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Sample records for dump thohoyandou limpopo

  1. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  2. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  3. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  4. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  5. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  6. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  7. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  8. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  9. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  10. University of Limpopo student nurses' clinical learning experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Limpopo student nurses' clinical learning experiences in a public hospital at ... was applied to explore and describe the experiences of student nurses' clinical learning ... The ethical principles relevant to the study were observed.

  11. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  12. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  13. Dumping at Sea Act 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Act enables the United Kingdom Government to ratify both the Oslo Convention of 1972 for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft and the London Convention of 1972 on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. (NEA) [fr

  14. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  15. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day

  16. The status of isotopic investigations of the Limpopo mobile belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Limpopo Belt is a zone of multiple deformed metamorphic rocks situated between the Rhodesian and Kaapvaal Cratons of Southern Africa. During the duration of the International Geodynamics Project, geochronologic and isotopic investigations were undertaken in the nothern Transvaal of rocks of the Central Zone, Southern Marginal Zone and Soutpansberg Supergroup. Strontium 86, strontium 87 and lead isotopes were used in the isotopic investigations

  17. Verification of the existence of food security projects in Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequency tables and charts were computed on a computer spreadsheet. The findings of this Study revealed that there are 347 food security projects in Limpopo Province with 338 declared functional. This Study will provide policy makers with policy directives on how a database of food security projects can be kept so that ...

  18. Elephants of democracy : an unfolding process of resettlement in the Limpopo National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgroom, J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper will focus on the process of displacement taking place in the context of the creation of the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. This park is part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also includes the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Gonarezhou National Park

  19. Beam-dump kicker magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Odian, A.; Tomlin, B.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-dump kicker magnets are located in the final focus region and, in conjunction with septum magnets, extract the beams after they have passed the interaction point (IP) and direct them to their respective dumps. Two schemes for these kickers have been under consideration; ferrite transmission line magnets utilizing technology common with damping rings and positron target kickers, and current loop magnets which are possible only for the dump kickers, where the rise time of the magnetic pulse can be comparatively longer; approximately 400 nanoseconds as compared with 50 nanoseconds for the others. A prototype ferrite kicker has been built and is undergoing tests. Since the current loop requires lower voltage and power plus some additional savings in cost, we decided to build and test a prototype. This note describes in detail an optimized design for the current loop magnets and their associated pulse circuitry

  20. Sea dumping of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1980-01-01

    From 1967 until 1976 ca. 45,000 t of weak radioactive wastes had been dumped into the sea during several actions under the supervision of the NEA. The requirements to be deduced from the experiences with regard to marine areas, packaging and transports of the wastes are described. Up to now the possibilities of the sea dumping of strong radioactive wastes has been just discussed. The natural removal of the decay heat by sea water would be advantageous but the problem of water-proof packagings for the period of 1000 years have not been solved yet. (orig.) [de

  1. Down in the dumps - cheerfully

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhmer, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Scavenging gold and uranium from the sands dumps and slimes dams is a highly profitable operation. In a few pages the author summarises some of the permutations and combinations of the various processes employed by South African concerns to achieve economic results

  2. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  3. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably...

  4. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  5. Powershift transmission for dump trucks; Neues Lastschaltgetriebe fuer Dump Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, Wolfgang; Geis, Joerg; Riedhammer, Michael [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Articulated dumpers (also called dump trucks) are used in many locations where large quantities of earth, spoil, gravel or other materials have to be moved on construction sites or in quarries. ZF has developed a new transmission with eight forward and four reverse gears up to production standard specifically for use in these vehicles. The integrated primary retarder is continuously controllable and provides maximum braking torque of up to 1800 Nm. (orig.)

  6. Conceptual Design of the RHIC Dump Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Conceptually, the internal dump consists of a "core" whose purpose is to absorb the energy of the beam, and surrounding shielding whose purpose is to attenuate radiation. Design of the core for an internal dump has two problems which must be overcome. The first problem is preserving the integrity of the dump core. The bunches must be dispersed laterally an amount sufficient to keep the energy density from cracking the dump core material. Since the dump kickers in RHIC are only ~25m upstream of the entrance face of the dump, this is i a difficult problem. The second problem, not addressed in this note, is that dumping the beam should not quench downstream magnets. Preliminary calculations related to both of these problems have been presented in earlier notes.

  7. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the Northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, RA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Colophospermum mopane wood was quantified from six villages in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. One hundred and eighty individuals were interviewed from the selected villages. Three villages were located...

  8. Implementing Integrated Catchment Management in the upper Limpopo River basin: A situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available mechanisms for implementing water stewardship schemes to mitigate the shared water risks. Analysis of the social-ecological system (hydrological, climatic, ecological, socio-economic and governance systems) of the Limpopo River basin indicates...

  9. Plant communities and landscapes of the Parque Nacional do Limpopo, Moçambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stalmans

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Parque Nacional do Limpopo (PNL was proclaimed during 2002. It covers 1 000 000 ha in Moçambique on the eastern boundary of the Kruger National Park (KNP and forms one of the major components of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. A vegetation map was required as one of the essential building blocks for the drafting of its management plan (Grossman & Holden 2002.

  10. Old dumps of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    The production of natural uranium through mining and milling results in large volumes of low-level radioactive waste, mainly in mine dumps and mill tailings. Hazards which relate to abandoned uranium production sites and environmental remediation approaches are described in reference to the Wismut case. During the period 1947 to 1990 the former Soviet-German Wismut Corporation produced about 200 000 t of uranium from several deposits in Thuringia and Saxonia within a relatively small and densely populated area. These activities resulted in major land disturbance and other environmental damage. Restoration problems are highlighted. (orig.)

  11. An update on synthetic dyes adsorption onto clay based minerals: A state-of-art review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngulube, T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available of Environmental Management An update on synthetic dyes adsorption onto clay based minerals: A state- of-art review Tholiso Ngulube a,*, Jabulani Ray Gumbo b, Vhahangwele Masindi c,d, Arjun Maity e a Department of Ecology and Resources Management..., University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, Limpopo, South Africa b Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, Limpopo, South Africa c Council...

  12. The battle of the dumps continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Although East Rand Gold and Uranium Company is about to start exploitation of the old slimes dams to produce gold, uranium and sulphuric acid, the battle to suppress dust and establish vegetation on the old dumps continues. The physical problems, planning, co-ordination and legal aspects of mine dump reclamation are outlined

  13. Dilution kicker for the SPS beam dump

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    In order to reduce thermal stress on the SPS dump material, the fast-ejected beam was swept horizontally across the dump. This was done with the "dilution kicker" MKDH, still in use at the time of writing. The person on the left is Manfred Mayer. See also 7404072X.

  14. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  15. HDF-EOS Dump Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, U.; Rahabi, A.

    2001-05-01

    The following utilities developed for HDF-EOS format data dump are of special use for Earth science data for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS). This poster demonstrates their use and application. The first four tools take HDF-EOS data files as input. HDF-EOS Metadata Dumper - metadmp Metadata dumper extracts metadata from EOS data granules. It operates by simply copying blocks of metadata from the file to the standard output. It does not process the metadata in any way. Since all metadata in EOS granules is encoded in the Object Description Language (ODL), the output of metadmp will be in the form of complete ODL statements. EOS data granules may contain up to three different sets of metadata (Core, Archive, and Structural Metadata). HDF-EOS Contents Dumper - heosls Heosls dumper displays the contents of HDF-EOS files. This utility provides detailed information on the POINT, SWATH, and GRID data sets. in the files. For example: it will list, the Geo-location fields, Data fields and objects. HDF-EOS ASCII Dumper - asciidmp The ASCII dump utility extracts fields from EOS data granules into plain ASCII text. The output from asciidmp should be easily human readable. With minor editing, asciidmp's output can be made ingestible by any application with ASCII import capabilities. HDF-EOS Binary Dumper - bindmp The binary dumper utility dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format. This is useful for feeding the output of it into existing program, which does not understand HDF, for example: custom software and COTS products. HDF-EOS User Friendly Metadata - UFM The UFM utility tool is useful for viewing ECS metadata. UFM takes an EOSDIS ODL metadata file and produces an HTML report of the metadata for display using a web browser. HDF-EOS METCHECK - METCHECK METCHECK can be invoked from either Unix or Dos environment with a set of command line options that a user might use to direct the tool inputs and output . METCHECK validates the inventory metadata in (.met file) using The

  16. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  17. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  18. Implementing integrated catchment management in the Limpopo River Basin Phase 1: Situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reaches of the main stem of the Limpopo River. Much of the surface water exploitation in the basin states relies on storage reservoirs built on tributary rivers. Surface water use is directed primarily to irrigated agriculture, afforestation... and the pool storages located in the A63E and A71L catchments. The riverine gallery forest (Figure 6) is an aquifer-dependent ecosystem situated on the same aquifer used by the Venetia Mine and recharged by the Limpopo River main stem. The isolated...

  19. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  20. Rationalisation of Nursing Education in Limpopo province: Nurse educators’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Makhuvha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP, White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE, and the National Qualification Framework (NQF (South Africa, 1995:6. In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RS A according to Act 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch’s method (Creswell 1994:154-155. The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

  1. Rationalisation of nursing education in Limpopo province : nurse educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhuvha, T R; Davhana-Maselesele, M; Netshandama, V O

    2007-12-01

    Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE), and the National Qualification Framework (NQF) (South Africa, 1995:6). In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) according toAct 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell 1994:154-155). The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

  2. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, Rossella; Bolding, Alex; Ducrot, Raphaëlle

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the chapter analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  3. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, R.; Bolding, J.A.; Ducrot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the paper analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  4. Jamesbrittenia bergae (Scrophulariaceae, a distinctive new species from Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lemmer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Jamesbrittenia bergae P.Lemmer is a new species from the Farm Brakvallei near Thabazimbi in Limpopo [Northern Province]. Large, medium-textured. bright scarlet flowers w ith yellow throats are borne singly in upper leaf axils; the flowering branches, although terminal, do not form elongated racemes: leaves are greyish green, coarsely serrated. It grows in full sun on ferricrete outcrops.

  5. Beam dump experiments at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukas, A.; Bregman, M.; Galik, R.

    1978-01-01

    Searches for the prompt production of weak or semi-strongly interacting particles in a neutrino beam dump and their subsequent interaction or decay were performed at the AGS. The experiment is detailed using the totally active liquid scintillator detector, and mention the results of the spark chamber detector. An exposure of a copper beam dump to two orders of magnitude more protons than in previous searches at 28 GeV has yielded 104 neutrino-like events in the detector. The events from the beam dump are compared directly with those from π and K decay neutrinos produced concurrently in the normal long neutrino decay path following a 15 cm brass target. The characteristics of the events are similar. However, when compared to the rate of events predicted by scaling the 15 cm target yields, the beam dump data show an excess of 45 +- 16 events. The excess events from the beam dump appear to deposit energies greater than or equal to 1 GeV. Their source remains puzzling. Future experiments at the AGS could verify the existence of the effect, decrease the uncertainty in the predicted number of events from 30 to 10% by directly measuring the pion absorption length with a variable density target, search for threshold effects, and measure the sign of the charge of the existing muons. 22 references

  6. Radioactive dumping in the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, J.; Gizewski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Recent revelations concerning the possible environmental hazards posed by the sunken Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets and the disposal of radioactive materials in the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans have generated much controversy and debate. Too often, however, the key scientific and policy issues that the dumping raises are treated as two solitudes. In reality, decisions taken by national governments and international agencies in connection with remediation, regulation, and even research must be based on both science and policy. Indeed, a sound approach to the dumping issue must integrate scientific evidence and policy considerations relating to legal, political, social, and economic matters. Radioactive waste disposal is an exceedingly difficult problem. Information detailing the Soviet Navy's past dumping practices, and increasing awareness of the problems that Russia and other states may encounter in the future disposal of radioactive waste, indicate that the global inventory of radioactive wastes requiring storage and disposal is large and growing

  7. Dumping the decelerated beams of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The spent drive beam must be cleanly extracted and bent away from the decelerator axis at the end of each CLIC decelerator in order to leave space for injecting a fresh beam train in the next sector. Then the spent beam must be safely absorbed. A compact extraction system made of a single dipole is proposed. The spent beam is driven to a water dump located at 20m downstream of the extraction point and transversely 6m away of the axis of the main linac. An adequate spread of the beam impact map on the dump offers small temperature excursions in both the dump and its entrance window, allowing for reliable operation and a long lifetime of the system.

  8. Modernization of dump truck onboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  9. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium

  10. Source, transport and dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    The results of an examination into the problems of radioactive waste are presented, in particular the sources, transport and dumping and the policy considerations in favour of specific methods. The theoretical background of radioactive waste is described, including the physical and chemical, ecological, medical and legal aspects. The practical aspects of radioactive waste in the Netherlands are considered, including the sources, the packaging and transport and dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. The politics and policies involved in this process are outlined. (C.F.)

  11. Design studies of the LHC beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Zazula, J M

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a compilation of the results of the recent 5 years studies of the beam dump system for the LHC proton collider at CERN, with a special emphasis on feasibility of the central absorber. Simulations of energy deposition by particle cascades, optimisation of the beam sweeping system and core layout, and thermal analysis have been completed; the structural deformation, stress and vibration analyses are well advanced, and a new concept of the shielding design has recently been approved. The material characteristics, geometry, performance parameters and safety precautions for different components of the beam dump are actually close to completion, which augurs well for the start of construction work according to schedule.

