WorldWideScience

Sample records for dumps generating acid

  1. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general.

  2. Microbial diversity at the moderate acidic stage in three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehi, Hananeh; Blöthe, Marco; Schippers, Axel

    2014-11-01

    In freshly deposited sulfidic mine tailings the pH is alkaline or circumneutral. Due to pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation the pH is dropping over time to pH values tailings are only scarcely studied. Here we investigated the microbial diversity via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in eight samples (pH range 3.2-6.5) from three different sulfidic mine tailings dumps in Botswana, Germany and Sweden. In total 701 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a divergent microbial community between the three sites and at different tailings depths. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were overall the most abundant phyla in the clone libraries. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Nitrospira occurred less frequently. The found microbial communities were completely different to microbial communities in tailings at

  3. Modeling acid mine drainage in waste rock dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R. [INRS, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of sulfides present in mine wastes. The acidity generated by these reactions creates conditions under which metals can be leached and represent a threat for surface and ground waters. Even though leachate collection and neutralization are used to treat the problem, the industry is looking for methods to predict and prevent the generation of AMD at new sites and control methods for sites already producing AMD. Waste rock dumps are generally very large accumulations of barren rocks extracted from open pits to access ore bodies. These rocks contain sulfides, most commonly pyrite, and often generate AMD at rates much higher than in mine tailings which are fine grained by-products of milling operations. Numerous coupled physical processes are involved in AMD production in waste rocks. Sulfide oxidation reactions are strongly exothermic and temperatures beyond 70{degrees}C have been measured in some dumps. That heat is transfered by conduction and fluid advection. Dumps have thick partly saturated zones through which gases flow under thermal gradients and water infiltrates. Oxygen is required by the oxidation reactions and is supplied by diffusion and advection. The reaction products are carried in solution in very concentrated leachates. Numerical modeling of AMD aims to (1) provide a better understanding of the physical processes involved in AMD, (2) allow the integration of available waste rock characterization data, (3) indicate new data or studies which are required to fill the gaps in our quantitative understanding of AMD processes, and (4) supply a tool for the prediction of AMD production, taking into account the impact of control methods. These objectives can only be met through sustained research efforts. This study is part of a wider research effort which as been on-going at La Mine Doyon since 1991.

  4. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  5. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillier, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  6. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1990-05-01

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Study for a failsafe trigger generation system for the Large Hadron Collider beam dump kicker magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rampl, M

    1999-01-01

    The 27 km-particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will be completed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in 2005, will work with extremely high beam energies (~334 MJ per beam). Since the equipment and in particular the superconducting magnets must be protected from damage caused by these high energy beams the beam dump must be able to absorb this energy very reliable at every stage of operation. The kicker magnets that extract the particles from the accelerator are synchronised with the beam by the trigger generation system. This thesis is a first study for this electronic module and its functions. A special synchronisation circuit and a very reliable electronic switch were developed. Most functions were implemented in a Gate-Array to improve the reliability and to facilitate modifications during the test stage. This study also comprises the complete concept for the prototype of the trigger generation system. During all project stages reliability was always the main determin...

  8. Reconstruction of steam generators super emergency feadwater supply system (SHNC) and steam dump stations to the atmosphere system PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzma, J.

    2001-01-01

    Steam Generators Super Emergency Feadwater Supply System (SHNC) and Steam Dump Stations to the Atmosphere System (PSA) are two systems which cooperate to remove residual heat from reactor core after seismic event. SHNC assure feeding of the secondary site of steam generator (Feed) where after heat removal.from primary loops, is relieved to the atmosphere by PSA (Bleed) in form of steam. (author)

  9. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  10. SISTEM PENGOLAHAN AIR ASAM TAMBANG PADA WATER POND DAN APLIKASI MODEL ENCAPSULATION IN-PIT DISPOSAL PADA WASTE DUMP TAMBANG BATUBARA (Acid Mine Drainage Treatment System in Water Pond and Application of Encapsulation In-Pit Disposal Model in Waste Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Erwin Wijaya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kegiatan pertambangan batubara umumnya dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan di lokasi penambangan. Salah satu dampak negatif yang signifikan adalah terjadinya pencemaran air asam tambang yang dapat merusak fungsi lingkungan seperti komponen air dan tanah. Umumnya lokasi tambang batubara yang berpotensi besar sebagai sumber terbentuknya air asam tambang adalah kolam penampungan air tambang (water pond dan tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dump. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengendalikan rembesan air asam tambang yang berasal dari kolam penampungan air (water pond dan mengurangi terbentuknya air asam tambang pada tempat penimbunan material buangan sulfida (waste dunp. Sistem pengendalian pencemaran air asam tambang meliputi pengolahan air asam tambang (water pond dan pengelolaan material sulfida (waste dump. Metode pengolahan air asam tambang adalah menetralisasi air asam dengan reagen alkali. Reagen alkali yang paling efektif dan ekonomis adalah batugamping (kalsium karbonat. Jumlah batugamping yang dibutuhkan untuk menetralkan air asam lambang pada water pond (5040 m3 sebesar 104,56 kg. Pengelolaan material buangan sulfida (waste dump adalah menerapkan model encapsulation in-pit disposal. Hal ini sangat efektif untuk mencegah terbentuknya air asam tambang. Material perlapisan yang digunakan adalah lempung (clay, karena mempunyai nilai permeabilitas yang sangat kecil yaitu sebesar 2,3148 x 10-9 m/det dan ketersediaannya mencukupi.   ABSTRACT Coal mining activity generally can generate negative impact to environment on mining location. One of the negative impact is contamination of acid mine drainage which able to destroy environment and ecosystem as water and soil. High potency source of acid mine drainage formed on coal mining location are water pond and waste dump. This aim of the research are control of acid mine drainage from water pond and prevention of acid mine drainage formed on the waste dump

  11. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  12. A review of acidity generation and consumption in acidic coal mine lakes and their watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian

    2006-10-01

    Lakes developing in former coal mine pits are often characterized by high concentrations of sulfate and iron and low pH. The review focuses on the causes for and fate of acidity in these lakes and their watersheds. Acidification is primarily caused by the generation of ferrous iron bearing and mineralized groundwater, transport through the groundwater-surface water interface, and subsequent iron oxidation and precipitation. Rates of acidity generation in mine tailings and dumps, and surface water are often similar (1 to >10 mol m(-2) yr(-1)). Weathering processes, however, often suffice to buffer groundwaters to only moderately acidic or neutral pH, depending on the suite of minerals present. In mine lakes, the acidity balance is further influenced by proton release from transformation of metastable iron hydroxysulfate minerals to goethite, and proton and ferrous iron sequestration by burial of iron sulfides and carbonates in sediments. These processes mostly cannot compensate acidity loading from the watershed, though. A master variable for almost all processes is the pH: rates of pyrite oxidation, ferrous iron oxidation, mineral dissolution, iron precipitation, iron hydroxide transformation, and iron and sulfate reduction are strongly pH dependent. While the principle mechanism of acidity generation and consumption and several controls are mostly understood, this cannot be said about the fate of acidity on larger spatial and temporal scales. Little is also known about critical loads and the internal regulation of biogeochemical iron, sulfur, and carbon cycling in acidic mine lakes.

  13. A review of acidity generation and consumption in acidic coal mine lakes and their watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Lakes developing in former coal mine pits are often characterized by high concentrations of sulfate and iron and low pH. The review focuses on the causes for and fate of acidity in these lakes and their watersheds. Acidification is primarily caused by the generation of ferrous iron bearing and mineralized groundwater, transport through the groundwater-surface water interface, and subsequent iron oxidation and precipitation. Rates of acidity generation in mine tailings and dumps, and surface water are often similar (1 to >10 mol m -2 yr -1 ). Weathering processes, however, often suffice to buffer groundwaters to only moderately acidic or neutral pH, depending on the suite of minerals present. In mine lakes, the acidity balance is further influenced by proton release from transformation of metastable iron hydroxysulfate minerals to goethite, and proton and ferrous iron sequestration by burial of iron sulfides and carbonates in sediments. These processes mostly cannot compensate acidity loading from the watershed, though. A master variable for almost all processes is the pH: rates of pyrite oxidation, ferrous iron oxidation, mineral dissolution, iron precipitation, iron hydroxide transformation, and iron and sulfate reduction are strongly pH dependent. While the principle mechanism of acidity generation and consumption and several controls are mostly understood, this cannot be said about the fate of acidity on larger spatial and temporal scales. Little is also known about critical loads and the internal regulation of biogeochemical iron, sulfur, and carbon cycling in acidic mine lakes. (author)

  14. High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2001-01-01

    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line.

  15. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  16. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, S.; Felix, M.; Sohr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  17. The battle of the dumps continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Although East Rand Gold and Uranium Company is about to start exploitation of the old slimes dams to produce gold, uranium and sulphuric acid, the battle to suppress dust and establish vegetation on the old dumps continues. The physical problems, planning, co-ordination and legal aspects of mine dump reclamation are outlined

  18. Prediction of the acid generating potential of coal mining spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfide oxidation impact on mined land reclamation makes it necessary for mine spoils to be classified according to their acidifying potential. In this paper predictions were made of the acid generating potential of sulfide-containing spoils from the Puentes lignite mine (Galicia, NW Spain), and the limits of sulfur contents allowable for their storage in aerobic conditions, were established. Using samples of fresh spoils, analyses were made of the content and speciation of sulfur, pH was measured after oxidation of the sample with H 2 O 2 (pH of oxidation = pH OX ), and titration of the oxidation extract with 0.1N NaOH to pH = 7 was carried out (Net Acid Production = NAP). The total sulfur content (S T ) varied between 3%, with pyritic-S being the most common form (> 80%). pH OX varied between 1.6 and 6.4 and NAP between 1.2 and 85.0 Kg-CaCO 3 t -1 . A high correlation was found between the NAP and the S T (r-0.98, p T > 0.15% cause high risks of mine-soil acidification, and create the need for large doses of CaCO 3 to be used on final surface of the mine dump. Use of fly ash, produced from the combustion of lignite, as an alternative to commercial lime is more effective in the control of acidity generated by spoils with high S T . 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Prediction of acid generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  20. Electricity generation devices using formic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zheng, Junrong

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates generally to new forms of portable energy generation devices and methods. The devices are designed to covert formic acid into released hydrogen, alleviating the need for a hydrogen tank as a hydrogen source for fuel

  1. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  2. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  3. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  4. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y.

    2002-11-01

    stakeholders that CSEZ is free of radioactive contamination. The APP principally utilized scientific testing in order to verify the physical presence and extent of radioactive contamination as well as the social marketing approach to generate social acceptability of the scientific findings among the various stakeholders of the base

  5. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y

    2002-11-01

    stakeholders that CSEZ is free of radioactive contamination. The APP principally utilized scientific testing in order to verify the physical presence and extent of radioactive contamination as well as the social marketing approach to generate social acceptability of the scientific findings among the various stakeholders of the base.

  6. Electricity generation devices using formic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-06-22

    The present disclosure relates generally to new forms of portable energy generation devices and methods. The devices are designed to covert formic acid into released hydrogen, alleviating the need for a hydrogen tank as a hydrogen source for fuel cell power.

  7. Acid rock drainage in the uranium mining and milling site of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil -- duration assessment, pollutant generation modelling and remediation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    This geochemical modeling work was carried out to simulate the acid drainage generation from one of the waste-rock piles at the Pocos de Caldas uranium mining site. The mathematical code STEADQYL was used. The estimated results were in good agreement for sulphate and uranium concentrations and the duration of the acid water generation was estimated to be about 500 years. The effect of covering the dump with a material that minimized oxygen diffusion was assessed. Projections indicated that covering the dump with a 1.0 m thickness of a material (like clay), which had an oxygen diffusion coefficient of 10 9 m 2 ·s 1 , would reduce the pollutant concentrations to acceptable values. The estimated cost, when using this strategy, would be about US $10 million. (author)

  8. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  10. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium

  11. Radioactive dumping in the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, J.; Gizewski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Recent revelations concerning the possible environmental hazards posed by the sunken Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets and the disposal of radioactive materials in the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans have generated much controversy and debate. Too often, however, the key scientific and policy issues that the dumping raises are treated as two solitudes. In reality, decisions taken by national governments and international agencies in connection with remediation, regulation, and even research must be based on both science and policy. Indeed, a sound approach to the dumping issue must integrate scientific evidence and policy considerations relating to legal, political, social, and economic matters. Radioactive waste disposal is an exceedingly difficult problem. Information detailing the Soviet Navy's past dumping practices, and increasing awareness of the problems that Russia and other states may encounter in the future disposal of radioactive waste, indicate that the global inventory of radioactive wastes requiring storage and disposal is large and growing

  12. A model of pyritic oxidation in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can lead to high acid levels and high concentrations of trace metals in the water that runs off and percolates through pyritic material. This is the situation at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, where pyritic oxidation in the waste rock dumps resulting from open cut mining of the uranium orebody has led to pollution of the nearby East Branch of the Finniss River, with trace metals such as copper, manganese and zinc. Mathematical equations are formulated which describe a model of pyritic oxidation within a waste rock dump, where it is assumed that oxygen transport is the rate limiting step in the oxidation process and that oxygen is transported by gaseous diffusion through the pore space of the dump, followed by diffusion into oxidation sites within the particles that comprise the dump. The equations have been solved numerically assuming values for such parameters as porosity, sulphur density and oxygen diffusion coefficients which are applicable to the waste rock dumps at Rum Jungle. An approximate solution to the equations is also presented. Calculations of the heat source distribution and the total SO 4 production rate are presented for both single size particles and for a range of particle sizes in the dump. The usefulness of the approximate solution, and of calculations based on single size particles in the dump in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to reduce pollution from such waste rock dumps are discussed

  13. Sterols and fatty acids analysis at the Llobregat River for a wastewater dumping episode; Analisis de esteroles y acidos grasos en el rio Llobrgat por un vertido de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lacal, J.; Garcia-Mendi, C.; Vega, A.; Pujadas, M.

    2006-07-01

    The study by gas chromatography (HRGC) and mass spectrometry (MS) of fatty acids and sterols of water samples from Anoia and Llobregat River, allowed to rule out the hypothesis of the Anoia River as the cause of dumping episode and even to determine that the episode was not associated to the faecal or residual contamination. Nevertheless, it has permitted us to have a better knowledge of these families of organic compounds in the basin of the Llobregat River. In the acidic fraction, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of 14, 16 and 18 atoms of carbon from oil fish, animal fat or hydrogenated oils with industrial and domestic use were found. The application of different sterols indices (coprostanol, cholesterol, cholestanol, stigmasterol, stigmastadienol and sitosterol) permitted us to study the role of the sterols and the significance of the contamination from animal sterols, fitosterols in the studied samples. (Author) 19 refs.

  14. Pressure rise analysis in superconducting coils during dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, E.; Shimamoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the ALPHE computer code, whose purpose is to calculate transient helium behavior in a poolboiling coil and to determine suitable characteristics of safety devices to minimize the maximum pressure and the liquid helium lost during dumping due to quench, or when discharging without normalcy. The analysis is compared with the measurements obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. Topics considered include basic equations (helium behavior, heat generation), manual dump without quench, and dumping due to quench. It is demonstrated that the transient behavior, calculated by ALPHE assuming quasi-static equilibrium between helium and coil, is in good agreement with the experimental measurements observed in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. The engineering technique required for the design criteria of superconducting coils and safety device during dumping is established. ALPHE can be used to design an emergency safety system for a helium refrigerator during dumping

  15. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  16. HDF-EOS Dump Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, U.; Rahabi, A.

    2001-05-01

    The following utilities developed for HDF-EOS format data dump are of special use for Earth science data for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS). This poster demonstrates their use and application. The first four tools take HDF-EOS data files as input. HDF-EOS Metadata Dumper - metadmp Metadata dumper extracts metadata from EOS data granules. It operates by simply copying blocks of metadata from the file to the standard output. It does not process the metadata in any way. Since all metadata in EOS granules is encoded in the Object Description Language (ODL), the output of metadmp will be in the form of complete ODL statements. EOS data granules may contain up to three different sets of metadata (Core, Archive, and Structural Metadata). HDF-EOS Contents Dumper - heosls Heosls dumper displays the contents of HDF-EOS files. This utility provides detailed information on the POINT, SWATH, and GRID data sets. in the files. For example: it will list, the Geo-location fields, Data fields and objects. HDF-EOS ASCII Dumper - asciidmp The ASCII dump utility extracts fields from EOS data granules into plain ASCII text. The output from asciidmp should be easily human readable. With minor editing, asciidmp's output can be made ingestible by any application with ASCII import capabilities. HDF-EOS Binary Dumper - bindmp The binary dumper utility dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format. This is useful for feeding the output of it into existing program, which does not understand HDF, for example: custom software and COTS products. HDF-EOS User Friendly Metadata - UFM The UFM utility tool is useful for viewing ECS metadata. UFM takes an EOSDIS ODL metadata file and produces an HTML report of the metadata for display using a web browser. HDF-EOS METCHECK - METCHECK METCHECK can be invoked from either Unix or Dos environment with a set of command line options that a user might use to direct the tool inputs and output . METCHECK validates the inventory metadata in (.met file) using The

  17. Dumping at Sea Act 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Act enables the United Kingdom Government to ratify both the Oslo Convention of 1972 for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft and the London Convention of 1972 on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. (NEA) [fr

  18. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  19. Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won

    1996-12-01

    Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.

  20. Dump evaluation for landscape restoration of an ancient cacareous quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, R.; Ayala, R.; Trevisiol, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the geological - mining study in the limestone quarry in the west of Valle Hermoso town - Cordoba - Argentina. The generation of dump material is considered a waste but is inherent to the process of rocks and minerals extraction. The dump stocks evaluation take into account the different types of rocks with physical and chemical characteristics. The dump has several carbonatic qualities and can be given useful to uncover material originally dismissed as to be used as crushed stone for concrete and others.The reuse of this waste can be allocated primarily to the construction industry, and explore other potential uses, would rehabilitate these lands, and thus eliminate an environmental liability .This work is about the geological - mining study in the limestone quarry in the west of Valle Hermoso town - Cordoba - Argentina. The generation of dump material is considered a waste but is inherent to the process of rocks and minerals extraction. The dump stocks evaluation take into account the different types of rocks with physical and chemical characteristics. The dump has several carbonatic qualities and can be given useful to uncover material originally dismissed as to be used as crushed stone for concrete and others.The reuse of this waste can be allocated primarily to the construction industry, and explore other potential uses, would rehabilitate these lands, and thus eliminate an environmental liability

  1. The 12 kV, 50 kA Pulse Generator for the SPS MKDH Horizontal Beam Dump Kicker System,equipped with Semiconductor Switches

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The high current pulses for the MKDH magnets are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via low inductance transmission lines. They are equipped with a stack of four Fast High Current Thyristors, together with snubber capacitors, a voltage divider and a specially designed trigger transformer.

  2. Beam-dump kicker magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Odian, A.; Tomlin, B.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-dump kicker magnets are located in the final focus region and, in conjunction with septum magnets, extract the beams after they have passed the interaction point (IP) and direct them to their respective dumps. Two schemes for these kickers have been under consideration; ferrite transmission line magnets utilizing technology common with damping rings and positron target kickers, and current loop magnets which are possible only for the dump kickers, where the rise time of the magnetic pulse can be comparatively longer; approximately 400 nanoseconds as compared with 50 nanoseconds for the others. A prototype ferrite kicker has been built and is undergoing tests. Since the current loop requires lower voltage and power plus some additional savings in cost, we decided to build and test a prototype. This note describes in detail an optimized design for the current loop magnets and their associated pulse circuitry

  3. Sea dumping of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1980-01-01

    From 1967 until 1976 ca. 45,000 t of weak radioactive wastes had been dumped into the sea during several actions under the supervision of the NEA. The requirements to be deduced from the experiences with regard to marine areas, packaging and transports of the wastes are described. Up to now the possibilities of the sea dumping of strong radioactive wastes has been just discussed. The natural removal of the decay heat by sea water would be advantageous but the problem of water-proof packagings for the period of 1000 years have not been solved yet. (orig.) [de

  4. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  5. Down in the dumps - cheerfully

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmer, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenging gold and uranium from the sands dumps and slimes dams is a highly profitable operation. In a few pages the author summarises some of the permutations and combinations of the various processes employed by South African concerns to achieve economic results

  6. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  7. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably...

  8. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  9. Powershift transmission for dump trucks; Neues Lastschaltgetriebe fuer Dump Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, Wolfgang; Geis, Joerg; Riedhammer, Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Articulated dumpers (also called dump trucks) are used in many locations where large quantities of earth, spoil, gravel or other materials have to be moved on construction sites or in quarries. ZF has developed a new transmission with eight forward and four reverse gears up to production standard specifically for use in these vehicles. The integrated primary retarder is continuously controllable and provides maximum braking torque of up to 1800 Nm. (orig.)

  10. Mechanism of nitric acid generation on Ag-X Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Haseba, S.; Mitoh, Y.; Itoh, S.; Nakai, I.

    1983-01-01

    When Ag-X Zeolite is used for the removal of iodine from the off gas streams of nuclear facilities, it is possible that nitric acid is formed on Ag-X Zeolite from co-existing nitrogen dioxide and water vapor. If nitric acid is formed on the surface of Ag-X zeolite, Ag-X zeolite is damaged and is not able to operate for a long time. When Ag-X zeolite is used in NO 2 -O 2 -H 2 O mixture, the nitric acid generation reaction is varied, depending upon the reaction temperature, and concentration of NO 2 and H 2 O. At a temperature of more than 40 deg. C, however, only the surface reaction will be progressed on the zeolite surface. The generation of nitric acid solution on the zeolite can be forecasted through the relationship between the concentration of nitric acid solution, equilibrium vapor pressure of H 2 O, and equilibrium vapor pressure of HNO 3 . Concerning the surface reaction caused on the zeolite, the adsorption water reacts on NO 2 , and the resulting HNO 3 is adsorbed firmly by the zeolite, which is thought to interfere with the surface reaction for generation of the HNO 3 . When the adsorption bed is long, the time required for adsorbed HNO 3 to saturate is increased in proportion to the bed length

  11. Conceptual Design of the RHIC Dump Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Conceptually, the internal dump consists of a "core" whose purpose is to absorb the energy of the beam, and surrounding shielding whose purpose is to attenuate radiation. Design of the core for an internal dump has two problems which must be overcome. The first problem is preserving the integrity of the dump core. The bunches must be dispersed laterally an amount sufficient to keep the energy density from cracking the dump core material. Since the dump kickers in RHIC are only ~25m upstream of the entrance face of the dump, this is i a difficult problem. The second problem, not addressed in this note, is that dumping the beam should not quench downstream magnets. Preliminary calculations related to both of these problems have been presented in earlier notes.

  12. Minimising generation of acid whey during Greek yoghurt manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduwerella, Gangani; Chandrapala, Jayani; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2017-08-01

    Greek yoghurt, a popular dairy product, generates large amounts of acid whey as a by-product during manufacturing. Post-processing treatment of this stream presents one of the main concerns for the industry. The objective of this study was to manipulate initial milk total solids content (15, 20 or 23 g/100 g) by addition of milk protein concentrate, thus reducing whey expulsion. Such an adjustment was investigated from the technological standpoint including starter culture performance, chemical and physical properties of manufactured Greek yoghurt and generated acid whey. A comparison was made to commercially available products. Increasing protein content in regular yoghurt reduced the amount of acid whey during whey draining. This protein fortification also enhanced the Lb. bulgaricus growth rate and proteolytic activity. Best structural properties including higher gel strength and lower syneresis were observed in the Greek yoghurt produced with 20 g/100 g initial milk total solid compared to manufactured or commercially available products, while acid whey generation was lowered due to lower drainage requirement.

  13. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2015-04-01

    present in some samples. The carbonate content as the major neutralizing agent was zero in all samples. Due to the presence of sulfide minerals, mainly as pyrite, and also lack of any carbonate minerals, the AMD generation from the Sarcheshmeh waste rocks during the weathering reactions is predictable. At the Sarcheshmeh mine waste, several secondary minerals such as butlerite, jarosite and gypsum were detected by XRD at some depths. Moreover, amorphous iron oxyhydroxide minerals visually observed in waste dumps were not detected by XRD due to being negligible and low level of crystallinity. Hence, they were measured in terms of (Feo-h by ASTM standard test method. The ASTM-D2492 standard test showed that pyrite, sulphate and iron oxyhydroxide minerals (Feo-h are present in all samples. Against the XRD method, the test even detected the negligible content of the minerals. The paste pH tests showed that 15 samples were acid-producing because they had pH lower than 4. On the basis of moisture content results, the samples by name A6, A7, B1 and B2 showed high level of moisture which can be sign of the particular status in them. Discussion According to the field observations, channels with a strong flow of warm and humid air were detected in the depth of 3 to 5 meters of the investigated waste rock dumps. High content of humidity (8.25 and 13.43 percent and sulfate (4.5 and 7.02 percent were observed together with low content of pyrite (1.5 and 6.23 percent and acidic paste pH values (3.13 and 2.88 around these channels. Therefore, from the relation of these occurrences, it can be inferred that the air convection is important for supply oxygen to pyrite oxidation in the waste dumps of Sarcheshmeh. The results also indicate that, two main factors including grain size distribution and formation of hardpan layer on top of old weathered rocks are responsible for the decreasing of oxygen transformation rate via the molecular diffusion mechanism through the waste rock dumps

  14. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  15. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  16. Influence of the Trojan Nickel Mine on surface water quality, Mazowe valley, Zimbabwe: Runoff chemistry and acid generation potential of waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupankwa, Keretia; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin; Mseka, Stephen; Meck, Maideyi

    The impacts of mining on the environment depend on the nature of the ore body, the type of mining and the size of operation. The focus of this study is on Trojan Nickel Mine which is located 90 km north of Harare, Zimbabwe. It produces nickel from iron, iron-nickel and copper-nickel sulphides and disposes of waste rock in a rock dump. Surface water samples were taken at 11 points selected from a stream which drains the rock dump, a stream carrying underground water and the river into which these streams discharge. Samples were analysed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry, for sulphates by gravitation and for carbonates and bicarbonates by back titration. Ninteen rock samples were collected from the dump and static tests were performed using the Sobek acid base accounting method. The results show that near neutral runoff (pH 7.0-8.5) with high concentrations of sulphate (over 100 mg/L) and some metals (Pb > 1.0 mg/L and Ni > 0.2 mg/L) emanates from the dump. This suggests that acid mine drainage is buffered in the dump (probably by carbonates). This is supported by the static tests, which show that the fine fraction of dump material neutralises acid. Runoff from the dump flows into a pond. Concentrations of sulphates and metals decrease after the dump runoff enters the pond, but sufficient remains to increase levels of calcium, sulphate, bicarbonate, iron and lead in the Pote River. The drop in concentrations at the pond indicates that the settling process has a positive effect on water quality. This could be enhanced by treating the pond water to raise pH, thus precipitating out metals and decreasing their concentrations in water draining from the pond.

  17. Old dumps of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    The production of natural uranium through mining and milling results in large volumes of low-level radioactive waste, mainly in mine dumps and mill tailings. Hazards which relate to abandoned uranium production sites and environmental remediation approaches are described in reference to the Wismut case. During the period 1947 to 1990 the former Soviet-German Wismut Corporation produced about 200 000 t of uranium from several deposits in Thuringia and Saxonia within a relatively small and densely populated area. These activities resulted in major land disturbance and other environmental damage. Restoration problems are highlighted. (orig.)

  18. Dumping of solid packaged radioactivity in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Wm. O.; Van As, D.

    1980-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear energy, the quantity of radioactive wastes which are generated is also increasing. Their treatment and disposal is causing a concern in further development of nuclear energy. World's oceans are considered as a possible location for these wastes. A convention on the prevention of marine pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other matter into oceans was adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference held at London in November 1972. The convention prohibits dumping of high-level radioactive wastes in the oceans and has entrusted the IAEA the tasks of defining the high level radioactive wastes and providing recommendations for the issue of special permits for dumping of the radioactive materials which do not fall into the category of high-level wastes. A provisional definition and recommendations formulated by the IAEA and adopted by contractin.o. parties in 1976 are outlined. On the basis of an oceanographic model developed by Shepherd (1976) and considered to be the best available, a revised definition and revised recommendations were formulated. Their salient features are mentioned. The key parameters for specific site assessments are mentioned. The Nuclear Energy Agency also formulated guidelines on sea-disposal packages for radioactive wastes in 1974 and revised them in 1978. Finally it is noted that criteria have not been established for dumping of non-radioactive wastes in the ocean, though such criteria are contained in the IAEA recommendations in case of radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  19. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaria, F K; Dahl, S; Carballo, F J; Malcata, F X

    2002-10-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180-d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts were made in both situations to correlate the rates of free amino acid uptake with the numbers of viable cells. When incubated individually, leucine, valine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine were degraded by all strains considered; arginine tended to build up, probably because of transamination of other amino acids. When incubated together, the degradation of free amino acids by each strain was dependent on pH (with an optimum pH around 6.0). The volatiles detected in ripened Serra da Estrela cheese originated mainly from leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and valine, whereas in vitro they originated mainly from valine, phenylalanine, serine, leucine, alanine, and threonine. The wild strains tested offer a great potential for flavor generation, which might justify their inclusion in a tentative starter/nonstarter culture for that and similar cheeses.

  20. Dilution kicker for the SPS beam dump

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    In order to reduce thermal stress on the SPS dump material, the fast-ejected beam was swept horizontally across the dump. This was done with the "dilution kicker" MKDH, still in use at the time of writing. The person on the left is Manfred Mayer. See also 7404072X.

  1. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  2. Nanosized Minicells Generated by Lactic Acid Bacteria for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has the ability to target specific areas of the body, controlling the drug release and significantly increasing the bioavailability of active compounds. Organic and inorganic nanoparticles have been developed for drug delivery systems. Many delivery systems are through clinical stages for development and market. Minicell, a nanosized cell generated by bacteria, is a potential particle for drug delivery because of its size, safety, and biodegradability. Minicells produced by bacteria could drive therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, and other diseases by targeting. In addition, minicells generated by lactic acid bacteria being probiotics are more interesting than others because of their benefits like safety, immunological improvement, and biodegradation. This review aims to highlight the stages of development of nanoparticle for drug delivery and discuss their advantages and limitations to clarify minicells as a new opportunity for the development of potential nanoparticle for drug delivery.

  3. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  4. NOx generation method from recovered nitric acid by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Inoue, M.; Fujiso, M.; Shibuya, M.; Iwamoto, F.; Outou, Y.; Ochi, E.; Tsuyuki, T.

    1998-01-01

    An R and D has been conducted on an electrolytic NO x generation process utilizing recovered nitric acid from a PUREX reprocessing plant. The purpose of the study is to drastically reduce the amount of low-level-liquid waste(LLW). The research program phase-1, constituting mainly of electrochemical reaction mechanism study, material balance evaluation and process design study, finished in 1995. The results were presented in the previous papers). The research program phase-2 has started in 1995. The schedule is as follows: FY 1991-1994: Research program phase-1 Basic study using electrolysis equipment with 100-700 cm 2 electrodes FY 1995-1999: Research program phase-2 Process performance test by larger scale electrolysis equipment with 3.6 m 2 electrodes - pilot plant design (FY 1995) - pilot plant construction (FY 1996) - engineering data acquisition (FY 1997-1999). The process consists of many unit operations such as electrolysis, oxidation, nitric acid concentration, NO x compression and storage, NO x recovery, off-gas treatment and acid supplier. This paper outlines the pilot test plant. (author)

  5. Marine reactor pressure vessels dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 marine reactors from seven Russian submarines and the icebreaker Lenin, each of which suffered some form of reactor accident, were dumped in a variety of containments, using a number of sealing methods, at five sites in the Kara Sea. All reactors were dumped at sites that varied in depth from 12 to 300 m and six contained their spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This paper examines the breakdown of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) barriers due to corrosion, with specific emphasis on those RPVs containing SNF. Included are discussions of the structural aspects of the steam generating installations and their associated RPVs, a summary of the disposal operations, assumptions on corrosion rates of structural and filler materials, and an estimate of the structural integrity of the RPVs at the present time (1996) and in the year 2015

  6. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Ashique, Amir M; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Patterson, Katelin P; Hecht, Jonathan H; Kane, Maureen A; Folias, Alexandra E; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L; Peterson, Andrew S; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2009-10-30

    Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation of the neuroepithelium. Several types of experiments demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is the key component of this secreted activity. In addition, Rdh10- and Raldh2-expressing cells in the dorsal meninges were either reduced or absent in the Foxc1 mutants, and Rdh10 mutants had a cortical phenotype similar to the Foxc1 null mutants. Lastly, in utero RA treatment rescued the cortical phenotype in Foxc1 mutants. These results establish RA as a potent, meningeal-derived cue required for successful corticogenesis.

  7. Changes to the LHC Beam Dumping System for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Borburgh, Jan; Carlier, Etienne; Gabourin, Stéphane; Goddard, Brennan; Magnin, Nicolas; Senaj, Viliam; Voumard, Nicolas; Weterings, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system performed according to expectations during Run 1 of the LHC (2009 – 2013). A brief overview of the experience is given, including a summary of the observed performance by comparison to expectations. An important number of changes are applied to the beam dumping system during the present Long Shutdown in order to further improve its safety and performance. They include the addition of a direct link between the Beam Interlock System and the re-triggering system of the dump kickers, the modification of the uninterrupted electrical power distribution architecture, the upgrade of the HV generators, the consolidation of the trigger synchronisation system, the modifications to the triggering system of the power switches and the changes to the dump absorbers TCDQ.

