenged manufacturers of automated endoscope reprocessors to improve and advance technology to automate more of the reprocessing steps. A review and synthesis of the literature following the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report was performed to evaluate whether advances in reprocessing technology have occurred and whether these have had an impact on pathogen transmission via flexible endoscopes. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care was used to guide the project. The literature search regarding pathogen transmission related to flexible endoscopes yielded 10 documents citing infections from 2008 to 2015. A total of 353 patients were identified as having been infected with a contaminated gastroscope, bronchoscope, or duodenoscope. An evaluation of reprocessing technology identified 3 automated endoscope reprocessors with enhanced capabilities and flushing devices intended to automate portions of the manual cleaning step.
Spillmann, Thomas; Willard, Michael D; Ruhnke, Isabelle; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M
Cats are predisposed to diseases of the biliary tract and the exocrine pancreas and these can be challenging to diagnose. In humans and dogs > 10 kg, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been successfully used to diagnose some of these disorders. The purpose of our study was to determine whether ERCP would also be feasible in cats using a pediatric duodenoscope. Four purpose-bred, clinically healthy, castrated domestic shorthair cats participated in two studies. Study 1 compared standard white light endoscopy with chromoendoscopy for localizing the major duodenal papilla. In Study 2 ERCP was performed. Repeated clinical examinations and measurements of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) were performed before and up to 18 hours after interventions on all cats. Chromoendoscopy was subjectively judged to be superior for localizing the major papilla. Insertion of the ERCP catheter was best accomplished when cats were in dorsal recumbency. Complete ERCP was successful in two cats. In the other cats, either retrograde cholangiography or pancreatography was possible. Serum fPLI concentrations increased temporarily in two cats during Study 2 when measured immediately, 2, 4, and 18 h after ERCP. Peak fPLI concentrations were detected either immediately after ERCP or 2 h later. No clinical signs of complications were observed within 18 h after the procedures. Findings indicated that ERCP is technically demanding but feasible in healthy cats. Future studies need to determine whether the temporary increases in serum fPLI concentrations are clinically important and to investigate the utility of ERCP in feline patients.
Akihiro Mori; Noritsugu Ohashi; Takako Maruyama; Hideharu Tatebe; Katsuhisa Sakai; Takashi Shibuya; Hiroshi Inoue; Shoudou Takegoshi; Masataka Okuno
AIM:To investigate if transnasal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(n-ERCP)using an ultrathin forward-viewing scope may overcome the disadvantages of conventional oral ERCP (o-ERCP) related to the largecaliber side-viewing duodenoscope.METHODS:The study involved 50 patients in whom 25 cases each were assigned to the o-ERCP and n-ERCP groups.We compared the requirements of esophagogastroduodenoscopy(EGD)prior to ERCP,rates and times required for successful cannulation into the pancreatobiliary ducts,incidence of post-procedure hyperamylasemia,cardiovascular parameters during the procedure,the dose of a sedative drug,and successful rates of endoscopic naso-biliary drainage (ENBD).RESULTS:Screening gastrointestinal observations were easily performed by the forward-viewing scope and thus no prior EGD was required in the n-ERCP group.There was no significant difference in the rates or times for cannulation,or incidence of hyperamylasemia between the groups.However,the cannulation was relatively difficult in n-ERCP when the scope appeared U-shape under fluoroscopy.Increments of blood pressure and the amount of a sedative drug were significantly lower in the n-ERCP group.ENBD was successfully performed succeeding to the n-ERCP in which mouth-to-nose transfer of the drainage tube was not required.CONCLUSION:n-ERCP is likely a well-tolerable method with less cardiovascular stress and no need of prior EGD or mouth-to-nose transfer of the ENBD tube.However,a deliberate application is needed since its performance is difficult in some cases and is not feasible for some endoscopic treatments such as stenting.
段学慧; 李刚; 李龙芸; 陈小英
目的 评价内镜在治疗胆管蛔虫病中的应用价值.方法 采用电子胃、十二指肠镜直视下治疗胆管蛔虫病36例.结果 36例患者中蛔虫部分进入胆管35例,均1次成功取出；另1例患者多发胆管蛔虫嵌顿于十二指肠乳头,内镜下乳头切开术(EPT)后取出多条胆管蛔虫.36例患者缓解腹痛快,均缩短了病程,无并发症发生.结论 内镜下治疗胆管蛔虫病是一种快速、安全、有效的方法,消除了胆结石形成因素,值得基层医院推广应用.%Objective To evaluate the application value of endoscopy in treatment of biliary ascariasis.Methods 36 cases of biliary ascariasis were treated by electronic gastroscope and duodenoscope.Results There were 35 cases of roundworm partially entering the bile duct,all 35 cases once removed successfully.One case of biliary ascariasis inlayed in the duodenal papilla,a plurality of biliary ascariasis were removed by endoscopic sphincterotomy (EPT).Abdominal pain could be relieved quickly,the course of disease was shortened in all 36 patients,no complication occurred.Conclusion The endoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis is a fast,safe,and effective method.