  12. Challenges in reporting on predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General: The case of Limpopo provincial departments

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Diedericks

    2017-01-01

    Limpopo provincial departments like all other South African government departments are required to report on performance against predetermined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act 1 of 1999, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1 of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that was undertaken to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting on performance against predetermined objectives...

  13. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samie.Amidou

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province. Samie, A. and Nkgau, T. F.. Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Limpopo, South Africa.

  14. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  15. Combatting social dumping - also an obligation for municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2018-01-01

    Analytisk indkredsning af social dumping og argumentation for kommuners opgaver i forbindelse med bekæmpelse heraf......Analytisk indkredsning af social dumping og argumentation for kommuners opgaver i forbindelse med bekæmpelse heraf...

  16. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  17. Design of the MI40 beam-abort dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.; Russell, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    A beam-abort dump for the Fermilab Main Injector to handle 3E13 protons per pulse at 150 Gev has been designed. A 120 GeV beam line goes through the beam-dump off-set by 27cm from its center. The design and the environmental safety aspects of the beam-dump are described here

  18. The charged beam dumps for the international linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Broome, T; Densham, C; Vincke, H

    2006-01-01

    The baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider requires 2 beam dumps per interaction region, each rated to 18MW of beam power, together with additional beam dumps for tuning purposes and machine protection. The baseline design uses high pressure moving water dumps, first developed for the SLC and used in the TESLA design, although a gas based dump is also being considered. In this paper we discuss the progress made by the international community on both physics and engineering studies for the beam dumps.

  19. A Profile of the Limpopo Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality, and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of Limpopo. Most of the data presented are drawn from ...

  20. Epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thema, Lawrence K; Singh, Shenuka

    2017-07-12

    Despite the impact of oral diseases on the quality of life, there is limited updated evidence on oral health status in Limpopo province. To determine the epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province. This was a descriptive retrospective clinical chart review conducted in five purposively selected district hospitals in Limpopo province. The collected data included the patient's sociodemographic information, reasons for dental consultation, information on the dental or oral diseases and the treatment received. Five hundred clinical files were systematically selected (100 from each district hospital) for the period 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Data were collected using the World Health Organization's indicator age groups, namely 6-year-olds, 12-year-olds, 18-year-olds and 35-44-year-old groups. A data capturing sheet was used to record the collected information. Data were analysed using the statistical software package for social sciences SPSS version 23.0. The majority of patients were in the age group of 6 to 20 years (n = 375, 75%). The majority were male patients (n = 309; 62%). Dental caries was the most common complaint (n = 298, 60%). The second most common main complaint in this age group was retained primary or deciduous teeth (n = 60, 12%) affecting children mainly in the age group of 6 to 12 years. The most common clinical procedure across all five districts was dental extractions (n = 324, 64%). Other clinical interventions included scaling and polishing (n = 33, 12%) and dental restorative care (n = 20, 3%). There is an urgent need to reorient oral health service delivery in Limpopo province to focus more on preventive oral health programmes.

  1. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation wat...

  3. Rural and agricultural value of groundwater as an economic resource in the Limpopo region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahumani, BK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OPSOMMING Hierdie tesis handel oor ?n sosio-ekonomiese ondersoek wat fokus op die bepaling van die ekonomiese waarde van grondwater in plattelandse huishoudelike gebruike en as besproeiingswater in die landbou. Limpopo watergebruiksgebied (WGG1... 000 kg/ha tot 50 000 kg/ha. Die aanbevelings wat in hierdie tesis rakende die ekonomiese waarde van grondwater gemaak word, voorsien inligting wat in die ontwikkeling van effektiewe grondwaterbeleid vir beter bestuur van die vraag in beide...

  4. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingju Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT. Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

  5. Pulse compression by Raman induced cavity dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rougemont, F.; Xian, D.K.; Frey, R.; Pradere, F.

    1985-01-01

    High efficiency pulse compression using Raman induced cavity dumping has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Through stimulated Raman scattering the electromagnetic energy at a primary frequency is down-converted and extracted from a storage cavity containing the Raman medium. Energy storage may be achieved either at the laser frequency by using a laser medium inside the storage cavity, or performed at a new frequency obtained through an intracavity nonlinear process. The storage cavity may be dumped passively through stimulated Raman scattering either in an oscillator or in an amplifier. All these cases have been studied by using a ruby laser as the pump source and compressed hydrogen as the Raman scatter. Results differ slightly accordingly to the technique used, but pulse shortenings higher than 10 and quantum efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained. This method could also be used with large power lasers of any wavelength from the ultraviolet to the farinfrared spectral region

  6. Design of the LHC beam dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Weisse, E.

    1992-01-01

    The severe constraints on the beam dumping system for the proposed Large Hadron Collider (LHC) arising from the beam energy (7.7 TeV) and intensity (5x10 14 protons) call for unusual procedures to dilute the beam. Monte-Carlo cascade simulations which calculated the effectiveness of thin scatterers placed upstream of the main absorber have been corrected and updated. Results are also presented concerning the optimization of the thicknesses of such scatterers. These show that a combined sweeping plus double-scatterer system gives a reasonable safety margin. A system combining the sweeping procedure with a dump where the absorber blocks are interleaved with air gaps could produce comparable dilution of the deposited energy. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Results from beam dump experiments at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforto, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two series of proton beam dump experiments are discussed. One of the main goals of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that neutrinos produced in such a setting arose entirely from charm production followed by either electronic or muonic decay. While much of the data is difficult to interpret, it does appear that this hypothesis is not an adequate explanation of the results, in particular the ratio of electron neutrinos to muon neutrinos

  8. Ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinzaburo; Morita, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1981-10-01

    The design of the active cooling type ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI which receives the total beam power of 5.6 MW for 10 sec continuously is described. It is composed of array of many finned tubes which is made of oxygen free copper with 0.2% silver content. The safety margin against thermal and mechanical troubles is estimated by the heat transfer and the thermal stress calculation. (author)

  9. At dumpe på FARMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    Uddrag fra forord: "At dumpe på FARMA peger på flere centrale styrker i farmaceutuddannelsen. For det første at de studerende reelt er interesserede i farmaceutfaget når de optages på studiet, og de oplever velvilje fra underviserne. For det andet at studenterkulturen på studiet er stærk, således...

  10. Dump truck-related deaths in construction, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Cheng, Mei-Tai

    2012-05-01

    Dump trucks are universally used in construction and other industries to haul materials to the location and to remove waste materials. The source for dump truck-related fatality data was the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) Research File. From 1992 to 2007, 829 construction workers were killed in dump truck-related incidents nationwide. Of those, 336 were dump truck operators with 215 deaths occurring in street and highway incidents. Another 343 deaths involved workers on foot, three-quarters struck by dump trucks. Sixty-four of the construction workers killed were maintaining dump trucks, 22 when caught between the truck frame and a falling dump truck bed. Of the 86 other deaths, 55 involved streets and highways. Recommendations include: (i) improving the reporting of seat belt usage in fatality reports; (ii) requiring use of seat belts; (iii) requiring the use of backup alarms, spotters, or other methods to alert dump truck operators to workers in their blind spots; (iv) prohibiting direct dumping at river banks and embankments; (v) using cameras or radar to enforce stopping at railway crossings; and (xi) enforcing worker safety practices (e.g., lockout/tagout procedures on elevated dump truck beds). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  12. Risks from proposed nuclear waste dump unacceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, John

    1999-01-01

    The author has a critical look at the proposal by Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd (PARPL) to establish in Australia a permanent underground disposal site for radioactive waste from around the world. In his opinion, the inevitable risk in the proposal stems from the magnitudes: 250,000 tonnes of enormously dangerous RADwaste in the northern hemisphere 20,000 km from its destined dump in Australia, where it must remain intact for at least 10,000 years. These magnitudes - of tonnage, lethality, distance of transport, and time - entail great inherent risk. He also argue that the job of the Australian scientists is to apply due diligence to PARPL proposal

  13. Iodine Beam Dump Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Bradley, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    During the testing of electric thrusters, high-energy ions impacting the walls of a vacuum chamber can cause corrosion and/or sputtering of the wall materials, which can damage the chamber walls. The sputtering can also introduce the constituent materials of the chamber walls into an experiment, with those materials potentially migrating back to the test article and coating it with contaminants over time. The typical method employed in this situation is to install a beam dump fabricated from materials that have a lower sputter yield, thus reducing the amount of foreign material that could migrate towards the test article or deposit on anything else present in the vacuum facility.

  14. Modelling non-stationary annual maximum flood heights in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maposa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we fit a time-dependent generalised extreme value (GEV distribution to annual maximum flood heights at three sites: Chokwe, Sicacate and Combomune in the lower Limpopo River basin of Mozambique. A GEV distribution is fitted to six annual maximum time series models at each site, namely: annual daily maximum (AM1, annual 2-day maximum (AM2, annual 5-day maximum (AM5, annual 7-day maximum (AM7, annual 10-day maximum (AM10 and annual 30-day maximum (AM30. Non-stationary time-dependent GEV models with a linear trend in location and scale parameters are considered in this study. The results show lack of sufficient evidence to indicate a linear trend in the location parameter at all three sites. On the other hand, the findings in this study reveal strong evidence of the existence of a linear trend in the scale parameter at Combomune and Sicacate, whilst the scale parameter had no significant linear trend at Chokwe. Further investigation in this study also reveals that the location parameter at Sicacate can be modelled by a nonlinear quadratic trend; however, the complexity of the overall model is not worthwhile in fit over a time-homogeneous model. This study shows the importance of extending the time-homogeneous GEV model to incorporate climate change factors such as trend in the lower Limpopo River basin, particularly in this era of global warming and a changing climate. Keywords: nonstationary extremes; annual maxima; lower Limpopo River; generalised extreme value

  15. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  16. Manufacturing prototypes for LIPAC beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, F., E-mail: fernando.arranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brañas, B.; Iglesias, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Nomen, O. [IREC, Barcelona (Spain); Rapisarda, D.; Lapeña, J.; Muñoz, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Szcepaniak, B. [GALVANO-T, Windeck (Germany); Manini, J. [CARMAN, Madrid (Spain); Gómez, J. [TRINOS VACUUM, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Electroforming of copper and electronbeam welding techniques are compared. •Mechanical properties of Cu–stainless steel joint by electroforming are presented. •Achieved manufacturing tolerances are shown. •The difficulties and solutions for the complicated manufacturing are explained. -- Abstract: The purpose of the research is to define the most adequate manufacturing process for the dump of a linear deuteron accelerator. The deuteron beam can be pulsed as well as continuous with energies up to 9 MeV. The maximum beam power is 1.12 MW corresponding to a beam current of 125 mA. The requirements on the surface on which the deuterons will be stopped are quite demanding and the length and slenderness of the cone poses a considerable difficulty in the manufacturing process. The design of the beam dump is based on a copper cone 2500 mm long, 300 mm aperture and 5 to 6.5 mm thickness. Basically only two technologies were found feasible for the manufacturing of the cone: Electroforming and Electron Beam Welding (EBW). The article shows the main results found when manufacturing different prototypes.

  17. Sea-dumped CW munitions - the European component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Stock, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to outline the European magnitude of sea-dumped CW munitions. Hereby the paper attempts to provide an overview on historical dumping activities, both for conventional and chemical munitions. The potential dangers which might result from these dumping activities are discussed in brief. Among others the differences in deep sea dumping and dumping in shallow waters are evaluated. Further, the presentation will outline and discuss the different technology steps: (a) identification, (b) recovery, (c) transportation and (d) destruction (on- or off-shore), necessary for possible cleaning of dumping sites. Thereafter an evaluation of the different technologies available/applied is performed, in particular on the destruction part. Hereby the already practised experience is displayed. Based upon existing treaty regimes an actual judgment of possible application of treaty provisions for demanding cleaning up operations is discussed. The question if treaty obligations can be used to force cleaning operations is debated. A possible match of the technology package available with the scope/magnitude of the munitions dumping problem is discussed. Hereby the gaps between the size of the problem and the most suitable technologies for recovery and destruction are illustrated. The resulting answers should be regarded as possible technical guidelines for future development activities as well existing limitations to solve the problems. The papers will result in some general guidelines for future prospect on the issues of dumped munitions, in particular chemical munitions under the European context.(author)

  18. A model of pyritic oxidation in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The oxidation of pyrite can lead to high acid levels and high concentrations of trace metals in the water that runs off and percolates through pyritic material. This is the situation at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle in the Northern Territory of Australia, where pyritic oxidation in the waste rock dumps resulting from open cut mining of the uranium orebody has led to pollution of the nearby East Branch of the Finniss River, with trace metals such as copper, manganese and zinc. Mathematical equations are formulated which describe a model of pyritic oxidation within a waste rock dump, where it is assumed that oxygen transport is the rate limiting step in the oxidation process and that oxygen is transported by gaseous diffusion through the pore space of the dump, followed by diffusion into oxidation sites within the particles that comprise the dump. The equations have been solved numerically assuming values for such parameters as porosity, sulphur density and oxygen diffusion coefficients which are applicable to the waste rock dumps at Rum Jungle. An approximate solution to the equations is also presented. Calculations of the heat source distribution and the total SO 4 production rate are presented for both single size particles and for a range of particle sizes in the dump. The usefulness of the approximate solution, and of calculations based on single size particles in the dump in assessing the effectiveness of strategies to reduce pollution from such waste rock dumps are discussed

  19. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained..., shall be obtained to prove the produce was actually without commercial value, unless there is a specific...