  8. A hybrid of QFD and AHP-TOPSIS for Durg dumping waste projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Chandrakar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Generation of solid waste is the integral consequence of civilization and its management is stand-ing as a big challenge in front of state government at present time. Municipal solid waste in Durg-Bhilai is littered with improper places due to lack of understanding about the scientific im-portance of garbage and its consequences. Our foremost concern is the selection of appropriate dumping area nearby Durg-Bhilai (C.G. and for the selection of appropriate dumping area, a multi criteria decision making technique is used. This paper attempts to evaluate 4 dumping areas based on 5 criteria. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP is used to determine the weighs for each criterion and quality function deployment (QFD is also implemented. The results indicate that Potiyakala was the best dumping site nearby Durg-Bhilai area.

  9. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  10. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  11. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  12. Beam dump experiments at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukas, A.; Bregman, M.; Galik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Searches for the prompt production of weak or semi-strongly interacting particles in a neutrino beam dump and their subsequent interaction or decay were performed at the AGS. The experiment is detailed using the totally active liquid scintillator detector, and mention the results of the spark chamber detector. An exposure of a copper beam dump to two orders of magnitude more protons than in previous searches at 28 GeV has yielded 104 neutrino-like events in the detector. The events from the beam dump are compared directly with those from π and K decay neutrinos produced concurrently in the normal long neutrino decay path following a 15 cm brass target. The characteristics of the events are similar. However, when compared to the rate of events predicted by scaling the 15 cm target yields, the beam dump data show an excess of 45 +- 16 events. The excess events from the beam dump appear to deposit energies greater than or equal to 1 GeV. Their source remains puzzling. Future experiments at the AGS could verify the existence of the effect, decrease the uncertainty in the predicted number of events from 30 to 10% by directly measuring the pion absorption length with a variable density target, search for threshold effects, and measure the sign of the charge of the existing muons. 22 references

  13. Dumping the decelerated beams of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The spent drive beam must be cleanly extracted and bent away from the decelerator axis at the end of each CLIC decelerator in order to leave space for injecting a fresh beam train in the next sector. Then the spent beam must be safely absorbed. A compact extraction system made of a single dipole is proposed. The spent beam is driven to a water dump located at 20m downstream of the extraction point and transversely 6m away of the axis of the main linac. An adequate spread of the beam impact map on the dump offers small temperature excursions in both the dump and its entrance window, allowing for reliable operation and a long lifetime of the system.

  14. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  15. Modernization of dump truck onboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  16. Source, transport and dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described, including the physical and chemical, ecological, medical and legal aspects. The practical aspects of radioactive waste in the Netherlands are considered, including the sources, the packaging and transport and dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. The politics and policies involved in this process are outlined. (C.F.)

  17. Design studies of the LHC beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Zazula, J M

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a compilation of the results of the recent 5 years studies of the beam dump system for the LHC proton collider at CERN, with a special emphasis on feasibility of the central absorber. Simulations of energy deposition by particle cascades, optimisation of the beam sweeping system and core layout, and thermal analysis have been completed; the structural deformation, stress and vibration analyses are well advanced, and a new concept of the shielding design has recently been approved. The material characteristics, geometry, performance parameters and safety precautions for different components of the beam dump are actually close to completion, which augurs well for the start of construction work according to schedule.

  18. Monitoring the rehabilitated waste rock dumps at the Rum Jungle mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1988-01-01

    Acid drainage and the release of heavy metals create a major environmental problem at many mine sites and the problem can continue long after mine operations cease. The long term control of these pollutants is essential for the acceptance of mining as a temporary land use. There is a need to compare the advantages, disadvantages and costs of various rehabilitation techniques. This paper describes measurements on two dumps of pyritic mine wastes from open cut mining before and after rehabilitation of the dumps. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation is discussed

  19. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  20. Combatting social dumping - also an obligation for municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2018-01-01

    Analytisk indkredsning af social dumping og argumentation for kommuners opgaver i forbindelse med bekæmpelse heraf......Analytisk indkredsning af social dumping og argumentation for kommuners opgaver i forbindelse med bekæmpelse heraf...

  1. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  2. Pd/C Synthesized with Citric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid/Sodium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Li; Yan, Jun-Min; Wang, Hong-Li; Ping, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid/sodium formate aqueous solution catalyzed by in situ synthesized Pd/C with citric acid has been successfully achieved at room temperature. Interestingly, the presence of citric acid during the formation and growth of the Pd nanoparticles on carbon can drastically enhance the catalytic property of the resulted Pd/C, on which the conversion and turnover frequency for decomposition of formic acid/sodium formate system can reach the highest values ever reported of 85% within 160 min and 64 mol H2 mol−1 catalyst h−1, respectively, at room temperature. The present simple, low cost, but highly efficient CO-free hydrogen generation system at room temperature is believed to greatly promote the practical application of formic acid system on fuel cells. PMID:22953041

  3. Design of the MI40 beam-abort dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.; Russell, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    A beam-abort dump for the Fermilab Main Injector to handle 3E13 protons per pulse at 150 Gev has been designed. A 120 GeV beam line goes through the beam-dump off-set by 27cm from its center. The design and the environmental safety aspects of the beam-dump are described here

  4. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. ©2012 AACR.

  5. Laboratory generated artifacts in plasma amino acid quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Nanjunda Rao

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The pace of physicians? involvement in amino acid metabolism has been enormous in the last five decades. With further development of technology to identify and quantitate upto picomoles of amino acids, their metabolites and related peptides, diagnosis and effective medical intervention in cases of inherited metabolic disorders have been well within the reach of the clinician. Automatic amino acid analyzers have become an essential part of major medical and research centers around the world. The technology has come indeed as a boon to physicians who in particular deal with inherited defects of amino acid metabolism. However, the technology comes with the risk of major deviations from the actual results when a few minor variations are not looked into. Trivial variations in basic steps of obtaining the sample, the choice of anticoagulant, hemolysis etc. can cause significant variations in the resulting values, particularly while dealing with inherited defects of amino acid metabolism and their treatment/management. Effects of such factors are revisited here for the benefit of the modern day laboratory personnel.

  6. Influence of dump voltage and allowable temperature rise on stabilizer requirements in superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting winding must have enough stabilizer to satisfy two sets of criteria. During normal operation, the amount of stabilizer must be large enough either to make the coil unconditionally stable or to give a certain desired stability margin. Once a dump occurs, the amount of stabilizer must be large enough to carry the current without generating excessive dump voltages or allowing the winding to exceed a certain maximum temperature (and maximum pressure, in the case of force-cooled coils). The voltage criterion often dominates for very large coil systems, but it is frequently ignored in initial design studies. This paper gives some simple relations between the dump voltage and the stored energy, temperature rise, and coil geometry that are useful in scooping the required amount of stabilizer. Comparison with some recently proposed fusion magnet system designs indicates that excessive dump voltages could result in some cases. High-temperature superconductors may require more stabilizer than the conventional alloys. Calculations with simple model coil systems indicate how trade-offs between various coil parameters affect the dump voltage. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilov, Mikhail [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Aaron, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Amroussia, Aida [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bergez, Wladimir [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Boehlert, Carl [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Colin, Catherine [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Durantel, Florent [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Graves, Van [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Grygiel, Clara [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Kramer, Jacob [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mittig, Wolfgang [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Monnet, Isabelle [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Patel, Harsh [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from {sup 16}O to {sup 238}U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti–6Al–4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  8. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  9. The non-participation of organic sulphur in acid mine drainage generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, D J; Finkelman, R B; Caruccio, F T

    1989-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is commonly associated with land disturbances that encounter and expose iron sulphides to oxidising atmospheric conditions. The attendant acidic conditions solubilise a host of trace metals. Within this flow regime the potential exists to contaminate surface drinking water supplies with a variety of trace materials. Accordingly, in evaluating the applications for mines located in the headwaters of water sheds, the pre-mining prediction of the occurrence of acid mine drainage is of paramount importance.There is general agreement among investigators that coal organic sulphur is a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation; however, there is no scientific documentation to support this concensus. Using simulated weathering, kinetic, mass balance, petrographic analysis and a peroxide oxidation procedure, coal organic sulphur is shown to be a nonparticipant in acid mine drainage generation. Calculations for assessing the acid-generating potential of a sedimentary rock should not include organic sulphur content.

  10. Third generation capture system: precipitating amino acid solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Misiak, K.; Ham, L. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This work summarises the results of the design of novel separation processes for CO2 removal from flue gas based on precipitating amino acid solvents. The processes here described (DECAB, DECAB Plus and pH-swing) use a combination of enhanced CO2 absorption (based on the Le Chatelier’s principle)

  11. Properties and interactions of neutrino (1977-1980) beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Data on search of instantaneous muon and electron neutrinos in experiments of beam dump type are presented in the review. Neutrino is formed in decays of particles rusulted from pN interactions. First experiments of the dump beam type have been realized at the CERN/SPS accelerator in 1975 and Serpukhov accelerator by the ITEF-IFVE group in 1977 with proton energies of 26 and 70 GeV, respectively. The results of beam dump experiments of the second generation in 1979 in CERN are considered in detail. These experiments have been intended for measuring the effect of instantaneous neutrino. The conclusion is drawn on the presence of instantaneous muon neutrinos in the above experiments [ru

  12. Environmental dispatch: Minimum cost generation planning for acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S.S.; Weinstein, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of Public Law 101-549, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, requires reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions from many power generation stations by 1995, and by an electric utility company's entire generation system by year 2000. Another option to reduce the total environmental emissions is to dispatch generating units with lower emission rates prior to dispatching units with high emission rates. This option may not lower the emission levels to the desired limits, but can reduce emissions. This is practical as long as the added operating cost is modest compared to the cost of alternatives to meet the same levels of emission reduction. This cost can be optimized to provide the best compromise between reduced emissions and operating cost increase. An environmental dispatch algorithm developed by Gilbert/Commonwealth for its eVOLVE-p trademark production costing program makes this optimization possible. The algorithm modifies the traditional economic dispatch order of utility generation to include the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The dispatch order is based on emissions in excess of Clean Air Act compliance limits. A cost is assigned to the excess emissions, and these costs are distributed to the individual generating units in proportion to their emission rates. This paper discusses how this environmental dispatch algorithm is applied for utility generation compliance planning

  13. Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization of m-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangwen; Wong, Annie B. H.; Chow, Pui Shan; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization have been investigated through evaporation and cooling crystallization experiments of m-hydroxybenzoic acid (m-HBA) in methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate, and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA) in ethanol. The rate of supersaturation generation has been altered by systematically changing either the cooling rate or the evaporation rate of solvent using a jacketed crystallizer and a microfluidic evaporation device, respectively. The results have revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation and the tendency of the formation of the less stable polymorph are positively correlated. Kinetic effects are dominant when the rate of supersaturation generation is high, thereby producing the metastable polymorphs (orthorhombic m-HBA; Form II of o-ABA); on the contrary, more stable polymorphs (monoclinic m-HBA; Forms III and I of o-ABA) are formed when the rate of supersaturation generation is low and the thermodynamic effects are prevailing.

  14. The charged beam dumps for the international linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Broome, T; Densham, C; Vincke, H

    2006-01-01

    The baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider requires 2 beam dumps per interaction region, each rated to 18MW of beam power, together with additional beam dumps for tuning purposes and machine protection. The baseline design uses high pressure moving water dumps, first developed for the SLC and used in the TESLA design, although a gas based dump is also being considered. In this paper we discuss the progress made by the international community on both physics and engineering studies for the beam dumps.

  15. Enhancement of carboxylic acid degradation with sulfate radical generated by persulfate activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, J; Nebout, P; Karpel Vel Leitner, N

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the generation of sulfate radical for the removal of two carboxylic acids in aqueous solution: acetic and citric acids. From photochemical and radiolytic processes, kinetics of the degradation of these two carboxylic acids was studied as a function of the pH of the solution. It was shown that the maximum of acetic acid degradation occurred at pH 5. Above this pH, competitive reactions with the carbon mineralized inhibit the reaction of with the solute. In the case of citric acid, pH has only a little effect on the kinetic of citric acid degradation. The determination of mineralization yields shows several differences depending on carboxylic acids and pH. The degradation of both carboxylic acids was also studied in the radiolysis process whether with or without persulfate addition. A comparison of the processes of sulfate radical production is presented.

  16. Pulse compression by Raman induced cavity dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rougemont, F.; Xian, D.K.; Frey, R.; Pradere, F.

    1985-01-01

    High efficiency pulse compression using Raman induced cavity dumping has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Through stimulated Raman scattering the electromagnetic energy at a primary frequency is down-converted and extracted from a storage cavity containing the Raman medium. Energy storage may be achieved either at the laser frequency by using a laser medium inside the storage cavity, or performed at a new frequency obtained through an intracavity nonlinear process. The storage cavity may be dumped passively through stimulated Raman scattering either in an oscillator or in an amplifier. All these cases have been studied by using a ruby laser as the pump source and compressed hydrogen as the Raman scatter. Results differ slightly accordingly to the technique used, but pulse shortenings higher than 10 and quantum efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained. This method could also be used with large power lasers of any wavelength from the ultraviolet to the farinfrared spectral region

  17. Design of the LHC beam dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Weisse, E.

    1992-01-01

    The severe constraints on the beam dumping system for the proposed Large Hadron Collider (LHC) arising from the beam energy (7.7 TeV) and intensity (5x10 14 protons) call for unusual procedures to dilute the beam. Monte-Carlo cascade simulations which calculated the effectiveness of thin scatterers placed upstream of the main absorber have been corrected and updated. Results are also presented concerning the optimization of the thicknesses of such scatterers. These show that a combined sweeping plus double-scatterer system gives a reasonable safety margin. A system combining the sweeping procedure with a dump where the absorber blocks are interleaved with air gaps could produce comparable dilution of the deposited energy. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, F. K.; Dahl, S.; Carballo, F. J.; Malcata, F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180- d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts...

  19. Results from beam dump experiments at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforto, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two series of proton beam dump experiments are discussed. One of the main goals of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that neutrinos produced in such a setting arose entirely from charm production followed by either electronic or muonic decay. While much of the data is difficult to interpret, it does appear that this hypothesis is not an adequate explanation of the results, in particular the ratio of electron neutrinos to muon neutrinos

  20. Ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinzaburo; Morita, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1981-10-01

    The design of the active cooling type ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI which receives the total beam power of 5.6 MW for 10 sec continuously is described. It is composed of array of many finned tubes which is made of oxygen free copper with 0.2% silver content. The safety margin against thermal and mechanical troubles is estimated by the heat transfer and the thermal stress calculation. (author)

  1. At dumpe på FARMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    Uddrag fra forord: "At dumpe på FARMA peger på flere centrale styrker i farmaceutuddannelsen. For det første at de studerende reelt er interesserede i farmaceutfaget når de optages på studiet, og de oplever velvilje fra underviserne. For det andet at studenterkulturen på studiet er stærk, således...

  2. The selective generation of acetic acid directly from synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knifton, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The authors conclude that each of the ruthenium, cobalt and iodide-containing catalyst components have very specific roles to play in the ''melt'' catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas to acetic acid. C 1 -Oxygenate formation is only observed in the presence of ruthenium carbonyls - [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - is here the dominant species - and there is a direct relationship between liquid yield, ΣOAc - productivity and [Ru(CO) 3 I 3 ] - content. Controlled quantities of iodide ensure that initially formed MeOH is rapidly converted to the more reactive methyl iodide. Subsequent cobalt-catalyzed carbonylation to acetic acid may be preparatively attractive (>80% selectivity, good yields) relative to competing syntheses, where the [Co(CO) 4 ] - concentration is maximized that is, where the Co/Ru ratio is >1, the syngas feedstock is rich in CO, and the initial iodide/cobalt ratios are ca. unity. Formation of cobalt-iodide species appears to be a competing, inhibitory step in this catalysis

  3. Quantitative mapping of particulate iron in an ocean dump using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    A remote sensing experiment was conducted at the industrial acid waste ocean dump site located approximately 38 n mi SE of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, to see if there was a relationship between aircraft remotely sensed spectral signatures and the iron concentration measured in the plume. Results are presented which show that aircraft remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. A single variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440-490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540-580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the acid plume and the surrounding water. The acid waste varied in age from freshly dumped to 3 1/2 hours old. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/liter at the 0.46 meter depth. A classification technique was developed to remove sunglitter-affected pixels from the data set.

  4. Dump truck-related deaths in construction, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Cheng, Mei-Tai

    2012-05-01

    Dump trucks are universally used in construction and other industries to haul materials to the location and to remove waste materials. The source for dump truck-related fatality data was the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) Research File. From 1992 to 2007, 829 construction workers were killed in dump truck-related incidents nationwide. Of those, 336 were dump truck operators with 215 deaths occurring in street and highway incidents. Another 343 deaths involved workers on foot, three-quarters struck by dump trucks. Sixty-four of the construction workers killed were maintaining dump trucks, 22 when caught between the truck frame and a falling dump truck bed. Of the 86 other deaths, 55 involved streets and highways. Recommendations include: (i) improving the reporting of seat belt usage in fatality reports; (ii) requiring use of seat belts; (iii) requiring the use of backup alarms, spotters, or other methods to alert dump truck operators to workers in their blind spots; (iv) prohibiting direct dumping at river banks and embankments; (v) using cameras or radar to enforce stopping at railway crossings; and (xi) enforcing worker safety practices (e.g., lockout/tagout procedures on elevated dump truck beds). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Design and development of multi-megawatt beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.M.; Cooper, W.S.; Paterson, J.A.

    1976-11-01

    The next generation of U.S. fusion experiments which includes TFTR, MFTF, and Doublet III, will utilize neutral-beam injection for plasma heating. TFTR, for example, desires 20 MW of 120-keV deuterium atoms in pulses of 0.5-sec duration. In order to meet these requirements, a 15-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec pulse per minute module is presently under test at the neutral-beam test facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A 65-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec module is under construction and is scheduled for assembly in April of this year. Some of the features of a calorimeter/beam dump that is presently being used in the testing and evaluation of these neutral beam sources are discussed

  6. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  7. Impact of botanical oils on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and leukotriene generation in mild asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary supplementation with botanical oils that contain n-6 and n-3 eighteen carbon chain (18C)-PUFA such as γ linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6), stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) and α linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) have been shown to impact PUFA metabolism, alter inflammatory processes including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and improve inflammatory disorders. Methods The diet of mild asthmatics patients was supplemented for three weeks with varying doses of two botanical seed oils (borage oil [Borago officinalis, BO] and echium seed oil [Echium plantagineum; EO]) that contain SDA, ALA and GLA. A three week wash out period followed. The impact of these dietary manipulations was evaluated for several biochemical endpoints, including in vivo PUFA metabolism and ex vivo leukotriene generation from stimulated leukocytes. Results Supplementation with several EO/BO combinations increased circulating 20–22 carbon (20–22C) PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and dihommo-gammalinolenic acid (DGLA), which have been shown to inhibit AA metabolism and inflammation without impacting circulating AA levels. BO/EO combinations also inhibited ex vivo leukotriene generation with some combinations attenuating cysteinyl leukotriene generation in stimulated basophils by >50% and in stimulated neutrophils by >35%. Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation with BO/EO alters 20–22C PUFA levels and attenuates leukotriene production in a manner consistent with a reduction in inflammation. PMID:24088297

  8. Risks from proposed nuclear waste dump unacceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, John

    1999-01-01

    The author has a critical look at the proposal by Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd (PARPL) to establish in Australia a permanent underground disposal site for radioactive waste from around the world. In his opinion, the inevitable risk in the proposal stems from the magnitudes: 250,000 tonnes of enormously dangerous RADwaste in the northern hemisphere 20,000 km from its destined dump in Australia, where it must remain intact for at least 10,000 years. These magnitudes - of tonnage, lethality, distance of transport, and time - entail great inherent risk. He also argue that the job of the Australian scientists is to apply due diligence to PARPL proposal

  9. Iodine Beam Dump Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Bradley, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    During the testing of electric thrusters, high-energy ions impacting the walls of a vacuum chamber can cause corrosion and/or sputtering of the wall materials, which can damage the chamber walls. The sputtering can also introduce the constituent materials of the chamber walls into an experiment, with those materials potentially migrating back to the test article and coating it with contaminants over time. The typical method employed in this situation is to install a beam dump fabricated from materials that have a lower sputter yield, thus reducing the amount of foreign material that could migrate towards the test article or deposit on anything else present in the vacuum facility.

  10. Analysis of the potential impact of capillarity on long-term geochemical processes in sulphidic waste-rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Lassin, Arnault; Beckie, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Capillarity may affect geochemical reactions generating acid-rock drainage. • We studied its impact in a simplified, synthetic WRD. • Capillarity mainly affects the formation of secondary minerals. • It can strongly control long-term formation of gypsum and in turn sulfate release. • Capillarity can be also important for the analysis of calcite passivation. - Abstract: Assessing long-term production of acid rock drainage (ARD) from waste-rock dumps (WRDs) requires a careful analysis of the processes controlling acid-generating geochemical reactions under unsaturated conditions. In this work, we focus on the potential control of capillarity on these reactions, as previous studies showed that capillarity affects the activity of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone through the pore water pressure. We used capillarity-corrected thermodynamic databases and compared calculated speciation and solubility results with those from databases that do not account for capillarity. We developed a simple dynamic model with reduced geochemical components to analyze in detail the effect of capillarity. Results indicate that under low pH conditions simulations with capillarity-controlled reactions generate relatively larger dissolved sulfate concentrations from the WRDs over longer time scales, when compared against simulations without capillarity control. This occurs because capillarity strongly controls the formation of secondary sulfate-bearing minerals such as gypsum. When sufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures are maintained within WRDs (such as in well-ventilated systems) and calcite content is insufficient to buffer acidity, the amount of secondary gypsum was calculated to be much larger in capillarity-corrected models. No appreciable effects of capillarity were observed under conditions where gypsum was not generated. Model results are also insensitive to temperature changes in typical climatic ranges. These results indicate some of

  11. Safety Analysis of the Movable Absorber TCDQ in the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers. In the case of an asynchronous beam dump the TCDQ absorber protects the machine aperture. It is a single sided collimator, positioned close to the beam and it has to follow the beam position and beam size during the energy ramp. This report assesses the different failure scenarios of TCDQ positioning and their likelihood. The failure probability for the two TCDQ systems together is estimated to be 3.6 E-05 (mean value) for one year of LHC operation. This corresponds to a SIL4 safety level, which is considered sufficient. The three dominant failure modes are highlighted. The calculated failure probability refers to scenarios that are generated and developed inside the TCDQ system. Potential failure sources not included are the interaction with external systems: the transmission of the start signal to the PLC from a dedicated timing card and the manual opti...

  12. Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, SRTC recommended two process changes: (1) a final wash of the tetraphenylborate precipitate feed slurry and (2) the use of nitric acid to neutralize the sludge in the SRAT. The first change produced an aqueous hydrolysis product (PHA) with higher formic acid/formate and copper concentration, and reduced the nitrate content in the PHA by an order of magnitude. The second change is to substitute part of formic acid added to the SRAT with nitric acid, and therefore may reduce the hydrogen generated in the SRAT as well as provide nitrate as an oxidant to balance the redox state of the melter feed. The purpose of this report is to determine the pertinent variables that could affect the hydrogen generation rate with these process changes

  13. Decomposition of some amines and amino acids in steam generator environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.; Millett, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrothermal decomposition rate constants and high temperature pH values of some selected high-molecular weight amines and amino acids were measured under simulated steam generator conditions. These amines and amino acids were evaluated as potential crevice buffering agents for steam generator applications in pressurized water reactors. The study showed that, although the high molecular weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffer capacity than their low molecular weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the simulated crevice solution by as much as 2.84 to 4.24 units. However, volatility data for the amines and amino acids are needed before in-plant testing to ensure that amines can concentrate sufficiently in steam generator crevices to provide effective buffering

  14. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  15. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  16. Manufacturing prototypes for LIPAC beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, F., E-mail: fernando.arranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brañas, B.; Iglesias, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Nomen, O. [IREC, Barcelona (Spain); Rapisarda, D.; Lapeña, J.; Muñoz, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Szcepaniak, B. [GALVANO-T, Windeck (Germany); Manini, J. [CARMAN, Madrid (Spain); Gómez, J. [TRINOS VACUUM, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Electroforming of copper and electronbeam welding techniques are compared. •Mechanical properties of Cu–stainless steel joint by electroforming are presented. •Achieved manufacturing tolerances are shown. •The difficulties and solutions for the complicated manufacturing are explained. -- Abstract: The purpose of the research is to define the most adequate manufacturing process for the dump of a linear deuteron accelerator. The deuteron beam can be pulsed as well as continuous with energies up to 9 MeV. The maximum beam power is 1.12 MW corresponding to a beam current of 125 mA. The requirements on the surface on which the deuterons will be stopped are quite demanding and the length and slenderness of the cone poses a considerable difficulty in the manufacturing process. The design of the beam dump is based on a copper cone 2500 mm long, 300 mm aperture and 5 to 6.5 mm thickness. Basically only two technologies were found feasible for the manufacturing of the cone: Electroforming and Electron Beam Welding (EBW). The article shows the main results found when manufacturing different prototypes.

  17. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH 3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L −1 . Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R 2 = 0.97, p < 0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. - Highlights: • More than 250 year-old arsenopyrite-rich mine waste dump was studied. • Mineral transformation and the environmental stability of different secondary arsenic mineral phases were assessed. • High efficiency of As

  18. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form

  19. Sea-dumped CW munitions - the European component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Stock, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to outline the European magnitude of sea-dumped CW munitions. Hereby the paper attempts to provide an overview on historical dumping activities, both for conventional and chemical munitions. The potential dangers which might result from these dumping activities are discussed in brief. Among others the differences in deep sea dumping and dumping in shallow waters are evaluated. Further, the presentation will outline and discuss the different technology steps: (a) identification, (b) recovery, (c) transportation and (d) destruction (on- or off-shore), necessary for possible cleaning of dumping sites. Thereafter an evaluation of the different technologies available/applied is performed, in particular on the destruction part. Hereby the already practised experience is displayed. Based upon existing treaty regimes an actual judgment of possible application of treaty provisions for demanding cleaning up operations is discussed. The question if treaty obligations can be used to force cleaning operations is debated. A possible match of the technology package available with the scope/magnitude of the munitions dumping problem is discussed. Hereby the gaps between the size of the problem and the most suitable technologies for recovery and destruction are illustrated. The resulting answers should be regarded as possible technical guidelines for future development activities as well existing limitations to solve the problems. The papers will result in some general guidelines for future prospect on the issues of dumped munitions, in particular chemical munitions under the European context.(author)

  20. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained..., shall be obtained to prove the produce was actually without commercial value, unless there is a specific...

  1. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  2. LHC beam dump system Consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system is one of the most critical systems concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated using particle tracking in MAD-X, including an asynchronous dump action, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setting up and operation of these protection elements are discussed.

  3. Spoil dump design and rehabilitation management practices (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, E.K.H.; Aspinall, T.O.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining and evolving environmental legislation has been receiving increased attention worldwide in the last two decades. The potential impacts associated with unstable spoil dumps from mine operations is the focus of concern both by the mining industry, environmental legislative agencies and members of the public. Engineered slopes of mine spoils may be stable at the end of construction, but they can deteriorate over time. There is thus the need to increase the base of knowledge on the existing practices of spoil dump design and rehabilitation. Information concluded from the analysis of the industrial survey carried out on Australian spoil dump management practices at coal, gold and ore mines are presented in this paper. The questionnaire asked for details of soil type of spoils, and factors influencing the design of spoil dumps (climate, rate of erosion, height of dumps, slope gradient and length, overburden handling equipment, soil characteristics, legislation and wastes). 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29, Simoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Park, Si-Bum [Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirata, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawategakuen University, 5-11-10, Hojo, Daitou-shi, Osaka 574-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya, E-mail: sugawara@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  6. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  7. Generation of fatty acids by an acyl esterase in the bioluminescent system of Photobacterium phosphoreum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, L.M.; Rodriguez, A.; Meighen, E.

    1984-01-01

    The fatty acid reductase complex from Photobacterium phosphoreum has been discovered to have a long chain ester hydrolase activity associated with the 34K protein component of the complex. This protein has been resolved from the other components (50K and 58K) of the fatty acid reductase complex with a purity of > 95% and found to catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA primarily to thiol acceptors with a low level of transfer to glycerol and water. Addition of the 50K protein of the complex caused a dramatic change in specificity increasing the transfer to oxygen acceptors. The acyl-CoA hydrolase activity increased almost 10-fold, and hence free fatty acids can be generated by the 34K protein when it is present in the fatty acid reductase complex. Hydrolysis of acyl-S-mercaptoethanol and acyl-1-glycerol and the ATP-dependent reduction of the released fatty acids to aldehyde for the luminescent reaction were also demonstrated for the reconstituted fatty acid reductase complex, raising the possibility that the immediate source of fatty acids for this reaction in vivo could be the membrane lipids and/or the fatty acid synthetase system

  8. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  9. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  10. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  11. Pre- and post-remediation characterization of acid-generating fluvial tailings material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Hoal, Karin O.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Pietersen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River south of Leadville, Colorado, USA, contains deposits of fluvial tailings from historical mining operations in the Leadville area. These deposits are potential non-point sources of acid and metal contamination to surface- and groundwater systems. We are investigating a site that recently underwent in situ remediation treatment with lime, fertilizer, and compost. Pre- and post-remediation fluvial tailings material was collected from a variety of depths to examine changes in mineralogy, acid generation, and extractable nutrients. Results indicate sufficient nutrient availability in the post-remediation near-surface material, but pyrite and acid generation persist below the depth of lime and fertilizer addition. Mineralogical characterization performed using semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction and quantitative SEM-based micro-mineralogy (Mineral Liberation Analysis, MLA) reveal formation of gypsum, jarosite, and complex coatings surrounding mineral grains in post-remediation samples.

  12. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  13. RF generation in the DARHT Axis-II beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-03

    We have occasionally observed radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic signals in the downstream transport (DST) of the second axis linear induction accelerator (LIA) at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility. We have identified and eliminated some of the sources by eliminating the offending cavities. However, we still observe strong RF in the range 1 GHz t0 2 GHz occurring late in the {approx}2-{micro}s pulse that can be excited or prevented by varying the downstream tune. The narrow frequency width (<0.5%) and near exponential growth at the dominant frequency is indicative of a beam-cavity interaction, and electro-magnetic simulations of cavity structure show a spectrum rich in resonances in the observed frequency range. However, the source of beam produced RF in the cavity resonance frequency range has not been identified, and it has been the subject of much speculation, ranging from beam-plasma or beam-ion instabilities to unstable cavity coupling.

  14. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. 650-nJ pulses from a cavity-dumped Yb:fiber-pumped ultrafast optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Tobias P.; Reid, Derryck T.

    2011-08-01

    Sub-250-fs pulses with energies of up to 650 nJ and peak powers up to 2.07 MW were generated from a cavity-dumped optical parametric oscillator, synchronously-pumped at 15.3 MHz with sub-400-fs pulses from an Yb:fiber laser. The average beam quality factor of the dumped output was M2 ~1.2 and the total relative-intensity noise was 8 mdBc, making the system a promising candidate for ultrafast laser inscription of infrared materials.

  16. Increased saccharification yields from aspen biomass upon treatment with enzymatically generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Shona; Jing, Qing; Katona, Adrian; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Schilling, Jonathan; Tschirner, Ulrike; Aldajani, Waleed Wafa

    2010-03-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic release of sugars (saccharification) currently limits its use as feedstock for biofuels. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated aspen wood releases only 21.8% of the available sugars due primarily to the lignin barrier. Nature uses oxidative enzymes to selectively degrade lignin in lignocellulosic biomass, but thus far, natural enzymes have been too slow for industrial use. In this study, oxidative pretreatment with commercial peracetic acid (470 mM) removed 40% of the lignin (from 19.9 to 12.0 wt.% lignin) from aspen and enhanced the sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to about 90%. Increasing the amount of lignin removed correlated with increasing yields of sugar release. Unfortunately, peracetic acid is expensive, and concentrated forms can be hazardous. To reduce costs and hazards associated with using commercial peracetic acid, we used a hydrolase to catalyze the perhydrolysis of ethyl acetate generating 60-70 mM peracetic acid in situ as a pretreatment to remove lignin from aspen wood. A single pretreatment was insufficient, but multiple cycles (up to eight) removed up to 61.7% of the lignin enabling release of >90% of the sugars during saccharification. This value corresponds to a predicted 581 g of fermentable sugars from 1 kg of aspen wood. Improvements in the enzyme stability are needed before the enzymatically generated peracetic acid is a commercially viable alternative.