Lv, Fujing; Zhang, Shutian; Ji, Ming; Wang, Yongjun; Li, Peng; Han, Wei
The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a single stage with combined tri-endoscopic (duodenoscopy, laparoscopy and choledochoscopy) approach for patients with concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Fifty-three patients with combined gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones from February 2014 to April 2015 were randomized assigned to two groups: 29 patients underwent single-stage surgery with combined duodenoscope, laparoscope and choledochoscope (combined tri-endoscopic group), and 29 patients underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy to remove common bile duct stones followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy several days later (control group). The success rate of complete stone removal, procedure-related complication, hospital stay and the cost of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Altogether, 53 patients (29 patients in combined tri-endoscopic group and 24 patients in control group) successfully underwent the surgery and ERCP procedure. Three patients in the control group developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. One case of bile leaking and one case of residual stone were noted in the combined tri-endoscopic group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to both complete stone removal [96.6 % (28/29) vs. 100 % (24/24)] and procedure-related complication rate [3.4 % (1/29) vs. 12.5 % (3/24)] (p > 0.05). No open surgery was required in either group. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to hospital stay (6.72 ± 1.3 days vs. 10.91 ± 1.6 days, p tri-endoscopic approach for concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis was just as safe and successful as the control group. In addition, it resulted in a shorter hospital stay and less cost.
Fang Xu; Cheng-Gang Xu; De-Zheng Xu
AIM: Of all the complications of laparoscopic cholectecystomy,bile duct injury (BDI) is the most serious complication.The prevention of injury to the common bile duct (CBD) remains a significant concern in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).Different kinds of methods have been advanced to avoid this injury but no single method has gained wide acceptance.Because of various limitations of current methodologies we began a study using cold light illumination of the extrahepatic biliary system (light cholangiography LCP) to better visualize this area and thereby reduce the risk of bile duct injury.METHODS: Thirty-six patients with cholelithiasis were divided into two groups.Group Ⅰ (16 cases) received LCP and group Ⅱ (20 cases) received methelenum coeruleum cholangiography (MCCP).In group Ⅰ cold light was used to illuminate the common bile duct by leading an optical fiber into the common duct with a duodenoscope at the time of LC.The light coming from the fiber in the CBD could clearly illuminate the location of CBD and hepatic duct establishing its location relative to the cystic duct.This method was compared with the dye injection technique using methelenum coeruleum.RESULTS: In group Ⅰ thirteen cases were successfully illuminated and three failed.The cause of three failed cases was due to the difficulty in inserting the fiber into the ampulla of Vater.No complications occurred in the thirteen successful cases.In each of these successful cases the location of the common and hepatic ducts was clearly seen differentiating the ductal system from surrounding anatomy.In ten cases both the left and right hepatic ducts could be seen and in three only the right hepatic ducts were seen.In four of the thirteen cases,cystic ducts were also seen.In group Ⅱ,eighteen of the twenty cases were successful.The location of extrahepatic ducts became blue differentiating the ductal system from surrounding anatomy.Two cases failed due to a stone obstructing the cystic duct
Chon, Hyung Ku; Kim, Tae Hyeon
The incidence of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding is reportedly 2.0-5.0 %. Among various hemostatic methods, endoclip therapy is an effective modality in gastrointestinal bleeding. However, endoclip application for post-ES hemorrhage has not been widely studied, partly because of the difficulty in placing of clips using a duodenoscope. A cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope can easily visualize the major papilla and overcome the technical difficulty in applying endoclips. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of endoclips for the treatment of post-ES hemorrhage using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 1448 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures with ES were retrospectively assessed and followed-up. Patients with post-ES hemorrhage who did not respond to balloon compression or to spray or injection of a diluted epinephrine solution at the bleeding focus underwent endoclip therapy using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope. Bleeding patterns (oozing, pulsatile, and exposed vessel) were recorded. ES-induced uncontrolled hemorrhage occurred in 57 patients (3.93 %). The mean age was 68.9 ± 14.5 years, and the sex ratio (male/female) was 37 (64.9 %):20 (35.1 %) in 57 patients. Of the 57 cases of hemorrhage, early uncontrolled and delayed hemorrhage occurred in 45 (3.1 %) and 12 (0.82 %), respectively. Visible bleeding patterns following ES were: 50 oozing (57.7 %), 6 pulsatile (10.5 %), and 1 exposed vessel (1.8 %). Hemostasis was achieved by endoclipping using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope in 57 of 57 patients (100 %). The median number of clips used was 1.8 (range 1-3). No evidence of further bleeding or procedure-related complications was seen. We concluded that endoclip application using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope is feasible and safe and may be an effective technique for the treatment and/or prevention of post-ES hemorrhage.