  20. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  1. LHC beam dump system Consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system is one of the most critical systems concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated using particle tracking in MAD-X, including an asynchronous dump action, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setting up and operation of these protection elements are discussed.

  2. Spoil dump design and rehabilitation management practices (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, E.K.H.; Aspinall, T.O.; Kuszmaul, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining and evolving environmental legislation has been receiving increased attention worldwide in the last two decades. The potential impacts associated with unstable spoil dumps from mine operations is the focus of concern both by the mining industry, environmental legislative agencies and members of the public. Engineered slopes of mine spoils may be stable at the end of construction, but they can deteriorate over time. There is thus the need to increase the base of knowledge on the existing practices of spoil dump design and rehabilitation. Information concluded from the analysis of the industrial survey carried out on Australian spoil dump management practices at coal, gold and ore mines are presented in this paper. The questionnaire asked for details of soil type of spoils, and factors influencing the design of spoil dumps (climate, rate of erosion, height of dumps, slope gradient and length, overburden handling equipment, soil characteristics, legislation and wastes). 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Pressure rise analysis in superconducting coils during dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, E.; Shimamoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the ALPHE computer code, whose purpose is to calculate transient helium behavior in a poolboiling coil and to determine suitable characteristics of safety devices to minimize the maximum pressure and the liquid helium lost during dumping due to quench, or when discharging without normalcy. The analysis is compared with the measurements obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. Topics considered include basic equations (helium behavior, heat generation), manual dump without quench, and dumping due to quench. It is demonstrated that the transient behavior, calculated by ALPHE assuming quasi-static equilibrium between helium and coil, is in good agreement with the experimental measurements observed in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. The engineering technique required for the design criteria of superconducting coils and safety device during dumping is established. ALPHE can be used to design an emergency safety system for a helium refrigerator during dumping

  4. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Connecting communities and business: Public-private partnerships as the panacea for land reform in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Cousins, B.; Bos, A.; Ntsholo, M.; Bruijn, M. de; Dijk, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Scattered among large-scale citrus orchards and game farms in Limpopo Province lie the densely populated former homelands of Venda, Gazankulu, and Lebowa. With few possibilities for development in these barren areas, many communities have lodged claims for the restitution of land from which they

  6. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  7. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  8. Experiences of HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mashau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of HIV and AIDS home-based caregivers in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province. A qualitative research design which was exploratory, descriptive and contextual was executed with a sample of purposively selected participants who provided home-based care to people living with HIV and AIDS in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province. Data saturation occurred after in-depth interviews with fifteen participants. In-depth individual interviews and field notes were also used during data collection. The findings reveal that HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers express pain and despair when caring for HIV/AIDS patients. The theme was supported by the following categories and subcategories: problems related to stigma when caring for patients at their homes; stress, burnout, frustration and feelings of helplessness when caring for patients. Recommendations that are described focus on building a working relationship between the home-based caregivers, community and the family.

  9. Demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary mathematics teachers in Limpopo province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Rakumako

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The findings of a study on the demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary Mathematics teachers in Limpopo province are described. The survey instrument employed was the Science Teacher Inventory of Needs for Limpopo province (STIN-LP. Most teachers who responded to this survey teach at a rural or township school, are between 20 and 40 years old, and have between four and ten years experience in teaching Mathematics. Standard 10 is the highest academic qualification of half of the teachers, with 67% of teachers having an M+3 as their highest professional qualification. Teachers indicated interest in all the 38 INSET need items included in the STIN-LP with motivating learners to learn Mathematics, using audio-visual equipment and applying mathematics to daily life of learners among the most important need. The least support was indicated, among others, for needs related to the history of mathematics, improving content knowledge, how mathematics is used in society, and teaching large classes. Poor communication of INSET activities was reported to be the greatest barrier to INSET participation. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Refugees’ perceptions regarding HIV and AIDS in Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Nkwinika

    2014-10-01

    Doelwitte: Die navorsing het ten doel gehad om vlugtelinge te Humulani dorpie in Ba-Phalaborwa munisipaliteit, Limpopo provinsie, se persepsies oor MIV en vigs te ondersoek en beskryf. Die doelwitte het die bepaling van geslagspersepsies oor MIV en vigs ingesluit, asook om aanbevelings te bied vir maniere om die vlugtelinge ’n beter begrip van MIV en vigs te gee. Metode: ’n Kwantitatiewe benadering tot hierdie navorsing is gevolg. Die teikenpopulasie van die studie was al die vlugtelinge te Humulani dorpie. Die steekproef het uit beide manlike (n = 78 en vroulike (n = 122 deelnemers bestaan wat vraelyste voltooi het. Die steekproef vlugtelinge was van verskillende etniese groepe afkomstig: Mosambiek, Nigerië, Ghana en Zimbabwe. Die vraelys het twee afdelings gehad: Afdeling A het die biografiese data bevat en Afdeling B het die vlugtelinge se kennis van MIV ondersoek. Resultate: Die bevindinge van die studie het onthul dat die deelnemers oor lae kennisvlakke rakende MIV beskik – dit kan toegeskryf word aan hul geloof in die mites aangaande MIV en vigs. Gevolgtrekking: Die populasie van MIV-besmette vlugtelinge in Limpopo mag steeds groei indien daar nie aandag geskenk word aan die unieke behoeftes van die vlugtelinge nie, soos die versterking van voortplantingsgesondheidsdienste, gesinsbeplanning, en moeder- en kindersorg, asook die verbetering van hul opvoedkundige en sosio-ekonomiese welstand.

  11. Study of electric phenomena in energy dumping of LCT coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nishi, Masataka; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1980-03-01

    In IEA-LCT coil, electric phenomena in energy dumping were studied analytically and experimentally. Protection resistance of the Japanese LCT coil is chosen as 0.1 Ω considering the quenching voltage, so that temperature rise of the coil is no problem. Energy dumping characteristic of the six-coil system is calculated under different conditions. It is concluded that simultaneous dumping of all the coils with the equivalent resistance values of protection is necessary. Flashover voltage tests of the model in 4.2 K liquid helium, 4.2 K gas helium and 4.2 K boiling helium show margin in practical quenching voltage of the coil. (author)

  12. Radiation protection with regard to sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderse, R.W.; Worst, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) has been dumping into the Atlantic Ocean radioactive waste cast into concrete since 1965. In the report the Health Physics problems with regard to the transport and dumping of the radioactive waste are discussed. In particular to the following points has been paid attention: tasks and working methods of the radiation protection service, dose evaluation for the people involved by two different kinds of dumping methods, doses received by the personal involved, some contamination problems caused by leaking drums. (orig.) [de

  13. Challenges and Plans for Injection and Beam Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Goddard, B.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  14. Guidelines for sea dumping packages of radioactive waste. Revised version.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-04-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to establish general requirements and provide practical information for the design and manufacture of packages for sea dumping of radioactive waste, in accordance with the terms of the OECD Council Decision establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. These Guidelines are in compliance with the IAEA Revised Definition and Recommendations of 1978, for applying the London Dumping Convention to radioactive waste, and are intended for application under the responsibility of the appropriate national authorities of countries participating in the NEA Mechanism

  15. Peabody Western Coal cuts costs with bottom-dump haulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perla, S.; Baecker, G.; Morgan, W. [Empire Machinery, Mesa, AZ (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A new hauling concept has been introduced at the Black Mesa and Kayenta coal mines of the Peabody Western Coal Co. in northern Arizona, USA. The article describes the switch from Caterpillar 992 wheel loaders with 136 t bottom-dump trucks to 272 t bottom-dump trucks. Cat 789 off-highway trucks were modified to pull bottom-dump trucks. Haulage costs per ton of coal and cost per ton-mile have fallen significantly since the introduction of the new large hauling method. 7 figs., 2 photos.

  16. New concept for a high-power beam dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept for a dump for the ion and neutral beams used in the controlled nuclear fusion program uses thin sheets of a refractory metal such as tungsten formed into troughs having semi-circular cross sections. High-velocity water flowing circumferentially removes heat by subcooled nucleate boiling. Possible advantages are modular construction, lower water-pumping power, and a lower pressure drop than in conventional beam dumps. An example design calculation is shown for a dump capable of absorbing an incident flux of 10 kW/cm 2

  17. Beam Dump TIDV #1 - Vacuum Failure of 17 Oct. 97

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum leak on the internal beam dump TIDV precipitated its replacement in the LSS1 on Monday the 20th of October 1997, the SPS consequently being shut down for three days. The dump had fulfilled its design function since it was installed in the SPS at the beginning of 1988. Prior to the intervention, the Vacuum Group LHC/VAC carried out a number of leak tests, which led to the decision being taken to replace the dump. After the successful intervention, normal machine operation was resumed. Out-gassing of the ten-year-old replacement was initially high, but vacuum pressure is slowly descending to the SPS standard level.

  18. Practice and assessment of sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.; Bewers, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    This paper discusses the practice and assessment of the ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. It describes the international and multilateral regulatory framework, the sources, composition, packaging and rate of dumping and, in particular, the recent radiological assessment of the only operational disposal site in the northeast Atlantic. The paper concludes with a discussion of future ocean disposal practices for radioactive wastes, and the application of the approach to the dumping of non-radioactive contaminants in the ocean. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  20. Review of the abort dump shown in the SSC [superconducting super collider] conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    This report details the design of the abort dump for the Superconducting Super-Collider (SSC). The dump is made from graphite and designed to absorb the maximum beam energy of 400 MJ. The report considers long time activation effects of the dump components. The report concludes that the basic design of the abort dump is well defined

  1. The IAEA's responsibilities in connection with the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1983-01-01

    In the context of IAEA's responsibilities regarding the sea dumping of radioactive wastes, this paper reviews international laws of relevance to sea dumping of wastes, and examines IAEA's role under the London Dumping Convention. The paper also describes the OECD/NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism on radioactive waste sea dumping operations. (NEA) [fr

  2. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  3. Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won

    1996-12-01

    Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.

  4. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  5. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  6. Results from the LHC Beam Dump Reliability Run

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Goddard, B; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H

    2008-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System is one of the vital elements of the LHC Machine Protection System and has to operate reliably every time a beam dump request is made. Detailed dependability calculations have been made, resulting in expected rates for the different system failure modes. A 'reliability run' of the whole system, installed in its final configuration in the LHC, has been made to discover infant mortality problems and to compare the occurrence of the measured failure modes with their calculations.

  7. Conversion of waste dump into a recreation and leisure park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, E.; Martens, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    In a two year strategy-project Aachen University investigated possibilities for postmining activities for a German coal mine. All research work was based on existing infrastructure and mine related potentials. One of the potentials is the waste dump with a height of 90 m above surface and 40 ha in size. This paper deals with the idea of converting the dump into a recreation and leisure park with greater than regional significance. 3 refs., 4 figs

  8. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  9. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  10. The Quest for Ubuntu: Water and Health in Limpopo (WHIL) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissevain, Jane; Richardson, Jeanita W; Netshandama, Vhonani; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efforts to improve health in under-resourced areas of the world frequently involve coalitions, often with at least one partner from the "outside," such as when NGOs or universities from Europe or the US work with institutions and communities in Africa or Asia. Little has been written about applying successful principles to multinational university collaborations as the unit of analysis and where challenges may be magnified by cultural differences and resource imbalances. The purpose of this article is to share the findings from an evaluation of the multi-year interdisciplinary public health Water and Health in Limpopo (WHIL) collaboration between the University of Venda (South Africa) and the University of Virginia (United States). We believe the learnings described easily transfer to collaborative educational endeavors because at their root they speak to the practices that enhance respectful engagement and partnership sustainability.