  17. Improved pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using enzymatically-generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Jing, Qing; AlDajani, Waleed Wafa; Duncan, Shona; Tschirner, Ulrike; Schilling, Jonathan; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2011-04-01

    Release of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is inefficient because lignin, an aromatic polymer, blocks access of enzymes to the sugar polymers. Pretreatments remove lignin and disrupt its structure, thereby enhancing sugar release. In previous work, enzymatically generated peracetic acid was used to pretreat aspen wood. This pretreatment removed 45% of the lignin and the subsequent saccharification released 97% of the sugars remaining after pretreatment. In this paper, the amount of enzyme needed is reduced tenfold using first, an improved enzyme variant that makes twice as much peracetic acid and second, a two-phase reaction to generate the peracetic acid, which allows enzyme reuse. In addition, the eight pretreatment cycles are reduced to only one by increasing the volume of peracetic acid solution and increasing the temperature to 60 °C and the reaction time to 6h. For the pretreatment step, the weight ratio of peracetic acid to wood determines the amount of lignin removed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conceptual plan for 100-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.M.; Day, R.S.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This document provides the conceptual plan for the 100-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The EDB is an outdoor concrete retention pond with a carbon-steel liner underlain with fiberglass. The EDB was originally designed as a quenching pool for reactor blowdown in event of a primary coolant leak. However, the EDB only received routine steam-generator blowdowns from 1963 to 1987. The steam-generator blowdown and leaking isolation valves allowed radioactively contaminated water (from primary and secondary reactor coolant leaks) to enter the EDB. Over the years, wind-blown sand and dust have settled in the EDB, resulting in the present layer of sediments. As of February 1996, the EDB contained an estimated 260,000 gal of water and approximately 2,300 ft3 of sediment. The average sediment thickness is estimated at 2.5 ft and is covered with approximately 12 ft to 14 ft of water. Vegetation (mostly reeds and cattails) grows in the basin corners where the sediment is exposed. To minimize animal and bird intrusion, a kneeling net has been installed over the EDB

  19. Disposal of sediments from the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.; Duncan, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the characterization of the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) sediments, summarizes the data obtained, the resultant waste categorization, and the preferred disposal method. The EDB is an outdoor, concrete storage pond with a 3/16-in. carbon steel liner. The basin (completed in 1963) originally served as a quenching pool for reactor blowdown in the event of a primary coolant leak. Later, the basin received blowdown from the N Reactor steam generators. The steam generator blowdowns and leading isolation valves allowed radioactively contaminated water (from primary and secondary reactor coolant leaks) to enter the basin. Windblown dust and sand have settled in the basin over the years (because of its outdoor location), causing the present layer of sediments. To minimize potential airborne contamination, the water level was kept constant by adding water. However, the addition of water was stopped to minimize the amount of contaminated water needing disposal. To ensure that the surfaces exposed as a result of evaporation pose no immediate airborne contaminant problem, the contamination levels are monitored by Radiation Control Technicians. As part of the deactivation of N Reactor facilities, the EDB will be stabilized for long-term surveillance and maintenance prior to final decontamination and demolition

  20. Study of electric phenomena in energy dumping of LCT coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nishi, Masataka; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1980-03-01

    In IEA-LCT coil, electric phenomena in energy dumping were studied analytically and experimentally. Protection resistance of the Japanese LCT coil is chosen as 0.1 Ω considering the quenching voltage, so that temperature rise of the coil is no problem. Energy dumping characteristic of the six-coil system is calculated under different conditions. It is concluded that simultaneous dumping of all the coils with the equivalent resistance values of protection is necessary. Flashover voltage tests of the model in 4.2 K liquid helium, 4.2 K gas helium and 4.2 K boiling helium show margin in practical quenching voltage of the coil. (author)

  1. Radiation protection with regard to sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderse, R.W.; Worst, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has been dumping into the Atlantic Ocean radioactive waste cast into concrete since 1965. In the report the Health Physics problems with regard to the transport and dumping of the radioactive waste are discussed. In particular to the following points has been paid attention: tasks and working methods of the radiation protection service, dose evaluation for the people involved by two different kinds of dumping methods, doses received by the personal involved, some contamination problems caused by leaking drums. (orig.) [de

  2. Challenges and Plans for Injection and Beam Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Goddard, B.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  3. Guidelines for sea dumping packages of radioactive waste. Revised version.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-04-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to establish general requirements and provide practical information for the design and manufacture of packages for sea dumping of radioactive waste, in accordance with the terms of the OECD Council Decision establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. These Guidelines are in compliance with the IAEA Revised Definition and Recommendations of 1978, for applying the London Dumping Convention to radioactive waste, and are intended for application under the responsibility of the appropriate national authorities of countries participating in the NEA Mechanism

  4. Peabody Western Coal cuts costs with bottom-dump haulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perla, S.; Baecker, G.; Morgan, W. [Empire Machinery, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A new hauling concept has been introduced at the Black Mesa and Kayenta coal mines of the Peabody Western Coal Co. in northern Arizona, USA. The article describes the switch from Caterpillar 992 wheel loaders with 136 t bottom-dump trucks to 272 t bottom-dump trucks. Cat 789 off-highway trucks were modified to pull bottom-dump trucks. Haulage costs per ton of coal and cost per ton-mile have fallen significantly since the introduction of the new large hauling method. 7 figs., 2 photos.

  5. New concept for a high-power beam dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept for a dump for the ion and neutral beams used in the controlled nuclear fusion program uses thin sheets of a refractory metal such as tungsten formed into troughs having semi-circular cross sections. High-velocity water flowing circumferentially removes heat by subcooled nucleate boiling. Possible advantages are modular construction, lower water-pumping power, and a lower pressure drop than in conventional beam dumps. An example design calculation is shown for a dump capable of absorbing an incident flux of 10 kW/cm 2

  6. Beam Dump TIDV #1 - Vacuum Failure of 17 Oct. 97

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum leak on the internal beam dump TIDV precipitated its replacement in the LSS1 on Monday the 20th of October 1997, the SPS consequently being shut down for three days. The dump had fulfilled its design function since it was installed in the SPS at the beginning of 1988. Prior to the intervention, the Vacuum Group LHC/VAC carried out a number of leak tests, which led to the decision being taken to replace the dump. After the successful intervention, normal machine operation was resumed. Out-gassing of the ten-year-old replacement was initially high, but vacuum pressure is slowly descending to the SPS standard level.

  7. Practice and assessment of sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.; Bewers, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    This paper discusses the practice and assessment of the ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. It describes the international and multilateral regulatory framework, the sources, composition, packaging and rate of dumping and, in particular, the recent radiological assessment of the only operational disposal site in the northeast Atlantic. The paper concludes with a discussion of future ocean disposal practices for radioactive wastes, and the application of the approach to the dumping of non-radioactive contaminants in the ocean. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  9. Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kalif, Mahdi; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2017-12-01

    The use of hot-water (100°C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100°C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191-344% and 115-300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-decomposition components generated from [sup 35]S-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takahisa; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    We examined the fragment molecules in the gaseous components generated from [sup 35]S-amino acids with high specific radioactivity. The self-decomposition mode of a molecule labeled with a [beta]-emitter was similar to the fragmentation mode of organic compounds impacted by accelerated electrons as in organic mass spectrometry. Degradation products of unlabeled amino acids irradiated by [sup 60]Co [gamma]-ray indicated that the degradation mode induced by external [gamma]-rays irradiation was different from the self-decomposition mode of labeled compounds. (Author).

  11. Rubber-based carbon electrode materials derived from dumped tires for efficient sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yue; Ma, Chao; Bai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Si; Wang, Shi-Feng; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2018-04-03

    The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The well dispersed ZnS nanoparticles in carbon significantly enhance the electrochemical performance. The carbon composites derived from the rubber powder are proposed as promising electrode materials for low-cost, large-scale energy storage devices. This work provides a new and effective method for the reuse of dumped tires, contributing to the recycling of valuable waste resources.

  12. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  13. Hydrogen generation during treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a one-fifth scale pilot facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's DWPF. Five IDMS runs determined the effect of the presence of noble metals in HLW sludge on the H 2 generation rate during the preparation of melter feed with formic acid. Overall, the results clearly showed that H 2 generation in the DWPF SRAT could, at times, exceed the lower flammable limit of H 2 in air (4 vol%), depending on such factors as offgas generation and air inleakage of the DWPF vessels. Therefore, the installation of a forced air purge system and H 2 monitors were recommended to the DWPF to control the generation of H 2 during melter feed preparation by fuel dilution

  14. Effect of humic acids on electricity generation integrated with xylose degradation in microbial fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Pentose and humic acids (HA) are the main components of hydrolysates, the liquid fraction produced during thermohydrolysis of lignocellulosic material. Electricity generation integrated with xylose (typical pentose) degradation as well as the effect of HA on electricity production in microbial fuel...... to controls where HAs were not added, addition of commercial HA resulted in increase of power density and coulombic efficiency, which ranged from 7.5% to 67.4% and 24% to 92.6%, respectively. Digested manure wastewater (DMW) was tested as potential mediator for power generation due to its content of natural...

  15. Light-Induced Acid Generation on a Gatekeeper for Smart Nitric Oxide Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Jinhwan; Kim, Yonghwi; Song, Hyun Beom; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-04-26

    We report herein the design of a light-responsive gatekeeper for smart nitric oxide (NO) delivery. The gatekeeper is composed of a pH-jump reagent as an intermediary of stimulus and a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating as a shielding layer for NO release. The light irradiation and subsequent acid generation are used as triggers for uncapping the gatekeeper and releasing NO. The acids generated from a light-activated pH-jump agent loaded in the mesoporous nanoparticles accelerated the degradation of the CaP-coating layers on the nanoparticles, facilitating the light-responsive NO release from diazeniumdiolate by exposing a NO donor to physiological conditions. Using the combination of the pH-jump reagent and CaP coating, we successfully developed a light-responsive gatekeeper system for spatiotemporal-controlled NO delivery.

  16. Review of the abort dump shown in the SSC [superconducting super collider] conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report details the design of the abort dump for the Superconducting Super-Collider (SSC). The dump is made from graphite and designed to absorb the maximum beam energy of 400 MJ. The report considers long time activation effects of the dump components. The report concludes that the basic design of the abort dump is well defined

  17. The IAEA's responsibilities in connection with the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1983-01-01

    In the context of IAEA's responsibilities regarding the sea dumping of radioactive wastes, this paper reviews international laws of relevance to sea dumping of wastes, and examines IAEA's role under the London Dumping Convention. The paper also describes the OECD/NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism on radioactive waste sea dumping operations. (NEA) [fr

  18. Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

    2013-04-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  19. Amino Acid Insertion Frequencies Arising from Photoproducts Generated Using Aliphatic Diazirines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemianowicz, Daniel S.; Bomgarden, Ryan; Etienne, Chris; Schriemer, David C.

    2017-10-01

    Mapping proteins with chemical reagents and mass spectrometry can generate a measure of accessible surface area, which in turn can be used to support the modeling and refinement of protein structures. Photolytically generated carbenes are a promising class of reagent for this purpose. Substituent effects appear to influence surface mapping properties, allowing for a useful measure of design control. However, to use carbene labeling data in a quantitative manner for modeling activities, we require a better understanding of their inherent amino acid reactivity, so that incorporation data can be normalized. The current study presents an analysis of the amino acid insertion frequency of aliphatic carbenes generated by the photolysis of three different diazirines: 3,3'-azibutyl-1-ammonium, 3,3'-azibutan-1-ol, and 4,4'-azipentan-1-oate. Leveraging an improved photolysis system for single-shot labeling of sub-microliter frozen samples, we used EThCD to localize insertion products in a large population of labeled peptides. Counting statistics were drawn from data-dependent LC-MS2 experiments and used to estimate the frequencies of insertion as a function of amino acid. We observed labeling of all 20 amino acids over a remarkably narrow range of insertion frequencies. However, the nature of the substituent could influence relative insertion frequencies, within a general preference for larger polar amino acids. We confirm a large (6-fold) increase in labeling yield when carbenes were photogenerated in the solid phase (77 K) relative to the liquid phase (293 K), and we suggest that carbene labeling should always be conducted in the frozen state to avoid information loss in surface mapping experiments. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Field Assessment of Yeast- and Oxalic Acid-generated Carbon Dioxide for Mosquito Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SentinelTM, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap, sugar- fermenting yeast, electrolyzed oxalic acid INTRODUCTION Successful vector-borne...and Eisen 2008). Population data from trap surveil- lance provide key information for the develop- ment of disease risk assessment models (Diuk- Wasser...generated by a fermentation chamber, in which yeast metabolized sucrose. This source had been shown to attract various mosquito species in field and

  1. Nucleic acid reactivity : challenges for next-generation semiempirical quantum models

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ming; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum models are routinely used to study mechanisms of RNA catalysis and phosphoryl transfer reactions using combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods. Herein, we provide a broad assessment of the performance of existing semiempirical quantum models to describe nucleic acid structure and reactivity in order to quantify their limitations and guide the development of next-generation quantum models with improved accuracy. Neglect of diatomic diffierential overlap (...

  2. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  3. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  4. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  5. Amino Acids Generated from Hydrated Titan Tholins: Comparison with Miller-Urey Electric Discharge Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H. James, II; Neish, Catherine; Callahan, Michael P.; Parker, Eric; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    Various analogues of Titan haze particles (termed tholins) have been made in the laboratory. In certain geologic environments on Titan, these haze particles may come into contact with aqueous ammonia (NH3) solutions, hydrolyzing them into molecules of astrobiological interest. A Titan tholin analogue hydrolyzed in aqueous NH3 at room temperature for 2.5 years was analyzed for amino acids using highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FDToF-MS) analysis after derivatization with a fluorescent tag. We compare here the amino acids produced from this reaction sequence with those generated from room temperature Miller-Urey (MU) type electric discharge reactions. We find that most of the amino acids detected in low temperature MU CH4N2H2O electric discharge reactions are generated in Titan simulation reactions, as well as in previous simulations of Triton chemistry. This argues that many processes provide very similar mixtures of amino acids, and possibly other types of organic compounds, in disparate environments, regardless of the order of hydration. Although it is unknown how life began, it is likely that given reducing conditions, similar materials were available throughout the early Solar System and throughout the universe to facilitate chemical evolution.

  6. Multistage leaching of metals from spent lithium ion battery waste using electrochemically generated acidic lixiviant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, N J; Adamek, N; Cheng, K Y; Haque, N; Bruckard, W; Kaksonen, A H

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) waste contains significant valuable resources that could be recovered and reused to manufacture new products. This study aimed to develop an alternative process for extracting metals from LIB waste using acidic solutions generated by electrolysis for leaching. Results showed that solutions generated by electrolysis of 0.5 M NaCl at 8 V with graphite or mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes were weakly acidic and leach yields obtained under single stage (batch) leaching were poor (leaching with the graphite electrolyte solution improved leach yields overall, but the electrodes corroded over time. Though yields obtained with both electrolyte leach solutions were low when compared to the 4 M HCl control, there still remains potential to optimise the conditions for the generation of the acidic anolyte solution and the solubilisation of valuable metals from the LIB waste. A preliminary value proposition indicated that the process has the potential to be economically feasible if leach yields can be improved, especially based on the value of recoverable cobalt and lithium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen generation in SRAT with nitric acid and late washing flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Melter feed preparation processes, incorporating a final wash of the precipitate slurry feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and a partial substitution of the SRAT formic acid requirement with nitric acid, should not produce peak hydrogen generation rates during Cold Chemical Runs (CCR's) and radioactive operation greater than their current, respective hydrogen design bases of 0.024 lb/hr and 1.5 lb/hr. A single SRAT bench-scale process simulation for CCR-s produced a DWPF equivalent peak hydrogen generation rate of 0.004 lb/hr. During radioactive operation, the peak hydrogen generation rate will be dependent on the extent DWPF deviates from the nominal precipitate hydrolysis and melter feed preparation process operating parameters. Two actual radioactive sludges were treated according to the new flowsheets. The peak hydrogen evolution rates were equivalent to 0.038 and 0.20 lb/hr (DWPF scale) respectively. Compared to the formic acid -- HAN hydrolysis flowsheets, these peak rates were reduced by a factor of 2.5 and 3.4 for Tank 15 and Tank 11 sludges, respectively

  8. Results from the LHC Beam Dump Reliability Run

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Goddard, B; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H

    2008-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System is one of the vital elements of the LHC Machine Protection System and has to operate reliably every time a beam dump request is made. Detailed dependability calculations have been made, resulting in expected rates for the different system failure modes. A 'reliability run' of the whole system, installed in its final configuration in the LHC, has been made to discover infant mortality problems and to compare the occurrence of the measured failure modes with their calculations.

  9. Conversion of waste dump into a recreation and leisure park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, E.; Martens, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    In a two year strategy-project Aachen University investigated possibilities for postmining activities for a German coal mine. All research work was based on existing infrastructure and mine related potentials. One of the potentials is the waste dump with a height of 90 m above surface and 40 ha in size. This paper deals with the idea of converting the dump into a recreation and leisure park with greater than regional significance. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  11. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  12. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  13. Experience with dose limitation during preparations for sea dumping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieuw, G.; Voorde, N. van de; Baekelandt, L.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1967 low-level radioactive wastes from operational nuclear facilities in Belgium have been dumped into the sea. The dumping is carried out in accordance with the recommendations issued by the IAEA under the London Convention. All these dumping operations have taken place under the surveillance of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. To limit the doses received by workers and the public during the various phases leading up to sea dumping, appropriate measures are required in connection with waste treatment and packaging, limitation of radiation levels, storage and handling, organization and selection of the means of transport and organization and means of monitoring. Although treatment and handling at the nuclear sites are entrusted to occupationally exposed workers, temporary labour is used for the transport and handling operations. Effective treatment and packaging reduce the risk of internal exposure to a negligible value. Meticulous planning and permanent personnel monitoring reduce the doses received by the workers to acceptable values not exceeding the statutory dose limits. The doses received by personnel involved in the preparations for sea dumping operations from 1967 to 1980 are given and a relationship is established between these doses and the activities handled. Experience shows that sea dumping operations do not entail unacceptable risks either for the workers concerned or for the population and allows us to optimize the methods used for loading, handling and transport. (author)

  14. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10 5 Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10 7 cm 2 /sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10 2 cm 2 /sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.; Vayakis, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated

  16. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Vayakis, G. [ITER Organization, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  17. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  18. Pharmacological Correction of the Negative Effect of Acetylsalicylic Acid on the Energy-Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Udut, ScD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the effect of ASA and its combination with SUC on the energy-producing system of rat heart mitochondria as well as an assessment of SUC preventive application effect on ASA pharmacokinetic parameters. Experiments conducted on outbred male albino rats (200-250 g on a model of a xenobiotic load induced by seven days of intragastric injections of acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 250 mg/kg have shown inhibition of the oxygen consumption rates in the heart mitochondria as well as a limitation of the succinate-dependent substrate oxidation pathways and a decrease in the mitochondria ATP/ADP coefficient. Succinic acid (50 mg/kg for 7 days was injected as a preventive medication to correct the mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed. A comparative research of the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid against the background of succinic acid performed on the model of rabbits has shown total similarity in the parameters analyzed. This fact demonstrates the possibility of prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction using the intermediate Krebs cycle. SUC as preventive medication promotes the elimination of ASA-induced negative metabolic shifts in the rat heart mitochondria by normalizing the succinate- and NAD-dependent respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and therefore, it finds good use in the correction of ASA-induced negative side-effects of an energy-generating system

  19. Acid mine drainage as an important mechanism of natural radiation enhancement in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a world wide problem that occurs whenever sulfidic material is present in association to the mined ore. The acidic waters generated by the process of sulfide minerals oxidation can mobilize important amounts of pollutants and cause significant environmental impacts. The composition of the drainage will depend, on a very large extent, on the mineralogy of the rocks. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that acid mine drainage has the potential to enhance the natural levels of environmental radioactivity. The paper revises some strategies to be used in the diagnostic of the problem. General mathematical formulations that can assist on the prediction of the duration of the problem, and the definition of the size of the oxidizing zones in a waste dump are given. A study case on a waste dump of the Pocos de Caldas Uranium Mining Site, Brazil is also presented. (author)

  20. Management of dumping of packaged low-level wastes in the deep ocean with emphasis on the North East Atlantic dump site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects are discussed: radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; international regulations; historical dumping practices; assessment of the Northeast Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and implications of issues on US needs and policies

  1. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid in nitrite-containing simulated nuclear waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1994-08-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed containing the major non-radioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO 3 2- , NO 3 -, and NO 2 - were used as media to evaluate the stability of formic acid towards hydrogen evolution by the reaction HCO 2 H → H 2 + CO 2 catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Small scale experiments using 40-50 mL of feed simulant in closed glass reactors (250-550 mL total volume) at 80-100 degree C were used to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate ion on the catalytic activities of the noble metals for formic acid decomposition. Reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO 2 , H 2 , NO, and N 2 O in the gas phase as a function of time. Rhodium, which was introduced as soluble RhCl 3 ·3H 2 O, was found to be the most active catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid above ∼80 degree C in the presence of nitrite ion in accord with earlier observations. The inherent homogeneous nature of the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed formic acid decomposition is suggested by the approximate pseudo first-order dependence of the hydrogen production rate on Rh concentration. Titration of the typical feed simulants containing carbonate and nitrite with formic acid in the presence of rhodium at the reaction temperature (∼90 degree C) indicates that the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid occurs only after formic acid has reacted with all of the carbonate and nitrite present to form CO 2 and NO/N 2 O, respectively. The catalytic activities of Ru and Pd towards hydrogen generation from formic acid are quite different than those of Rh in that they are inhibited rather than promoted by the presence of nitrite ion

  2. VULNERABILITY OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS TO WASTE DUMPING FROM NEAMT COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-CONSTANTIN MIHAI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lack of waste management facilities from mountain region often lead to uncontrolled disposal of waste on river banks polluting the local environment and damaging the tourism potential. Geographical conditions influences the distribution of human settlements which are located along the rivers and its tributaries. This paper aims to estimate the amounts of household waste generated and uncollected disposed into mountain rivers, taking into account several factors such as:proximity of rivers to the human settlements, the morphology of villages, length of river that crosses the locality(built up areas, local population, the access to waste collection services and waste management infrastructure. Vulnerability of rivers to illegal dumping is performed using GIS techniques, highlighting the localities pressure on rivers in close proximity. For this purpose, it developed a calculation model for estimation the amounts of waste (kg that are dumped on a river section (m that crosses a locality (village or it is in close proximity. This estimation is based on the “principle of proximity and minimum effort” it can be applied in any mountainous region that are lacking or partially access to waste collection services. It is an assessment tool of mountain rivers vulnerability to waste dumping,taking into account the geographical and demographic conditions of the study area. Also the current dysfunctions are analyzed based on field observations.

  3. CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Fergal J; Verniere, Mélanie; Devocelle, Marc; Bernard, Elise; Shields, Denis C; Chubb, Anthony J

    2011-04-25

    We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural commercially available amino acids. The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. The stand-alone software, and the Web interface for evaluating these empirical properties of a single peptide, are available at http://bioware.ucd.ie .

  4. Generation of Acid Mine Lakes Associated with Abandoned Coal Mines in Northwest Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, Deniz; Balci, Nurgul; Baba, Alper

    2016-05-01

    A total of five acid mine lakes (AMLs) located in northwest Turkey were investigated using combined isotope, molecular, and geochemical techniques to identify geochemical processes controlling and promoting acid formation. All of the investigated lakes showed typical characteristics of an AML with low pH (2.59-3.79) and high electrical conductivity values (1040-6430 μS/cm), in addition to high sulfate (594-5370 mg/l) and metal (aluminum [Al], iron [Fe], manganese [Mn], nickel [Ni], and zinc [Zn]) concentrations. Geochemical and isotope results showed that the acid-generation mechanism and source of sulfate in the lakes can change and depends on the age of the lakes. In the relatively older lakes (AMLs 1 through 3), biogeochemical Fe cycles seem to be the dominant process controlling metal concentration and pH of the water unlike in the younger lakes (AMLs 4 and 5). Bacterial species determined in an older lake (AML 2) indicate that biological oxidation and reduction of Fe and S are the dominant processes in the lakes. Furthermore, O and S isotopes of sulfate indicate that sulfate in the older mine lakes may be a product of much more complex oxidation/dissolution reactions. However, the major source of sulfate in the younger mine lakes is in situ pyrite oxidation catalyzed by Fe(III) produced by way of oxidation of Fe(II). Consistent with this, insignificant fractionation between δ(34) [Formula: see text] and δ(34) [Formula: see text] values indicated that the oxidation of pyrite, along with dissolution and precipitation reactions of Fe(III) minerals, is the main reason for acid formation in the region. Overall, the results showed that acid generation during early stage formation of an AML associated with pyrite-rich mine waste is primarily controlled by the oxidation of pyrite with Fe cycles becoming the dominant processes regulating pH and metal cycles in the later stages of mine lake development.

  5. Determination of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in cereals by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos Reyes, M.N. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50 Dr. Moliner Street, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cervera, M.L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50 Dr. Moliner Street, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: m.luisa.cervera@uv.es; Campos, R.C. [Department of Chemistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guardia, M. de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Valencia, 50 Dr. Moliner Street, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    A fast, sensitive and simple non-chromatographic analytical method was developed for the speciation analysis of toxic arsenic species in cereal samples, namely rice and wheat semolina. An ultrasound-assisted extraction of the toxic arsenic species was performed with 1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 0.1% (m/v) Triton XT-114. After extraction, As(III), As(V), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) concentrations were determined by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry using a series of proportional equations corresponding to four different experimental reduction conditions. The detection limits of the method were 1.3, 0.9, 1.5 and 0.6 ng g{sup -1} for As(III), As(V), DMA and MMA, respectively, expressed in terms of sample dry weight. Recoveries were always greater than 90%, and no species interconversion occurred. The speciation analysis of a rice flour reference material certified for total arsenic led to coherent results, which were also in agreement with other speciation studies made on the same certified reference material.

  6. Sea dumping of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Dumping practice and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejsa, P.

    1983-04-01

    Sea dumping of low level radioactive waste is a disposal method practised by a number of states, controlled by OECD/NEA. It makes use of the capacity of the oceans to dilute the radionuclides to levels acceptable concerning resulting dose burdens. For the determination of release rates some oceanographic model have been developed, describing the physical behaviour of the released radionuclides. It is not to be assumed that a complete mathematical description of the involved processes can be made. Too many parameters are dependent and varying as there is the chemical behaviour of different valence states, complexing agents, distribution patterns etc. But it can be seen that the existing description methods allow the adequate modelling of the short and the long term behaviour of the radionuclides. The use of pessimistic assumptions for distribution and reconcentration is sufficient to consider uncertainties of the model. Therefore the arguments of Greenpeace, kindly submitted by this organisation for this study, show no open question, which has not been considered on the sea dumping procedures under surveillance of the OECD/NEA. (Author)

  7. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  8. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ouzia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the

  9. Characterization of hapten-protein conjugates: antibody generation and immunoassay development for chlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Robin C; Singh, K Vikas; Suri, C Raman

    2009-01-01

    The generation of specific and sensitive antibodies against small molecules is greatly dependent upon the characteristics of the hapten-protein conjugates. In this study, we report a new fluorescence-based method for the characterization of hapten-protein conjugates. The method is based on an effect promoted by hapten-protein conjugation density upon the fluorescence intensity of the intrinsic tryptophan chromophore molecules of the protein. The proposed methodology is applied to quantify the hapten-protein conjugation density for two different chlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB), coupled to carrier protein. Highly sensitive anti-2,4-D and anti-2,4-DB antibodies were obtained using these well-characterized hapten-protein conjugates. The generated antibodies were used in an immunoassay format demonstrating inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to 30 and 7 ng/mL for 2,4-D and 2,4-DB, respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range between 0.1-500 nglmL with LODs around 4 and 3 ng/mL for 2,4-D and 2,4-DB, respectively, in standard water samples. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the extent of hapten-protein conjugation to produce specific antibodies for immunoassay development against pesticides.

  10. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N ε -monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N ε -dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  11. Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Leitner, Nathalie Karpel Vel

    2009-09-01

    The photolysis of S(2)O(8)(2-) was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H(2)O(2)/UV system. The SO(4)(-) radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S(2)O(8)(2-) ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the ()OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO(4)(-) radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results in the formation of ()OH radicals from SO(4)(-) radicals. Maximum acetic acid degradation occurred at pH 5. The results suggest that above this pH, competitive reactions with the carbon mineralized inhibit the reaction of the solute with SO(4)(-) and also ()OH radicals. Scavenging effects of two naturally occurring ions were tested; in contrast to HCO(3)(-) ions, the presence of Cl(-) ions enhances the efficiency of the S(2)O(8)(2-)/UV process towards the acetate removal. It is attributed to the formation of the Cl() radical and its great reactivity towards acetate.

  12. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  13. Uric Acid Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Generation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states. PMID:23035112

  14. Incorporating Geochemical And Microbial Kinetics In Reactive Transport Models For Generation Of Acid Rock Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, B. J.; Rajaram, H.; Silverstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage, AMD, results from the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite), producing ferrous iron and sulfuric acid. Acidophilic autotrophic bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans obtain energy by oxidizing ferrous iron back to ferric iron, using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Most existing models of AMD do not account for microbial kinetics or iron geochemistry rigorously. Instead they assume that oxygen limitation controls pyrite oxidation and thus focus on oxygen transport. These models have been successfully used for simulating conditions where oxygen availability is a limiting factor (e.g. source prevention by capping), but have not been shown to effectively model acid generation and effluent chemistry under a wider range of conditions. The key reactions, oxidation of pyrite and oxidation of ferrous iron, are both slow kinetic processes. Despite being extensively studied for the last thirty years, there is still not a consensus in the literature about the basic mechanisms, limiting factors or rate expressions for microbially enhanced oxidation of metal sulfides. An indirect leaching mechanism (chemical oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron to produce ferrous iron, with regeneration of ferric iron by microbial oxidation of ferrous iron) is used as the foundation of a conceptual model for microbially enhanced oxidation of pyrite. Using literature data, a rate expression for microbial consumption of ferrous iron is developed that accounts for oxygen, ferrous iron and pH limitation. Reaction rate expressions for oxidation of pyrite and chemical oxidation of ferrous iron are selected from the literature. A completely mixed stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is implemented coupling the kinetic rate expressions, speciation calculations and flow. The model simulates generation of AMD and effluent chemistry that qualitatively agrees with column reactor and single rock experiments. A one dimensional reaction

  15. Preliminary design of the new Proton Synchrotron Internal Dump core

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091975; Nuiry, François-Xavier

    The luminosity of the LHC particle accelerator at CERN is planned to be upgraded in the first half of 2020s, requiring also the upgrade of its injector accelerators, including the Proton Synchrotron (PS). The PS Internal Dumps are beam dumps located in the PS accelerator ring. They are safety devices designed to stop the circulating proton beam in order to protect the accelerator from damage due to an uncontrolled beam loss. The PS Internal Dumps need to be upgraded to be able to withstand the future higher intensity and energy proton beams. The dump core is a block of material interacting with the beam. It is located in ultra-high vacuum and moved into the beam path in 150 milliseconds by an electromagnet and spring-based actuation mechanism. The circulating proton beam is shaved by the core surface during thousands of beam revolutions. The preliminary new dump core design weighs 13 kilograms and consists of an isostatically pressed fine-grain graphite and a precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr. The ...

  16. Peracetic Acid Treatment Generates Potent Inactivated Oral Vaccines from a Broad Range of Culturable Bacterial Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y.; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 1010 peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024

  17. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  18. Waste dumps in local communities in developing countries and hidden danger to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetor, Gloria O

    2016-07-01

    The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation fuelled by a fast-growing population has led to the generation of a huge amount of waste in most communities in developing countries. The hidden disorders and health dangers in waste dumps are often ignored. The waste generated in local communities is usually of a mixed type consisting of domestic waste and waste from small-scale industrial activities. Among these wastes are toxic metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), halogenated organic compounds, plastics, remnants of paints that are themselves mixtures of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons and petroleum product-contaminated devices. Therefore, there is the urgent need to create an awareness of the harmful health effect of toxic wastes in developing countries, especially Nigeria. This is a review aimed at creating awareness on the hidden dangers of waste dumps to health in local communities in developing countries. Many publications in standard outlets use the following keywords: cancer, chemical toxicity, modern environmental health hazards, waste management and waste speciation in PubMed, ISI, Toxbase environmental digest, related base journals, and some standard textbooks, as well as the observation of the researcher between 1959 and 2014. Studies revealed the preponderance of toxic chemicals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg in dump sites that have the risk of entering food chain and groundwater supplies, and these can give rise to endemic malnutrition and may also increase susceptibility to mutagenic substances, thereby increasing the incidence of cancer in developing countries. Industrialisation and urbanisation have brought about a change in the waste that is generated in contemporary communities in developing countries. Therefore, there is the need to embrace speciation and sound management of waste, probably including bioremediation. The populations in the local communities need regulatory agencies who are health educators as positive change

  19. Mobilisation and immobilisation of uranium-DOC-species in three waste dumps in the district of Schlema/Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The modelling of geochemical processes needs the detailed and comprehensive knowledge of all chemical interactions which are able to exist in the flow path of waste dumps, soils and aquifer. This includes the adsorption, displacement and transport of heavy metal species of fulvic and humic acids which represent the main amount of DOC in the liquid / solid system of flow path. Comparative measurements of DOC concentrations in the input and output flow at the three waste dumps in the district Schlema / Alberoda have indicated that DOC is produced and / or supplied within of waste dumps. The speciation of heavy metal compounds of fulvic and humic acids was realized by means of two methods (sequential chromatographic analysis SCA; ions focussed electrophoresis IFE). Between 5 and 20% of uranium in the flow path exist in the form of fulvic and humic acids species in which the bond of uranium is permanently. Their distribution coefficients are strongly correlated with the pH values of the several geochemical systems. (orig.) [de

  20. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p blood pressure, and lowered the levels of plasma/liver DHA (p lipid profile. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  1. Removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejiao Tong; Renkou Xu

    2013-01-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(Ⅱ)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola,rice,soybean and peanut straws was investigated.The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(Ⅱ) from the effluent,mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation,and neutralized its acidity.The removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ) by the biochars followed the order:peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char >> a commercial activated carbonaceous material,which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars.The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ)by biochars.Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from it.The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400℃ for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment,and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  2. The radiation hazard from the tantalum dumps in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation level at the dumps are well above background. The readings taken on the dumps themselves range from 1000 mrem/year to 5860 mrem/year. The radiation levels in the houses close to the dump at Hill Railway Road were much lower, in the range of 160 mrem/year to 335 mrem/year. However, the level recorded at a house on Medan Tembaga is higher, being around 650 mrem/year. It is worth noting that the maximum permissible dose as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the general public is 500 mrem/year and the average background radiation level is around 80-90 mrem/year. (author)

  3. Protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted to protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps. Authors noticed that many tailing dumps In Tajikistan do not correspond to modern requirements of territories remediation published by IAEA and current norms of the Republic of Tajikistan. The most dangerous is radionuclide migration i.e., distribution of radioactive substances beyond the uranium tailing dumps territories. One of the basic distribution ways is atmospheric migration. At the same time potentially dangerous factors are: dust rising from open surfaces is the source for contamination distribution to neighboring territories; direct external exposure of public located in close distance to the sites; radioactive gas radon exhalation originating a threat if radionuclides penetration to the human body through breathing passages. Different methods of tailing's negative impact minimization, including coverage with neutral soil layer, coverage with fine-ground worked-out bentonite clay were proposed.