王敏; 文卫; 缪林; 蒋国斌; 范志宁; 吴萍
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in elderly patients over 80 years old with biliary-pancreatic diseases. Methods One hundred and twenty patients over 80 years old who underwent ERCP between January 2004 and April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy, safety and complication were observed and followed up. Results One hundred and seventeen patients successfully underwent therapeutic ERCP and the success rate was 97.5%. All diseases of the patients included cholangiocarcinoma in 22 cases, duodenal papilla carcinoma in 3 cases, pancreatic carcinoma in 8 cases, acute pancreatitis in 15 cases, chronic pancreatitis in 5 cases, acute suppurative cholangitis in 9 cases and choledocholithiasis in 58 cases. During the procedure of ERCP, 3 cases failed to insert the duodenoscope, 3 cases were found hemobilia and 2 cases were found acute pancreatitis. Conclusions Therapeutic ERCP is effective and safe in elderly patients over 80 years. Age is not the contraindication of therapeutic ERCP.%目的 评价治疗性逆行胰胆管造影术(ERCP)对80岁以上老年患者胆胰疾病的疗效及安全性. 方法 回顾分析我院自2004年1月至2008年4月诊治的80岁以上行ERCP治疗的老年患者120例,同时观察其并发症. 结果 120例患者,造影成功117例(成功率97.5%),其中胆管癌22例,十二指肠乳头癌3例,胰腺癌8例,急性胆源性胰腺炎15例,慢性胰腺炎5例,急性化脓性胆管炎9例,胆总管结石58例.在ERCP过程中因血氧饱和度进行性下降和严重的心律失常而中止治疗2例;插镜失败1例,失败原因系肿瘤侵犯导致十二指肠球降部狭窄,镜身不能通过.胆道出血3例,急性胰腺炎2例. 结论 治疗性ERCP对80岁以上老年人胆胰疾病的诊治创伤小,且有效及安全,高龄并非治疗性ERCP的禁忌证.
duodenoscope, performing on pig model because it is easier to pass through the pyloric sphincter, although this is not very suitable for cannulation of the duodenal papilla. After passing the first stage, we used the canine model to acquire the skills and abilities specific to this technique. The performance evaluation is done through an anonymous survey. Results. 76% of students confirmed that they have made good progress with this training, 18% regular and 6% that shortly. 75% believed that after making this training would be found competent to carry out the technique in their hospitals. About 94% of students would recommend this activity. Conclusions. The use of animal model in training in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP permits the acquisition of basic skills needed for practice, as it enables the repetition of the maneuvers and continuing care. We believe that this mixed methodology could shorten the learning curve for ERCP and reduce iatrogenic in the early stages.
谭文翔; 杨玉龙; 王晓光; 付维利
transplantation, are difficult for diagnosis and treatmerit and the bottlenecks for the development of liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To observe and record bile duct injury and do biopsy in parallel with treating biliary complications following liver transplantation successfully with choledochoscope, and to analyze the relationships between various bile duct injuries, histopathological types and biliary complications following liver transplantation. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Case analysis was carried out at Dalian Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery. Dalian Friendship Hospital between July 2001 and October 2005. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients after liver transplantation were divided into three groups according to the occurrence of biliary complications: four cases for normal group, twelve cases for bile duct injury group, three cases for hepatic artery miury group. METHODS: They were observed. diagnosed and recorded respectively and take biopsy for pathological analysis through the choledochoscope. With regard to the cases without T-tube. Choledochoscope combined duodenoscope were used to take biopsies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Choledochoscope was used to observe T-tube cholangiography, the appearances and pathological changes of intemal and external bile duct mucous membrane. healing of the donor-receptor bile duct stoma. Patients in the bile duct injury group were done examinations described above after endoscopic stone extraction and stenosis expansion. RESULTS: The intemal and extemal bile duct anatomy of the patients in the normal group were normal, without bile ductstenosis and scar, their bile duct mucous membrane lookcd good, and the anastomosis of the donor-receptor bile duct healed well. Restored mucous tissue coating with intact epithelium was found by pathological examination. Various kinds of bile duct stones, simple, multiple and casting mould stones, were found in patients of the bile duct injury group. Bile duct mucous