  11. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  12. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  13. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  14. Dump evaluation for landscape restoration of an ancient cacareous quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, R.; Ayala, R.; Trevisiol, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the geological - mining study in the limestone quarry in the west of Valle Hermoso town - Cordoba - Argentina. The generation of dump material is considered a waste but is inherent to the process of rocks and minerals extraction. The dump stocks evaluation take into account the different types of rocks with physical and chemical characteristics. The dump has several carbonatic qualities and can be given useful to uncover material originally dismissed as to be used as crushed stone for concrete and others.The reuse of this waste can be allocated primarily to the construction industry, and explore other potential uses, would rehabilitate these lands, and thus eliminate an environmental liability .This work is about the geological - mining study in the limestone quarry in the west of Valle Hermoso town - Cordoba - Argentina. The generation of dump material is considered a waste but is inherent to the process of rocks and minerals extraction. The dump stocks evaluation take into account the different types of rocks with physical and chemical characteristics. The dump has several carbonatic qualities and can be given useful to uncover material originally dismissed as to be used as crushed stone for concrete and others.The reuse of this waste can be allocated primarily to the construction industry, and explore other potential uses, would rehabilitate these lands, and thus eliminate an environmental liability

  15. Experience with dose limitation during preparations for sea dumping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieuw, G.; Voorde, N. van de; Baekelandt, L.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1967 low-level radioactive wastes from operational nuclear facilities in Belgium have been dumped into the sea. The dumping is carried out in accordance with the recommendations issued by the IAEA under the London Convention. All these dumping operations have taken place under the surveillance of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD. To limit the doses received by workers and the public during the various phases leading up to sea dumping, appropriate measures are required in connection with waste treatment and packaging, limitation of radiation levels, storage and handling, organization and selection of the means of transport and organization and means of monitoring. Although treatment and handling at the nuclear sites are entrusted to occupationally exposed workers, temporary labour is used for the transport and handling operations. Effective treatment and packaging reduce the risk of internal exposure to a negligible value. Meticulous planning and permanent personnel monitoring reduce the doses received by the workers to acceptable values not exceeding the statutory dose limits. The doses received by personnel involved in the preparations for sea dumping operations from 1967 to 1980 are given and a relationship is established between these doses and the activities handled. Experience shows that sea dumping operations do not entail unacceptable risks either for the workers concerned or for the population and allows us to optimize the methods used for loading, handling and transport. (author)

  16. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10 5 Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10 7 cm 2 /sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10 2 cm 2 /sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.; Vayakis, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated

  18. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Vayakis, G. [ITER Organization, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  19. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  20. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  1. Seasonal forecasting of hydrological drought in the Limpopo Basin: a comparison of statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Mathias; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2017-03-01

    The Limpopo Basin in southern Africa is prone to droughts which affect the livelihood of millions of people in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Seasonal drought early warning is thus vital for the whole region. In this study, the predictability of hydrological droughts during the main runoff period from December to May is assessed using statistical approaches. Three methods (multiple linear models, artificial neural networks, random forest regression trees) are compared in terms of their ability to forecast streamflow with up to 12 months of lead time. The following four main findings result from the study. 1. There are stations in the basin at which standardised streamflow is predictable with lead times up to 12 months. The results show high inter-station differences of forecast skill but reach a coefficient of determination as high as 0.73 (cross validated). 2. A large range of potential predictors is considered in this study, comprising well-established climate indices, customised teleconnection indices derived from sea surface temperatures and antecedent streamflow as a proxy of catchment conditions. El Niño and customised indices, representing sea surface temperature in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, prove to be important teleconnection predictors for the region. Antecedent streamflow is a strong predictor in small catchments (with median 42 % explained variance), whereas teleconnections exert a stronger influence in large catchments. 3. Multiple linear models show the best forecast skill in this study and the greatest robustness compared to artificial neural networks and random forest regression trees, despite their capabilities to represent nonlinear relationships. 4. Employed in early warning, the models can be used to forecast a specific drought level. Even if the coefficient of determination is low, the forecast models have a skill better than a climatological forecast, which is shown by analysis of receiver operating characteristics

  2. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Legodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  3. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Cattle and African Buffalo in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M; Inlameia, O; Michel, A; Maxlhuza, G; Pondja, A; Fafetine, J; Macucule, B; Zacarias, M; Manguele, J; Moiane, I C; Marranangumbe, A S; Mulandane, F; Schönfeld, C; Moser, I; van Helden, P; Machado, A

    2015-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and brucellosis are prevalent in buffaloes of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa). Both diseases were considered to have no or a very low prevalence in wildlife and livestock in and around the Limpopo National Park (LNP, Mozambique). The same applies for tuberculosis in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP, Zimbabwe), but just recently, BTB was detected in buffaloes in the GNP and fears arose that the disease might also spread to the LNP as a result of the partial removal of the fences between the three parks to form the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. To assess the status of both diseases in and around LNP, 62 buffaloes were tested for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis. The percentage of positive BTB reactors in buffalo was 8.06% using BovidTB Stat-Pak® and 0% with BOVIGAM® IFN-γ test and IDEXX ELISA. The brucellosis seroprevalence in buffalo was found to be 17.72% and 27.42% using Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and ELISA, respectively. In addition, 2445 cattle in and around the LNP were examined for BTB using the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin test (SICCT), and an apparent prevalence of 0.98% was found with no significant difference inside (0.5%) and outside (1.3%) the park. This is the first published report on the presence of positive reactors to BTB and bovine brucellosis in buffalo and cattle in and outside the LNP. Monitoring the wildlife-livestock-human interface of zoonotic high-impact diseases such as BTB and brucellosis is of outmost importance for the successful implementation and management of any transfrontier park that aims to improve the livelihoods of the local communities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Management of dumping of packaged low-level wastes in the deep ocean with emphasis on the North East Atlantic dump site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    The following aspects are discussed: radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; international regulations; historical dumping practices; assessment of the Northeast Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and implications of issues on US needs and policies

  5. Sea dumping of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Dumping practice and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejsa, P.

    1983-04-01

    Sea dumping of low level radioactive waste is a disposal method practised by a number of states, controlled by OECD/NEA. It makes use of the capacity of the oceans to dilute the radionuclides to levels acceptable concerning resulting dose burdens. For the determination of release rates some oceanographic model have been developed, describing the physical behaviour of the released radionuclides. It is not to be assumed that a complete mathematical description of the involved processes can be made. Too many parameters are dependent and varying as there is the chemical behaviour of different valence states, complexing agents, distribution patterns etc. But it can be seen that the existing description methods allow the adequate modelling of the short and the long term behaviour of the radionuclides. The use of pessimistic assumptions for distribution and reconcentration is sufficient to consider uncertainties of the model. Therefore the arguments of Greenpeace, kindly submitted by this organisation for this study, show no open question, which has not been considered on the sea dumping procedures under surveillance of the OECD/NEA. (Author)

  6. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ouzia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the

  7. The current water quality situation at clinics in the Limpopo Province and subsequent management suggestions / Jan Hendrik Stander

    OpenAIRE

    Stander, Jan Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's water resources are, in global terms, scarce and extremely limited (DWAF, 2004). Groundwater is a valuable source of potable water in South Africa. It was found that most of the health facilities in the Limpopo Province depend on groundwater as sole source of potable water. Groundwater quality is to a great extent influenced by the dominant land use in the vicinity of an aquifer. It is therefore important to carefully manage possible pollution sources of anthropogen...

  8. Assessment of learners' exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Oni H; Tshitangano, Takalani G

    2016-06-30

    School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school.Keyword: Health education and promotion, adolescents, school, learners.

  9. Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa. Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District. Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines’ potency. Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives. Keywords: Professional nurse, knowledge, EPI-SA, immunisation

  10. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  11. Challenges in reporting on predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General: The case of Limpopo provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Diedericks

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limpopo provincial departments like all other South African government departments are required to report on performance against predetermined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act 1 of 1999, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1 of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that was undertaken to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting on performance against predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General (AG. Reporting on predetermined objectives has been a challenge over the past financial years and this is evident in the AG’s reports, in which Limpopo provincial departments continued to receive qualified audit reports. The literature review carried out for purposes of this study revealed that performance management is fundamental to enhancing organisational performance. A qualitative research design was used to collect and analyse data. Key findings of the study included that management should prioritise strategic planning, performance reporting, monitoring and evaluation to enable it to be in a position to make a determination as to whether what was planned by the department was actually realised. It is also of paramount importance that performance reporting is highly prioritised at strategic, tactical and operational management meetings to ensure more effective and efficient organisational performance.

  12. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  13. Preliminary design of the new Proton Synchrotron Internal Dump core

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091975; Nuiry, François-Xavier

    The luminosity of the LHC particle accelerator at CERN is planned to be upgraded in the first half of 2020s, requiring also the upgrade of its injector accelerators, including the Proton Synchrotron (PS). The PS Internal Dumps are beam dumps located in the PS accelerator ring. They are safety devices designed to stop the circulating proton beam in order to protect the accelerator from damage due to an uncontrolled beam loss. The PS Internal Dumps need to be upgraded to be able to withstand the future higher intensity and energy proton beams. The dump core is a block of material interacting with the beam. It is located in ultra-high vacuum and moved into the beam path in 150 milliseconds by an electromagnet and spring-based actuation mechanism. The circulating proton beam is shaved by the core surface during thousands of beam revolutions. The preliminary new dump core design weighs 13 kilograms and consists of an isostatically pressed fine-grain graphite and a precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr. The ...

  14. The radiation hazard from the tantalum dumps in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The radiation level at the dumps are well above background. The readings taken on the dumps themselves range from 1000 mrem/year to 5860 mrem/year. The radiation levels in the houses close to the dump at Hill Railway Road were much lower, in the range of 160 mrem/year to 335 mrem/year. However, the level recorded at a house on Medan Tembaga is higher, being around 650 mrem/year. It is worth noting that the maximum permissible dose as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the general public is 500 mrem/year and the average background radiation level is around 80-90 mrem/year. (author)

  15. Protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted to protection coverage parameters indentification for uranium tailing dumps. Authors noticed that many tailing dumps In Tajikistan do not correspond to modern requirements of territories remediation published by IAEA and current norms of the Republic of Tajikistan. The most dangerous is radionuclide migration i.e., distribution of radioactive substances beyond the uranium tailing dumps territories. One of the basic distribution ways is atmospheric migration. At the same time potentially dangerous factors are: dust rising from open surfaces is the source for contamination distribution to neighboring territories; direct external exposure of public located in close distance to the sites; radioactive gas radon exhalation originating a threat if radionuclides penetration to the human body through breathing passages. Different methods of tailing's negative impact minimization, including coverage with neutral soil layer, coverage with fine-ground worked-out bentonite clay were proposed.

  16. Recultivation of mining waste dumps in the Ruhr area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 Ruhrkohle AG produced 41.9 million tons of coal and 19.1 million m 3 of mining waste. Of this, 0.7 million m 3 were used underground as stowing material, 4.7 million m 3 was used commercially, while the remaining 13.7 million m 3 required dumping. Efforts related to the use and disposal of the material up to now dumped are concentrating on applying technical methods to reduce the production of waste underground, on opening up new markets of this material, on utilization of mining waste as a building material, and on low-environmental-impact dumping. Since the late 1970s, the mining waste heaps in the Ruhr mining region have been conceived and designed as landscape structures, i.e. they are integrated into the landscape by means of careful planning and design, and are immediately planted with vegetation. 9 refs., 5 figs

  17. A high average power beam dump for an electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianghong, E-mail: xl66@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory of Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce M.; Kostroun, Vaclav O.; Li, Yulin; Smolenski, Karl W. [Cornell Laboratory of Accelerator-based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The electron beam dump for Cornell University's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype injector was designed and manufactured to absorb 600 kW of electron beam power at beam energies between 5 and 15 MeV. It is constructed from an aluminum alloy using a cylindrical/conical geometry, with water cooling channels between an inner vacuum chamber and an outer jacket. The electron beam is defocused and its centroid is rastered around the axis of the dump to dilute the power density. A flexible joint connects the inner body and the outer jacket to minimize thermal stress. A quadrant detector at the entrance to the dump monitors the electron beam position and rastering. Electron scattering calculations, thermal and thermomechanical stress analysis, and radiation calculations are presented.

  18. Upgrade of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Balhan, B; Borburgh, J; Goddard, B; Maglioni, C; Versaci, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider comprises for each ring a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred meters further downstream, an absorber block. A mobile diluter (TCDQ) protects the superconducting quadrupole immediately downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters, in case of a beam dump that is not synchronized with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers. Simulations have shown that an asynchronous dump of a 7 TeV nominal beam into the TCDQ absorber blocks could damage it. This paper describes the proposed changes to this device in order to maintain the protection for the downstream elements while reducing the risk of damaging the TCDQ in case of such a beam loss.

  19. Joint venture schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapedza, Everisto; van Koppen, Barbara; Sithole, Pinimidzai; Bourblanc, Magalie

    2016-04-01

    Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa's Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The overall research question sought to understand how the Joint Venture Schemes had benefited the smallholder farmers. This paper argues that the joint venture partnership created a new injustice. Firstly, the Joint Venture Scheme design is fundamentally a bad idea which disempower farmers not only to water access but also land as well. The choice of the 'efficient' floppy irrigation technology was made by the state and entailed that land had to be managed as a single unit. In order to make more effective use of this highly sophisticated new technology, the smallholder farmers also needed to go into a joint venture partnership with a white commercial farmer. By virtue of signing the Joint Venture agreement the farmers were also forfeiting their land and water rights to be used for crop production. The smallholder farmers lost access to their water and land resources and were largely relegated to sharing profits - when they exist - with hardly any skills development despite what was initially envisaged in the Joint Venture partnership. Secondly, the implementation of the JVS has been skewed from the start which explains the bad results. This paper further shows how the negative outcomes affected women in particular. As the smallholder farmers argue the technological options chosen by the state have excluded both male and female farmers from accessing and utilising their land and water resources in order to improve their livelihoods; it has entrenched the role of the state and the private interests at the

  20. Genetic diversity and distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguga-Phasha, N T C; Munyai, N S; Mashinya, F; Makgatho, M E; Mbajiorgu, E F

    2017-12-12

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem and knowledge of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in specific geographical regions can contribute to the control of the disease. This study describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis in five districts of Limpopo Province. A total 487 isolates were collected from the National Health Laboratory Services from all regions/districts of Limpopo Province. Only 215 isolates were confirmed to be M. tuberculosis by Bactec Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube 960® and Rhodamine-Auramine staining. Isolates were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium agar slants to validate purity. They were spoligotyped and data analysed using the international spoligotyping database 4 (SpolDB4). Of the 215 isolates, 134 (62.3%) were genotyped into 21 genotype families while 81 (37.7%) were orphans. The 81 orphans were further subjected to resolution employing SpolDB3/RIM. Overall, the study revealed a high diversity of strains of 32 predominantly the non-Beijing lineages: the LAM- LAM3 (9.8%), LAM9 (4.7%) and LAM11- ZWE (3.3%), the T-T1(15.0%), T2 (0.9%), T2-T3 (1.4%), the CAS-CAS1-Delhi 5 (1.9%) and CAS1-KILI (1.4%) the MANU2 (1.4%), U (0.5%), X-X1(1.4%), X3 (1.9%), S (9.8%), CAS (1.4%), LAM7(0.9%), T3(0.5%), LAM8(4.7%), T4(1.4%), X2(0.4%), AI5(1.9%), LAM1(0.5%), FAMILY33 (1.9%), EAI4(1.4%), M. microti (1.9%). The Beijing and Beijing-like families were (14.9%) and (0.9%), respectively. A total of 28(13%) clusters and 77(36%) unique cases were identified. Beijing strain (SIT 1) formed the biggest cluster constituting 14%, followed by LAM3 (SIT 33), T1 (SIT 53) and LAM4 (SIT 811) with 7%, 5.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The Beijing family was the only genotype found in all the five districts and was predominant in Mopani (18.8%), Sekhukhune (23.7%) and Vhembe (23.3%). Dominant genotypes in Capricorn and Waterberg were LAM3 (11.9%) and T1 (13.3%), respectively. A wide diversity of lineages was demonstrated at district level. A

  1. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  2. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  3. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Boles, Jason; Reyes, Susana; Stein, Werner

    2005-01-01

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  4. Indigenous knowledge system of bush tea from the local people in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article provides a report on a survey conducted in selected villages of Thohoyandou and Nzhelele in Venda, Limpopo Province of South Africa by means of personal interviews. The aim of the survey was to gather indigenous knowledge and to validate the uses of bush tea as claimed by the local people. The interviews ...