  4. Recultivation of mining waste dumps in the Ruhr area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 Ruhrkohle AG produced 41.9 million tons of coal and 19.1 million m 3 of mining waste. Of this, 0.7 million m 3 were used underground as stowing material, 4.7 million m 3 was used commercially, while the remaining 13.7 million m 3 required dumping. Efforts related to the use and disposal of the material up to now dumped are concentrating on applying technical methods to reduce the production of waste underground, on opening up new markets of this material, on utilization of mining waste as a building material, and on low-environmental-impact dumping. Since the late 1970s, the mining waste heaps in the Ruhr mining region have been conceived and designed as landscape structures, i.e. they are integrated into the landscape by means of careful planning and design, and are immediately planted with vegetation. 9 refs., 5 figs

  5. A high average power beam dump for an electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianghong, E-mail: xl66@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory of Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce M.; Kostroun, Vaclav O.; Li, Yulin; Smolenski, Karl W. [Cornell Laboratory of Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The electron beam dump for Cornell University's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype injector was designed and manufactured to absorb 600 kW of electron beam power at beam energies between 5 and 15 MeV. It is constructed from an aluminum alloy using a cylindrical/conical geometry, with water cooling channels between an inner vacuum chamber and an outer jacket. The electron beam is defocused and its centroid is rastered around the axis of the dump to dilute the power density. A flexible joint connects the inner body and the outer jacket to minimize thermal stress. A quadrant detector at the entrance to the dump monitors the electron beam position and rastering. Electron scattering calculations, thermal and thermomechanical stress analysis, and radiation calculations are presented.

  6. Upgrade of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Balhan, B; Borburgh, J; Goddard, B; Maglioni, C; Versaci, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider comprises for each ring a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred meters further downstream, an absorber block. A mobile diluter (TCDQ) protects the superconducting quadrupole immediately downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters, in case of a beam dump that is not synchronized with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers. Simulations have shown that an asynchronous dump of a 7 TeV nominal beam into the TCDQ absorber blocks could damage it. This paper describes the proposed changes to this device in order to maintain the protection for the downstream elements while reducing the risk of damaging the TCDQ in case of such a beam loss.

  7. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  8. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  9. Generation, Release, and Uptake of the NAD Precursor Nicotinic Acid Riboside by Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Veronika; Shabalin, Konstantin; Nerinovski, Kirill; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Yakimov, Alexander; Redpath, Philip; Khodorkovskiy, Mikhail; Migaud, Marie E; Ziegler, Mathias; Nikiforov, Andrey

    2015-11-06

    NAD is essential for cellular metabolism and has a key role in various signaling pathways in human cells. To ensure proper control of vital reactions, NAD must be permanently resynthesized. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid as well as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR) are the major precursors for NAD biosynthesis in humans. In this study, we explored whether the ribosides NR and NAR can be generated in human cells. We demonstrate that purified, recombinant human cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTs) CN-II and CN-III, but not CN-IA, can dephosphorylate the mononucleotides nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NAMN) and thus catalyze NR and NAR formation in vitro. Similar to their counterpart from yeast, Sdt1, the human 5'-NTs require high (millimolar) concentrations of nicotinamide mononucleotide or NAMN for efficient catalysis. Overexpression of FLAG-tagged CN-II and CN-III in HEK293 and HepG2 cells resulted in the formation and release of NAR. However, NAR accumulation in the culture medium of these cells was only detectable under conditions that led to increased NAMN production from nicotinic acid. The amount of NAR released from cells engineered for increased NAMN production was sufficient to maintain viability of surrounding cells unable to use any other NAD precursor. Moreover, we found that untransfected HeLa cells produce and release sufficient amounts of NAR and NR under normal culture conditions. Collectively, our results indicate that cytosolic 5'-NTs participate in the conversion of NAD precursors and establish NR and NAR as integral constituents of human NAD metabolism. In addition, they point to the possibility that different cell types might facilitate each other's NAD supply by providing alternative precursors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  11. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  12. Prediction of fuel consumption of mining dump trucks: A neural networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz; Dindarloo, Saeid R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A neural network model of fuel consumption in mining haul trucks was constructed and tested. • Using the cyclic activities, the model was able to predict unseen (testing) data. • Trucks idle times were identified as the most important unnecessary energy consuming portion of the network. • Practical remedies, based on the nature of mining operations, were proposed to reduce the energy consumption. - Abstract: Fuel consumption of mining dump trucks accounts for about 30% of total energy use in surface mines. Moreover, a fleet of large dump trucks is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Modeling and prediction of fuel consumption per cycle is a valuable tool in assessing both energy costs and the resulting GHG generation. However, only a few studies have been published on fuel prediction in mining operations. In this paper, fuel consumption per cycle of operation was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) technique. Explanatory variables were: pay load, loading time, idled while loaded, loaded travel time, empty travel time, and idled while empty. The output variable was the amount of fuel consumed in one cycle. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 10% demonstrated applicability of ANN in prediction of the fuel consumption. The results demonstrated the considerable effect of mining trucks idle times in fuel consumption. A large portion of the unnecessary energy consumption and GHG generation, in this study, was solely due to avoidable idle times. This necessitates implementation of proper actions/remedies in form of both preventive and corrective actions

  13. Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid loading onto different generations of PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodadust, Rouhollah, E-mail: raoul.1357@gmail.com [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Mutlu, Pelin [Middle East Technical University, Central Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology R and D Center (Turkey); Yalc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, Serap [Ahi Evran University, Department of Food Engineering (Turkey); Unsoy, Gozde; Gunduz, Ufuk, E-mail: ufukg@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    Poly (I:C), which is a synthetic double-stranded RNA, have significant toxicity on tumor cells. The immobilization of Poly (I:C) onto nanoparticles is important for the fabrication of targeted delivery systems. In this study, different generations of newly synthesized PAMAM dendron-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNP) which can be targeted to the tumor site under magnetic field were efficiently loaded for the first time with Poly (I:C). Different generations of DcMNPs (G{sub 2}, G{sub 3}, G{sub 4}, G{sub 5}, G{sub 6}, and G{sub 7}) were synthesized. Poly (I:C) activation was achieved in the presence of EDC and 1-methylimidazole. Loading of Poly (I:C) onto DcMNPs was followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Acidic reaction conditions were found as superior to basic and neutral for binding of Poly (I:C). In addition, having more functional groups at the surface, higher generations (G{sub 7}, G{sub 6}, and G{sub 5}) of PAMAM DcMNPs were found more suitable as a delivery system for Poly (I:C). Further in vitro and in vivo analyses of Poly (I:C)/PAMAM magnetic nanoparticles may provide new opportunities for the selective targeting and killing of tumor cells.

  14. Development and characterization of a coronary polylactic acid stent prototype generated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Christian; Vogt, Felix; Höges, Simon; Jauer, Lucas; Borinski, Mauricio; Schulte, Vera A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Meiners, Wilhelm; Jobmann, Monika; Wissenbach, Konrad; Blindt, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In-stent restenosis is still an important issue and stent thrombosis is an unresolved risk after coronary intervention. Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. The additive manufacturing technology Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables rapid, parallel, and raw material saving generation of complex 3- dimensional structures with extensive geometric freedom and is currently in use in orthopedic or dental applications. Here, SLM process parameters were adapted for poly-L-lactid acid (PLLA) and PLLA-co-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) powders to generate degradable coronary stent prototypes. Biocompatibility of both polymers was evidenced by assessment of cell morphology and of metabolic and adhesive activity at direct and indirect contact with human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. γ-sterilization was demonstrated to guarantee safety of SLM-processed parts. From PLLA and PCL, stent prototypes were successfully generated and post-processing by spray- and dip-coating proved to thoroughly smoothen stent surfaces. In conclusion, for the first time, biodegradable polymers and the SLM technique were combined for the manufacturing of customized biodegradable coronary artery stent prototypes. SLM is advocated for the development of biodegradable coronary PLLA and PCL stents, potentially optimized for future bifurcation applications.

  15. Low energy and high energy dumps for ELI-NP accelerator facility: rational and Monte-Carlo calculations - results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Frasciello, O.; Pelliccioni, M.

    2017-09-01

    ELI-NP will be a new international research infrastructure facility for laser-based Nuclear Physics to be built in Magurele, south west of Bucharest, Romania. For the machine to operate as an intense γ rays' source based on Compton back-scattering, electron beams are employed, undergoing a two stage acceleration to 320 MeV and 740 MeV (and, with an eventual energy upgrade, also to 840 MeV) beam energies. In order to assess the radiation safety issues, concerning the effectiveness of the dumps in absorbing the primary electron beams, the generated prompt radiation field and the residual dose rates coming from the activation of constituent materials, as well as the shielding of the adjacent environments against both prompt and residual radiation fields, an extensive design study by means of Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA code was performed, for both low energy 320 MeV and high energy 720 MeV (840 MeV) beam dumps. For the low energy dump we discuss also the rational of the choice to place it in the building basement, instead of installing it in one of the shielding wall at the machine level, as it was originally conceived. Ambient dose equivalent rate constraints, according to the Rumenian law in force in radiation protection matter were 0.1 /iSv/h everywhere outside the shielding walls and 1.4 μiSv/h outside the high energy dump area. The dumps' placements and layouts are shown to be fully compliant with the dose constraints and environmental impact.

  16. Stimulation of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter expands the bile acid pool and generates bile acids with positive feedback properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudling, Mats; Bonde, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis has been considered a prototype for how a physiological process is controlled by end product feedback inhibition. By this feedback inhibition, bile acid concentrations are kept within safe ranges. However, careful examination of published rodent data strongly suggests that bile acid synthesis is also under potent positive feedback control by hydrophilic bile acids. Current concepts on the regulation of bile acid synthesis are derived from mouse models. Recent data have shown that mice have farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonistic bile acids capable of quenching responses elicited by FXR agonistic bile acids. This is important to recognize to understand the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and in particular to clarify if mouse model findings are valid also in the human situation. In addition to classic end product feedback inhibition, regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse largely appears also to be driven by changes in hepatic levels of murine bile acids such as α- and β-muricholic acids. This has not been previously recognized. Stimulated bile acid synthesis or induction of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in the intestine, increase the availability of chenodeoxycholic acid in the liver, thereby promoting hepatic conversion of this bile acid into muricholic acids. Recognition of these mechanisms is essential for understanding the regulation of bile acid synthesis in the mouse, and for our awareness of important species differences in the regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice and humans. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  18. The quality and quantity of runoff and groundwater in two overburden dumps undergoing pyritic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.A.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The quality and quantity of runoff and seepage water from two waste rock dumps at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle, N.T., have been monitored over various time intervals since 1975. Both dumps contain pyrite which is oxidising and solubilising trace metals within the dumps. Results are presented for the quality and quantity of runoff from both dumps measured in the 1980-81 wet season. The rainfall/runoff characteristics of the two dumps measured during this wet season are similar and in good agreement with measurements made in previous wet seasons. Pollution loads in runoff were only a few per cent of pollution loads in water percolating through to the base of the dumps. The rainfall/runoff characteristics and the dominance of pollution loads in water percolating through the dumps are likely to apply to other similar waste rock dumps

  19. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  20. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of long-chain fatty acid binding activity in vesicles of the outer membrane generated from Escherchia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli transports long-chain fatty acids across the dual membrane by a high affinity, saturable, energy-dependent process. The fadL gene codes for an outer membrane protein which appears to act specifically as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein when fatty acid utilization is blocked by mutation. In an effort to understand the function of the fadL gene product, FLP, membranes have been isolated from fadL + and fadL - strains following osmotic lysis. Following isolation, total membranes were separated into inner and outer membrane fractions and assayed for long-chain fatty acid binding activity. Outer membrane vesicles were incubated 2-5 min at 37 0 C with 3 H oleate (C/sub 18:1/), cooled to 0 0 C, and centrifuged through a Lipidex 100 column for 3 min to remove the unbound fatty acid. The level of fatty acid binding was quantitated by scintillation counting of the eluate. Outer membrane vesicles generated from a fadL + strain bind 325 pmol fatty acid/mg protein whereas vesicles generated for a mutant strain bind 175 pmol fatty acid/mg protein. These data suggest that FLP acts at least as a long-chain fatty acid binding protein on the surface of the cell

  2. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO_2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO_2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO_2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO_2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO_2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  3. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  4. 7 CFR 58.212 - Hopper or dump room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....212 Hopper or dump room. A separate room shall be provided for the transfer of bulk dry dairy products to the hoppers and conveyors which lead to the fillers. This room shall meet the same requirements... transfer of dry dairy products from portable bulk bins will be accepted if gasketed surfaces or direct...

  5. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...

  6. Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, LW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2015: Remote Sensing: Understanding the Earth for a Safer World, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns yz L.W. Mdakane,yz W. Kleynhans,yz C.P. Schwegmann yDepartment of Electrical...

  7. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  8. Extraction of Gold from Dump Material by Agitation | Stoyanov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of poor extraction of gold from slimes a new approach-mechanical agitation of dump material was explored. Several tests have been done. In the agitation test work the following parameters have been investigated: impeller speed; cyanide concentration; CaO concentration; liquid-solid ratio; lead nitrate dosage ...

  9. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  10. Effects on the environment of the dumping of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Nationally and internationally accepted procedures and technologies are available for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Authorized waste disposal practices are designed to ensure that there will be no significant impacts on man and his environment. 'Dumping' of nuclear wastes may result in the elimination of one or more of the multibarriers of protection inherent in an effective radioactive waste management system, thereby increasing the risk of radiological exposure to man and his environment. Quantitative assessments of the degree of environmental contamination and of the resulting hazards to man depend on the specific conditions surrounding the 'uncontrolled disposal' of radioactive waste. These include the nature and activity level of the waste, the physical form of the waste, the package that the waste is contained in and the characteristics of the dumping site. Depending on the scenario envisaged, the consequences of 'uncontrolled disposal' could vary from being insignificant to a situation where there is a significant hazard to an exposed population group. International transactions involving nuclear wastes are taking place between countries on the basis of bilateral agreements and under strict regulatory supervision so that radioactive wastes are transferred safely from one controlled area to another. Such transactions may increase in the future with increased international co-operation in sharing common waste repositories. No evidence exists that confirms that transboundary dumping of radioactive waste has occurred. Investigation of alleged dumping of radioactive wastes by the International Atomic Energy Agency has revealed that the 'suspect wastes' did not contain radioactive material. 2 tabs

  11. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  12. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  13. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  14. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  15. Direct-heating solar-collector dump valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howikman, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Five-port ganged valve isolates collector from primary load system pressure and drains collectors, allowing use of direct heating with all its advantages. Valve is opened and closed by same switch that controls pump or by temperature sensor set at O C, while providing direct dump option.

  16. Research Note Impacts of mine dump pollution on plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mine dump pollution on semiarid savanna vegetation were investigated in Kombat, Namibia. Vegetation structure, species richness, composition and diversity were compared between polluted and control sites. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in soils were significantly higher closer to a ...

  17. Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some Selected Cities In Nigeria. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... This study assessed the level of environmental pollution in the nation by focusing on the degree of accumulation of house – hold wastes, industrial scraps or wastes, ...

  18. Bounds on light gluinos from the BEBC beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Parker, M.A.; Sarkar, S.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Bostock, P.; Krstic, J.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.; Graessler, H.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Idschok, U.; Kreutzmann, H.; Nellen, B.; Wuensch, B.

    1985-01-01

    Observational upper limits on anomalous neutral-current events in a proton beam dump experiment are used to constrain the possible hadroproduction and decay of light gluinos. These results require msub(g tilde) >= 4 GeV for Msub(q tilde) approx.= msub(w). (orig.)

  19. Bounds on light gluinos from the BEBC beam dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Parker, M. A.; Sarkar, S.; Aderholz, M.; Bostock, P.; Clayton, E. F.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Grässler, H.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Idschok, U.; Klein, H.; Kreutzmann, H.; Krstic, J.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Nellen, B.; Schmid, P.; Schmitz, N.; Talebzadeh, M.; Venus, W.; Vignaud, D.; Walck, Ch.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wünsch, B.; WA66 Collaboration

    1985-10-01

    Observational upper limits on anomalous neutral-current events in a proton beam dump experiment are used to constrain the possible hadroproduction and decay of light gluinos. These results require ifm g˜$̆4 GeV for ifm q˜ - minw.

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid generation by pulmonary NKT cell ENPP-2/autotaxin exacerbates hyperoxic lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Machen, Martina; Lange, Martin; Exley, Mark; Wu, Sherry; Usheva, Anny; Robson, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Hyperoxia is still broadly used in clinical practice in order to assure organ oxygenation in critically ill patients, albeit known toxic effects. In this present study, we hypothesize that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates NKT cell activation in a mouse model of hyperoxic lung injury. In vitro, pulmonary NKT cells were exposed to hyperoxia for 72 h, and the induction of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP-2) was examined and production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was measured. In vivo, animals were exposed to 100 % oxygen for 72 h and lungs and serum were harvested. Pulmonary NKT cells were then incubated with the LPA antagonist Brp-LPA. Animals received BrP-LPA prior to oxygen exposure. Autotaxin (ATX, ENPP-2) was significantly up-regulated on pulmonary NKT cells after hyperoxia (p NKT cells. LPA levels were significantly reduced by incubating NKT cells with LPA-BrP during oxygen exposure (p NKT cell numbers in vivo. BrP-LPA injection significantly improved survival as well as significantly decreased lung injury and lowered pulmonary NKT cell numbers. We conclude that NKT cell-induced hyperoxic lung injury is mediated by pro-inflammatory LPA generation, at least in part, secondary to ENPP-2 up-regulation on pulmonary NKT cells. Being a potent LPA antagonist, BrP-LPA prevents hyperoxia-induced lung injury in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Acetylsalicylic acid-triggered 15-HETE generation by peripheral leukocytes for identifying ASA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Peter; Tisler, Ursa; Bajrovic, Nissera; Silar, Mira; Mrhar, Ales; Kosnik, Mitja

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may exacerbate respiratory or skin diseases or induce anaphylactoid reactions in apparently healthy individuals. We wanted to evaluate the clinical and diagnostic utility of measuring ASA-induced 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) generation. We performed a prospective single-blind study with 26 subjects undergoing clinical evaluation and/or ASA provocation testing. We also included 12 control subjects. Peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with 500 μM ASA and 15-HETE release was measured by competitive ELISA. We found that 18 subjects were ASA-tolerant and 8 were ASA-intolerant. The mean increase in 15-HETE in intolerant subjects was 34% and this was comparable to the mean increase of 30% observed in ASA-tolerant subjects. A similar mean increase was also observed in control subjects. The ROC calculation showed that the optimal diagnostic threshold would be an increase of greater than 33%. However, the sensitivity of this increase was only 63% and the specificity was 50%. Our data suggest that further studies are needed before the ASA-induced 15-HETE test can be used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228...

  3. Determination of heavy metals in soils from dump site of tanneries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals were determined in soil samples at the dump site, Challawa town, Karfi Irrigation site and farmlands near the dump site by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that soil at the dump site contains significant amount of toxic elements. Hence remediation processes were ...

  4. Anthropogenic Pollutants in Extracts from Maritsa Iztok Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Maya; Milakovska, Zlatka; Marinov, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Coals are suspected for many human health problems and are an object of the new discipline - “medical geology”. Potential human health risk of organic compounds with coal/lignite provenance includes endocrine disruption, nephrotoxicity, cancer, etc. Recent investigations proved that different organic components, i.e. hydrocarbons, phenols etc. move through/release out of the dump area as a result of alteration processes of the organic matter (OM) caused by the wash-out and/or drainage processes. The timeliness of the present study is based on the scarcity of information on organic geochemistry of dump materials from open pit coal mines and weathered lignites in particular. The limited number of studies on dumps clarifies that even for the “short” time span (some tens of years) in geological point of view, processes of transformation of the extractable OM are detectable. The secondary phases, a result of the OM transformations, move through and out of the dump area and could be potential contaminants for the surface/underground waters and soils in the area. Another environmental problem comes from the air-born VOCs and products of the modern chemical industry. By GC-MS in the slightly polar fractions of the chloroform extracts of dump samples a broad set of components was determined, i.e. phthalates (dominant), i-propyl palmitate, i-propyl myristate, n-hexyl benzoates, etc. These organic contaminants could be regarded more likely as anthropogenic (originating from plasticizers, industrial pollutants, etc.). Presently, it seems that the identified compounds do not represent an acute toxic risk from an environmental viewpoint. However, some compounds could raise concerns and further attention is needed to be focused on them.

  5. Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab: an update on PR12-16-001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglieri, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Genova (Italy); et. al.

    2017-12-07

    This document is an update to the proposal PR12-16-001 Dark matter search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab submitted to JLab-PAC44 in 2016 reporting progress in addressing questions raised regarding the beam-on backgrounds. The concerns are addressed by adopting a new simulation tool, FLUKA, and planning measurements of muon fluxes from the dump with its existing shielding around the dump. First, we have implemented the detailed BDX experimental geometry into a FLUKA simulation, in consultation with experts from the JLab Radiation Control Group. The FLUKA simulation has been compared directly to our GEANT4 simulations and shown to agree in regions of validity. The FLUKA interaction package, with a tuned set of biasing weights, is naturally able to generate reliable particle distributions with very small probabilities and therefore predict rates at the detector location beyond the planned shielding around the beam dump. Second, we have developed a plan to conduct measurements of the muon ux from the Hall-A dump in its current configuration to validate our simulations.

  6. Spin trapping study on the nature of radicals generated by X radiolysis and peroxidation of linolenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizova, O.A.; Osipov, A.N.; Zubarev, V.E.; Yakhyaev, A.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.A.; Savov, V.M.; Kagan, V.E.

    1983-01-01

    The radicals of linolenic acid and their spin adducts (SA) with PBN formed during X radiolysis of linolenic acid and in lipid peroxidation with ferrous ions were investigated and identified. It was found that in the absence of oxygen in pure linolenic acid at 77 K X irradiation produces alkyl and carboxyl radicals. In the presence of the spin trap alkyl radical spin adducts were formed. Irradiation of linolenic acid in the presence of oxygen at 77 K also resulted in the formation of alkyl radicals. These radicals were transformed into peroxy radicals in the interaction of alkyl radical with oxygen upon heating to 117 K. In the presence of spin trap X irradiation of linolenic acid and heating of the sample up to 300 K gave rise to EPR spectra of SA alkyl and unidentified radicals. Lipid peroxidation of linolenic acid induced by ferrous ions in the presence of spin trap also formed radicals and SA of linolenic acid. The spectral parameters of SA generated with ferrous ions in lipid peroxidation and of those generated during X radiolysis do not differ. The similarity of spectral parameters of SA in these two cases suggests a similarity in the structure of linolenic acid radicals. (author)

  7. Diets Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Different Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio Decrease Liver Content of Saturated Fatty Acids Across Generations of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Halfen

    Full Text Available Our study evaluated how the consumption of diets with low (LOW group - 0.4/1 or high (CON group - 13.6/1 omega-6/omega-3 ratio across generations (F1 and F2 can modulate liver fatty acid (FA profile and blood biomarkers. Liver content of α-linolenic acid was higher in animals always fed with LOW diet than animals that changed from CON to LOW diet, which by your time was higher than animals always fed with CON diet. Liver saturated FA concentration decreased in both groups from F1 to F2. In conclusion, both diets were efficient in decreasing the saturated FA liver content across generations, the LOW ratio diet was more effective in reducing blood triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and there was a multigenerational effect of the LOW ratio diet, improving the FA profile even when the offspring start receiving the CON diet.

  8. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  9. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of clayey dump materials from Troyanovo-2 mine, East Maritza Basin (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milakovska, Z.; Goettlicher, J.; Gasharova, B.; Pohlmann-Lortz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven samples of macroscopic different types of surface dump materials (black, gray-green and ochreous clays and clay mixtures) which were heaped during different stages of open-pit coal mining were studied. Montmorillonite ((Na,Ca) 0.33 (Al,Mg) 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 ), illite (K(Al, Mg, Fe) 2 AlSi 3 O 10 (OH) 2 ), calcite (CaCO 3 ), halloysite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), and less frequently kaolinite (Si 4 Al 4 O 10 (OH) 8 ) and quartz (SiO 2 ) are the main primary minerals identified. Primary sulfide minerals determined are pyrite (FeS 2 ) (detected in three samples) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS) - in two samples. Gypsum (CaSO 4 x2H 2 O) is the most widespread secondary mineral followed by goethite (FeOOH) and hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Na-rich jarosite (ideal: NaFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ) was identified in two samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) - only in one. One sample is free of secondary minerals. The mineralogical study shows that oxidation processes of the surface dump materials are not finished yet and pyrite is still present in samples stored 20 years ago. Main factors contributing to the slow rate of oxidation process are clay minerals, low sulfide content (prerequisite for a low oxidation potential), and calcite that contributes to the acidity neutralising potential of the clayey materials. (authors)

  11. A mathematical model for the generation and control of a pH gradient in an immobilized enzyme system involving acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Fournier, R L; Varanasi, S

    1998-02-20

    An optimal pH control technique has been developed for multistep enzymatic synthesis reactions where the optimal pH differs by several units for each step. This technique separates an acidic environment from a basic environment by the hydrolysis of urea within a thin layer of immobilized urease. With this technique, a two-step enzymatic reaction can take place simultaneously, in proximity to each other, and at their respective optimal pH. Because a reaction system involving an acid generation represents a more challenging test of this pH control technique, a number of factors that affect the generation of such a pH gradient are considered in this study. The mathematical model proposed is based on several simplifying assumptions and represents a first attempt to provide an analysis of this complex problem. The results show that, by choosing appropriate parameters, the pH control technique still can generate the desired pH gradient even if there is an acid-generating reaction in the system. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  13. Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us fRNAdb Database Dump Data detail Data name Database Dump DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00452-002 De... data (tab separeted text) Data file File name: Database_Dump File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/frnadb/LATEST/Database_Dump File size: 673 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition...s. Data analysis method - Number of data entries 4 files - About This Database Database Description Download... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive ...

  14. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  15. A survey of the existing international legal rules on the dumping of radioactive waste into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    All nuclear activities generate radioactive wastes and, in the context of the problems raised by such wastes, the author analyses the international rules regulating their safe disposal into the sea and the motives underlying their elaboration. The review therefore covers the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter, together with the IAEA provisional definition and recommendations in this respect, and the recently adopted OECD Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. It is emphasized that while the London Convention deals with a wide range of products, the OECD Mechanism deals solely with radioactive waste. Finally, consideration is given to whether the Paris Convention and the Euratom Treaty may be of relevance in this field. (NEA) [fr

  16. Potential role of sea spray generation in the atmospheric transport of perfluorocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Eva; Ellis, David A

    2010-08-01

    The observed environmental concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its conjugate base (PFO) in remote regions such as the Arctic have been primarily ascribed to the atmospheric transport and degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and to direct PFO transport in ocean currents. These mechanisms are each capable of only partially explaining observations. Transport within marine aerosols has been proposed and may explain transport over short distances but will contribute little over longer distances. However, PFO(A) has been shown to have a very short half-life in aqueous aerosols and thus sea spray was proposed as a mechanism for the generation of PFOA in the gas phase from PFO in a water body. Using the observed PFO concentrations in oceans of the Northern Hemisphere and estimated spray generation rates, this mechanism is shown to have the potential for contributing large amounts of PFOA to the atmosphere and may therefore contribute significantly to the concentrations observed in remote locations. Specifically, the rate of PFOA release into the gas phase from oceans in the Northern Hemisphere is calculated to be potentially comparable to global stack emissions to the atmosphere. The subsequent potential for atmospheric degradation of PFOA and its global warming potential are considered. Observed isomeric ratios and predicted atmospheric concentrations due to FTOH degradation are used to elucidate the likely relative importance of transport pathways. It is concluded that gas phase PFOA released from oceans may help to explain observed concentrations in remote regions. The model calculations performed in the present study strongly suggest that oceanic aerosol and gas phase field monitoring is of vital importance to obtain a complete understanding of the global dissemination of PFCAs. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  17. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 contaminated waste dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)

    1999-06-28

    This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  18. Radiological aspects of sea bed dumping in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    In order to control coastal discharges or ocean dumping of any kind of material, it is necessary to determine a release rate. This can only come from a knowledge of the composition and chemical form of the source materials, the distribution and bioavailability of these materials in the ocean ecosystem, the degree and rates of bioaccumulation and the actual or potential use of the ocean resources. With this information release rates within acceptable limits for man and the ecosystem can then be determined. Today, probably the only situations which apply this approach are the controlled disposal of radioactive wastes. In this paper a recent radiological assessment of the dumping of packaged radioactive wastes on the seabed is discussed and some environmental aspects of the United States Department of Energy program are described examining the feasibility of the emplacement of contained radioactive wastes within the deep ocean sediments

  19. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Christensen, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the level of radioactive contamination in the Kara Sea and to assess short- and long-term consequences of dumped radioactive waste, joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions have been performed annually since 1992. Results from the 1992 joint expedition to the Kara Sea demonstrated very low concentrations of radionuclides in waters and sediments. Contributions from different sources: global fallout, river transport, marine transport of discharges from European reprocessing plants and of fallout from Chernobyl, could be identified. From the expeditions in 1993 and 1994 to three bays at Novaya Zemlya, local contamination in the Stepovogo and the Abrosimov bays due to leakage from the dumped radioactive waste could be confirmed. Results from the 1994 expedition will be published in 1995. The levels of radioactivity in the Kara Sea are, however, very low and represent at present an extremely low impact on man and the marine ecosystem. (Author)

  20. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  1. Biological reduction of dust nuisance on power station waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J

    1978-01-01

    The results of pot trials and succeeding field trials carried out in 1966-72 to find out the best method of reclamationand stabilishing the fly ash and cinder waste dump at the Melnik power station are summarised. The material consists mainly of fine particles with a size range of less than 1 micron to 0.16 mm in diam., and creates a source of blown dust in dry weather. Treatment of the waste material before sowing grass and legume species, the species tested, sowing rates, applied fertilizers, irrigation and treatment of the resulting swards are discussed. The most suitable species were Festuca rubra, F. ovina, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass; the cost of stabilising the dump was lowest with Italian ryegrass. (In English)

  2. Experimental use of neutrinos from ISABELLE beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Thorndike, A.M.; Mann, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The technical feasibility and possible applicability of using ISABELLE beam dumps as powerful sources for directed high-energy neutrino bursts are investigated. In the present machine design two dump systems are applied to absorb the extracted fast beams. The expected normal beam extraction rate is 1 to 2 per day, when about (6.3 to 7.5) x 10 14 protons are hitting the external targets during a pulse length of approx. 50 μs. These protons are considered so far to be useless. The neutrinos produced could be used for the following activities: the study of coherent neutrino regeneration, calibration and permanent testing of cosmic-ray and astrophysical neutrino detectors, research on the practical applicability of neutrinos in telecommunication, and certain astro- and geophysical applications. Tailoring the system to meet these activities is illustrated. 6 figures

  3. Involvement of the lysophosphatidic acid-generating enzyme autotaxin in lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Tae; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Okudaira, Shinichi; Hirosawa, Michi; Umemoto, Eiji; Otani, Kazuhiro; Jin, Soojung; Bai, Zhongbin; Hayasaka, Haruko; Fukui, Yoshinori; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Naoya; Tsuruo, Takashi; Ozono, Keiichi; Aoki, Junken; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted protein with lysophospholipase D activity that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. Here we report that functional ATX is selectively expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of both lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. ATX expression was developmentally regulated and coincided with lymphocyte recruitment to the lymph nodes. In adults, ATX expression was independent of HEV-expressed chemokines such as CCL21 and CXCL13, innate immunity signals including those via TLR4 or MyD88, and of the extent of lymphocyte trafficking across the HEVs. ATX expression was induced in venules at sites of chronic inflammation. Receptors for the ATX enzyme product LPA were constitutively expressed in HEV endothelial cells (ECs). In vitro, LPA induced strong morphological changes in HEV ECs. Forced ATX expression caused cultured ECs to respond to lysophosphatidylcholine, up-regulating lymphocyte binding to the ECs in a LPA receptor-dependent manner under both static and flow conditions. Although in vivo depletion of circulating ATX did not affect lymphocyte trafficking into the lymph nodes, we surmise, based on the above data, that ATX expressed by HEVs acts on HEVs in situ to facilitate lymphocyte binding to ECs and that ATX in the general circulation does not play a major role in this process. Tissue-specific inactivation of ATX will verify this hypothesis in future studies of its mechanism of action.

  4. Plasma Modification of Poly Lactic Acid Solutions to Generate High Quality Electrospun PLA Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nikiforov, Anton; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-02-02

    Physical properties of pre-electrospinning polymer solutions play a key role in electrospinning as they strongly determine the morphology of the obtained electrospun nanofibers. In this work, an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma directly submerged in the liquid-phase was used to modify the physical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) spinning solutions in an effort to improve their electrospinnability. The electrical characteristics of the plasma were investigated by two methods; V-I waveforms and Q-V Lissajous plots while the optical emission characteristics of the plasma were also determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). To perform a complete physical characterization of the plasma-modified polymer solutions, measurements of viscosity, surface tension, and electrical conductivity were performed for various PLA concentrations, plasma exposure times, gas flow rates, and applied voltages. Moreover, a fast intensified charge-couple device (ICCD) camera was used to image the bubble dynamics during the plasma treatments. In addition, morphological changes of PLA nanofibers generated from plasma-treated PLA solutions were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performed plasma treatments were found to induce significant changes to the main physical properties of the PLA solutions, leading to an enhancement of electrospinnability and an improvement of PLA nanofiber formation.

  5. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  6. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  7. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksic, N M; Balac, N [Institute of Meteorology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). College of Physics

    1991-01-01

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory) type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the Nikola Tesla power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Energy deposition profile on ISOLDE Beam Dumps by FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    In this report an estimation of the energy deposited on the current ISOLDE beam dumps obtained by means of FLUKA simulation code is presented. This is done for both ones GPS and HRS. Some estimations of temperature raise are given based on the assumption of adiabatic increase from energy deposited by the impinging protons. However, the results obtained here in relation to temperature are only a rough estimate. They are meant to be further studied through thermomechanical simulations using the energyprofiles hereby obtained.

  9. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  10. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  11. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  12. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation Cu Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason; Stein, Werner; Wirth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of conceptual R&D activities in support of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be not a significant issue. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (dpa) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 dpa, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 100 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks...

  13. Detailed mechanical design of the LIPAc beam dump radiological shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomen, Oriol, E-mail: onomen@irec.cat [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CDEI-UPC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Martínez, José I.; Arranz, Fernando; Iglesias, Daniel; Barrera, Germán; Brañas, Beatriz [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ogando, Francisco [UNED, Madrid (Spain); Molla, Joaquín [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanmartí, Manel [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Mechanical design of the IFMIF LIPAc beam dump shielding has been performed. ► Lead shutter design performed to shield radiation from beam dump when LIPAc is off. ► External loads, working and dismantling conditions, included as design constraints. -- Abstract: The LIPAc is a 9 MeV, D{sup +} linear prototype accelerator for the validation of the IFMIF accelerator design. The high intensity, 125 mA CW beam is stopped in a copper cone involving a high production of neutrons and gamma radiation and activation of its surface. The beam stopper is surrounded by a shielding to attenuate the resulting radiation so that dose rate values comply with the limits at the different zones of the installation. The shielding includes for that purpose polyethylene rings, water tanks and gray cast iron rings. A lead shutter has also been designed to shield the gamma radiation that comes through the beam tube when the linear accelerator is not in operation, in order to allow access inside the building for maintenance tasks. The present work summarizes the detailed mechanical design of the beam dump shielding and the lead shutter taking into account the design constraints, such as working conditions and other external loads, as well as including provisions for dismantling.

  14. The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, D.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J.M.; Barrera, G.; Branas, B.; Casal, N.; Garcia, M.; Lopez, D.; Martinez, J.I.; Mayoral, A.; Ogando, F.; Parro, M.; Oliver, C.; Rapisarda, D.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Ibarra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA cw deuteron accelerator prototype for verifying the validity of the 40 MeV accelerator design for IFMIF. A beam dump designed for maximum power of 1.12 MW will be used to stop the beam at the accelerator exit. The conceptual design for the IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump is based on a conical beam stop made of OFE copper. The cooling system uses an axial high velocity flow of water pressurized up to 3.4 x 10 5 Pa to avoid boiling. The design has been shown to be compliant with ASME mechanical design rules under nominal full power conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to take into account the possible margin on the beam properties at the beam dump entrance. This analysis together with the study of the maintenance issues and the mounting and dismounting operations has led to the complete design definition.

  15. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  16. Resonant production of dark photons in positron beam dump experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Enrico; Carvajal, Cristian D. R.; Ghoshal, Anish; Meloni, Davide; Raggi, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    Positrons beam dump experiments have unique features to search for very narrow resonances coupled superweakly to e+e- pairs. Due to the continued loss of energy from soft photon bremsstrahlung, in the first few radiation lengths of the dump a positron beam can continuously scan for resonant production of new resonances via e+ annihilation off an atomic e- in the target. In the case of a dark photon A' kinetically mixed with the photon, this production mode is of first order in the electromagnetic coupling α , and thus parametrically enhanced with respect to the O (α2)e+e-→γ A' production mode and to the O (α3)A' bremsstrahlung in e- -nucleon scattering so far considered. If the lifetime is sufficiently long to allow the A' to exit the dump, A'→e+e- decays could be easily detected and distinguished from backgrounds. We explore the foreseeable sensitivity of the Frascati PADME experiment in searching with this technique for the 17 MeV dark photon invoked to explain the Be 8 anomaly in nuclear transitions.

  17. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  18. Lead sulfate nano- and microparticles in the acid plant blow-down generated at the sulfuric acid plant of the El Teniente mine, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, Giancarlo M; Klimsa, Martin; Borrmann, Thomas; Cairns, Mathew J; Kinkel, Joachim; Valenzuela, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The acid plant 'blow-down' (also called weak acid) produced at El Teniente mine in Chile was characterized. This liquid waste (tailing) is generated during the cooling and cleaning of the smelter gas prior to the production of sulfuric acid. The weak acid was composed of a liquid and a solid phase (suspended solids). The liquid phase of the sample analyzed in this study mainly contained Cu (562 mg L(-1)), SO4(2-) (32 800 mg L(-1)), Ca (1449 mg L(-1)), Fe (185 mg L(-1)), As (6 mg L(-1)), K (467 mg L(-1)) and Al (113 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sample had a pH-value and total acidity of 0.45 and 2970 mg L(-1) as CaCO3, respectively. Hence, this waste was classified as extremely acidic and with a high metal content following the Ficklin diagram classification. Elemental analysis using atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that the suspended solids were anglesite (PbSO4) nano- and microparticles ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm in diameter.

  19. Biologically relevant oxidants and terminology, classification and nomenclature of oxidatively generated damage to nucleobases and 2-deoxyribose in nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadet, Jean; Loft, Steffen; Olinski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    A broad scientific community is involved in investigations aimed at delineating the mechanisms of formation and cellular processing of oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids. Perhaps as a consequence of this breadth of research expertise, there are nomenclature problems for several of the ...

  20. Rehabilitation of El Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïri, M; Ferchichi, M; Ismaïl, A; Jenayeh, M; Hammami, H

    2004-01-01

    As in all developing countries, cities in Tunisia face serious problems of environmental pollution caused mainly by the inadequate and inefficient final disposal of their generated solid wastes. The Tunisian government launched a development program including the construction of landfills in the main cities and the closure of the contaminated sites issued from solid wastes landrising practice. The project of the Henchir El Yahoudia landfill restoration is the first experience in this programme. It has been suggested to convert the site to a green park and to implement an ornamental plant nursery. The whole surface of the landfill is approximately 100 ha from which 30 ha have been already transformed to an urban recreational area and the remaining 70 ha have to be characterized for the project extension. A field investigation by boring was conducted in order to define the geological and the hydrogeological conditions, the vertical and horizontal wastes layer extension, content and degree of decomposition and the composition and quantities of leachate and landfill gas. Representative samples of waste, soil, groundwater and leachate were collected for laboratory analyses. Several of these borings were converted to piezometers to define the flow regime in the site. The results showed that the biogas (CH4, H2S, and CO2), leachate and waste, distribution in the site is mainly affected by the temporal variation of the site operating method. The underlying fissured clay layer facilitated leachate infiltration into the groundwater where high BOD, COD and nitrogen concentrations were registered.

  1. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N 2 O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH) 3 . Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the α-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments

  2. Hydrogen generation from formic acid catalyzed by a metal complex under amine-free and aqueous conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2018-01-04

    The present invention provides a class of catalyst compounds that can safely and effectively release hydrogen gas from a chemical substrate without producing either noxious byproducts or byproducts that will deactivate the catalyst. The present invention provides catalysts used to produce hydrogen that has a satisfactory and sufficient lifespan (measured by turnover number (TON)), that has stability in the presence of moisture, air, acid, or impurities, promote a rapid reaction rate, and remain stable under the reaction conditions required for an effective hydrogen production system. Described herein are compounds for use as catalysts, as well as methods for producing hydrogen from formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalysts. The methods include contacting formic acid and/or a formate with a catalyst as described herein, as well as methods of producing formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalyst and methods for generating electricity using the catalysts described herein.

  3. Development of offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system. Dump truck mujin soko system no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Z [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-25

    A large offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system has been developed, and is in practical operation mounted on dump trucks at Torigatayama Limestone Quarry of Nittetsu Mining Company. The system functions in a manual dump truck navigation mode, wireless navigation mode, and unmanned control mode. The unmanned control mode further includes a mode to navigate the truck on a predetermined course with its data having been input in a computer and a mode that when the truck was moved on a course under a wireless control, the computer learns the course and drives the truck autonomously thereafter. The safety measures are divided into the hardware safety function to detect abnormalities in brakes and other vehicle parts, and the software safety functions of data communications, sensor action check, and prevention of collision of trucks with each other. The system has resulted in a productivity of average one-way travel distance of 345 m, and average unmanned navigation cycle time of 9 minutes and 26 seconds for a transportation efficiency of 541 t/hour/truck, having reached at least the manned operation level. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  5. Arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid generate oxidative stress response in human bladder cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eblin, K.E.; Bowen, M.E.; Cromey, D.W.; Bredfeldt, T.G.; Mash, E.A.; Lau, S.S.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the effects of arsenicals on the human bladder, a site of arsenical bioconcentration and carcinogenesis. Biotransformation of As(III) by UROtsa cells has been shown to produce methylated species, namely monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], which has been shown to be 20 times more cytotoxic. Confocal fluorescence images of UROtsa cells treated with arsenicals and the ROS sensing probe, DCFDA, showed an increase of intracellular ROS within five min after 1 μM and 10 μM As(III) treatments. In contrast, 50 and 500 nM MMA(III) required pretreatment for 30 min before inducing ROS. The increase in ROS was ameliorated by preincubation with either SOD or catalase. An interesting aspect of these ROS detection studies is the noticeable difference between concentrations of As(III) and MMA(III) used, further supporting the increased cytotoxicity of MMA(III), as well as the increased amount of time required for MMA(III) to cause oxidative stress. These arsenical-induced ROS produced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) with either 50 nM or 5 μM MMA(III) exposure. These findings provide support that MMA(III) cause a genotoxic response upon generation of ROS. Both As(III) and MMA(III) were also able to induce Hsp70 and MT protein levels above control, showing that the cells recognize the ROS and respond. As(III) rapidly induces the formation of ROS, possibly through it oxidation to As(V) and further metabolism to MMA(III)/(V). These studies provide evidence for a different mechanism of MMA(III) toxicity, one that MMA(III) first interacts with cellular components before an ROS response is generated, taking longer to

  6. Nucleic acid reactivity: challenges for next-generation semiempirical quantum models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2015-07-05

    Semiempirical quantum models are routinely used to study mechanisms of RNA catalysis and phosphoryl transfer reactions using combined quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical methods. Herein, we provide a broad assessment of the performance of existing semiempirical quantum models to describe nucleic acid structure and reactivity to quantify their limitations and guide the development of next-generation quantum models with improved accuracy. Neglect of diatomic differential overlap and self-consistent density-functional tight-binding semiempirical models are evaluated against high-level QM benchmark calculations for seven biologically important datasets. The datasets include: proton affinities, polarizabilities, nucleobase dimer interactions, dimethyl phosphate anion, nucleoside sugar and glycosidic torsion conformations, and RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions. As an additional baseline, comparisons are made with several commonly used density-functional models, including M062X and B3LYP (in some cases with dispersion corrections). The results show that, among the semiempirical models examined, the AM1/d-PhoT model is the most robust at predicting proton affinities. AM1/d-PhoT and DFTB3-3ob/OPhyd reproduce the MP2 potential energy surfaces of 6 associative RNA phosphoryl transfer model reactions reasonably well. Further, a recently developed linear-scaling "modified divide-and-conquer" model exhibits the most accurate results for binding energies of both hydrogen bonded and stacked nucleobase dimers. The semiempirical models considered here are shown to underestimate the isotropic polarizabilities of neutral molecules by approximately 30%. The semiempirical models also fail to adequately describe torsion profiles for the dimethyl phosphate anion, the nucleoside sugar ring puckers, and the rotations about the nucleoside glycosidic bond. The modeling of pentavalent phosphorus, particularly with thio substitutions often used experimentally as mechanistic

  7. Generation of Internal-Image Functional Aptamers of Okadaic Acid via Magnetic-Bead SELEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA is produced by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates and primarily accumulates in bivalves, and this toxin has harmful effects on consumers and operators. In this work, we first report the use of aptamers as novel non-toxic probes capable of binding to a monoclonal antibody against OA (OA-mAb. Aptamers that mimic the OA toxin with high affinity and selectivity were generated by the magnetic bead-assisted systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX strategy. After 12 selection rounds, cloning, sequencing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis, four candidate aptamers (O24, O31, O39, O40 were selected that showed high affinity and specificity for OA-mAb. The affinity constants of O24, O31, O39 and O40 were 8.3 × 108 M−1, 1.47 × 109 M−1, 1.23 × 109 M−1 and 1.05 × 109 M−1, respectively. Indirect competitive ELISA was employed to determine the internal-image function of the aptamers. The results reveal that O31 has a similar competitive function as free OA toxin, whereas the other three aptamers did not bear the necessary internal-image function. Based on the derivation of the curvilinear equation for OA/O31, the equation that defined the relationship between the OA toxin content and O31 was Y = 2.185X − 1.78. The IC50 of O31 was 3.39 ng·mL−1, which was close to the value predicted by the OA ELISA (IC50 = 4.4 ng·mL−1; the IC10 was 0.33 ng·mL−1. The above data provides strong evidence that internal-image functional aptamers could be applicable as novel probes in a non-toxic assay.

  8. Anode modification with formic acid: A simple and effective method to improve the power generation of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan, E-mail: shaoancheng@zju.edu.cn; Guo, Jian

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Carbon cloth anode is modified with formic acid by a simple and reliable approach. • The modification significantly enhances the power output of microbial fuel cells. • The modified anode surface favors the bacterial attachment and growth on anode. • The electron transfer rate of anode is promoted. - Abstract: The physicochemical properties of anode material directly affect the anodic biofilm formation and electron transfer, thus are critical for the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, carbon cloth anode was modified with formic acid to enhance the power production of MFCs. Formic acid modification of anode increased the maximum power density of a single-chamber air-cathode MFC by 38.1% (from 611.5 ± 6 mW/m{sup 2} to 877.9 ± 5 mW/m{sup 2}). The modification generated a cleaner electrode surface and a reduced content of oxygen and nitrogen groups on the anode. The surface changes facilitated bacterial growth on the anode and resulted in an optimized microbial community. Thus, the electron transfer rate on the modified anodes was enhanced remarkably, contributing to a higher power output of MFCs. Anode modification with formic acid could be an effective and simple method for improving the power generation of MFCs. The modification method holds a huge potential for large scale applications and is valuable for the scale-up and commercialization of microbial fuel cells.

  9. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  10. Dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two international agreements relate to the dumping of packaged radioactive waste into the oceans - the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter of 1972 (London Convention) and the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste of 1977 under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The International Atomic Energy Agency was given the responsibility to define high-level radioactive wastes which are unsuitable for dumping in the oceans and to make recommendations for the dumping of other radioactive wastes. A revised Definition and Recommendations was submitted and accepted by the London Convention. This paper reviews the technical basis for the Definition and describes how it has been applied to the radiological assessment of the only operational dumping site in the North East Atlantic

  11. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutually coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains ''coupling'' resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  12. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutally coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains coupling resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  13. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  14. Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of leaf margin serration of Populus nigra L. in conditions of industrial dumps (coal mines dumps and overburden dumps and city park is estimated. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1.25 to 1.76 and significantly increases along the gradient: coal mines dumps – overburden dumps – city park. From the number of selected gradations of P. nigra leaf blades, the gradation with values of 1.45-1.55 is most pronounced according to the analyzed index for industrial dumps, for the park – with the values of 1.55-1.65. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation – coefficient of variation is less than 10.0%. We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P. nigra leaf blade.

  15. Mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in biochemical tests that use peroxide and peroxidase to generate chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Flávia; Luiz da Silva, Edson

    2006-11-01

    Ascorbic acid interferes negatively in peroxidase-based tests (Trinder method). However, the precise mechanism remains unclear for tests that use peroxide, a phenolic compound and 4-aminophenazone (4-AP). We determined the chemical mechanism of this interference, by examining the effects of ascorbic acid in the reaction kinetics of the production and reduction of the oxidized chromophore in urate, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests. Reaction of ascorbic acid with the Trinder method constituents was also verified. Ascorbic acid interfered stoichiometrically with all tests studied. However, it had two distinct effects on the reaction rate. In the urate test, ascorbic acid decreased the chromophore formation with no change in its production kinetics. In contrast, in cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose tests, an increase in the lag phase of color development occurred. Of all the Trinder constituents, only peroxide reverted the interference. In addition, ascorbic acid did not interfere with oxidase activity nor reduce significantly the chromophore formed. Peroxide depletion was the predominant chemical mechanism of ascorbic acid interference in the Trinder method with phenolics and 4-AP. Distinctive effects of ascorbic acid on the reaction kinetics of urate, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride might be due to the rate of peroxide production by oxidases.

  16. Independent deterministic analysis of the operational event with turbine valve closure and one atmospheric dump valve stuck open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijova, N.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the independent analysis of the operational event which took place on 07.11.2003 at Unit 1 of Rostov NPP. The event started with switching off the electrical generator of the turbine due to a short cut at the local switching substation. The turbine isolating valves closed to prevent damage of the turbine. The condenser dump valves (BRU-K) and the atmospheric dump valves (BRU-A) opened to release the vapour generated in the steam generators. After the pressure decrease in the steam generators BRU-K and BRU-A closed but one valve stuck opened. The emergency core cooling system was activated automatically. The main circulation pump of the loop corresponding to the steam generator with the stuck BRU-A was tripped. The stuck valve was closed by the operational stuff manually. No safety limits were violated. The analysis of the event was carried out using ATHLET code. A reasonable agreement was achieved between the calculated and measured values. (author)

  17. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  18. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Huang, Yuan-Li; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Chen, Jiun-Hong; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA 1 and LPA 3 . •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA 1 and LPA 3 siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway

  19. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Shyue [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  20. Dumping and injury margins in markets with horizontal as well as vertical product differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the GATT/WTO rules for anti-dumping measures in a duopoly model with both horizontal and vertical product differentiation. The GATT/WTO rules allow for anti-dumping measures if domestic producers, exposed to price discrimination, also demonstrate injury where price...... countries in ability to implement anti-dumping measures predominantly favors the developed countries which are specialized in producing high-quality products. The paper suggests an overall critical look at the lenient rules for implementing anti-dumping measures-especially the rules for injury determination...

  1. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  2. Conceptual design of dump resistor for superconducting CS of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swati; Pradhan, Subrata; Panchal, Arun

    2015-01-01

    During the upgradation of SST-1, the resistive central solenoid (CS) coil has been planned to be replaced with Nb 3 Sn based superconducting coil. The superconducting CS will store upto 3.5MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14kA. In case of coil quench, the energy stored in the coils is to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5s. This will be achieved by inserting a 20m Ohm dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a vital part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20m Ohm dump resistor has been proposed. In this paper, the required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented. Natural air circulation is proposed as cooling method for this dump resistor. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the shape of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. The entire dump resistor will be an array of such grids connected in series and parallel to meet electrical as well as thermal parameters. The maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor is upto 350 °C during dump 3.5MJ energy. The proposed design permits indigenous fabrication of the dump resistor using commercially available welding techniques. (author)

  3. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average steeper than the pre-dump slopes. The “bedrock” of the Payatas dump are conglomerate members of the Pleistocene volcaniclastic Guadualupe Formation. Studies are still to be done on the extent of pollution on surface and groundwater in the Payatas environs.

  4. Scaling Criteria for the Development of an Acoustically Stabilized Dump Combustor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Jerald A; Parr, Timothy P; Widmer, Neil C; Wilson, Kenneth J; Schadow, Klaus C; Randall, William R

    2000-01-01

    Acoustic stabilization of combustion in a dump configuration results in completion of combustion in a relatively short residence time with simultaneously low emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon...

  5. Caffeoylquinic Acids Generated In Vitro in a High-Anthocyanin-Accumulating Sweet potato Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Konczak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of phenolic compounds has been monitored in a suspension culture of anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line grown under the conditions of modified Murashige and Skoog high-anthocyanin production medium (APM over a period of 24 days. Tissue samples extracted with 15% acetic acid were analysed using HPLC at a detection wavelength of 326 nm. Among others, the following derivatives of caffeoylquinic acids were detected: 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid. Their total amount reached a maximum of 110 mg/gFW between the 4th and the 15th day of culture growth on APM. The major compound of the phenolic mixture was 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid with maximum accumulation level of 80 mg/100 gFW. The potential effects of targeted phenolic compounds on the nutraceutical qualities of in vitro produced anthocyanin-rich extracts are discussed.

  6. Role of fatty-acid synthesis in dendritic cell generation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Adeel; Hemmert, Keith C; Ochi, Atsuo; Jamal, Mohsin; Henning, Justin R; Barilla, Rocky; Quesada, Juan P; Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Tang, Kerry; Ego-Osuala, Melvin; Rao, Raghavendra S; Greco, Stephanie; Deutsch, Michael; Narayan, Suchithra; Pachter, H Leon; Graffeo, Christopher S; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2013-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APCs that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. The role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function is uncertain. We found that blockade of fatty-acid synthesis markedly decreases dendropoiesis in the liver and in primary and secondary lymphoid organs in mice. Human DC development from PBMC precursors was also diminished by blockade of fatty-acid synthesis. This was associated with higher rates of apoptosis in precursor cells and increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and BCL-xL and downregulation of cyclin B1. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis decreased DC expression of MHC class II, ICAM-1, B7-1, and B7-2 but increased their production of selected proinflammatory cytokines including IL-12 and MCP-1. Accordingly, inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis enhanced DC capacity to activate allogeneic as well as Ag-restricted CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and induce CTL responses. Further, blockade of fatty-acid synthesis increased DC expression of Notch ligands and enhanced their ability to activate NK cell immune phenotype and IFN-γ production. Because endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can augment the immunogenic function of APC, we postulated that this may account for the higher DC immunogenicity. We found that inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis resulted in elevated expression of numerous markers of ER stress in humans and mice and was associated with increased MAPK and Akt signaling. Further, lowering ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate mitigated the enhanced immune stimulation associated with fatty-acid synthesis blockade. Our findings elucidate the role of fatty-acid synthesis in DC development and function and have implications to the design of DC vaccines for immunotherapy.

  7. Radioactive waste dumping at sea: causes for concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, D.; Atkinson, N.; Barrett, H.A.

    The dumping of various low-level radioactive wastes at sea has been carried out for many years and has been accepted as a satisfactory means of disposal by national and international regulatory authorities. There are, however, grounds for concern from an environmental standpoint which centre around two particular issues: the likely extent of mobilisation of an increasing radioactive inventory over time and the likely effects of such radioactivity if and when it should make contact with living organisms. The subject is discussed under the headings: mobilisation; effects on the marine environment; physical and biological considerations; future exploitation of the oceans (for food, minerals); and the effects of radiation. (author)

  8. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  9. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  10. Collecting tau neutrinos near the proton dump: an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.Eh.; Goritchev, P.A.; Kubantsev, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for the study of tan neutrino interactions in nuclear emulsion placed close to the proton dump are discussed. The processes νsub(tay)N → taysup(-)X with subsequent taysup(-) → lν tildesub(l)νsub(tay) and taysup(-) → νsub(tay) hadrons (l=μ, e) are considered. It is shown that of the approximately 1000 event surviving the kinematic selection criteria, approximately 50 leptonic and approximately 200 hadronic tay decays can be identified in emulsion

  11. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  12. Characterization of fatty acid-producing wastewater microbial communities using next generation sequencing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    While wastewater represents a viable source of bacterial biodiesel production, very little is known on the composition of these microbial communities. We studied the taxonomic diversity and succession of microbial communities in bioreactors accumulating fatty acids using 454-pyro...

  13. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen

  14. Interconnection between tricarboxylic acid cycle and energy generation in microbial fuel cell performed by desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Maslovska, Olga D.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2015-05-01

    Desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is exoelectrogenic obligate anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacterium. Its one of the first described electrogenic bacterium that performs complete oxidation of an organic substrate with electron transfer directly to the electrode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). This bacterium is very promising for MFC development because of inexpensive cultivation medium, high survival rate and selective resistance to various heavy metal ions. The size of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 cells is comparatively small (0.4-0.8×1-2 μm) that is highly beneficial while application of porous anode material because of complete bacterial cover of an electrode area with further significant improvement of the effectiveness of its usage. The interconnection between functioning of reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under anaerobic conditions, and MFC performance was established. Malic, pyruvic, fumaric and succinic acids in concentration 42 mM were separately added into the anode chamber of MFC as the redox agents. Application of malic acid caused the most stabile and the highest power generation in comparison with other investigated organic acids. Its maximum equaled 10.07±0.17mW/m2 on 136 hour of bacterial cultivation. Under addition of pyruvic, succinic and fumaric acids into the anode chamber of MFC the maximal power values equaled 5.80±0.25 mW/m2; 3.2±0.11 mW/m2, and 2.14±0.19 mW/m2 respectively on 40, 56 and 32 hour of bacterial cultivation. Hence the malic acid conversion via reductive stage of TCA cycle is shown to be the most efficient process in terms of electricity generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 in MFC under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Generation of dose-response relationships to assess the effects of acidity in precipitation on growth and productivity of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed with several plant species in natural environments as well in a greenhouse and/or tissue culture facilities to establish dose-response functions of plant responses to simulated acidic rain in order to determine environmental risk assessments to ambient levels of acidic rain. Response functions of foliar injury, biomass of leaves and seed of soybean and pinto beans, root yields of radishes and garden beets, and reproduction of bracken fern are considered. The dose-response function of soybean seed yields with the hydrogen ion concentration of simulated acidic rainfalls was expressed by the equation y = 21.06-1.01 log x where y = seed yield in grams per plant and x = the hydrogen concentration if μeq l -1 . The correlation coefficient of this relationship was -0.90. A similar dose-response function was generated for percent fertilization of ferns in a forest understory. When percent fertilization is plotted on logarithmic scale with hydrogen ion concentration of the simulated rain solution, the Y intercept is 51.18, slope -0.041 with a correlation coefficient of -0.98. Other dose-response functions were generated that assist in a general knowledge as to which plant species and which physiological processes are most impacted by acidic precipitation. Some responses did not produce convenient dose-response relationships. In such cases the responses may be altered by other environmental factors or there may be no differences among treatment means

  16. Dietary acid load in early life and bone health in childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Audry H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy; de Jonge, Ester A L; Gordillo, Noelia G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-12-01

    Dietary contribution to acid-base balance in early life may influence subsequent bone mineralization. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. We examined the associations of dietary acid load in early life with bone health in childhood. In a prospective, multiethnic, population-based cohort study of 2850 children, we estimated dietary acid load as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), based on dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and protein, and as a protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 y of age and in a subgroup at 2 y of age : Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC, and bone area were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6 y. Data were analyzed by using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for relevant maternal and child factors, dietary acid load estimated as either dPRAL or Pro:K ratio was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. Only in those children with high protein intake in our population (i.e., >42 g/d), a 1-unit increase in dPRAL (mEq/d) was inversely associated with BMC (difference: -0.32 g; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01 g). Dietary acid load in early life was not consistently associated with bone health in childhood. Further research is needed to explore the extent to which dietary acid load in later childhood may affect current and future bone health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. PseKRAAC: a flexible web server for generating pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yongchun; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingli; Li, Guangpeng; Yan, Zhenhe; Yang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The reduced amino acids perform powerful ability for both simplifying protein complexity and identifying functional conserved regions. However, dealing with different protein problems may need different kinds of cluster methods. Encouraged by the success of pseudo-amino acid composition algorithm, we developed a freely available web server, called PseKRAAC (the pseudo K-tuple reduced amino acids composition). By implementing reduced amino acid alphabets, the protein complexity can be significantly simplified, which leads to decrease chance of overfitting, lower computational handicap and reduce information redundancy. PseKRAAC delivers more capability for protein research by incorporating three crucial parameters that describes protein composition. Users can easily generate many different modes of PseKRAAC tailored to their needs by selecting various reduced amino acids alphabets and other characteristic parameters. It is anticipated that the PseKRAAC web server will become a very useful tool in computational proteomics and protein sequence analysis. Freely available on the web at http://bigdata.imu.edu.cn/psekraac CONTACTS: yczuo@imu.edu.cn or imu.hema@foxmail.com or yanglei_hmu@163.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Clay sealing for dumps - new findings from suitability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, L.; Kuntsche, K.; Duellmann, H.

    1988-06-01

    Extensive suitability tests were carried out in the laboratory and field on various clays of the Lower-Rhineland brown coal mining area. The purpose of these tests was to determine the basic suitability of these clays for use as sealing layers for residue dumps. The tests also furnished criteria according to which a specific imperviousness can be achieved. The results of the tests can be summed up as follows: Since the material properties of the in-situ clays vary widely, not only mean values but also corresponding variation coefficients must be adhered to. For the purpose of checking the quality - contrary to the hitherto applied assessment practice - the decisive factor is not the testing of the dry density as compared to the Proctor density, but the homogeneity of the sealing layer that is achieved as a result of the size reduction and compaction of the pseudo-granular structure. Using suitable equipment, homogeneities, for which permeability coefficients of k less than or equal to 10/sup -9/ m/s in the dump sealing are obtained can be achieved with the clays that were examined.

  19. Conceptual Design of the Linac4 Main Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, I V; Maglioni, C

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is the new CERN linear accelerator intended to replace the ageing Linac2 as the injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) for increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). By delivering a 160MeV H- beam, Linac4 will provide the necessary conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam extracted from the PSB. This paper describes the conceptual design of the Linac4 Main Dump, where two different concepts relying respectively on water and air cooling were compared and evaluated. Based on the application of analytical models for the energy deposited by the beam, heat conduction and cooling concepts, a parametric study was performed. This approach allowed the identification of the “optimal” configuration for these two conceptual geometries and their relative comparison. Besides giving the theoretical guidelines for the design of the new dump, this work also contributes to the development of analytical tools to allow a better understanding of the influence of the se...

  20. Performance Studies for Protection Against Asynchronous Dumps in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system has to safely dispose all beams in a wide energy range of 450 GeV to 7 TeV. A 3 ms abort gap in the beam structure for the switch-on of the extraction kicker field ideally allows a loss-free extraction under normal operating conditions. However, a low number of asynchronous beam aborts is to be expected from reliability calculations and from the first year's operational experience with the beam dump kickers. For such cases, MAD-X simulations including all optics and alignment errors have been performed to determine loss patterns around the LHC as a function of the position of the main protection elements in interaction region six. Special attention was paid to the beam load on the tungsten collimators which protect the triplets in the LHC experimental insertions, and the tracking results compared with semi-analytical numerical estimates. The simulations are also compared to the results of beam commissioning of these protection devices.