  5. Depression among female survivors of domestic violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate depression among female survivors of domestic violence. 112 female survivors of domestic violence who came to a trauma centre in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province to seek help were selected as participants in the study. The participants‟ ages ranged from 15 to 65 years.

  6. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  7. The quality and quantity of runoff and groundwater in two overburden dumps undergoing pyritic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.A.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The quality and quantity of runoff and seepage water from two waste rock dumps at the abandoned uranium mine at Rum Jungle, N.T., have been monitored over various time intervals since 1975. Both dumps contain pyrite which is oxidising and solubilising trace metals within the dumps. Results are presented for the quality and quantity of runoff from both dumps measured in the 1980-81 wet season. The rainfall/runoff characteristics of the two dumps measured during this wet season are similar and in good agreement with measurements made in previous wet seasons. Pollution loads in runoff were only a few per cent of pollution loads in water percolating through to the base of the dumps. The rainfall/runoff characteristics and the dominance of pollution loads in water percolating through the dumps are likely to apply to other similar waste rock dumps

  8. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  9. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-07-01

    A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  10. Working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among nurses in a provincial hospital in the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, M; Jooste, K

    2008-03-01

    Absenteeism results in an increased workload for nurses who stand in for colleagues and can lead to situations in which a lack of motivation among nurses and a lowering of the quality of patient care may occur. The researcher observed that certain conditions, such as inflexible working schedules, were given as reasons for the absenteeism in units in a provincial hospital. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose of the article was to describe the working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among the professional and sub-professional nurses at a provincial hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The sample included 107 professional nurses and 163 sub-professional nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that personal and managerial characteristics, and organisational and working conditions may lead to absenteeism in the workplace. This article focuses on the working conditions that are constraints, namely inadequate group cohesion, inadequate delegation of autonomy, role ambiguity, ineffective routinisation and the effect of the workload in the workplace. Recommendations are made for improving working conditions to combat absenteeism among nurses. The limitations of this study are highlighted.

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in the Matok Igneous Complex, Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, T.; Van Reenen, D.D.; Barton, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ductile shear zones associated with the 2700 to 2650 Ma Limpopo Orogeny locally contained gold mineralization. Some of these shear zones were reactivated under brittle conditions and contain zones of hydrothermal alteration that are of potential economic significance. Within the approximately 2670 Ma Matok Complex, two examples of this shear zone controlled alteration are exposed, the Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones. The granitic rocks of this Complex experienced early selective sericitization of plagioclase and the subsequent development of perthitic porphyroblasts. This early regional alteration was overprinted along brittle shear zones by pervasive propylitization and vein controlled quartz-albite alteration. The setting, composition, and the age of the Matok Complex make it a possible source for Archaean gold mineralization. The Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones are characterized by the absence of significant gold mineralization. The pattern of wall-rock alteration indicates that the hydrothermal processes were different from typical Archaean lode gold deposits. P-T conditions during the shear-zone controlled alteration were less than 400 degrees C and 1,9 - 2,8 kb. The shear zone hosted alteration could have taken place anytime between emplacement of the Matok Complex and about 1315 Ma ago. 35 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Modeling the complexities of water, hygiene, and health in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Learmonth, Gerard P; Netshandama, Vhonani O; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2012-12-18

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type, and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were suboptimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings.

  13. An integrated approach for Limpopo Park groundwater characterization for biodiversity safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vitale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multistep study held in the context of the SECOSUD Phase II project, called “Conservation and equitable use of biological diversity in the SADC region (Southern African Development Community [1]. The present study is developed in the activity research of the SECOSUD Phase II project funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the SADC. One of this project’s objectives is to strengthen the capacities of the SADC region scientific network, in the aim to consolidate and to harmonize the management of natural resources [1]. The overall objective of this study is to design an integrated approach for Limpopo Park groundwater characterization and management, based on dealing with the full water cycle by a tiered and complex program, which will follow several steps: a preliminary field study, data existing collection, the selection of sites meteorological stations, the location of monitoring surface water and groundwater points, which includes fields measurements and sampling, chemical and isotopic analysis, collection of hydrological data to design hydrological conceptual model in the area under study in order to quantify the water balance and to provide recommendations on where to focus future research. The monitoring systems should be supported by processing procedures, step by step, implementing a GIS database.

  14. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogo F Matlala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes, which are: (1 identification of pregnant learners; (2 continuation of pregnant learners' school career; (3 dilemmas related to school-attending pregnant learners; (4 support of school-attending pregnant learners; (5 gender in pregnancy caretaking; and (6 communication and cooperation between teachers and parents. Teachers experienced challenges in identifying pregnant learners, and to meet their health needs as they lacked health related skills. Parents were not always cooperative towards teachers. It can be concluded that teachers face many dilemmas related to pregnant learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome.

  15. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Maputle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized.Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  16. Bestuur van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram in hulpbronarm skole in Limpopo – praktyk, suksesse en uitdagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eberlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie stel ondersoek in na die wyse waarop die implementering van die Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram (NSVP bestuur word deur skoolhoofde in hulpbronarm laerskole in die Waterberg-distrik van die Limpopo-provinsie. Dit vorm deel van ’n groter gesamentlike studie van die Universiteit van Pretoria en Northeast Normal University (UP en NENU wat fokus op die stand van prinsipaalskap in beide stedelike en landelike omgewings in SuidAfrika en in China. Data vir hierdie kwalitatiewe studie is met behulp van onderhoude en waarneming verkry binne die raamwerk van die vier bestuursfunksies soos omskryf deur Van Deventer en Kruger: beplanning; organisasie; leiding en rigtinggewing; asook kontrole en evaluering. Die primêre bevinding van die studie is dat hoewel skoolhoofde bewus is van riglyne en praktyke vir die implementering van die NSVP wat deur die Departement van Basiese Onderwys voorgeskryf word, hulle byna volledig op ander rolspelers op skoolvlak staatmaak om die program te bestuur, sonder enige daaglikse betrokkenheid by die proses of enige erkenning van hul eie rol en verantwoordelikhede in hierdie verband.

  17. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  18. Crisis of decolonising education: Curriculum implementation in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu E. Musitha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus amongst social scientists and public administration practitioners about the importance of decolonising the education system in Africa and South Africa. Decolonising the education system is viewed as a catalyst to create human capital that will promote economic development to end the scourge of poverty. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS as a tool of decolonising from 2014 to 2016. This is a qualitative and descriptive study based on literature, and key informant interviews (KIIs were used to gather data. This study has, however, found that implementation of CAPS in Limpopo Province is in a state of crisis. While there are many factors that contribute to this crisis, non-delivery of textbooks to schools remains a crucial factor. Civil society and media have been found to be key in playing oversight role in forcing the state to be accountable by taking it to court to deliver textbooks. However, this study recommends that Vhembe district should be used as a model for the province for effective implementation of CAPS.

  19. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonto M. Maputle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized. Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  20. Turning mirrors into windows: Knowledge transfer among indigenous healers in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Maluleka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is an unavoidable process when it comes to indigenous knowledge especially in Africa, the continent known for its oral tradition. Such knowledge is in danger of being obliterated as a result of a number of factors, including lack of interest from younger generations and low life expectancy whereby knowledgeable people die before transferring it to the next generation as it is mostly not documented.   Objectives: This qualitative study utilised hermeneutic phenomenology guided by the organisational knowledge conversion theory to investigate the transfer of indigenous knowledge by traditional healers in the Limpopo province of South Africa.   Method: The study utilised a snowball sampling technique to determine the population. Data collected through interviews with traditional healers were augmented with observations done on two healers who were in the middle of their training when this study was conducted, as well as an analysis of records held by some healers.   Results: The findings suggestthat knowledge of traditional healing is believed to be transferred to the chosen ones through dreams and visions. However, this knowledge seems to be transferred through mentorship and apprenticeship, as well as interactions with other healers.   Conclusion: It is concluded that transferring knowledge of traditional healing goes beyond just transference; it is embedded as a belief system in many African communities. An in-depth study on the development of a framework to integrate indigenous knowledge of traditional healers into mainstream health system is recommended.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of secondary school girls towards contraception in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.

  2. A conceptual framework for cost management training in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Karien; Mothiba, Tebogo Maria

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of nurse managers about their dual role in nursing units as cost centres. The tertiary hospital in the Limpopo province is the first institution to appoint nurse managers with a dual role in cost centres. The development of a conceptual framework for a context-specific programme for Cost Centre Managers is the first of its nature in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was followed. The target population included nurse managers (n = 35) formally appointed as cost centre managers with a dual role of delivering quality care and cost management. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Personal and professional distress, an empowering potential of being a cost centre manager, and the need for decentralized cost centre management were indicated as barriers for nurse managers that led to a framework for a context-specific training programme. There is a need for a context-specific training programme for cost centre managers in a hospital with cost centres. The training of cost centre managers for their dual role in cost centres could enhance cost effectiveness, quality care and staff satisfaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  4. 7 CFR 58.212 - Hopper or dump room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....212 Hopper or dump room. A separate room shall be provided for the transfer of bulk dry dairy products to the hoppers and conveyors which lead to the fillers. This room shall meet the same requirements... transfer of dry dairy products from portable bulk bins will be accepted if gasketed surfaces or direct...

  5. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...

  6. Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, LW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2015: Remote Sensing: Understanding the Earth for a Safer World, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns yz L.W. Mdakane,yz W. Kleynhans,yz C.P. Schwegmann yDepartment of Electrical...

  7. Dumping of solid packaged radioactivity in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Wm. O.; Van As, D.

    1980-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear energy, the quantity of radioactive wastes which are generated is also increasing. Their treatment and disposal is causing a concern in further development of nuclear energy. World's oceans are considered as a possible location for these wastes. A convention on the prevention of marine pollution caused by dumping of wastes and other matter into oceans was adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference held at London in November 1972. The convention prohibits dumping of high-level radioactive wastes in the oceans and has entrusted the IAEA the tasks of defining the high level radioactive wastes and providing recommendations for the issue of special permits for dumping of the radioactive materials which do not fall into the category of high-level wastes. A provisional definition and recommendations formulated by the IAEA and adopted by contractin.o. parties in 1976 are outlined. On the basis of an oceanographic model developed by Shepherd (1976) and considered to be the best available, a revised definition and revised recommendations were formulated. Their salient features are mentioned. The key parameters for specific site assessments are mentioned. The Nuclear Energy Agency also formulated guidelines on sea-disposal packages for radioactive wastes in 1974 and revised them in 1978. Finally it is noted that criteria have not been established for dumping of non-radioactive wastes in the ocean, though such criteria are contained in the IAEA recommendations in case of radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  8. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  9. Extraction of Gold from Dump Material by Agitation | Stoyanov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of poor extraction of gold from slimes a new approach-mechanical agitation of dump material was explored. Several tests have been done. In the agitation test work the following parameters have been investigated: impeller speed; cyanide concentration; CaO concentration; liquid-solid ratio; lead nitrate dosage ...

  10. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  11. Effects on the environment of the dumping of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Nationally and internationally accepted procedures and technologies are available for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Authorized waste disposal practices are designed to ensure that there will be no significant impacts on man and his environment. 'Dumping' of nuclear wastes may result in the elimination of one or more of the multibarriers of protection inherent in an effective radioactive waste management system, thereby increasing the risk of radiological exposure to man and his environment. Quantitative assessments of the degree of environmental contamination and of the resulting hazards to man depend on the specific conditions surrounding the 'uncontrolled disposal' of radioactive waste. These include the nature and activity level of the waste, the physical form of the waste, the package that the waste is contained in and the characteristics of the dumping site. Depending on the scenario envisaged, the consequences of 'uncontrolled disposal' could vary from being insignificant to a situation where there is a significant hazard to an exposed population group. International transactions involving nuclear wastes are taking place between countries on the basis of bilateral agreements and under strict regulatory supervision so that radioactive wastes are transferred safely from one controlled area to another. Such transactions may increase in the future with increased international co-operation in sharing common waste repositories. No evidence exists that confirms that transboundary dumping of radioactive waste has occurred. Investigation of alleged dumping of radioactive wastes by the International Atomic Energy Agency has revealed that the 'suspect wastes' did not contain radioactive material. 2 tabs

  12. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  13. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  14. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  15. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  16. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  17. Direct-heating solar-collector dump valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howikman, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Five-port ganged valve isolates collector from primary load system pressure and drains collectors, allowing use of direct heating with all its advantages. Valve is opened and closed by same switch that controls pump or by temperature sensor set at O C, while providing direct dump option.