  1. Implication of Free Fatty Acids in Thrombin Generation and Fibrinolysis in Vascular Inflammation in Zucker Rats and Evolution with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Lagrange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS and aging are associated with modifications in blood coagulation factors, vascular inflammation, and increased risk of thrombosis.Objectives: Our aim was to determine concomitant changes in thrombin generation in the blood compartment and at the surface of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and its interplay with adipokines, free fatty acids (FFA, and metalloproteinases (MMPs in obese Zucker rats that share features of the human MetS.Methods: Obese and age-matched lean Zucker rats were compared at 25 and 80 weeks of age. Thrombin generation was assessed by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT.Results: Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP was increased in obese rats independent of platelets and age. Clot half-lysis time was delayed with obesity and age. Interleukin (IL-1β and IL-13 were increased with obesity and age respectively. Addition of exogenous fibrinogen, leptin, linoleic, or palmitic acid increased thrombin generation in plasma whereas adiponectin had an opposite effect. ETP was increased at the surface of VSMCs from obese rats and addition of exogenous palmitic acid further enhanced ETP values. Gelatinase activity was increased in aorta at both ages in obese rats and MMP-2 activity was increased in VSMCs from obese rats.Conclusions: Our study demonstrated in MetS an early prothrombotic phenotype of the blood compartment reinforced by procoagulant properties of dedifferentiated and inflammatory VSMCs. Mechanisms involved (1 increased fibrinogen and impaired fibrinolysis and (2 increased saturated fatty acids responsible for additive procoagulant effects. Whether specifically targeting this hypercoagulability using direct thrombin inhibitors would improve outcome in MetS is worth investigating.

  2. Analysis of twisted tape solutions for cooling of the residual ion dump of the ITER HNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Guamán, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.ochoa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hanke, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sartori, Emanuele; Palma, Mauro Dalla [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padua (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Due to manufacturing deviations, the cooling channels are made by double side drilling. • Twisted tapes with two different thicknesses are necessary for a better cooling performance. • The manufacturing of cooling channels and twisted tapes was demonstrated to be feasible. • The water critical heat flux safety margin is higher than 1.5 for the total channel length. • Geometry optimization shown better cooling performance and higher CHF safety margins. - Abstract: The ITER HNB residual ion dump is exposed to a heat load about 17 MW on the dump panels with a peak power density of 7 MW/m{sup 2}. Water flows through cooling channels, 2 m long and 14 mm diameter, realized by double side deep drilling. Unavoidable manufacturing deviations could generate a discontinuity at the channel length center. It is necessary to verify the influence of issues such as cavitation, fluid stagnation, low boiling margins, among others, in the cooling performance. Assuming worst case conditions, analytical and CFD methods showed a subcooled boiling operation with high safety margins to the water critical heat flux. Additionally, by analysing several thermo-hydraulic parameters, the twisted tape cross sections were optimized. Per cooling channel, two twisted tapes are inserted from the sides of the panels, thus, a study of a separation gap between them at the channel length center presented an optimal distance. This paper demonstrates that common machining techniques and drilling tolerances allow the manufacturing of panels able to withstand safely the required beam operation heat loads, even under worst case operation scenarios.

  3. Evaluation of the contamination risk by 241AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  4. Changes in some physical properties of soils in the chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps of the Sokolov quarry-dump complex, Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuráž, V.; Frouz, Jan; Kuráž, M.; Mako, A.; Šustr, Vladimír; Cejpek, J.; Romanov, O.V.; Abakumov, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2012), s. 266-272 ISSN 1064-2293 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08023 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 08-04-01128 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : physical properties of soil s * chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps * Sokolov quarry-dump complex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.216, year: 2012

  5. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2003-01-01

    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  6. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction ( 3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location doubled. It is concluded that marine benthic resources at and around the dumping sites have been adversely affected by physical disturbance (burial, smothering). However, no causal link could be established with sediment-associated contaminants from the dredged spoils

  7. Regularities of restoration of plant cover on the dumps of the Kuznetsk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kupriyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of the restoration vegetation on the dumps of the coal enterprises of the Kuznetsk Basin. Studies have shown that the dumps have a wide range of environmental conditions and are potentially suitable for establishment of plants. To negative environmental factors at the mine dumps include the lack of productive moisture, failed penetration, contrasting temperature regime on the different elements of the relief, and low potential fertility of the embryonic soils. Positive – high humidity in the depressions, the high content of fine-grained deposits in the lower part of the elephant dumps, excessive accumulation of snow in the winter on separate dumping sites. On disturbed lands identified eight technogenic ecotopes, characterized by various microrelief, moisture level, amount of fine fractions of technogenic eluvium determining favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable conditions for vegetation of disturbed land. Selected three stages of syngenesis: pioneer stage, simple plant communities and complex plant communities. The stage of zonal phytocenosis on the dumps was not detected. The basis of diagnostic signs consists of the projective cover, the nature of the host plants, the number of species part of the zonal species. The selected criteria are universal and can be applicable to most dumps. Speed of syngenetic succession does not depend on calendar age of the dumps, and environmental conditions, which are formed on separate sites.

  8. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to banded gastric bypass: greater incidence of dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Galvão Neto, Manoel; Moretto, Myriam; Barancelli, Fabiano; Schroer, Caroline Eckerdt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2009-11-01

    Dumping syndrome is one of ten most common complications in morbidly obese patients operated. Recent studies in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in patients submitted to gastric bypass led us to examine the different outcomes in this group of patients. Our objective was to determine the difference in the prevalence of dumping syndrome in patients with DM2 submitted to gastric bypass. In this retrospective study, 49 diabetic and 54 non-diabetic morbidly obese patients were submitted to gastric bypass and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The occurrence of dumping was determined by the patient's medical chart, where it was considered positive if recorded in at least one of three evaluations. The 103 patients evaluated had a mean BMI of 49.5 +/- 9.3 kg/m(2) and mean age of 38 +/- 9.7 years, with 75.7% being women. The prevalence of dumping syndrome in this population was 24.3%. The prevalence of dumping was greater in patients with DM2 (44.9%) when compared to the control group (5.6%; p DM2 as the only variable associated with dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome is a common postoperative complication in gastric bypass. Patients with DM2 show a greater postoperative prevalence of dumping.

  9. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  10. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  11. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  13. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model......Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model...

  14. The mathematical model of vertical solt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Yevhrashkina,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamics of porous media offer a range of mathematical models of vertical salt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass. designed several variants of dumps free overgrowth for the optimal performance for transpiration of wild plants.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  16. Maternal fish consumption, fatty acid levels and angiogenic factors: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Bautista-Niño (Paula); M.J. Tielemans (Myrte); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (Sarah); J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); A. Hofman (Albert); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); J.F. Felix (Janine); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Angiogenic factors, such as placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1), are key regulators of placental vascular development. Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that fatty acids can affect angiogenesis. We investigated the associations of maternal fish

  17. Brewer’s Spent Grain Valorization Using Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment for Second Generation Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, I.; Ruiz, E.; Cara, C.

    the effect of phosphoric acid concentration (2-6% w/v) and pretreatment temperature (140-180ºC). The influence of these factors on the hemicellulosic sugar solubilisation and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined by maximizing both...... hemicellulosic sugar recovery in liquids and enzymatic hydrolysis yield....

  18. Characterization Of Solid Wastes Generated By A Community In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on and organic fertilizers from household wastes could be transferred to the community to create jobs and gener-ate income. Landfills and relocation of refuse dumps far from the community were suggested as alternative disposal methods to ...

  19. Cation-anion imbalance: Effect on PWR steam generator crevice pH - an acidic case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, J.P.N.; Shoemaker, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange resins remove cations more efficiently than anions from feedwater to nuclear steam generators. The resulting imbalance is made up in the feedwater train by ammonia additions. In the steam generator, the ammonia is quickly flashed off leaving acid ions for an ionic balance. The almost pure water concentrates by boiling in heated crevices, in theory, to levels permitted by the available superheat (difference between primary and secondary temperatures). The concentrations may reach an ionic strength of greater than 20 molal on the hot leg, depending on bulk water concentration, time of steady state operation, fouling of crevice locations, and solubilities of the various salts, i.e., kinetic as well as thermodynamic considerations. While some of the acid species distill out of the crevices, more may be trapped by corrosive reactions. In the paper, theoretical crevice pH is calculated by MULTEQ. An attempt is made to relate pH to steady state operation time and crevice fouling. The data are normalized to be independent of bulk water concentration. Neutralization of the acid is explored

  20. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  1. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  2. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  3. Effect of systemic pH on pHi and lactic acid generation in exhaustive forearm exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, V.L.; Schubert, C.; Keller, U.; Mueller, S.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate whether changes in systemic pH affect intracellular pH (pH i ), energy-rich phosphates, and lactic acid generation in muscle, eight normal volunteers performed exhaustive forearm exercise with arterial blood flow occluded for 2 min on three occasions. Subjects ingested 4 mmol/kg NH 4 Cl (acidosis; A) or NaHCO 3 (alkalosis; B) or nothing (control; C) 3 h before the exercise. Muscle pH i and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured with 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P-NMR) spectroscopy during exercise and recovery. Lactate output during 0.5-7 min of recovery was calculated as deep venous-arterial concentration differences times forearm blood flow. Before exercise, blood pH and bicarbonate were lower in acidosis than alkalosis and intermediate in control. Lactic acid output during recovery was less with A than B and intermediate in C. PCr utilization and resynthesis were not affected by extracellular pH changes. pH i did not differ before exercise or at its end. Hence systemic acidosis inhibited and alkalosis stimulated lactic acid output. These findings suggest that systemic pH regulates cellular acid production, protecting muscle pH, at the expense of energy availability

  4. Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity generation in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer solution as an alternative to phosphate buffer solution, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer solution concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity generation and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer solution was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 ± 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 Ω. Higher concentration of buffer solution favored nitrogen removal and electricity generation. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer solution concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity generation and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 °C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens.

  5. Remediation of Acid Generating Colliery Spoil Using Steel Slag – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghataora Gurmel S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the legacies of the coal mining industry is the existence of numerous colliery spoil mounds. Run-off waters from some of these mounds result in oxidation of sulphur compounds causing pH to drop to perhaps as low as 2.5. At this pH, mobility for metals increases and it results in destruction of both flora and fauna. In order to reduce acidity, a number of solutions have been investigated with varying degree of success. A recent study to reduce acidity in spoil run-off water included the use of Basic Oxygen Steel slag. Its slow release of lime resulted in longer term remediation compared with other techniques. In addition to this, steel slag contains elements which are essential for plant growth and can be regarded as a weak fertiliser. This was substantiated in two field trials, which had the aim of not only remediating acidity from two different types of colliery spoils, but also to develop a composition that supports grass growth. The objectives were achieved at both sites and some of the results of over 5000 chemical tests conducted during these studies are reported in this paper.

  6. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Global dumping ground: The international traffic in hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, B.

    1993-01-01

    This book is based on the PBS's television documentary. It vividly describes the forces that encourage the USA and other industrialized nations to condone the disposal of industrial and domestic hazardous wastes in other countries. Often conducted illegally, this disposal affects the unsuspecting people of less developed nations, many of whom have less stringent environmental laws and regulations. The book also portrays the ill effects of this dumping on the health and environment and convey and important messages: something must be done to get the public involved in repairing a serious global problem and even small measures, illustrated in the book, are a good start. However, the book fails to confront the question of how the public wants the government to be involved

  8. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  9. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Geochemical and stable isotopic constraints on the generation and passive treatment of acidic, Fe-SO{sub 4} rich waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, Romy, E-mail: rmatthies@uwaterloo.ca [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Aplin, Andrew C., E-mail: andrew.aplin@ncl.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Boyce, Adrian J., E-mail: a.boyce@suerc.gla.ac.uk [Scottish Universities Environment Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Adam P., E-mail: a.p.jarvis@ncl.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Reducing and Alkalinity Producing Systems (RAPS) remediate net-acidic metalliferous mine drainage by creating anoxic conditions in which bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) raises alkalinity and drives the precipitation of iron and other chalcophilic elements as sulfides. We report chemical and stable isotopic data from a study monitoring the biogeochemical processes involved in the generation of mine waters and their remediation by two RAPS. Sulfur isotopes show that sulfate in all mine waters has a common source (pyrite oxidation), whilst oxygen isotopes show that oxidation of pyritic sulfur is mediated by Fe(III){sub aq}. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulfide, combined with the sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate in RAPS effluents, proves BSR and details its dual isotope systematics. The occurrence and isotopic composition of solid phase iron sulfides indicate the removal of reduced sulfur within the RAPS, with significant amounts of elemental sulfur indicating reoxidation steps. However, only 0 to 9% of solid phase iron occurs as Fe sulfides, with approximately 70% of the removed iron occurs as Fe(III) (hydr)oxides. Some of the (hydr)oxide is supplied to the wetland as solids and is simply filtered by the wetland substrate, playing no role in alkalinity generation or proton removal. However, the majority of iron is supplied as dissolved Fe(II), indicating that acid generating oxidation and hydrolysis reactions dominate iron removal. The overall contribution of BSR to the sulfur geochemistry in the RAPS is limited and sulfate retention is dominated by sulfate precipitation, comparable to aerobic treatment systems, and show that the proton acidity resulting from iron oxidation and hydrolysis must be subsequently neutralised by calcite dissolution and/or BSR deeper in the RAPS sediments. BSR is not as important as previously thought for metal removal in RAPS. The results have practical consequences for the design, treatment performance and long

  11. Generation and transcriptional programming of intestinal dendritic cells: essential role of retinoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, R.; Bscheider, M; Lahl, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    programs, and suppressing proinflammatory nuclear factor-κB-dependent gene expression. Thus, RA is required for transcriptional programming and maturation of intestinal cDC, and with GM-CSF and Flt3L provides a minimal environment for in vitro generation of intestinal cDC1- and cDC2-like cDC from...

  12. Demethylation of methylated arsenic species during generation of arsanes with tetrahydridoborate(1−) in acidic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 12 (2016), s. 6366-6373 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23532S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : arsenic speciation analysis * hydride generation * demethylation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  13. Acid extraction of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from mineral sludge generated by rainfall water at a metal recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemic, M; Bordas, F; Guibaud, G; Comte, S; Joussein, E; Lens, P N L; Van Hullebusch, E D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the leaching yields of Mo, Ni and Co from a mineral sludge of a metal recycling plant generated by rainfalls. The investigated mineral sludge had a complex heterogeneous composition, consisting of particles of settled soil combined with metal-bearing particles (produced by catalysts, metallic oxides and battery recycling). The leaching potential of different leaching reagents (stand-alone strong acids (HNO3 (68%), H2SO4 (98%) and HCl (36%)) and acid mixtures (aqua regia (nitric + hydrochloric (1:3)), nitric + sulphuric (1:1) and nitric + sulphuric + hydrochloric (2:1:1)) was investigated at changing operational parameters (solid-liquid (S/L) ratio, leaching time and temperature), in order to select the leaching reagent which achieves the highest metal leaching yields. Sulphuric acid (98% H2SO4) was found to be the leachant with the highest metal leaching potential. The optimal leaching conditions were a three-stage successive leaching at 80 °C with a leaching time of 2 h and S/L ratio of 0.25 g L(-1). Under these conditions, the achieved mineral sludge sample leaching yields were 85.5%, 40.5% and 93.8% for Mo, Ni and Co, respectively. The higher metal leaching potential of H2SO4 in comparison with the other strong acids/acid mixtures is attributed to the fact that H2SO4 is a diacidic compound, thus it has more H(+) ions, resulting in its stronger oxidizing power and corrosiveness.

  14. Retinoic acid combined with spermatogonial stem cell conditions facilitate the generation of mouse germ-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Guoyi; Shang, Zhouchun; Liu, Longqi

    2017-01-01

    Spermatogenic lineage has been directly generated in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) conditions from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, it remains unknown whether mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can directly differentiate into advanced male germ cell lineage in the same conditions. Here......, we showed rather low efficiency of germ-like cell generation from mouse ESCs in SSC conditions. Interestingly, addition of retinoic acid (RA) into SSC conditions enabled efficient differentiation of mouse ESCs into germ-like cells, as shown by the activation of spermatogenesis-associated genes...... such as Mvh, Dazl, Prdm14, Stella, Scp1, Scp3, Stra8 and Rec8. In contrast, for cells cultured in control medium, the activation of the above genes barely occurred. In addition, RA with SSC conditions yielded colonies of Acrosin-expressing cells and the positive ratio reached a peak at day 6. Our work thus...

  15. Sustainable production of a new generation biofuel by lipase-catalyzed esterification of fatty acids from liquid industrial waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukis, Athanasios; Gkini, Olga A; Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Dima, Agapi; Boura, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2017-08-01

    In this work we suggest a methodology comprising the design and use of cost-effective, sustainable, and environmentally friendly process for biofuel production compatible with the market demands. A new generation biofuel is produced using fatty acids, which were generated from acidogenesis of industrial wastes of bioethanol distilleries, and esterified with selected alcohols by immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase-B. Suitable reactors with significant parameters and conditions were studied through experimental design, and novel esterification processes were suggested; among others, the continuous removal of the produced water was provided. Finally, economically sustainable biofuel production was achieved providing high ester yield (<97%) along with augmented concentration (3.35M) in the reaction mixtures at relatively short esterification times, whereas the immobilized lipase maintained over 90% of its initial esterifying ability after reused for ten cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An assessment of the radiological impact of sea-dumping at the North East Atlantic dump site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delow, C.E.; Mobbs, S.F.; Hill, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the models and methodology developed for the assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the seabed. The development of the waste package model and the combined model of radionuclide dispersion and interactions with sediments in the world's ocean is outlined. This integrated set of models was used for the radiological assessment of sea dumping at the North-East Atlantic site, which formed part of the recent NEA review of the continued suitability of this site. The predicted radiation doses to man are presented, together with the results of the analysis of the sensitivity of the annual individual doses to critical groups to variations in model parameters. (author)

  17. Prostatic acid phosphatase is an ectonucleotidase and suppresses pain by generating adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylka, Mark J.; Sowa, Nathaniel A.; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Twomey, Margaret A.; Herrala, Annakaisa; Voikar, Vootele; Vihko, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, also known as Fluoride-Resistant Acid Phosphatase) is a classic histochemical marker of small-diameter dorsal root ganglia neurons. The molecular identity of TMPase is currently unknown. We found that TMPase is identical to the transmembrane isoform of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), an enzyme with unknown molecular and physiological functions. We then found that PAP knockout mice have normal acute pain sensitivity but enhanced sensitivity in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. In gain-of-function studies, intraspinal injection of PAP protein has potent anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects that last longer than the opioid analgesic morphine. PAP suppresses pain by functioning as an ecto-5’-nucleotidase. Specifically, PAP dephosphorylates extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine and activates A1-adenosine receptors in dorsal spinal cord. Our studies reveal molecular and physiological functions for PAP in purine nucleotide metabolism and nociception and suggest a novel use for PAP in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:18940592

  18. EPR studies of the free radicals generated in gamma irradiated amino acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoğlu, Y. Emre; Sütçü, Kerem

    2017-10-01

    Gamma irradiated powder forms of N-acetyl-DL-aspartic acid, N-carbamoyl-DL-aspartic acid and N-methyl-L-serine were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) at room temperature. In these compounds, the paramagnetic centers formed after irradiation were attributed to the HOOCCH2ĊHCOOH, COOHĊHCHNH and HOCH2ĊHCOOH radicals, respectively. The g values and the hyperfine coupling constants for the radical species are with values of g = 2.0038 ± 0.0005, aα = 2.15 mT, aβ(1) = 3.84 mT and aβ(2) = 2.15 for the first radical, g = 2.0039 ± 0.0005, aα = 1.7 mT, aß(1) = 0.62 mT, aß(2) = 0.54 mT, aγ = 0.53 mT for the second radical and g = 2.0039 ± 0.0005, aβ(1) = 2.40 mT, aβ(2) = 1.83 mT and aα = 1.83 mT for the third radical. The free radicals formed in three compounds were found to be stable for three months at room temperature. It was concluded that, spin density was concentrated predominantly in the 2pπ orbital of the carbon atom.

  19. Reaction of single-standard DNA with hydroxyl radical generated by iron(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigodich, R.V.; Martin, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the reaction of Fe(II)-EDTA and hydrogen peroxide with the single-stranded nucleic acids d(pT) 70 and a 29-base sequence containing a mixture of bases results in substantial damage which is not directly detected by gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the DNA sugar backbone is enhanced significantly after the samples are incubated at 90 degree C in the presence of piperidine. The latter reaction is used in traditional Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing to detect base damage, and the current results are consistent with reaction of the hydroxyl radical with the bases in single-stranded DNA (although reaction with sugar may also produce adducts that are uncleaved but labile to cleavage by piperidine). We the authors propose that hydroxyl radicals may react preferentially with the nucleic acid bases in ssDNA and that reaction of the sugars in dsDNA is dominant because the bases are sequestered within the double helix. These results have implications both for the study of single-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites and for the interpretation of experiments using the hydroxyl radical to probe DNA structure or to footprint double-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites

  20. Late Wash/Nitric Acid flowsheet hydrogen generation bases for simulation of a deflagration/detonation in the DWPF CPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen generation data obtained from IDMS runs PX4 and PX5 will be used to determine a bases for a deflagration/detonation simulation in the DWPF CPC. This simulation is necessary due to the new chemistry associated with the Late Wash/ Nitric Acid flowsheet and process modifications associated with the presence of H 2 in the offgas. The simulation will be performed by Professor Van Brunt from the University of South Carolina. The scenario which leads up to the deflagration/detonation simulation will be chosen such that the following conditions apply. The SRAT is filled to its maximum operating level with 9,600 gal of sludge, which corresponds to the minimum vapor space above the sludge. The SRAT is at the boiling point, producing H 2 at a very low rate (about 10 % of the peak) and 15 scfm of air inleakage is entering the SRAT. Then, the H 2 generation rate will be allowed to increase exponentially (catalyst activation) until it readies the peak H 2 generation rate of the IDMS run, after which the H 2 generation rate will be allowed to decay exponentially (catalyst deactivation) until the total amount of H2 produced is between 85 and 100% of that produced during the IDMS run

  1. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  2. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  3. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  4. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  5. D0 Superconducting Solenoid Quench Data and Slow Dump Data Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.

    1998-01-01

    This Dzero Engineering note describes the method for which the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid Fast Dump and Slow Dump data are accumulated, tracked and stored. The 2 Tesla Solenoid has eleven data points that need to be tracked and then stored when a fast dump or a slow dump occur. The TI555(Texas Instruments) PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) which controls the DC power circuit that powers the Solenoid, also has access to all the voltage taps and other equipment in the circuit. The TI555 constantly logs these eleven points in a rotating memory buffer. When either a fast dump(dump switch opens) or a slow dump (power supply turns off) occurs, the TI555 organizes the respective data and will down load the data to a file on DO-CCRS2. This data in this file is moved over ethernet and is stored in a CSV (comma separated format) file which can easily be examined by Microsoft Excel or any other spreadsheet. The 2 Tesla solenoid control system also locks in first fault information. The TI555 decodes the first fault and passes it along to the program collecting the data and storing it on DO-CCRS2. This first fault information is then part of the file.

  6. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  7. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH water column. However extrapolation of this concept to a field

  8. Carbonate-based Janus micromotors moving in ultra-light acidic environment generated by HeLa cells in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, Maria; Meyer, Anne K.; Koch, Britta; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-02-01

    Novel approaches to develop naturally-induced drug delivery in tumor environments in a deterministic and controlled manner have become of growing interest in recent years. Different polymeric-based microstructures and other biocompatible substances have been studied taking advantage of lactic acidosis phenomena in tumor cells, which decrease the tumor extracellular pH down to 6.8. Micromotors have recently demonstrated a high performance in living systems, revealing autonomous movement in the acidic environment of the stomach or moving inside living cells by using acoustic waves, opening the doors for implementation of such smart microengines into living entities. The need to develop biocompatible motors which are driven by natural fuel sources inherently created in biological systems has thus become of crucial importance. As a proof of principle, we here demonstrate calcium carbonate Janus particles moving in extremely light acidic environments (pH 6.5), whose motion is induced in conditioned acidic medium generated by HeLa cells in situ. Our system not only obviates the need for an external fuel, but also presents a selective activation of the micromotors which promotes their motion and consequent dissolution in presence of a quickly propagating cell source (i.e. tumor cells), therefore inspiring new micromotor configurations for potential drug delivery systems.

  9. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  10. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  11. Lewis acid-promoted hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides to generate α-fluorovinyl thioethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bello

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the preparation of α-fluorovinyl thioethers is reported which involves the hydrofluorination of alkynyl sulfides with 3HF·Et3N, a process that requires Lewis acid activation using BF3·Et2O and TiF4. The method gives access to a range of α-fluorovinyl thioethers, some in high stereoselectivity with the Z-isomer predominating over the E-isomer. The α-fluorovinyl thioether motif has prospects as a steric and electronic mimetic of thioester enols and enolates, important intermediates in enzymatic C–C bond forming reactions. The method opens access to appropriate analogues for investigations in this direction.

  12. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study of selected static leaching and acid–base accounting (ABA) methods using a mineralogically diverse set of 12 modern-style, metal mine waste samples was undertaken to understand the relative performance of the various tests. To complement this study, in-depth mineralogical studies were conducted in order to elucidate the relationships between sample mineralogy, weathering features, and leachate and ABA characteristics. In part one of the study, splits of the samples were leached using six commonly used leaching tests including paste pH, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Field Leach Test (FLT) (both 5-min and 18-h agitation), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1312 SPLP (both leachate pH 4.2 and leachate pH 5.0), and the USEPA Method 1311 TCLP (leachate pH 4.9). Leachate geochemical trends were compared in order to assess differences, if any, produced by the various leaching procedures. Results showed that the FLT (5-min agitation) was just as effective as the 18-h leaching tests in revealing the leachate geochemical characteristics of the samples. Leaching results also showed that the TCLP leaching test produces inconsistent results when compared to results produced from the other leaching tests. In part two of the study, the ABA was determined on splits of the samples using both well-established traditional static testing methods and a relatively quick, simplified net acid–base accounting (NABA) procedure. Results showed that the traditional methods, while time consuming, provide the most in-depth data on both the acid generating, and acid neutralizing tendencies of the samples. However, the simplified NABA method provided a relatively fast, effective estimation of the net acid–base account of the samples. Overall, this study showed that while most of the well-established methods are useful and effective, the use of a simplified leaching test and the NABA acid–base accounting method provide investigators fast

  14. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  15. Establishment of a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    International regulations on dumping of radioactive waste which until only recently were limited to general principles, have developed significantly during the past years, while radioactive waste sea, dumping operations were being undertaken during the same period under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The latter, in implementation of the London Convention and the IAEA Recommendations, has established a mechanism whose purpose is to place under international control radioactive waste sea dumping operations to ensure that all necessary steps are taken to avoid marine pollution. This paper analyses the technical and legal aspects of the mechanism. (NEA) [fr

  16. The waste bin: nuclear waste dumping and storage in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively small amounts of nuclear waste have been stored on Pacific islands and dumped into the Pacific Ocean since 1945. Governments of Pacific countries possessing nuclear power plants are presently seeking permanent waste storage and disposal solutions at Pacific sites including subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes and ocean dumping of low-level wastes. This article examines these plans and the response of Pacific islanders in their development of policies and international strategies to ban the proposed dumping on a regional basis. Island governments are preparing for a Regional Convention during which a treaty concerned with radioactive waste storage and disposal will be signed. (Author)

  17. Analysis of Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, Andrian; Musina, Valeria; Golovko, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal dumps and their impact on the environment of mining regions remain important environmental problem, in spite of the measures that are being taken. The paper presents the hypothesis, which states that the location of coal dumps at the boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks promotes the appearance of conditions for their combustion. At present geodynamically active crust faults that affect the operating conditions of engineering facilities are observed not only in the areas of tectonic activity, but also on platforms. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks. The purpose of the study is to estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia). Nine of sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically dangerous zones, which, taking into account relatively small area occupied by all geodynamically dangerous zones, results that there is a concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps, which is 14 times higher than the baseline value. While the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. Taking into account the stressed state of the rock massif in this region, all geodynamically dangerous zones can be divided into compression and tension zones. The statistic is limited, but nevertheless in tension zones the concentration of burning dumps is 2 times higher than in compression zones. Available results of thermal monitoring of

  18. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Luís E. E.

    2010-09-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emission losses, it is insensitive to the pump-dump-train delay, and it requires only basic pulse shaping.

  19. Price strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese exporters in the light of anti-dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may...... give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures...

  20. Assessment of the Influence of Dredge Spoil Dumping on the Seafloor Geological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonas J. Virtasalo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the development of suitable indicators for regular reporting on the environmental state and achievement of a good environmental status of EU's marine waters by 2020. The development of indicators for determining seafloor integrity and its possible disturbance by human activities have so far largely ignored the geological properties of seafloor. This paper presents a study of Vuosaari and Uusikaupunki-D offshore dumping sites in Finland, the northern Baltic Sea. Full coverage multibeam bathymetry and relative backscatter data, and a number of sediment cores were collected over the sites. The areas covered by dumped dredge spoil stand out in the multibeam images because of their irregular surface and elevated backscatter. The short gravity cores were studied for lithology, and in 1-cm slices for 137Cs activity, organic content, and grain size distribution. The dumped material is represented in the cores by the gravelly mud lithofacies with massive texture and angular coarse particles. The dumped material is coarser, less sorted and has higher kurtosis compared to natural sediment due to the admixing of blasted rock during the dredging activities, and limited sorting during fall through the water column upon dumping. Dispersed dredge spoil, which was suspended in the water column during the dumping activities or reworked from the dumped material mounds and redistributed along the seafloor soon thereafter, was deposited over a wide area as a thin layer that is not necessarily readily identifiable by visual inspection in the cores. Cesium activity helped distinguish the dumped material from the 137Cs-enriched natural sediments deposited after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Considering that the dumped material at many of the coring sites in the Vuosaari dumping area is covered by natural sediment, it probably is largely stable. In contrast, dumped material at the shallower Uusikaupunki-D site has

  1. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Cała, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Michał

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  2. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Maria Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating soil quality and decrease in vegetation abundance are grave consequences of open waste dumping which have resulted in growing public concern. The focus of this study is to assess the contribution of open waste dumping in soil contamination and its effect on plant diversity in one of the renowned green cities of Pakistan. Surface soil samples (n = 12 + 12 were collected from both the open waste dumping areas allocated by Capital Development Authority (CDA and sub- sectors of H-belt of Islamabad city (representative of control site. The diversity of vegetation was studied at both sampling sites. Significant modifications were observed in the soil properties of the dumping sites. Soils at the disposal sites showed high pH, TDS and EC regime in comparison to control sites. Various heavy metal concentrations i.e., Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn were also found to be higher at the dumping sites except for Cadmium (Cd which had a higher value in control site. A similar trend was observed in plant diversity. Control sites showed diversified variety of plants i.e., 44 plant species while this number reduced to only 32 plant species at the disposal sites. This is attributed to changes in soil characteristics at disposal sites and in its vicinity areas.

  3. Energy dump of the ATLAS superconducting system simulations of electrical and thermal behaviour of magnet system at slow- and fast dump

    CERN Document Server

    van Beek, Martijn; Dudarev, A

    During the slow dump (discharge) of the Barrel Toroidal (superconducting) magnet of the ATLAS detector, the control system gave an alarm that the differences between the voltages over the conductors were too high. The alarm was not due to any danger, because of some sort of phenomenon observed in the first few seconds after start of the discharge. A possible explanation of the differences of the coil voltages is that the changing current through the conductors may cause induced currents in the coil casing around. The goal was to make a simulation of the electrical behaviour of the magnet system during a slow dump. In this way, an explanation can be found for the start phenomenon of the slow dump of the Barrel Toroid. Some extra analyses on the measurements were performed to describe the energy dissipation during a fast dump. This is done by calculating the resistance of the coils during the dump. With the maximum resistance, the maximum temperature can be estimated, which says something about the enthalpy of ...

  4. Rapid identification of dairy lactic acid bacteria by M13-generated, RAPD-PCR fingerprint databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Lia; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2005-11-01

    About a thousand lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from dairy products, especially cheeses, were identified and typed by species-specific PCR and RAPD-PCR, respectively. RAPD-PCR profiles, which were obtained by using the M13 sequence as a primer, allowed us to implement a large database of different fingerprints, which were analysed by BioNumerics software. Cluster analysis of the combined RAPD-PCR fingerprinting profiles enabled us to implement a library, which is a collection of library units, which in turn is a selection of representative database entries. A library unit, in this case, can be considered to be a definable taxon. The strains belonged to 11 main RAPD-PCR fingerprinting library units identified as Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis. The possibility to routinely identify newly typed, bacterial isolates by consulting the library of the software was valued. The proposed method could be suggested to refine previous strain identifications, eliminate redundancy and dispose of a technologically useful LAB strain collection. The same approach could also be applied to identify LAB strains isolated from other food ecosystems.

  5. Effect of the chlorinated washing of minimally processed vegetables on the generation of haloacetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-07-25

    Chlorine solutions are usually used to sanitize fruit and vegetables in the fresh-cut industry due to their efficacy, low cost, and simple use. However, disinfection byproducts such as haloacetic acids (HAAs) can be formed during this process, which can remain on minimally processed vegetables (MPVs). These compounds are toxic and/or carcinogenic and have been associated with human health risks; therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set a maximum contaminant level for five HAAs at 60 μg/L in drinking water. This paper describes the first method to determine the nine HAAs that can be present in MPV samples, with static headspace coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where the leaching and derivatization of the HAAs are carried out in a single step. The proposed method is sensitive, with limits of detection between 0.1 and 2.4 μg/kg and an average relative standard deviation of ∼8%. From the samples analyzed, we can conclude that about 23% of them contain at least two HAAs (<0.4-24 μg/kg), which showed that these compounds are formed during washing and then remain on the final product.

  6. Preventive acid chemical cleaning operation (PACCO) on steam generator in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traino, Jules; Ruiz Martinez, Jose Thomas; Rottner, Bernard; Vedova, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Steam Generators (SG) usually present important deposit loading and Tube Support Blockage, resulting from Secondary Side corrosion products. These phenomena modify SG behavior which can lead to safety, heat exchange performance and lifetime problems. In this context, a Chemical Cleaning Process (PACCO) was designed to solve the issue. After almost two years of intensive lab tests, pilot simulation and mock-ups, the chemical process was finally qualified by EDF. The aim of the work was firstly the development in laboratory of a chemical process that could eliminate partially the deposit loading, respecting the integrity of materials and gas emission limits. Secondly, the objective was the design and the implementation of the process on-site. The process has been applied successfully in 3 SG in Dampierre nuclear power plant in France on July 2013. The main results were: - Corrosion < 100 μm. - 40% of the initial deposit loading, removed by SG. (authors)

  7. One-Tube-Only Standardized Site-Directed Mutagenesis: An Alternative Approach to Generate Amino Acid Substitution Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janire Mingo

    Full Text Available Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM is a powerful tool to create defined collections of protein variants for experimental and clinical purposes, but effectiveness is compromised when a large number of mutations is required. We present here a one-tube-only standardized SDM approach that generates comprehensive collections of amino acid substitution variants, including scanning- and single site-multiple mutations. The approach combines unified mutagenic primer design with the mixing of multiple distinct primer pairs and/or plasmid templates to increase the yield of a single inverse-PCR mutagenesis reaction. Also, a user-friendly program for automatic design of standardized primers for Ala-scanning mutagenesis is made available. Experimental results were compared with a modeling approach together with stochastic simulation data. For single site-multiple mutagenesis purposes and for simultaneous mutagenesis in different plasmid backgrounds, combination of primer sets and/or plasmid templates in a single reaction tube yielded the distinct mutations in a stochastic fashion. For scanning mutagenesis, we found that a combination of overlapping primer sets in a single PCR reaction allowed the yield of different individual mutations, although this yield did not necessarily follow a stochastic trend. Double mutants were generated when the overlap of primer pairs was below 60%. Our results illustrate that one-tube-only SDM effectively reduces the number of reactions required in large-scale mutagenesis strategies, facilitating the generation of comprehensive collections of protein variants suitable for functional analysis.

  8. Commercial development of a new process of uraniferous ore sintering by pelletizing before dump leaching (wet process) application to a very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videau, G.; Roche, M.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the French uranium ore contains clay of sedimentary origin or derived from the alteration of rocks of the granite type. During a dump leaching operation by a wet process, these clays reduce the percolation rates and sometimes the percolation rates are so low that the very essence of the dump leaching operation can be called in question. This problem arises particularly for the treatment of the ore of Nord-Aquitaine. The results of tests, carried out at the SEPA in Bessines, have shown that after pelletizing clayey ores with sodium silicate in the presence of sulphuric acid for the polymerization of the silicate, the percolation rates were much increased. This new method was successfully applied, from a laboratory column to a pilot dump of 500 tonnes for the very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine. This ore of low grade (approx. 1000 ppm of U) seems to be difficult to upgrade by any other method of treatment in the present economic context [fr

  9. Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna

    Full Text Available Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

  10. Plasticity of photoreceptor-generating retinal progenitors revealed by prolonged retinoic acid exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron David A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoic acid (RA is important for vertebrate eye morphogenesis and is a regulator of photoreceptor development in the retina. In the zebrafish, RA treatment of postmitotic photoreceptor precursors has been shown to promote the differentiation of rods and red-sensitive cones while inhibiting the differentiation of blue- and UV-sensitive cones. The roles played by RA and its receptors in modifying photoreceptor fate remain to be determined. Results Treatment of zebrafish embryos with RA, beginning at the time of retinal progenitor cell proliferation and prior to photoreceptor terminal mitosis, resulted in a significant alteration of rod and cone mosaic patterns, suggesting an increase in the production of rods at the expense of red cones. Quantitative pattern analyses documented increased density of rod photoreceptors and reduced local spacing between rod cells, suggesting rods were appearing in locations normally occupied by cone photoreceptors. Cone densities were correspondingly reduced and cone photoreceptor mosaics displayed expanded and less regular spacing. These results were consistent with replacement of approximately 25% of positions normally occupied by red-sensitive cones, with additional rods. Analysis of embryos from a RA-signaling reporter line determined that multiple retinal cell types, including mitotic cells and differentiating rods and cones, are capable of directly responding to RA. The RA receptors RXRγ and RARαb are expressed in patterns consistent with mediating the effects of RA on photoreceptors. Selective knockdown of RARαb expression resulted in a reduction in endogenous RA signaling in the retina. Knockdown of RARαb also caused a reduced production of rods that was not restored by simultaneous treatments with RA. Conclusions These data suggest that developing retinal cells have a dynamic sensitivity to RA during retinal neurogenesis. In zebrafish RA may influence the rod vs. cone cell fate

  11. The Applied Communication Game: A Comment on Muma's "Communication Game: Dump and Play"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; Reichle, Joe E.

    1975-01-01

    Provided are some illustrative clinical uses of J. Muma's "dump" and "play" communication model (EC 073301), said to be most applicable to the less handicapped child who has "trained language" but needs to be taught interpersonal communication skills. (LS)

  12. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads...

  13. Hydrological investigations on an overburden dump in the Borken brown coal district, North Hessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, P.; Latif, A.

    1992-01-01

    After a general hydrological investigation of the Dosenberg overburden dump in North Hessen, a climatic water balance is established for the main vegetation periods of the years 1989, 1990, and 1991. This is followed by a description of the investigations of water levels of the plateau pools and time curves of water levels of observation holes drilled into the dump plateau. In all, the findings suggest that in the period under investigation, which comprised three draught years in sequence, the dump was largely an independent hydrological system. In this period, no significant discharge of water from the 'Dosenberg ecosystem' into the surrounding area occurred, i.e. the overburden dumps had no effect on the surrounding cultivated land and bodies of water. This may be different in wet years. On the other hand, the prevailing climate conditions give cause to assume that no negative effects need be expected. The investigation will be continued. (orig.) [de

  14. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... non-dumped comparisons. Several World Trade Organization (``WTO'') dispute settlement reports have... methodologies have been challenged as being inconsistent with the World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 [Docket No. 101130598...

  15. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  16. An Engineering Model for Prediction of Waste Incineration in a Dump Combustor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arunajatesan, S

    1997-01-01

    An engineering model that can be used to obtain predictions of axial distributions of temperature and species concentrations in complex flows has been formulated and applied to waste incineration in a dump combustor...

  17. Extracellular space, blood volume, and the early dumping syndrome after total gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Reilmann, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Koerber, H.K.; Kotzerke, J.; Hecker, H. (Medzinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-10-01

    Extracellular space and blood volume were measured using 82Br dilution and 51Cr-tagged erythrocytes in 24 tumor-free patients after total gastrectomy. Eleven of the patients suffered from early dumping. Age, blood volume, and extracellular space were significantly smaller in dumpers (P less than 0.05). The dumping score could be predicted by a multiple regression model considering blood volume per lean body mass and extracellular space (r = 0.637; P = 0.0039). Rapid (t1/2 less than 360 seconds) emptying of the gastric substitute, assessed using a 99Tc-labeled solid test meal, was significantly associated with dumping in addition to extracellular space and blood volume (r = 0.876; P = 0.0018). Both rapid emptying and a narrow extracellular space seem to contribute to the early dumping syndrome.

  18. Design considerations for a steady state fusion reactor's thermal energy dump (TED) with emphasis on SAFFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    This work examines the use of a thermal dump to handle the severe particle and energy handling requirements of a diverted plasma. We outline a general approach for evaluating the design parameters and limitations of a thermal dump, considering such things as thermomechanical and erosion effects, compatibility, availability, machinability, coolant recirculation, vacuum pumping, economics, lifetime, etc. To demonstrate how the performance requirements are reflected in design decisions, we apply a solid-walled dump to a small-sized field reversed mirror (FRM). We also examine a liquid-lithium droplet thermal dump and point out some distinct advantages of this new concept over the solid-wall design in reducing stress, erosion, and vacuum pumping problems. The chief disadvantages of this scheme include liquid-metal safe-handling problems, vapor pressure-temperature limitations, and the need for differential pumping if T/sub Li/ > 310 0 C is desired

  19. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ...) and a Site Inspection at the inactive Clean Fill Dump (CFD) sites. The objective of the ASL study involved obtaining additional data to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the landfill operations...

  20. Forecast salt regime unwatered mine reclaimed dump in unstable conditions in Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamic of porous media was executed prognosis salt rate no suppying with water mine dumps of minimum sense transhiration in conditions no established rate.

  1. Development of the heat sink structure of a beam dump for the proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    The beam dump is the essential component for the good beam quality and the reliable performance of the proton accelerator. The beam dump for a 20 MeV and 20 mA proton accelerator was designed and manufactured in this study. The high heats deposited, and the large amount of radioactivity produced in beam dump should be reduced by the proper heat sink structure. The heat source by the proton beam of 20 MeV and 20 mA was calculated. The radioactivity assessments of the beam dump were carried out for the economic shielding design with safety. The radioactivity by the protons and secondary neutrons in designed beam dump were calculated in this sturdy. The effective engineering design for the beam dump cooling was performed, considering the mitigation methods of the deposited heats with small angle, the power densities with the stopping ranges in the materials and the heat distributions in the beam dump. The heat sink structure of the beam dump was designed to meet the accelerator characteristics by placing two plates of 30 cm by 60 cm at an angle of 12 degree. The highest temperatures of the graphite, copper, and copper faced by cooling water were designed to be 223 degree, 146 degree, and 85 degree, respectively when the velocity of cooling water was 3 m/s. The heat sink structure was manufactured by the brazing graphite tiles to a copper plate with the filler alloy of Ti-Cu-Ag. The brazing procedure was developed. The tensile stress of the graphite was less than 75% of a maximum tensile stress during the accelerator operation based on the analysis. The safety analyses for the commissioning of the accelerator operation were also performed. The specimens from the brazed parts of beam dump structure were made to identify manufacturing problems. The soundness of the heat sink structure of the beam dump was confirmed by the fatigue tests of the brazed specimens of the graphite-copper tile components with the repetitive heating and cooling. The heat sink structure developed

  2. A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1992-01-01

    On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia

  3. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.S.; Thawale, P.R.; Mowade, S.; Shrivastava, S.; Deshbhratar, P.B.; Juwarkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Upgrade of the Super Proton Synchrotron Vertical Beam Dump System

    CERN Document Server

    Senaj, V; Vossenberg, E

    2010-01-01

    The vertical beam dump system of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) uses two matched magnets with an impedance of 2 W and a combined kick strength of 1.152 Tm at 60 kV supply voltage. For historical reasons the two magnets are powered from three 3 W pulse forming networks (PFN) through three thyratronignitron switches. Recently flashovers were observed at the entry of one of the magnets, which lead, because of the electrical coupling between the kickers, to a simultaneous breakdown of the pulse in both magnets. To improve the reliability an upgrade of the system was started. In a first step the radii of surfaces at the entry of the weak magnet were increased, and the PFN voltage was reduced by 4%; the kick strength could be preserved by reducing the magnet termination resistance by 10 %. The PFNs were protected against negative voltage reflections and their last cell was optimised. In a second step the two magnets will be electrically separated and powered individually by new 2 W PFNs with semiconductor ...

  5. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which are covered by organic material could be realized applying these geophysical methods.

  7. Mathematical model of vertical mass transport in the mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina T.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate mathematical models of the recultivated, recultivated and dumping with dry system, recultivated in systematically irrigation conditions and free of overgrowth by wild plants are proposed, designed and quantified. The theory of physico-chemical hydrodynamics of pore space using analytical and numerical methods for solving the equations of motion and mass conservation of matter all models are based on. The adequacy of built models and man-maid processes that proceed inside the mine dumps is proved.

  8. Making ultracold molecules in a two color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 70}, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in t...

  9. Tracking of the nuclear wavepacket motion in cyanine photoisomerization by ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengrong; Nakamura, Takumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2011-06-01

    Understanding ultrafast reactions, which proceed on a time scale of nuclear motions, requires a quantitative characterization of the structural dynamics. To track such structural changes with time, we studied a nuclear wavepacket motion in photoisomerization of a prototype cyanine dye, 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine, by ultrafast pump-dump-probe measurements in solution. The temporal evolution of wavepacket motion was examined by monitoring the efficiency of stimulated emission dumping, which was obtained from the recovery of a ground-state bleaching signal. The dump efficiency versus pump-dump delay exhibited a finite rise time, and it became longer (97 fs → 330 fs → 390 fs) as the dump pulse was tuned to longer wavelengths (690 nm → 950 nm → 1200 nm). This result demonstrates a continuous migration of the leading edge of the wavepacket on the excited-state potential from the Franck-Condon region toward the potential minimum. A slowly decaying feature of the dump efficiency indicated a considerable broadening of the wavepacket over a wide range of the potential, which results in the spread of a population distribution on the flat S(1) potential energy surface. The rapid migration as well as broadening of the wavepacket manifests a continuous nature of the structural dynamics and provides an intuitive visualization of this ultrafast reaction. We also discussed experimental strategies to evaluate reliable dump efficiencies separately from other ultrafast processes and showed a high capability and possibility of the pump-dump-probe method for spectroscopic investigation of unexplored potential regions such as conical intersections. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, LEE

    2010-01-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emi...

  11. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  12. Melt electrospinning of poly(lactic acid) and polycaprolactone microfibers by using a hand-operated Wimshurst generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Chong; Duan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Le; Zhang, Li-Hua; Yu, Miao; Dong, Rui-Hua; Yan, Xu; He, Hong-Wei; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-10-01

    A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing.A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing

  13. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes.

  14. Alkaline-Acid Zn-H2 O Fuel Cell for the Simultaneous Generation of Hydrogen and Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pingwei; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxiang; Wen, Zhenhai

    2018-04-03

    An alkaline-acid Zn-H 2 O fuel cell is proposed for the simultaneous generation of electricity with an open circuit voltage of about 1.25 V and production of H 2 with almost 100 % Faradic efficiency. We demonstrate that, as a result of harvesting energy from both electrochemical neutralization and electrochemical Zn oxidation, the as-developed hybrid cell can deliver a power density of up to 80 mW cm -2 and an energy density of 934 Wh kg -1 and maintain long-term stability for H 2 production with an output voltage of 1.16 V at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Grapevine fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase generates actin-disrupting volatiles and promotes defence-related cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Claudel, Patricia; Riemann, Michael; Hause, Bettina; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Fatty acid hydroperoxides can generate short-chained volatile aldehydes that may participate in plant defence. A grapevine hydroperoxide lyase (VvHPL1) clustering to the CYP74B class was functionally characterized with respect to a role in defence. In grapevine leaves, transcripts of this gene accumulated rapidly to high abundance in response to wounding. Cellular functions of VvHPL1 were investigated upon heterologous expression in tobacco BY-2 cells. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of VvHPL1 was located in plastids. The overexpression lines were found to respond to salinity stress or the bacterial elicitor harpin by increasing cell death. This signal-dependent mortality response was mitigated either by addition of exogenous jasmonic acid or by treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases. By feeding different substrates to recombinantly expressed enzyme, VvHPL1 could also be functionally classified as true 13-HPL. The cognate products generated by this 13-HPL were cis-3-hexenal and trans-2-hexenal. Using a GFP-tagged actin marker line, one of these isomeric products, cis-3-hexenal, was found specifically to elicit a rapid disintegration of actin filaments. This response was not only observed in the heterologous system (tobacco BY-2), but also in a grapevine cell strain expressing this marker, as well as in leaf discs from an actin marker grape used as a homologous system. These results are discussed in the context of a role for VvHPL1 in a lipoxygenase-dependent signalling pathway triggering cell death-related defence that bifurcates from jasmonate-dependent basal immunity. PMID:29659985

  16. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with (1-/sup 14/C)18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized /sup 14/C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, /sup 14/C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined.

  17. Generation of novel metabolites of dietary linoleic acid (18:2n6) by guinea pig epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapkin, R.S.; Ziboh, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although the authors have demonstrated the inability of rat and guinea pig (GP) skin enzyme preparations to desaturate 18:2n6 into gammalinolenic acid (18:3n6) using an in vitro microsomal system, the fate of this dietary essential fatty acid in the GP epidermis is unknown. To explore the fate of 18:2n6, intact tissue slices from GP epidermis were incubated with [1- 14 C]18:2n6. After incubation, the extracted lipids were transesterified using methanolic-HCL. The fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed using a combination of (i) argentation TLC, scanned using a proportional TLC radioscanner, and (ii) reverse phase HPLC, equipped with a flow through radioscanner. The results indicate that the intact epidermis metabolized 14 C-18:2n6 to a group of novel products more polar than 18:2n6. In subsequent experiments, 14 C-18:2n6 was either incubated with the 800 xg supernatant, the 105,000 xg pellet or supernatant from GP epidermis. Metabolism of 18:2n6 by the high speed supernatant resulted in the generation of polar products with chromatographic properties of not greater than 2 double bonds. These results indicate that although the GP epidermis lacks the capacity to desaturate 18:2n6 to 18:3n6, it can convert dietary 18:2n6 into a group of novel polar metabolites via a cytosolic mediated process. The function of these metabolites in the GP integumentary system remains to be determined

  18. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  19. External post-operational checks for the LHC beam dumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, N.; Baggiolini, V.; Carlier, E.; Goddard, B.; Gorbonosov, R.; Khasbulatov, D.; Uythoven, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) is a critical part of the LHC machine protection system. After every LHC beam dump action the various signals and transient data recordings of the beam dumping control systems and beam instrumentation measurements are automatically analysed by the external Post-Operational Checks (XPOC) system to verify the correct execution of the dump action and the integrity of the related equipment. This software system complements the LHC machine protection hardware, and has to ascertain that the beam dumping system is 'as good as new' before the start of the next operational cycle. This is the only way by which the stringent reliability requirements can be met. The XPOC system has been developed within the framework of the LHC 'Post-Mortem' system, allowing highly dependable data acquisition, data archiving, live analysis of acquired data and replay of previously recorded events. It is composed of various analysis modules, each one dedicated to the analysis of measurements coming from specific equipment. This paper describes the global architecture of the XPOC system and gives examples of the analyses performed by some of the most important analysis modules. It explains the integration of the XPOC into the LHC control infrastructure along with its integration into the decision chain to allow proceeding with beam operation. Finally, it discusses the operational experience with the XPOC system acquired during the first years of LHC operation, and illustrates examples of internal system faults or abnormal beam dump executions which it has detected. (authors)

  20. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  1. Mucosal function of the perfused ileum in patients with and without diarrhoea and dumping after vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, B H; Frederiksen, H J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1983-01-01

    /l, in the intestinal lumen. In patients without symptoms or with dumping, water and sodium chloride were absorbed during the control perfusion. Addition of CDC reduced the absorption or evoked secretion. In patients with diarrhoea the control perfusion disclosed a large spontaneous ileal secretion...... that was not influenced by CDC. The secretion was mainly due to a reduced mucosa-to-serosa flux of sodium and chloride and, to a lesser extent, to an increased serosa-to-mucosa flux. The diarrhoea patients showed an increased xylose absorption rate, suggesting an increased interepithelial leakiness. No change in PD...... factors contributing to the sequelae. Net movements of water, electrolytes, and sugars, unidirectional fluxes of sodium and chloride, and the transmural electrical potential difference (PD) were measured simultaneously with and without the influence of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), 1.0 mmol...

  2. Mucosal function of the perfused ileum in patients with and without diarrhoea and dumping after vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, B H; Frederiksen, H J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1983-01-01

    factors contributing to the sequelae. Net movements of water, electrolytes, and sugars, unidirectional fluxes of sodium and chloride, and the transmural electrical potential difference (PD) were measured simultaneously with and without the influence of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), 1.0 mmol....../l, in the intestinal lumen. In patients without symptoms or with dumping, water and sodium chloride were absorbed during the control perfusion. Addition of CDC reduced the absorption or evoked secretion. In patients with diarrhoea the control perfusion disclosed a large spontaneous ileal secretion...... that was not influenced by CDC. The secretion was mainly due to a reduced mucosa-to-serosa flux of sodium and chloride and, to a lesser extent, to an increased serosa-to-mucosa flux. The diarrhoea patients showed an increased xylose absorption rate, suggesting an increased interepithelial leakiness. No change in PD...

  3. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Delmar S; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Vengris, Mikas; van Der Horst, Michael A; de Weerd, Frank L; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2004-09-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the "blue-light vision" of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, where the photocycle can be started and interrupted with appropriately tuned and timed laser pulses. This "incoherent" manipulation of the photocycle allows for the detailed spectroscopic investigation of the underlying photocycle dynamics and the construction of a fully self-consistent dynamical model. This model requires three kinetically distinct excited-state intermediates, two (ground-state) photocycle intermediates, I(0) and pR, and a ground-state intermediate through which the protein, after unsuccessful attempts at initiating the photocycle, returns to the equilibrium ground state. Also observed is a previously unknown two-photon ionization channel that generates a radical and an ejected electron into the protein environment. This second excitation pathway evolves simultaneously with the pathway containing the one-photon photocycle intermediates.

  4. Stochastic multicomponent reactive transport analysis of low quality drainage release from waste rock piles: Controls of the spatial distribution of acid generating and neutralizing minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Mayer, K Ulrich; Beckie, Roger D

    2017-06-01

    In mining environmental applications, it is important to assess water quality from waste rock piles (WRPs) and estimate the likelihood of acid rock drainage (ARD) over time. The mineralogical heterogeneity of WRPs is a source of uncertainty in this assessment, undermining the reliability of traditional bulk indicators used in the industry. We focused in this work on the bulk neutralizing potential ratio (NPR), which is defined as the ratio of the content of non-acid-generating minerals (typically reactive carbonates such as calcite) to the content of potentially acid-generating minerals (typically sulfides such as pyrite). We used a streamtube-based Monte-Carlo method to show why and to what extent bulk NPR can be a poor indicator of ARD occurrence. We simulated ensembles of WRPs identical in their geometry and bulk NPR, which only differed in their initial distribution of the acid generating and acid neutralizing minerals that control NPR. All models simulated the same principal acid-producing, acid-neutralizing and secondary mineral forming processes. We show that small differences in the distribution of local NPR values or the number of flow paths that generate acidity strongly influence drainage pH. The results indicate that the likelihood of ARD (epitomized by the probability of occurrence of pH<4 in a mixing boundary) within the first 100years can be as high as 75% for a NPR=2 and 40% for NPR=4. The latter is traditionally considered as a "universally safe" threshold to ensure non-acidic waters in practical applications. Our results suggest that new methods that explicitly account for mineralogical heterogeneity must be sought when computing effective (upscaled) NPR values at the scale of the piles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S; Lord, Graham M; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Noelle, Randolph J; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo . However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo . To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P 1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses.

  6. Retinoic Acid Signaling in B Cells Is Required for the Generation of an Effective T-Independent Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ellen; Ortiz, Carla; Pantazi, Eirini; Bailey, Charlotte S.; Lord, Graham M.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Noelle, Randolph J.; Elgueta, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the balance of inflammation and tolerance in T cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RA facilitates IgA isotype switching in B cells in vivo. However, it is unclear whether RA has a direct effect on T-independent B cell responses in vivo. To address this question, we generated a mouse model where RA signaling is specifically silenced in the B cell lineage. This was achieved through the overexpression of a dominant negative receptor α for RA (dnRARα) in the B cell lineage. In this model, we found a dramatic reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells and accumulation of transitional 2 B cells in the spleen. We also observed a reduction in B1 B cells in the peritoneum with a defect in the T-independent B cell response against 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl. This was not a result of inhibited development of B cells in the bone marrow, but likely the result of both defective expression of S1P1 in MZ B cells and a defect in the development of MZ and B1 B cells. This suggests that RARα expression in B cells is important for B cell frequency in the MZ and peritoneum, which is crucial for the generation of T-independent humoral responses. PMID:28066447

  7. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  8. Low energy and high energy dumps for ELI-NP accelerator facility: rational and Monte-Carlo calculationsș results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ELI-NP will be a new international research infrastructure facility for laser-based Nuclear Physics to be built in Magurele, south west of Bucharest, Romania. For the machine to operate as an intense γ rays’ source based on Compton back-scattering, electron beams are employed, undergoing a two stage acceleration to 320 MeV and 740 MeV (and, with an eventual energy upgrade, also to 840 MeV beam energies. In order to assess the radiation safety issues, concerning the effectiveness of the dumps in absorbing the primary electron beams, the generated prompt radiation field and the residual dose rates coming from the activation of constituent materials, as well as the shielding of the adjacent environments against both prompt and residual radiation fields, an extensive design study by means of Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA code was performed, for both low energy 320 MeV and high energy 720 MeV (840 MeV beam dumps. For the low energy dump we discuss also the rational of the choice to place it in the building basement, instead of installing it in one of the shielding wall at the machine level, as it was originally conceived. Ambient dose equivalent rate constraints, according to the Rumenian law in force in radiation protection matter were 0.1 /iSv/h everywhere outside the shielding walls and 1.4 μiSv/h outside the high energy dump area. The dumps’ placements and layouts are shown to be fully compliant with the dose constraints and environmental impact.

  9. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  10. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  11. Selective Hydrogen Generation from Formic Acid with Well-Defined Complexes of Ruthenium and Phosphorus-Nitrogen PN3-Pincer Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yupeng

    2016-04-22

    An unsymmetrically protonated PN3-pincer complex in which ruthenium is coordinated by one nitrogen and two phosphorus atoms was employed for the selective generation of hydrogen from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest that the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. Grabbing hold: A PN3-pincer complex was employed for the selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. Mechanistic studies suggest the imine arm participates in the formic acid activation/deprotonation step. A long life time of 150 h with a turnover number over 1 million was achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Determination of the positions of aluminum atoms introduced into SSZ-35 and the catalytic properties of the generated Brønsted acid sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Akinobu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Nishitoba, Toshiki; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by 27 Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), 29 Si MAS, and 1 H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature 1 H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in the Tailings of a Pb-Zn Mine Generating Acidic Drainage ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Nan; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Wan, Cai-Yun; Li, Jie; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to generation of acid mine drainage. PMID:21705549

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  15. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (mining dumps. The resistivities of the dumped material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated with borehole stratigraphic data from a mineralogical drilling campaign. This is important for a precise time-depth conversion of reflectors from GPR measurement. This reflectors were taken from radargram and have been adopted as resistivity boundary in the start model of the geoelectric inversion algorithm.

  16. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  17. Generation of reactive oxygen species by a novel berberine–bile acid analog mediates apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qingyong, E-mail: li_qingyong@126.com [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology (Northeast Forestry University), Ministry of Education (China); Zhang, Li; Zu, Yuangang; Liu, Tianyu; Zhang, Baoyou; He, Wuna [Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology (Northeast Forestry University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2013-04-19

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anticancer effects of B4, a novel berberine–bile acid analog, were tested. • B4 inhibited cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. • It also stimulated mitochondrial ROS production and membrane depolarization. • Effects of B4 were inhibited by a non-specific ROS scavenger. • Regulation of ROS generation may be a strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma. - Abstract: 2,3-Methenedioxy-9-O-(3′α,7′α-dihydroxy-5′β-cholan-24′-propy-lester) berberine (B4) is a novel berberine–bile acid analog synthesized in our laboratory. Previously, we showed that B4 exerted greater cytotoxicity than berberine in several human cancer cell lines. Therefore, we further evaluated the mechanism governing its anticancer actions in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. B4 inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells, and stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization; anti-oxidant capacity was reduced. B4 also induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and an increase in poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage products, reflective of caspase-3 activation. Moreover, B4 induced the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and a rise in DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited B4-mediated effects, including cytotoxicity, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane depolarization increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, cytochrome c release, PARP cleavage, and AIF translocation. Our data suggest that B4 induces ROS-triggered caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways in SMMC-7721 cells and that ROS production may be a specific potential strategy for treating hepatic carcinoma.

  18. Performance and microbial community dynamics of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor treating coal generated acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew S; Pugh, Charles W; Segid, Yosief T; Behum, Paul T; Lefticariu, Liliana; Bender, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    The effectiveness of a passive flow sulfate-reducing bioreactor processing acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from an abandoned coal mine in Southern Illinois was evaluated using geochemical and microbial community analysis 10 months post bioreactor construction. The results indicated that the treatment system was successful in both raising the pH of the AMD from 3.09 to 6.56 and in lowering the total iron level by 95.9%. While sulfate levels did decrease by 67.4%, the level post treatment (1153 mg/l) remained above recommended drinking water levels. Stimulation of biological sulfate reduction was indicated by a +2.60‰ increase in δ(34)S content of the remaining sulfate in the water post-treatment. Bacterial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA and dsrAB genes indicated that the pre-treated samples were dominated by bacteria related to iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, while the post-treated water directly from the reactor outflow was dominated by sequences related to sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria and complex carbon degrading Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylums. Analysis of the post-treated water, prior to environmental release, revealed that the community shifted back to predominantly iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria. DsrA analysis implied limited diversity in the sulfate-reducing population present in both the bioreactor outflow and oxidation pond samples. These results support the use of passive flow bioreactors to lower the acidity, metal, and sulfate levels present in the AMD at the Tab-Simco mine, but suggest modifications of the system are necessary to both stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria and inhibit sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  19. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 7 October 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Wallace, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensor experiment was conducted at a sewage sludge dump site off the Delaware/Maryland coast. Two aircraft serving as remote sensor platforms flew over the dump site during a sludge dump. One aircraft carried a multispectral scanner and the other aircraft carried a rapid scanning spectrometer. Data from sea-truth stations were collected concurrent with overpasses of the aircraft. All sensors were operational and produced good digital data.

  20. Assessment of the role of in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-valproic acid in the toxicity of valproic acid and (E)-2-ene-valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Chang, Thomas K.H.; Abbott, Frank S., E-mail: frank.abbott@ubc.ca

    2012-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation to form 4-ene-VPA, which subsequently yields (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by β-oxidation. Another biotransformation pathway involves β-oxidation of VPA to form (E)-2-ene-VPA, which also generates (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation. Although the synthetic form of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is more hepatotoxic than VPA as shown in various experimental models, there is no conclusive evidence to implicate the in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA in VPA hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of modulating the in situ formation of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA on markers of oxidative stress (formation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein; DCF), steatosis (accumulation of BODIPY 558/568 C{sub 12}), necrosis (release of lactate dehydrogenase; LDH), and on cellular total glutathione (GSH) levels in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes treated with VPA or (E)-2-ene-VPA. Treatment with either of these chemicals alone increased each of the toxicity endpoints. In VPA-treated hepatocytes, (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was detected only at trace levels, even after phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment and there was no effect on the toxicity of VPA. Furthermore, pretreatment with a cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), did not influence the extent of VPA toxicity in both PB-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated hepatocytes. However, in (E)-2-ene-VPA-treated hepatocytes, PB pretreatment greatly enhanced the levels of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and this was accompanied by a further enhancement of the effects of (E)-2-ene-VPA on DCF formation, BODIPY accumulation, LDH release, and GSH depletion. Pretreatment with 1-ABT reduced the concentrations of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and the extent of (E)-2-ene-VPA toxicity; however, this occurred in PB-pretreated hepatocytes, but not in control hepatocytes. In conclusion, in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is not responsible for the hepatocyte toxicity of VPA, whereas it

  1. Membrane Restructuring Events during the Enzymatic Generation of Ceramides with Very Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalva, Daniel A; Antollini, Silvia S; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Aveldaño, Marta I; Fanani, María L

    2018-04-10

    In rat sperm heads, sphingomyelin (SM) species that contain very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (V-SM) become ceramides (V-Cer) after inducing in vitro the acrosomal reaction. The reason for such a specific location of this conversion, catalyzed by a sphingomyelinase (SMase), has received little investigation so far. Here, the effects of SMase were compared in unilamellar vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs)) containing phosphatidylcholine, and either V-SM or a palmitate-rich SM (P-SM). In uniformly sized LUVs at 37 °C, more V-Cer was generated and more rapidly than P-Cer. Nephelometry and dynamic light scattering showed that LUVs tended to form large lipid particles more intensely, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) increases suggested that lateral lipid mixing was more marked when V-Cer rather than P-Cer was produced. As reported by 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminopnaphthalene (Laurdan) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5,-hexatriene (DPH), the production of V-Cer resulted in higher and faster restriction in lipid mobility than that of P-Cer, implying a stronger increase in membrane dehydration and microviscosity. Moreover, DPH anisotropy suggested a higher solubility of V-Cer than that of P-Cer in the liquid-disordered phase. At room temperature, liquid-condensed lateral domains appeared in P-SM- but not in V-SM-containing GUVs. The former maintained their size while losing their contents gradually during SMase action, whereas the latter became permeable earlier and reduced their size in few minutes until suddenly collapsing. The fast and potent generation of V-Cer may contribute to the membrane restructuring events that occur on the acrosome-reacted sperm head.