  18. Research Note Impacts of mine dump pollution on plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mine dump pollution on semiarid savanna vegetation were investigated in Kombat, Namibia. Vegetation structure, species richness, composition and diversity were compared between polluted and control sites. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in soils were significantly higher closer to a ...

  19. Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refuse Dumps And The Environment: A Case Study Of Some Selected Cities In Nigeria. ... International Journal of Emotional Psychology and Sport Ethics ... This study assessed the level of environmental pollution in the nation by focusing on the degree of accumulation of house – hold wastes, industrial scraps or wastes, ...

  20. Bounds on light gluinos from the BEBC beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Parker, M.A.; Sarkar, S.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Bostock, P.; Krstic, J.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.; Graessler, H.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Idschok, U.; Kreutzmann, H.; Nellen, B.; Wuensch, B.

    1985-01-01

    Observational upper limits on anomalous neutral-current events in a proton beam dump experiment are used to constrain the possible hadroproduction and decay of light gluinos. These results require msub(g tilde) >= 4 GeV for Msub(q tilde) approx.= msub(w). (orig.)

  1. Bounds on light gluinos from the BEBC beam dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Parker, M. A.; Sarkar, S.; Aderholz, M.; Bostock, P.; Clayton, E. F.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Grässler, H.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Idschok, U.; Klein, H.; Kreutzmann, H.; Krstic, J.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Nellen, B.; Schmid, P.; Schmitz, N.; Talebzadeh, M.; Venus, W.; Vignaud, D.; Walck, Ch.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wünsch, B.; WA66 Collaboration

    1985-10-01

    Observational upper limits on anomalous neutral-current events in a proton beam dump experiment are used to constrain the possible hadroproduction and decay of light gluinos. These results require ifm g˜$̆4 GeV for ifm q˜ - minw.

  2. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228...

  4. Determination of heavy metals in soils from dump site of tanneries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals were determined in soil samples at the dump site, Challawa town, Karfi Irrigation site and farmlands near the dump site by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that soil at the dump site contains significant amount of toxic elements. Hence remediation processes were ...

  5. Anthropogenic Pollutants in Extracts from Maritsa Iztok Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Maya; Milakovska, Zlatka; Marinov, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Coals are suspected for many human health problems and are an object of the new discipline - “medical geology”. Potential human health risk of organic compounds with coal/lignite provenance includes endocrine disruption, nephrotoxicity, cancer, etc. Recent investigations proved that different organic components, i.e. hydrocarbons, phenols etc. move through/release out of the dump area as a result of alteration processes of the organic matter (OM) caused by the wash-out and/or drainage processes. The timeliness of the present study is based on the scarcity of information on organic geochemistry of dump materials from open pit coal mines and weathered lignites in particular. The limited number of studies on dumps clarifies that even for the “short” time span (some tens of years) in geological point of view, processes of transformation of the extractable OM are detectable. The secondary phases, a result of the OM transformations, move through and out of the dump area and could be potential contaminants for the surface/underground waters and soils in the area. Another environmental problem comes from the air-born VOCs and products of the modern chemical industry. By GC-MS in the slightly polar fractions of the chloroform extracts of dump samples a broad set of components was determined, i.e. phthalates (dominant), i-propyl palmitate, i-propyl myristate, n-hexyl benzoates, etc. These organic contaminants could be regarded more likely as anthropogenic (originating from plasticizers, industrial pollutants, etc.). Presently, it seems that the identified compounds do not represent an acute toxic risk from an environmental viewpoint. However, some compounds could raise concerns and further attention is needed to be focused on them.

  6. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Juizo, Dinis; Vilanculos, Agostinho; Bolding, Alex; Uiterweer, Nynke Post

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use irrigation (4000 ha). This development includes the expansion of sugar cane production for the production of ethanol as a biofuel. Total additional water requirements may amount to 1.3 × 10 9 m 3/a or more. A simple river basin simulation model was constructed in order to assess different irrigation development scenarios, and at two storage capacities of the existing Massingir dam. Many uncertainties surround current and future water availability in the Lower Limpopo River Basin. Discharge measurements are incomplete and sometimes inconsistent, while upstream developments during the last 25 years have been dramatic and future trends are unknown. In Mozambique it is not precisely known how much water is currently consumed, especially by the many small-scale users of surface and shallow alluvial groundwater. Future impacts of climate change increase existing uncertainties. Model simulations indicate that the Limpopo River does not carry sufficient water for all planned irrigation. A maximum of approx. 58,000 ha of irrigated agriculture can be sustained in the Mozambican part of the basin. This figure assumes that Massingir will be operated at increased reservoir capacity, and implies that only about 44,000 ha of new irrigation can be developed, which is 60% of the envisaged developments. Any additional water use would certainly impact downstream users and thus create tensions. Some time will elapse before 44,000 ha of new irrigated land will have been developed. This time could be used to improve monitoring networks to decrease current uncertainties. Meanwhile the four riparian Limpopo States are preparing a joint river basin study. In this study a methodology could be

  7. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  8. Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us fRNAdb Database Dump Data detail Data name Database Dump DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00452-002 De... data (tab separeted text) Data file File name: Database_Dump File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/frnadb/LATEST/Database_Dump File size: 673 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition...s. Data analysis method - Number of data entries 4 files - About This Database Database Description Download... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive ...

  9. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Ramara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: “Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?” Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301 -318, to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192 and De Vos (1998:343. Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers

  10. Infant feeding and HIV positive mothers in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramara, N S; Maputle, M S; Lekhuleni, M E

    2010-03-01

    HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice at Mankweng clinic in the Limpopo province are experiencing specific problems with various feeding methods. This study was undertaken with the aim to explore and describe the socioeconomic and cultural experiences of HIV-positive mothers who practise infant feeding of their choice. The research design was exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and contextual in nature. A phenomenological approach was adopted to focus on the lived experiences of HIV-positive mothers. The study sample was purposely selected. Ten HIV-positive mothers volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews. All participants responded to an open-ended question: "Could you please tell me, in detail, your experience on infant feeding of your choice?" Interviews were conducted until saturation, as was reflected in repeating themes, was reached. The model of trustworthiness, as outlined in Guba and Lincoln (1985:301-318), to ensure credibility and dependability, was used in this study. The study adhered to the ethical standards as set by DENOSA (1998:2.3.2-2.3.4). Data were analysed according to Tesch's method, as outlined in Creswell (2003:192) and De Vos (1998:343). Literature control was performed to verify the results. Two main categories that emerged were guided by options for infant feeding; namely those that chose formula feeding for their babies and those participants who opted to breast-feed their babies. The study proposed to recommend guidelines for the development of relevent content for inclusion in health education programmes of registered midwives who, in turn, can use such information to educate mothers.

  11. Agritourism activities in the Mopani District Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa: perceptions and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Myer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farms in South Africa have to compete in a very hostile agricultural economic environment and it has become imperative for farmers to find new ways of generating additional income. Research undertaken in the Mopani District Municipality (MDM in the Limpopo Province of South Africa identified agritourism as a potential means to this end. The main aim of this primarily qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and opportunities for agritourism in the study area. Data were mainly collected through interviews and questionnaires. Participants consisted of farmers and tourists, as well as owners of existing agritourism farms within the MDM. Five current active agritourism establishments were identified. Key fidnings revealed that agritourism is not being utilised to its full potential. Although perceptions of respondents towards agritourism are positive, marketing around it is insufficient and not all farmers are willing to host agritourism activities on their farms for various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through the area en route to the Kruger National Park. Therefore, the potential already exists to host agritourism activities that will benefit farmers in various ways. By developing farm trails, scheduling daily farm activities, using information brochures, forming networks with existing tourist establishments, encouraging the use of local and fresh produce and providing good roadside signage, farmers can gain increased exposure and recognition for what they do and opportunities for growth and development may be realised.  Keywords: Agritourism, farm tourism, alternative tourism, farm activities, tourism

  12. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.Purpose: This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Findings: The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80% that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%. 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitarytowels. Conclusion: Interventions are needed to increase girls’ opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  13. Safety and affordability of an elective Saturday list at Pietersburg Hospital Limpopo South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mavhungu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The backlog of patients waiting for operations continues to be a problem in many public hospitals in South Africa (SA, with elective surgery procedures being postponed for up to 2 years.Objective. To determine the rate of death in hospital or out of hospital within 30 days of an elective procedure performed on a Saturday, and to determine the cost incurred by paying staff members who perform these operations.Method. A prospective, observational descriptive cohort study of all patients undergoing inpatient general surgery operations during weekdays and weekends between 1 September 2015 and 31 August 2016 (1 year at Pietersburg Hospital (PBH, Limpopo, SA. Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft, USA was used to analyse and derive descriptive statistics. The finance department at the hospital calculated the overtime pay for theatre staff who operated on Saturdays.Results. The study included 1 352 operations (607 elective and 745 emergency procedures. Saturday elective operations contributed 133/607 (22%, and the rate of death for these operations was 1.5%. The most common procedures performed on a Saturday were hernia repair and amputation. The cost for 8 hours of work on a Saturday was ZAR13 900, amounting to a total of ZAR333 600 for 24 Saturdays.Conclusion. Performing minor surgery on a Saturday had a mortality rate of 1.5%, and a theatre staff cost of ~ZAR2 317 per patient, excluding surgeons’ fees. If surgeons were to be paid the costs would be ZAR3 450 per patient.

  14. An evaluation for harnessing low-enthalpy geothermal energy in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufeeq Dhansay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa generates most of its energy requirements from coal, and is now the leading carbon emitter in Africa, and has one of the highest rates of emissions of all nations in the world. In an attempt to decrease its CO2 emissions, South Africa continues to research and develop alternative forms of energy, expand on the development of nuclear and has began to explore potentially vast shale gas reserves. In this mix, geothermal has not been considered to date as an alternative energy source. This omission appears to stem largely from the popular belief that South Africa is tectonically too stable. In this study, we investigated low-enthalpy geothermal energy from one of a number of anomalously elevated heat flow regions in South Africa. Here, we consider a 75-MW enhanced geothermal systems plant in the Limpopo Province, sustainable over a 30-year period. All parameters were inculcated within a levelised cost of electricity model that calculates the single unit cost of electricity and tests its viability and potential impact toward South Africa's future energy security and CO2 reduction. The cost of electricity produced is estimated at 14 USc/KWh, almost double that of coal-generated energy. However, a USD25/MWh renewable energy tax incentive has the potential of making enhanced geothermal systems comparable with other renewable energy sources. It also has the potential of CO2 mitigation by up to 1.5 gCO2/KWh. Considering the aggressive nature of the global climate change combat and South Africa's need for a larger renewable energy base, low-enthalpy geothermal energy could potentially form another energy option in South Africa's alternative energy basket.

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  16. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  17. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of water resources uncertainties in the Luvuvhu sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, N.; Hughes, D.; Kapangaziwiri, E.; Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Mvandaba, V.

    2018-06-01

    In the absence of historical observed data, models are generally used to describe the different hydrological processes and generate data and information that will inform management and policy decision making. Ideally, any hydrological model should be based on a sound conceptual understanding of the processes in the basin and be backed by quantitative information for the parameterization of the model. However, these data are often inadequate in many sub-basins, necessitating the incorporation of the uncertainty related to the estimation process. This paper reports on the impact of the uncertainty related to the parameterization of the Pitman monthly model and water use data on the estimates of the water resources of the Luvuvhu, a sub-basin of the Limpopo river basin. The study reviews existing information sources associated with the quantification of water balance components and gives an update of water resources of the sub-basin. The flows generated by the model at the outlet of the basin were between 44.03 Mm3 and 45.48 Mm3 per month when incorporating +20% uncertainty to the main physical runoff generating parameters. The total predictive uncertainty of the model increased when water use data such as small farm and large reservoirs and irrigation were included. The dam capacity data was considered at an average of 62% uncertainty mainly as a result of the large differences between the available information in the national water resources database and that digitised from satellite imagery. Water used by irrigated crops was estimated with an average of about 50% uncertainty. The mean simulated monthly flows were between 38.57 Mm3 and 54.83 Mm3 after the water use uncertainty was added. However, it is expected that the uncertainty could be reduced by using higher resolution remote sensing imagery.

  19. Views of professional nurses regarding low tuberculosis cure rate in Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandzumuni V. Maswanganyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of patients suffering from tuberculosis (TB after discharge from hospital plays a critical role in the cure rate of TB. Despite interventions developed by the World Health Organization (WHO to improve the cure rate, TB remains a worldwide health problem. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the views of professional nurses regarding the low TB cure rate in primary healthcare facilities of Greater Giyani Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa, with the aim of determining strategies that can be used to improve this low rate. Method: This study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of professional nurses working in primary healthcare facilities within Greater Giyani Municipality, which has a TB cure rate below the national target of 85 %. Data gathering was through individual face-to-face interviews using an interview guide. Open-coding was used to analyse the data in this study. Results: The theme that emerged from data was ‘factors contributing to low TB cure rate’. This theme was supported by the following sub-themes: poor referral system, lack of knowledge about TB and its treatment, stigma attached to TB, and cultural and religious beliefs. The professional nurses suggested counselling of TB patients upon diagnosis, advice about patients’ responsibilities and the involvement of family members. Conclusion: The involvement of community stakeholders in TB prevention, health promotion and education activities devoted to disease spread and cure is vital so that the stigma attached to TB can be eliminated. TB education and awareness programmes should be included in the curriculum of primary schools.