  2. Radionuclides and toxic elements transfer from the princess dump to water in Roodepoort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, S G; Mathuthu, M M; Tshivhase, V M

    2016-03-01

    High concentrations of radionuclides and toxic elements in gold mine tailings facilities present a health hazard to the environment and people living near that area. Soil and water samples from selected areas around the Princess Mine dump were collected. Soil sampling was done on the surface (15 cm) and also 100 cm below the surface. Water samples were taken from near the dump, mid-stream and the flowing part of the stream (drainage pipe) passing through Roodepoort from the mine dump. Soil samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a HPGe detector to determine the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) (​40)K from the activities of the daughter nuclides in the respective decay chains. The average activity concentrations for uranium and thorium in soil were calculated to be 129 ± 36.1 Bq/kg and 18.1 ± 4.01 Bq/kg, respectively. Water samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Transfer factors for uranium and thorium from soil to water (at point A closest to dump) were calculated to be 0.494 and 0.039, respectively. At point Z2, which is furthest from the dump, they were calculated to be 0.121 and 0.004, respectively. These transfer factors indicate that there is less translocation of the radionuclides as the water flows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing Dredge-and-Dump Activities for River Navigability Using a Hydro-Morphodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J. Paarlberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, significant dredging activities of riverbed sediment are employed to ensure that freight transportation on rivers can continue year-round. Imbalances of sediment budget may produce relevant impacts regarding river morphology and related environmental services. This study shows that hydro-morphodynamic modeling tools can be used to optimize dredge-and-dump activities and, at the same time, mitigate problems deriving from these activities in rivers. As a case study, we focused on dredging activities on the Lower Parana River, Argentina. Navigation on this river is of crucial importance to the economies of the bordering countries, hence, each year significant dredging activities are employed. To estimate dredging loads under different strategies, a 25 km river reach of the Parana River was modeled using the Delft3D-modelling suite by Deltares. The Netherlands, to simulate flow-sediment interactions in a quasi-steady and uncoupled approach. Impacts of dredging activities were explicitly included. Different dredge-and-dump strategies included variations in dredging over-depth (clearance and variations in dumping locations. Our results indicate that dredge-and-dump strategies can be targeted to stimulate natural processes that improve the depth and stability of the navigation channel and to counteract unwanted bed level responses in the long-medium term. A ~40% reduction in dredging effort could be achieved by moving the dredged material to distant locations in the secondary channel rather than dumping to the side of the waterway in the main channel.

  4. Conceptual design of Dump resistor for Superconducting CS of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swati; Raj, Piyush; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    Under upgradation activities for SST-1, the existing resistive central solenoid (CS) coil will be replaced with Nb3Sn based superconducting coil. Design of Central solenoid had been completed and some of the initiative has already taken for its manufacturing. The superconducting CS will store upto 3 MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14 kA. During quench, energy stored in the coils has to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5 s by inserting a 20 mΩ dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a critical part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20 mΩ dump resistor has been proposed. The required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented and discussed. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the form of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. Such an array of grids connected in series and parallel will cater to the electrical as well as thermal parameters. It will be cooled by natural convection. During operation, the estimated maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor will raise upto 600 K.

  5. Secondary succession of nematodes in power plant ash dumps reclaimed by covering with turf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowska, E.; Ilieva-Makulec, K. [Polish Academy of Science, Lomianki (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of successive changes in nematode assemblages in reclaimed waste area offers information about the sensitivity of species or groups of nematodes to specific conditions and ability to colonise new habitats. The study was carried in ash dumps being a by-product of the combustion of hard coal and reclaimed by covering with mineral turf (light loam warp soil) or organic turf (alder peat). In the first 3 years of reclamation diversity of nematodes was low, especially in, the dump covered with mineral turf - Shannon diversity index below 3. Later on the value of Shannon index increased and did not differ from those recorded for meadows in Poland. In the ash dump, reclaimed for a longer time period (8-11 years), the contribution of K strategist species was higher than in the dumps reclaimed for a shorter time period (2-5 years). At the earlier stages of succession bacterivores Acrobeloides, and two fungivores Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus, predominated. In the ash dump reclaimed longer the dominance of these three genera decreased and some plant feeders achieved high contribution ({gt} 30%). The composition of nematode communities depended. significantly on the period of reclamation, but did not depend either on the soil moisture and pH or on season.

  6. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  7. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  8. The possibility of distance methods application for snow dump sites monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasko Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of remote sensing of the Earth for monitoring of four snow dump sites in Tomsk are described. Their compliance with permitted type of the territory use was evaluated. Earlier unknown time of the operation start was identified. The spatial-temporal variability of areas was defined. The temperature profiles of snow dump and background sites were analyzed. Use of remote sensing data allowed easy identification of snow dump sites creation time. The fact that the sites are located out of zones of permitted type of the territory use was revealed, that is violation of the law. For the first time the cartographic material was collected and showed that in the recent years their areas increased in average in 18%. The fore-cast for the nearest years was made. The article contains satellite images indicting the degradation of soil-vegetative cover of snow dumps. The reasons are contamination and overcooling of the soil in the beginning of vegetation period. The research results became the initial material for perfection of snow dumps territories management and will be applied in the work of environmental protecting service. Approaches proposed by authors may be used in solving similar problems in any region.

  9. Studying microfungi-mineral interactions in sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps: a 7 years survey in the Libiola mine, North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescotti, P.; Cecchi, G.; Di Piazza, S.; Lucchetti, G.; Zotti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps represent complex geological systems characterised by high percentages of low-grade mineralisations and non-valuable sulphides (such as pyrite and pyrrhotite). The sulphide oxidation triggers acid mine drainage (AMD) processes and the release of several metals of environmental concern. The severe physicochemical properties of these metal-contaminated environments tend to inhibit soil forming processes and represent an important stress factor for the biotic communities by exerting a strong selective pressure. Some macro- and micro-fungi are pioneer and extremophile organisms, which may survive and tolerate high concentrations of toxic metals in contaminated environments. Many studies show the fungal capability to bioaccumulate, biosorb, and store in their cells a high concentration of ecotoxic metals. A 7 years multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Libiola sulphide mine. The results evidenced that the waste rock dumps of the area are characterized by an extremely poor flora and a specific mycobiota, due to the soil acidity, high concentration of trace metals, and unavailability or paucity of nutrients and organic matter. Our studies allowed the complete mineralogical, geochemical, and mycological characterization of one of the biggest dumps of the mine. 30 microfungal vital strains were isolated in pure cultures and studied with molecular and morphological approach, for their identification. The results allowed the isolation of some rare and important extremophilic species. Penicillium was the most recurrent genus, together with Trichoderma and Cladosporium. In particular, Penicillium glandicola is a rare species previously isolated from cave or arid environments, whereas P. brevicompactum is one of the most important fungi for metal corrosion. Hence, some bioaccumulation tests allowed to select a Trichoderma harzianum strain efficient to uptake Cu and Ag from pyrite-bearing soils, highlighting its central role in fungal

  10. Enzymatic in-situ generation of H2O2 for decolorization of Acid Blue 113 by fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Afzal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of Acid Blue 113 in an aqueous medium by bio-Fenton process has been investigated in this research. Enzymatic oxidation of glucose was performed to in-situ generation of H2O2 which was employed to react with Fe2+ for producing hydroxyl radicals. The effect of various parameters include concentrations of 113, glucose, and FeSO4, activity of glucose oxidase (GOx and the effect of pH were assessed. The highest decolorization of AB 113 were achieved at Fe2+ concentration of 0.2 mmol/L, pH =4.0, glucose concentration of 0.018 mol/L, and glucose oxidase activity of 2500 U/L in the constant temperature (23 ±0.1ºC and constant shaking rate (160 r/min, while the concentration of 113 was 40 mg/L. In these conditions, 113 decolorization efficiency after 60 min was obtained about 95%.

  11. Next-generation sequencing approaches for improvement of lactic acid bacteria-fermented plant-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based beverages and milk alternatives produced from cereals and legumes have grown in popularity in recent years due to a range of consumer concerns over dairy products. These plant-based products can often have undesirable physiochemical properties related to flavour, texture, and nutrient availability and/or deficiencies. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB fermentation offers potential remediation for many of these issues, and allows consumers to retain their perception of the resultant products as natural and additive-free. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS or omics approaches to characterize LAB isolates to find those that will improve properties of plant-based beverages is the most direct way to product improvement. Although NGS/omics approaches have been extensively used for selection of LAB for use in the dairy industry, a comparable effort has not occurred for selecting LAB for fermenting plant raw substrates, save those used in producing wine and certain types of beer. Here we review the few and recent applications of NGS/omics to profile and improve LAB fermentation of various plant-based substrates for beverage production. We also identify specific issues in the production of various LAB fermented plant-based beverages that such NGS/omics applications have the power to resolve.

  12. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  13. Epidemiology of transmissible diseases: Array hybridization and next generation sequencing as universal nucleic acid-mediated typing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dunne, W; Pouseele, Hannes; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; van Belkum, Alex

    2017-09-21

    The magnitude of interest in the epidemiology of transmissible human diseases is reflected in the vast number of tools and methods developed recently with the expressed purpose to characterize and track evolutionary changes that occur in agents of these diseases over time. Within the past decade a new suite of such tools has become available with the emergence of the so-called "omics" technologies. Among these, two are exponents of the ongoing genomic revolution. Firstly, high-density nucleic acid probe arrays have been proposed and developed using various chemical and physical approaches. Via hybridization-mediated detection of entire genes or genetic polymorphisms in such genes and intergenic regions these so called "DNA chips" have been successfully applied for distinguishing very closely related microbial species and strains. Second and even more phenomenal, next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated the assessment of the complete nucleotide sequence of entire microbial genomes. This technology currently provides the most detailed level of bacterial genotyping and hence allows for the resolution of microbial spread and short-term evolution in minute detail. We will here review the very recent history of these two technologies, sketch their usefulness in the elucidation of the spread and epidemiology of mostly hospital-acquired infections and discuss future developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential of various lithologies using static tests: Etili coal mine (NW Turkey) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2016-08-01

    The Etili neighborhood in Can County (northwestern Turkey) has large reserves of coal and has been the site of many small- to medium-scale mining operations since the 1980s. Some of these have ceased working while others continue to operate. Once activities cease, the mining facilities and fields are usually abandoned without rehabilitation. The most significant environmental problem is acid mine drainage (AMD). This study was carried out to determine the acid generation potential of various lithological units in the Etili coal mine using static test methods. Seventeen samples were selected from areas with high acidic water concentrations: from different alteration zones belonging to volcanic rocks, from sedimentary rocks, and from coals and mine wastes. Static tests (paste pH, standard acid-base accounting, and net acid generation tests) were performed on these samples. The consistency of the static test results showed that oxidation of sulfide minerals, especially pyrite-which is widely found not only in the alteration zones of volcanic rocks but also in the coals and mine wastes-is the main factor controlling the generation of AMD in this mine. Lack of carbonate minerals in the region also increases the occurrence of AMD.

  15. Uric acid induces hepatic steatosis by generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress: potential role in fructose-dependent and -independent fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G; Choi, Yea-Jin; Cicerchi, Christina; Kanbay, Mehmet; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Marek, George; Duranay, Murat; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kang, Duk-Hee; Sautin, Yuri Y; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-11-23

    Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver Hyperuricemic people are more prone to develop fructose-induced fatty liver. Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states.

  16. Volumetric Titrations Using Electrolytically Generated Reagents for the Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Iron in Dietary Supplement Tablets: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Christopher; Gebeyehu, Zewdu; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment for the volumetric quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid and iron in dietary supplement tablets is presented. Powdered samples of the dietary supplement tablets were volumetrically titrated against electrolytically generated reagents, and the mass of dietary reagent in the tablet was determined from the…

  17. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Ding; Bo Du; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu; Dehua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12...

  18. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  19. STRESS LOADING SIMULATION OF HYDRO-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF DUMP TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sidorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission model and software package to investigate stress loading of a hydromechanical transmission of a dump truck have been developed. The given software package allows to model stress loading of transmission gears in taking-off and acceleration modes at various road resistance, positions of an engine control pedal and initial revolutions of an engine crankshaft, various laws of friction clutch switching and some other parameters that permit to reveal a rate of various operational mode influence on stress loading of a dump truck transmission. An equivalence of the developed software is proved by the comparison of the experimentally obtained stress loading process of the hydro-mechanical transmission of a BelAZ- 7555 dump truck with the results of the simulation 

  20. R dump converter without DC link capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  1. Furfurol-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Cowgill, M.G.; Alexandrov, V.P.; Dyer, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding ∼ 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker 'Lenin' was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfurol (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. The properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states are discussed, and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea is evaluated. (author)

  2. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  3. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  4. ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION PROCESS OF THE GROUDWATER COTAMINATION IN AN ILLEGAL DUMPING SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norikazu; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    Among on-site remediation technologies applied to illegal dumping sites, a technology to remedy contaminated groundwater without removal of the dumped waste is expected to provide a great opportunity to fulfill a societal need due to its economic advantage compared to removal of all waste. However heterogeneously-distributed waste makes the remedial process difficult. In this study, an in situflushing technology was applied to an illegal dumping site in Kuwana city, Mie, in order to remedy groundwater contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within five years. The key to successfully achieve the target was to conduct a series of advanced remediation processes; introducing a new indicator by which multiple VOCs can be estimated integratelly, monitoring the progress of remediation with a contour map of VOC concentration as well as the weighted averages of the concentration derived from the indicator, pinpointing residual contaminants area, reexamining the plan, and taking additional steps that promote further remediation.

  5. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm -1 . The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient

  6. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.

    1985-10-01

    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  7. Furfurol-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H.; Cowgill, M.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Sivintsev, Yu.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, V.P. [Research and Design Inst. for Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Dyer, R.S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding {approx} 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker `Lenin` was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfurol (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. The properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states are discussed, and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea is evaluated. (author) 4 refs.

  8. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  9. Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G

    1996-01-01

    The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.

  10. The network of dump design. A report on experience; Das Netzwerk der Haldenkunst. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Josef [Buero Hermanns Architekten - Ingenieure - Landschaftsarchitekten, Hattingen (Germany)

    2009-10-22

    On the basis of long experience in the planning of the most diverse mining projects consideration was already given at the end of the last century in the Hermanns architects' office to the planning of dirt heaps from specific points of view differently from the conventional way. The office was concerned in particular with the potential for subsequent use of dumps under the premises specified by the mining companies. Hence the idea of considering dumps from architectural and artistic points of view arose at the end of 2006, because in association with the region chosen in 2006 to be European city of culture in 2010 - Essen for the Ruhr district - an opportunity arose to place the subject of dumps in an artistic and cultural context with the result that the hypothesis of implementation of new ideas in a regional context would be more easily formulated. (orig.)

  11. Cellular reactions to three-dimensional matrices of polylactic acid and hydroxyapatite generated by 3D-printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Druzhinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate Ex vivo physicochemical and biological features of three-dimensional (3D biodegradable matrices “polylactic acid/calcium phosphates” (hereafter 3D composites designed with the help of additive technologies (3D printing as potential materials for bone tissue regeneration.Materials and methods. Experimental samples (disks 1,2–1,6 mm thick, and 11 mm or 8 mm in diameter of composite biodegradable 3D matrices (hereafter 3D composites have been produced from initial mixture of 95 mas% polylactic acid (PLA and 5 mas% hydroxyapatite (HAP. Computer-aided design method, Blender software and fused filament fabrication (FFF; fiber diameter 1,75 mm with 3D printing were used in sample production. 100 mas% PLA disks served as control. One of the sample surfaces was textured with 0,3–0,5 mm wide grooves. Physicochemical properties of 11 mm disks (geometry, mass, morphology, roughness, electrostatic voltage, surface wettability, and element composition were studied. Biological trials included the evaluation of 24-hour cytotoxicity of 8 mm samples in culture of mononuclear leukocytes of a healthy volunteer or human Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line (hereafter Jurkat T cells. Moreover, osteogenic potential of 11 mm disks was determined in 21-day culture of human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (AMMSCs be means of osteocalcin secretion and intercellular matrix mineralization visualized by alizarin red S staining.Results. The features of PLA-HAP 3D composites generated by 3D printing correspond to physicochemical parameters which are crucial for bone tissue recovery. In case of small amount of calcium and phosphorus they facilitated ex vivo mineralization of extracellular matrix formed in AMMSCs culture. The number of died (by necrosis, mainly leukemic Jurkat T cells but not mononuclear leukocytes of a health volunteer increased to 9–10% in 24-hour in vitro contact with PLA-HAP 3D

  12. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-03-29

    Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation

  13. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact. Conclusion of draft assessment of NSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10/sup 5/ Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10/sup 7/ cm/sup 2//sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10/sup 2/ cm/sup 2//sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP.

  14. Specifics of stands formation at coalmine dumps in forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Murzakmаtov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.

  15. Generation of pulsed light in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sandra; Andersen, Martin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of 215 kHz. Both lasers were pumped with 808 nm laser diodes delivering 4 W of output power. The circulating power of the 1342 nm laser was 57 W and the peak power of the 1064 nm laser reaching the PPKTP crystal was 17 W. A peak power of approximately 4 W at 593 nm was measured. Accounting...

  16. Conceptual design of a calorimeter and residual ion dump for the ITER negative ion injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual design for the ITER Negative Ion Injectors' Calorimeter and Residual Ion Dump systems has been carried out. The work was undertaken in support of detailed studies performed by the Russian Federation. Concepts for both systems incorporate actively water cooled hypervapotrons as the primary beam stopping elements. The Calorimeter drive has been based on the utilisation of a novel force translation system via magnetic coupling. The Residual Ion Dump necessitates the use of double sided hypervapotron elements in order to cater for the restricted space envelope defined by the Accelerator Grid hole pattern. (author)

  17. Restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K.; Tewary, B.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-03-01

    For the restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump, five tree species viz Delgergia sisoo, Azadirachta indica, Albizia procera, Delonix regia and Acacia nilotica were seeded to evaluate their germination and growth performance. Dalbergia sisoo was found to be the best early successional leguminous plant species showing maximum increase in shoot length and diameter on the mine dump. Therefore, it is recommended that the findings of this study be implemented on mass scale in the dry tropics of India. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Study of Energy Deposition and Activation for the LINAC4 Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Mauro, E; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This document provides estimates of energy deposition and activation for the dump of the future LINAC4 accelerator. Detailed maps of power density deposited in the dump are given, allowing to perform further thermo mechanical studies. Residual dose rates at a few cooling times for different irradiation scenarios have been calculated. Moreover, the air activation has been evaluated and doses to the reference population group and to a worker intervening in the cave at the shutdown have been predicted. Calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport and interaction code FLUKA.

  19. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively

  20. The recovery of gold and pyrite from a residue dump at Crown Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keleghan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of ore-dressing methods to a residue dump at Crown Mines has been examined. The use of either single-stage or double-stage gravity concentration is advocated for the recovery of the gold. Flotation and wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) are not recommended. The two-stage gravity process facilitates the recovery of most of the pyrite in the residue (over 70 per cent) at commercial grade (40 per cent sulphur), but sacrifices some of the gold obtainable by a single-stage operation. There is little prospect of the commercial recovery of uranium from the dump at Crown Mines

  1. Mobilization and transport of pollutants in an abandoned dump in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinson, Natalia; Shinzato, Marjolly; Wendland, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The valuation and treatment techniques of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries are not sufficiently developed, and therefore, the volume of waste destined for disposal still presents significant amounts. In Brazil, the more common practice of final destination is the deposition on the soil, due to its simple operation and low cost compared to other techniques. One of the most serious negative environmental impacts in the irregular disposal of solid waste is the contamination of soil and groundwater by waste leachates. The final disposal in dumps is forbidden by Brazilian law since 2010, nevertheless, the public administration is not prepared to monitor waste disposal areas and the risk of contamination of water. In this sense, a research has been developed in an abandoned dump installed over an outcrop of the Botucatu Formation, which is part of the Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore, is an area of high water vulnerability. In this dump, an old gully was used as a final waste disposal area for urban, construction and demolition, medical and industrial waste from 1980 to 1996. Since the end of the deposition, the waste body is kept with inefficient hydraulic control. The water infiltration due to rainfall promotes the mobility of contaminant in the deposit. The present water quality in the dump has been monitored through physical and chemical analysis of samples collected in the unsaturated zone (inside the waste mass using vacuum lysimeters) and in the saturated zone (monitoring wells). The rainfall variation observed in the years 2014 (dry year) and 2015 (wet year) contributed significantly to evaluate the mobilization of pollutants within the dump. The reduction of the water volume that infiltrates the waste mass affected the quality of the leachate collected in the lysimeters. The groundwater collected in monitoring wells outside the dump area presents low turbidity values (1000 µS.cma-1 in leachate) and chlorides values (>800 mg.L-1

  2. Nuclear waste dumping in the oceans: Has the Cold War taught us anything?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-O'Grady, K.

    1995-01-01

    The United States and other international actors have relied without much success on traditional approaches to contain environmental damage done to our oceans by Russian dumping of nuclear waste. Our arms control experience suggests that on-site inspection is successful in situations where there is a lack of information or a lack of trust. Using on-site inspection to gather information and bolster trust could ameliorate the problem of Russian dumping of radioactive wastes into the ocean, so long as the political and financial costs of on-site inspection do not prove to be prohibitively high

  3. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively [es

  4. Calibration Measurements of the LHC Beam Dumping System Extraction Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Gräwer, G; Olivieri, F; Pereira, L; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2006-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must protect the LHC machine from damage by reliably and safely extracting and absorbing the circulating beams when requested. Two sets of 15 extraction kicker magnets form the main active part of this system. They have been produced, tested and calibrated by measuring the integrated magnetic field and the magnet current at different beam energies. The calibration data have been analysed, and the critical parameters are compared with the specifications. Implications for the configuration, control and operation of the beam dumping system are discussed.

  5. Anti-Dumping with Heterogeneous Firms: New Protectionism for the New-New Trade Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    This paper analyzes anti­-dumping (AD) policies in a two-country model with heterogeneous firms in monopolistic competition. Effective AD legislation in one country imposes a no-dumping condition on firms exporting from the other country, altering their pricing both domestically and abroad. Some...... firms with intermediate productivities cease export activity, and entry shifts towards the AD protected country, which has now become relatively more attractive. Protecting firms with AD therefore increases the number of firms entering and eventually increases competition, and the consumers enjoy...

  6. Fluka and thermo-mechanical studies for the CLIC main dump

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, Alessio; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    In order to best cope with the challenge of absorbing the multi-MW beam, a water beam dump at the end of the CLIC post-collision line has been proposed. The design of the dump for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) was checked against with a set of FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, for the estimation of the peak and total power absorbed by the water and the vessel. Fluence spectra of escaping particles and activation rates of radio-nuclides were computed as well. Finally, the thermal transient behavior of the water bath and a thermo-mechanical analysis of the preliminary design of the window were done.

  7. Recuperation of ISR Dipole Magnet Yokes for Use as Shielding for the LHC Beam Dumps TDE

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M

    1999-01-01

    The quantity of iron shielding required for two LHC dumps was estimated at about 1500 tons. Possible sources of slightly irradiated iron shielding were considered, in particular, the ISR dipole yokes, which were stocked in the I2. Of rectangular form and weighing 22 tons each, they were well suited to the LHC dump geometry. Furthermore, they were to all intents and purposes non-radioactive. The preferred solution was to cut off four lifting pads and three support plates using arc/air equipment, seal temporarily each end with shutters, fit two lifting "anchor" pins, and fill with concrete.

  8. Data on coal dumps retrieving in petroşani basin using sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents data on the sea buckthorn (Hippöphae rhamnoides, with focus on its value on coal dumps retrieving in the Petroşani Basin. Due to its peculiar roots exposing a lot of nodules, this plant has an important role in fixing the atmospheric azoth and soil genesis. It is very adaptable to any kind of soil and has wide climatic exigencies, but is depending on light intensity. It has a large dissemination capacity, due to its light and numerous seeds. Besides its utilization on dump retrieving, sea buckthorn is used in medicine and pharmacy, as well as in organic fuel production.

  9. Bekæmpelse af social dumping er også en kommunal opgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Kommunal indsats mod social dumping er en væsentlig del af den samlede indsats, og en evaluering af Københavns Kommunes indsats har givet indsigt i nogle af betingelserne for at få effektiviseret en sådan. Dette er også fulgt op politisk.......Kommunal indsats mod social dumping er en væsentlig del af den samlede indsats, og en evaluering af Københavns Kommunes indsats har givet indsigt i nogle af betingelserne for at få effektiviseret en sådan. Dette er også fulgt op politisk....

  10. A New Family of Capsule Polymerases Generates Teichoic Acid-Like Capsule Polymers in Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschko, Christa; Oldrini, Davide; Budde, Insa; Berger, Monika; Meens, Jochen; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Berti, Francesco; Schubert, Mario; Fiebig, Timm

    2018-05-29

    Group 2 capsule polymers represent crucial virulence factors of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. They are synthesized by enzymes called capsule polymerases. In this report, we describe a new family of polymerases that combine glycosyltransferase and hexose- and polyol-phosphate transferase activity to generate complex poly(oligosaccharide phosphate) and poly(glycosylpolyol phosphate) polymers, the latter of which display similarity to wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. Using modeling and multiple-sequence alignment, we showed homology between the predicted polymerase domains and WTA type I biosynthesis enzymes, creating a link between Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell wall biosynthesis processes. The polymerases of the new family are highly abundant and found in a variety of capsule-expressing pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Escherichia coli with both human and animal hosts. Five representative candidates were purified, their activities were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and their predicted folds were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE Bacterial capsules play an important role in the interaction between a pathogen and the immune system of its host. During the last decade, capsule polymerases have become attractive tools for the production of capsule polymers applied as antigens in glycoconjugate vaccine formulations. Conventional production of glycoconjugate vaccines requires the cultivation of the pathogen and thus the highest biosafety standards, leading to tremendous costs. With regard to animal husbandry, where vaccines could avoid the extensive use of antibiotics, conventional production is not sufficiently cost-effective. In contrast, enzymatic synthesis of capsule polymers is pathogen-free and fast, offers high stereo- and regioselectivity, and works with high efficacy

  11. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  12. Systematically controlled pore system of ordered mesoporous carbons using phosphoric acid as the in situ generated catalysts for carbonization and activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xing; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Jin Hoe; You, Dae Jong; Shon, Jeong Kuk; Kim, Ji Man [Dept. of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Chan Ho [Fuel Cell Group, Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We report on a facile synthesis of the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) materials with systematically controlled microporosity and mesoporosity simultaneously through the nano-replication route using phosphoric acid as the acid catalyst and activation agent. The use of phosphoric acid affects the pore structures of OMC materials, such as the formation of numerous micropores by activation of the carbon framework and the enlargement of mesopores by spontaneous phase separation during the carbonization. The mesopore sizes, surface areas, total pore volumes, and micropore volumes of the OMC materials are highly dependent on the phosphoric acid content and can be systematically controlled in the range 3.7–7.5 nm, 1027–2782 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1.12–3.53 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and 0.34–0.95 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. OMC materials with systematically controlled pore structures were successfully synthesized using phosphoric acid as the carbonization catalyst and mesoporous silica materials with cubic Ia3d and 2-D hexagonal mesostructures as the templates. The phosphoric acid in the synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon materials acts as the chemical activating agent for micropore generation of the carbon framework and pore-expanding agent for controlling of mesopore size, in addition to functioning as the acid catalyst. The present synthesis pathway is very useful for preparing OMC materials with tunable mesopore sizes and well-developed microporosities at the same time.

  13. Redox potential monitoring as a method to control unwanted noble metal-catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid treatment of simulated nuclear waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed containing the major nonradioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO 3 2- , NO 3 - , and NO 2 - were used to study redox potential changes in reactions of formic acid at 90 C catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Such reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO 2 , H 2 , NO, and N 2 O in the gas phase and a redox electrode to follow redox potential changes as a function of time. In the initial phase of formic acid addition to nitrite-containing feed simulants, the redox potential of the reaction mixture rises typically to +400 mV relative to the Al/AgCl electrode because of the generation of the moderately strongly oxidizing nitrous acid. No H 2 production occurs at this stage of the reaction as long as free nitrous acid is present. After all of the nitrous acid has been destroyed by reduction to N 2 O and NO and disproportionation to NO/NO 3 - , the redox potential of the reaction mixture becomes more negative than the Ag/AgCl electrode. The experiments outlined in this paper suggest the feasibility of controlling the production of H 2 by limiting the amount of formic acid used and monitoring the redox potential during formic acid treatment

  14. Humic acid effect on catalase activity and the generation of reactive oxygen species in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Flávio Couto; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza, Sonia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) have positive effects on plant physiology, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. The induction of root growth and emission of lateral roots (LRs) promoted by exogenous auxin is a natural phenomenon. Exogenous auxins are also associated with HA. Gas nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger produced endogenously in plants. It is associated with metabolic events dependent on auxin. With the application of auxin, NO production is significantly increased, resulting in positive effects on plant physiology. Thus it is possible to evaluate the beneficial effects of the application of HA as an effect of auxin. To investigate the effects of HA the parameters of root growth, Zea mays was studied by evaluating the application of 3 mM C L⁻¹ of HA extracted from Oxisol and 100 µM SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and the NO donor, subject to two N-NO₃⁻, high dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻) and low dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻). Treatments with HA and NO were positively increased, regardless of the N-NO₃⁻ taken, as assessed by fresh weight and dry root, issue of LRs. The effects were more pronounced in the treatment with a lower dose of N-NO₃⁻. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo and catalase activity were evaluated; these tests were associated with root growth. Under application of the bioactive substances tested, detection of ROS and catalase activity increased, especially in treatments with lower doses of N-NO₃⁻. The results of this experiment indicate that the effects of HA are dependent on ROS generation, which act as a messenger that induces root growth and the emission of LRs.

  15. Using geographical information systems (GIS to examine sanitary implications of rubbish dump locations at human activity centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenos Koku Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate health risks that refuse dump locations have on people. The global positioning systems (GPS were used to take location coordinates of 28 rubbish dump centers and human activity centers (clinics, restaurants, markets etc spread across a university campus in Ghana. The ArcGIS software was used to plot the coordinates and draw a buffer of 50 meters around the rubbish dump locations (RDL to show the closeness between the dump sites and the human activity centers (HAC, and the sanitary implications of the closeness. More than 90% of the HACs fell within the 50 meters buffer zone of the rubbish dump sites. The findings indicated that some sensitive HACs like food joints, laundries etc. were less than 15 meters from rubbish dump sites. The findings confirmed that the location of rubbish dump sites pose serious threat to the health of the human community in the university. The findings of this study can be used to make evidence- based decisions about possible relocation of rubbish dump containers in the university. This study is also an initiative to set the tone for more detailed research work on the health implications of rubbish disposal management on Ghanaians.

  16. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENTOF DUMPING SYNDROME AND ITS RELATION TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Yasmin da Silva; Destefani, Afrânio Côgo

    The dumping syndrome is frequent in bariatric surgery. It is probably the most common syndrome following partial or complete gastrectomy. Its prevalence in partial gastrectomy can reach up to 50%, thus it can be a significant complication arising from some types of bariatric surgeries. Critical analysis on dumping syndrome, its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. A literature review was performed using the key words: 'dumping syndrome', 'bariatric surgery' and 'rapid dumping syndrome'. Inclusion criteria were: books, original works, case reports and meta-analyzes, and the exclusion criterion was literature review. Concerning the publication time, articles were screened between 1960 and May 2015. The dumping syndrome is complication arising from obesity surgeries, but also can be a result of vagus nerve damage. Diagnosis is done primarily through the use of questionnaires based on scores. The Sigstad score and Arts survey are valid means for assessing the dumping syndrome. Initial therapy consists in the adoption of dietary measures, short acting drugs administration. A síndrome de dumping é frequente após operações bariátricas. É, provavelmente, a mais comum das síndromes que sucedem gastrectomias parciais ou completas. Sua prevalência, em gastrectomias parciais pode chegar a até 50%, tornando-se assim complicação significante em alguns tipos de operações bariátricas. Realizar análise crítica sobre a síndrome de dumping em sua fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica utilizando os descritores: 'síndrome de dumping', 'cirurgia bariátrica' e 'síndrome do esvaziamento rápido'. Os critérios de inclusão foram: livros, trabalhos originais, relatos de caso e metanálises; excluíram-se as revisões bibliográficas. Quanto ao tempo de publicação, foram selecionados artigos entre 1960 e maio de 2015. A síndrome de dumping é complicação gastrointestinal oriunda de operações para obesidade, mas tamb

  17. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel D. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules.

  18. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Michel D.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules. (author)

  19. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized di-caffeoylquinic acids generated by metalloporphyrin-catalyzed reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Michel D.; Lopes, Norberto P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: npelopes@fcfrp.usp.br; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS investigation on the oxidation of 3,5- and 4,5- dicaffeoylquinic acid using iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride as catalyst. Two major mono-oxidised products of the quinic acid moiety have been identified for both compounds. However, only the 4,5-derivative afforded two different tri-oxo products. Thus, it seems that the oxidation pattern depends on the number and positions of the caffeic acid moieties present in caffeoylquinic acid molecules. (author)

  20. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.