  20. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pengpid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  1. From the "Kraal" to the Classroom: Shifting Musical Arts Practices from the Community to the School with Special Reference to Learning "Tshigombela" in Limpopo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberly, Andrea; Davidson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa the arts and culture educational curriculum has undergone immense change and continues to impact and influence the role of musical arts practices in children's lives throughout the country. In specific districts of the Limpopo province in particular, musical practices of the Venda culture are being integrated into the school…

  2. Parameter and input data uncertainty estimation for the assessment of water resources in two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, Nadia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available frica Parameter and input data uncertainty estimation for the assessment of water resources in two sub-basins of the Limpopo River Basin Nadia Oosthuizen1,2, Denis A. Hughes2, Evison Kapangaziwiri1, Jean-Marc Mwenge Kahinda1, and Vuyelwa Mvandaba1,2 1...

  3. The home range of a recently established group of Southern ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri in the Limpopo Valley, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Theron

    2013-10-01

    Conservation implications: The Limpopo Valley SGH population is one of the most significant outside protected areas in South Africa. This population is especially vulnerable to threats such as poisoning, persecution for window breaking and drought, as shown by their near extirpation from the area. Conservation efforts need to focus on awareness amongst local farmers, provision of artificial nests and continued monitoring of groups.

  4. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Malema

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  5. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Malema

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  6. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  7. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhuromu, E N; Davhana-Maselesele, M

    2009-09-01

    Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS) in Limpopo Province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch 's method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  8. Marine reactor pressure vessels dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 marine reactors from seven Russian submarines and the icebreaker Lenin, each of which suffered some form of reactor accident, were dumped in a variety of containments, using a number of sealing methods, at five sites in the Kara Sea. All reactors were dumped at sites that varied in depth from 12 to 300 m and six contained their spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This paper examines the breakdown of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) barriers due to corrosion, with specific emphasis on those RPVs containing SNF. Included are discussions of the structural aspects of the steam generating installations and their associated RPVs, a summary of the disposal operations, assumptions on corrosion rates of structural and filler materials, and an estimate of the structural integrity of the RPVs at the present time (1996) and in the year 2015

  9. Radiological aspects of sea bed dumping in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    In order to control coastal discharges or ocean dumping of any kind of material, it is necessary to determine a release rate. This can only come from a knowledge of the composition and chemical form of the source materials, the distribution and bioavailability of these materials in the ocean ecosystem, the degree and rates of bioaccumulation and the actual or potential use of the ocean resources. With this information release rates within acceptable limits for man and the ecosystem can then be determined. Today, probably the only situations which apply this approach are the controlled disposal of radioactive wastes. In this paper a recent radiological assessment of the dumping of packaged radioactive wastes on the seabed is discussed and some environmental aspects of the United States Department of Energy program are described examining the feasibility of the emplacement of contained radioactive wastes within the deep ocean sediments

  10. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Christensen, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the level of radioactive contamination in the Kara Sea and to assess short- and long-term consequences of dumped radioactive waste, joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions have been performed annually since 1992. Results from the 1992 joint expedition to the Kara Sea demonstrated very low concentrations of radionuclides in waters and sediments. Contributions from different sources: global fallout, river transport, marine transport of discharges from European reprocessing plants and of fallout from Chernobyl, could be identified. From the expeditions in 1993 and 1994 to three bays at Novaya Zemlya, local contamination in the Stepovogo and the Abrosimov bays due to leakage from the dumped radioactive waste could be confirmed. Results from the 1994 expedition will be published in 1995. The levels of radioactivity in the Kara Sea are, however, very low and represent at present an extremely low impact on man and the marine ecosystem. (Author)

  11. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  12. Biological reduction of dust nuisance on power station waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J

    1978-01-01

    The results of pot trials and succeeding field trials carried out in 1966-72 to find out the best method of reclamationand stabilishing the fly ash and cinder waste dump at the Melnik power station are summarised. The material consists mainly of fine particles with a size range of less than 1 micron to 0.16 mm in diam., and creates a source of blown dust in dry weather. Treatment of the waste material before sowing grass and legume species, the species tested, sowing rates, applied fertilizers, irrigation and treatment of the resulting swards are discussed. The most suitable species were Festuca rubra, F. ovina, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass; the cost of stabilising the dump was lowest with Italian ryegrass. (In English)

  13. Experimental use of neutrinos from ISABELLE beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Thorndike, A.M.; Mann, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The technical feasibility and possible applicability of using ISABELLE beam dumps as powerful sources for directed high-energy neutrino bursts are investigated. In the present machine design two dump systems are applied to absorb the extracted fast beams. The expected normal beam extraction rate is 1 to 2 per day, when about (6.3 to 7.5) x 10 14 protons are hitting the external targets during a pulse length of approx. 50 μs. These protons are considered so far to be useless. The neutrinos produced could be used for the following activities: the study of coherent neutrino regeneration, calibration and permanent testing of cosmic-ray and astrophysical neutrino detectors, research on the practical applicability of neutrinos in telecommunication, and certain astro- and geophysical applications. Tailoring the system to meet these activities is illustrated. 6 figures

  14. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  15. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  16. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksic, N M; Balac, N [Institute of Meteorology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). College of Physics

    1991-01-01

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory) type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the Nikola Tesla power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Energy deposition profile on ISOLDE Beam Dumps by FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    In this report an estimation of the energy deposited on the current ISOLDE beam dumps obtained by means of FLUKA simulation code is presented. This is done for both ones GPS and HRS. Some estimations of temperature raise are given based on the assumption of adiabatic increase from energy deposited by the impinging protons. However, the results obtained here in relation to temperature are only a rough estimate. They are meant to be further studied through thermomechanical simulations using the energyprofiles hereby obtained.

  18. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  19. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  20. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  1. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This document, which describes the content of an environmental assessment report, will assist national authorities to meet their obligations under the London Dumping Convention (LDC, 1972) by initiating those steps which are to be undertaken to ensure that ''the procedure to be followed and the nature of such reports shall be agreed by the parties in consultation'' (Article VI. 4). In the context of sea disposal of radioactive wastes, environmental assessments are taken to mean those evaluations which are undertaken to assist in the decision-making processes used by national authorities to determine: 1) How the option of sea disposal compares environmentally, technically, socially and economically with other disposal options (this constitutes the comparison with land-based alternatives); and 2) Whether the impact of a proposed sea disposal option is acceptable (this requires a detailed evaluation of the proposed operation including site selection, quantities and types of waste to be dumped, operational requirements and calculation of radiological and other risks). The term ''environmental assessment'' in these respects is deemed to include both the evaluation of the impact of sea dumping and the document that describes this evaluation

  2. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation Cu Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason; Stein, Werner; Wirth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of conceptual R&D activities in support of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be not a significant issue. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (dpa) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 dpa, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 100 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks...

  3. Detailed mechanical design of the LIPAc beam dump radiological shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomen, Oriol, E-mail: onomen@irec.cat [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CDEI-UPC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Martínez, José I.; Arranz, Fernando; Iglesias, Daniel; Barrera, Germán; Brañas, Beatriz [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ogando, Francisco [UNED, Madrid (Spain); Molla, Joaquín [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanmartí, Manel [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Mechanical design of the IFMIF LIPAc beam dump shielding has been performed. ► Lead shutter design performed to shield radiation from beam dump when LIPAc is off. ► External loads, working and dismantling conditions, included as design constraints. -- Abstract: The LIPAc is a 9 MeV, D{sup +} linear prototype accelerator for the validation of the IFMIF accelerator design. The high intensity, 125 mA CW beam is stopped in a copper cone involving a high production of neutrons and gamma radiation and activation of its surface. The beam stopper is surrounded by a shielding to attenuate the resulting radiation so that dose rate values comply with the limits at the different zones of the installation. The shielding includes for that purpose polyethylene rings, water tanks and gray cast iron rings. A lead shutter has also been designed to shield the gamma radiation that comes through the beam tube when the linear accelerator is not in operation, in order to allow access inside the building for maintenance tasks. The present work summarizes the detailed mechanical design of the beam dump shielding and the lead shutter taking into account the design constraints, such as working conditions and other external loads, as well as including provisions for dismantling.

  4. The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, D.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J.M.; Barrera, G.; Branas, B.; Casal, N.; Garcia, M.; Lopez, D.; Martinez, J.I.; Mayoral, A.; Ogando, F.; Parro, M.; Oliver, C.; Rapisarda, D.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Ibarra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA cw deuteron accelerator prototype for verifying the validity of the 40 MeV accelerator design for IFMIF. A beam dump designed for maximum power of 1.12 MW will be used to stop the beam at the accelerator exit. The conceptual design for the IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump is based on a conical beam stop made of OFE copper. The cooling system uses an axial high velocity flow of water pressurized up to 3.4 x 10 5 Pa to avoid boiling. The design has been shown to be compliant with ASME mechanical design rules under nominal full power conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to take into account the possible margin on the beam properties at the beam dump entrance. This analysis together with the study of the maintenance issues and the mounting and dismounting operations has led to the complete design definition.

  5. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  6. Resonant production of dark photons in positron beam dump experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Enrico; Carvajal, Cristian D. R.; Ghoshal, Anish; Meloni, Davide; Raggi, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    Positrons beam dump experiments have unique features to search for very narrow resonances coupled superweakly to e+e- pairs. Due to the continued loss of energy from soft photon bremsstrahlung, in the first few radiation lengths of the dump a positron beam can continuously scan for resonant production of new resonances via e+ annihilation off an atomic e- in the target. In the case of a dark photon A' kinetically mixed with the photon, this production mode is of first order in the electromagnetic coupling α , and thus parametrically enhanced with respect to the O (α2)e+e-→γ A' production mode and to the O (α3)A' bremsstrahlung in e- -nucleon scattering so far considered. If the lifetime is sufficiently long to allow the A' to exit the dump, A'→e+e- decays could be easily detected and distinguished from backgrounds. We explore the foreseeable sensitivity of the Frascati PADME experiment in searching with this technique for the 17 MeV dark photon invoked to explain the Be 8 anomaly in nuclear transitions.

  7. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  8. Development of offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system. Dump truck mujin soko system no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Z [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-25

    A large offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system has been developed, and is in practical operation mounted on dump trucks at Torigatayama Limestone Quarry of Nittetsu Mining Company. The system functions in a manual dump truck navigation mode, wireless navigation mode, and unmanned control mode. The unmanned control mode further includes a mode to navigate the truck on a predetermined course with its data having been input in a computer and a mode that when the truck was moved on a course under a wireless control, the computer learns the course and drives the truck autonomously thereafter. The safety measures are divided into the hardware safety function to detect abnormalities in brakes and other vehicle parts, and the software safety functions of data communications, sensor action check, and prevention of collision of trucks with each other. The system has resulted in a productivity of average one-way travel distance of 345 m, and average unmanned navigation cycle time of 9 minutes and 26 seconds for a transportation efficiency of 541 t/hour/truck, having reached at least the manned operation level. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  10. Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, M.; Kelderman, P.; O´keeffe, J. H.

    The measurement of chemical, physical and biological parameters is important for the characterization of streams health. Thus, cost-effective and targeted water quality (WQ) monitoring programmes are required for proper assessment, restoration and protection of such systems. This research proposes a WQ monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) in Mozambique located in Southern Africa, a region prone to severe droughts. In this Basin both anthropogenic and natural driven processes, exacerbated by the increased water demand by the four riparian countries (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) are responsible for the degradation of surface waters, impairing their downstream use, either for aquatic ecosystem, drinking, industrial or irrigation. Hence, physico-chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics at 23 sites within the basin were studied in November 2006 and January 2007. The physico-chemical and microbiological samples were analyzed according to American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the biological monitoring working party method (BMWP) was used for biological assessment. The assessment of the final WQ condition at sampled points was done taking into account appropriate indexes, the Mozambican standards for receiving waters and the WHO guidelines for drinking WQ. The assessed data indicated that sites located at proximities to the border with upstream countries were contaminated with heavy metals. The Elephants subcatchment was found with a relatively better WQ, whereas the Changane subcatchment together with the effluent point discharges in the basin were found polluted as indicated by the low dissolved oxygen and high total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio and low benthic macroinvertebrates taxa. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found for some parameters when the concentrations recorded in November and January were tested, therefore, indicating

  11. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  12. Dumping of low-level radioactive waste in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two international agreements relate to the dumping of packaged radioactive waste into the oceans - the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter of 1972 (London Convention) and the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste of 1977 under the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The International Atomic Energy Agency was given the responsibility to define high-level radioactive wastes which are unsuitable for dumping in the oceans and to make recommendations for the dumping of other radioactive wastes. A revised Definition and Recommendations was submitted and accepted by the London Convention. This paper reviews the technical basis for the Definition and describes how it has been applied to the radiological assessment of the only operational dumping site in the North East Atlantic

  13. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutually coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains ''coupling'' resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  14. Alternative power supply and dump resistor connections for similar, mutally coupled, superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.; Wang, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative methods of connecting similar mutually coupled coils to their power supplies and dump resistors are investigated. The circuits are evaluated for both operating and fault conditions. The factors considered are the voltage to ground during a dump, short circuits, open circuits, quenches, and failure of the protection system to detect a quench. Of particular interest are the currents induced in coils that remain superconducting when one or more coils quench. The alternative connections include combined power supplies, individual dump resistors, combined resistors and series and parallel dump resistors. A new circuit that contains coupling resistors is proposed. The coupling resistors do not affect normal fast dumps but reduce the peak induced currents while also reducing the energy rating of the dump resistors. Another novel circuit, the series circuit with diodes, is discussed. The MFTF-B central-cell solenoids are used as an example

  15. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  16. Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of leaf margin serration of Populus nigra L. in conditions of industrial dumps (coal mines dumps and overburden dumps and city park is estimated. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1.25 to 1.76 and significantly increases along the gradient: coal mines dumps – overburden dumps – city park. From the number of selected gradations of P. nigra leaf blades, the gradation with values of 1.45-1.55 is most pronounced according to the analyzed index for industrial dumps, for the park – with the values of 1.55-1.65. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation – coefficient of variation is less than 10.0%. We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P. nigra leaf blade.

  17. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  18. Modeling acid mine drainage in waste rock dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R. [INRS, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of sulfides present in mine wastes. The acidity generated by these reactions creates conditions under which metals can be leached and represent a threat for surface and ground waters. Even though leachate collection and neutralization are used to treat the problem, the industry is looking for methods to predict and prevent the generation of AMD at new sites and control methods for sites already producing AMD. Waste rock dumps are generally very large accumulations of barren rocks extracted from open pits to access ore bodies. These rocks contain sulfides, most commonly pyrite, and often generate AMD at rates much higher than in mine tailings which are fine grained by-products of milling operations. Numerous coupled physical processes are involved in AMD production in waste rocks. Sulfide oxidation reactions are strongly exothermic and temperatures beyond 70{degrees}C have been measured in some dumps. That heat is transfered by conduction and fluid advection. Dumps have thick partly saturated zones through which gases flow under thermal gradients and water infiltrates. Oxygen is required by the oxidation reactions and is supplied by diffusion and advection. The reaction products are carried in solution in very concentrated leachates. Numerical modeling of AMD aims to (1) provide a better understanding of the physical processes involved in AMD, (2) allow the integration of available waste rock characterization data, (3) indicate new data or studies which are required to fill the gaps in our quantitative understanding of AMD processes, and (4) supply a tool for the prediction of AMD production, taking into account the impact of control methods. These objectives can only be met through sustained research efforts. This study is part of a wider research effort which as been on-going at La Mine Doyon since 1991.

  19. Dumping and injury margins in markets with horizontal as well as vertical product differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the GATT/WTO rules for anti-dumping measures in a duopoly model with both horizontal and vertical product differentiation. The GATT/WTO rules allow for anti-dumping measures if domestic producers, exposed to price discrimination, also demonstrate injury where price...... countries in ability to implement anti-dumping measures predominantly favors the developed countries which are specialized in producing high-quality products. The paper suggests an overall critical look at the lenient rules for implementing anti-dumping measures-especially the rules for injury determination...

  20. Preliminary studies on trace element contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, T.; Kunito, T.; Nakashima, E.; Minh, T. B.; Tanabe, S.; Subramanian, A.; Viet, P. H.

    2003-05-01

    The disposal of wastes in dumping sites has increasingly caused concem about adverse health effects on the populations living nearby. However, no investigation has been conducted yet on contamination in dumping sites of municipal wastes in Asian developing countries. In this study, concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb and Pb) were detennined in scalp hair from the population living nearby and in soil from dumping sites and control sites of India and Vietnam. Soil samples in dumping site in India showed significantly higher concentrations of some trace elements than soils in control site, whereas this trend was not notable in Vietnam. This is probably due to the fact that the wastes were covered with the soil in the dumping site of Vietnam. Cadmium concentrations in some hair samples of people living near dumping site in India and Vietnam exceeded the level associated with learning disorder in children. Levels of most of the trace elements in hair were significantly higher in dumping site than those in control site in India and Vietnam, suggesting direct or indirect exposure to those elements from dumping wastes. To our knowledge, this is the first study of trace element contamination in dumping sites in India and Vietnam.

  1. Conceptual design of dump resistor for superconducting CS of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swati; Pradhan, Subrata; Panchal, Arun

    2015-01-01

    During the upgradation of SST-1, the resistive central solenoid (CS) coil has been planned to be replaced with Nb 3 Sn based superconducting coil. The superconducting CS will store upto 3.5MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14kA. In case of coil quench, the energy stored in the coils is to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5s. This will be achieved by inserting a 20m Ohm dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a vital part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20m Ohm dump resistor has been proposed. In this paper, the required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented. Natural air circulation is proposed as cooling method for this dump resistor. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the shape of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. The entire dump resistor will be an array of such grids connected in series and parallel to meet electrical as well as thermal parameters. The maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor is upto 350 °C during dump 3.5MJ energy. The proposed design permits indigenous fabrication of the dump resistor using commercially available welding techniques. (author)

  2. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average steeper than the pre-dump slopes. The “bedrock” of the Payatas dump are conglomerate members of the Pleistocene volcaniclastic Guadualupe Formation. Studies are still to be done on the extent of pollution on surface and groundwater in the Payatas environs.

  3. Scaling Criteria for the Development of an Acoustically Stabilized Dump Combustor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Jerald A; Parr, Timothy P; Widmer, Neil C; Wilson, Kenneth J; Schadow, Klaus C; Randall, William R

    2000-01-01

    Acoustic stabilization of combustion in a dump configuration results in completion of combustion in a relatively short residence time with simultaneously low emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon...

  4. Is small-scale irrigation an efficient pro-poor strategy in the upper Limpopo Basin in Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Raphaelle

    2017-08-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is evidence that households with access to small-scale irrigation are significantly less poor than households that do not have access to irrigation. However, private motopumps tend to be distributed inequitably. This paper investigates the success of explicit pro-poor interventions with emphasis on small-scale irrigation in the semi-arid Limpopo Basin in Mozambique. It reveals that high irrigation costs are progressively excluding the poor, who are unable to generate a cash income from other activities they need to fund irrigation. In addition, the operation of collective schemes involving the poor is being jeopardized by the development of private irrigation schemes, which benefit from hidden subsidies appropriated by local elites. This results in unequal access to irrigation, which can cause resentment at community level. This weakens community cohesiveness, as well as communities' capacities for collective action and coordination, which are crucial for collective irrigation.

  5. Xenophobic attacks on foreign shop owners and street vendors in Louis Trichardt Central Business District, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholofelo Mothibi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobic attacks in South Africa in 2008 and 2015 sent shockwaves through the country and the world. In these events, around 70 people were killed while thousands were displaced; and, property and products of street vendors and shop owners were destroyed. This phenomenological research project is confined to Louis Trichardt in Limpopo Province wherefrom a cohort of foreign street vendors and shop owners were interviewed. The lived experiences of being verbally and physically abused as well as of some acquaintances being killed, has clearly left them traumatised and living in fear. The article finds that contributory factors to xenophobic attacks experienced by foreign shop owners and street vendors range from competition over scarce resources, stereotypes and inter-group anxiety. Finally, it offers some recommendations about education for South Africans and measured police action.

  6. Radioactive waste dumping at sea: causes for concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, D.; Atkinson, N.; Barrett, H.A.

    The dumping of various low-level radioactive wastes at sea has been carried out for many years and has been accepted as a satisfactory means of disposal by national and international regulatory authorities. There are, however, grounds for concern from an environmental standpoint which centre around two particular issues: the likely extent of mobilisation of an increasing radioactive inventory over time and the likely effects of such radioactivity if and when it should make contact with living organisms. The subject is discussed under the headings: mobilisation; effects on the marine environment; physical and biological considerations; future exploitation of the oceans (for food, minerals); and the effects of radiation. (author)

  7. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  8. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  9. Collecting tau neutrinos near the proton dump: an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.Eh.; Goritchev, P.A.; Kubantsev, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for the study of tan neutrino interactions in nuclear emulsion placed close to the proton dump are discussed. The processes νsub(tay)N → taysup(-)X with subsequent taysup(-) → lν tildesub(l)νsub(tay) and taysup(-) → νsub(tay) hadrons (l=μ, e) are considered. It is shown that of the approximately 1000 event surviving the kinematic selection criteria, approximately 50 leptonic and approximately 200 hadronic tay decays can be identified in emulsion

  10. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  11. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  12. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa.Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Ntuli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.

  14. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth. Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  15. Sitting on the fence? policies and practices in managing human-wildlife conflict in Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are the product of socio-economic and political landscapes and are contentious because the resources concerned have economic value and species are often high profile and legally protected. Within a governance framework, we detail institutional roles and the effectiveness of policies and practices of controlling damage-causing animals (DCAs at Kruger National Park (KNP and Limpopo Province along KNP′s western border. Most DCAs originate from the park, significantly affecting its long-term legitimacy among local communities. Between 2002 and 2004, over 12% of households within 15 km of the park experienced DCA damage, with incidents significantly correlated with being located closer to KNP and having higher numbers of mammalian livestock. These incidents are affecting opinions concerning KNP, as those who experienced damage were less likely to believe that the park would ever help their household economically. According to 482 DCA incident records from 1998 to 2004, the most problematic species are buffalo, lion, elephant, hippo and crocodile. Limpopo Province utilised professional hunters in DCA control, however, widespread abuses including the direct luring of lion led to a national moratorium on specific hunting practices. DCA procedures are highly flawed due to ambiguity concerning species and movement of DCAs, poor reporting, inadequate response times, overlapping responsibilities, and corruption. These are exacerbated by weak and, in some cases, competing institutions. Further, the controversial issue of undelivered compensation is determining negative attitudes by communities towards institutions who have historically promised it. Drawing on good governance principles, we offer recommendations on alleviating DCA conflicts in such contexts.

  16. Clay sealing for dumps - new findings from suitability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, L.; Kuntsche, K.; Duellmann, H.

    1988-06-01

    Extensive suitability tests were carried out in the laboratory and field on various clays of the Lower-Rhineland brown coal mining area. The purpose of these tests was to determine the basic suitability of these clays for use as sealing layers for residue dumps. The tests also furnished criteria according to which a specific imperviousness can be achieved. The results of the tests can be summed up as follows: Since the material properties of the in-situ clays vary widely, not only mean values but also corresponding variation coefficients must be adhered to. For the purpose of checking the quality - contrary to the hitherto applied assessment practice - the decisive factor is not the testing of the dry density as compared to the Proctor density, but the homogeneity of the sealing layer that is achieved as a result of the size reduction and compaction of the pseudo-granular structure. Using suitable equipment, homogeneities, for which permeability coefficients of k less than or equal to 10/sup -9/ m/s in the dump sealing are obtained can be achieved with the clays that were examined.

  17. Conceptual Design of the Linac4 Main Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, I V; Maglioni, C

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is the new CERN linear accelerator intended to replace the ageing Linac2 as the injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) for increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). By delivering a 160MeV H- beam, Linac4 will provide the necessary conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam extracted from the PSB. This paper describes the conceptual design of the Linac4 Main Dump, where two different concepts relying respectively on water and air cooling were compared and evaluated. Based on the application of analytical models for the energy deposited by the beam, heat conduction and cooling concepts, a parametric study was performed. This approach allowed the identification of the “optimal” configuration for these two conceptual geometries and their relative comparison. Besides giving the theoretical guidelines for the design of the new dump, this work also contributes to the development of analytical tools to allow a better understanding of the influence of the se...

  18. Performance Studies for Protection Against Asynchronous Dumps in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system has to safely dispose all beams in a wide energy range of 450 GeV to 7 TeV. A 3 ms abort gap in the beam structure for the switch-on of the extraction kicker field ideally allows a loss-free extraction under normal operating conditions. However, a low number of asynchronous beam aborts is to be expected from reliability calculations and from the first year's operational experience with the beam dump kickers. For such cases, MAD-X simulations including all optics and alignment errors have been performed to determine loss patterns around the LHC as a function of the position of the main protection elements in interaction region six. Special attention was paid to the beam load on the tungsten collimators which protect the triplets in the LHC experimental insertions, and the tracking results compared with semi-analytical numerical estimates. The simulations are also compared to the results of beam commissioning of these protection devices.

  19. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  20. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  1. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzani E. Luruli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83% and assurance (80% domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. Keywords: client satisfaction, disability, community-based rehabilitation, community rehabilitation worker

  2. Changes in some physical properties of soils in the chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps of the Sokolov quarry-dump complex, Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuráž, V.; Frouz, Jan; Kuráž, M.; Mako, A.; Šustr, Vladimír; Cejpek, J.; Romanov, O.V.; Abakumov, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2012), s. 266-272 ISSN 1064-2293 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08023 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 08-04-01128 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : physical properties of soil s * chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps * Sokolov quarry-dump complex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.216, year: 2012

  3. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2003-01-01

    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  4. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction ( 3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location doubled. It is concluded that marine benthic resources at and around the dumping sites have been adversely affected by physical disturbance (burial, smothering). However, no causal link could be established with sediment-associated contaminants from the dredged spoils

  5. Regularities of restoration of plant cover on the dumps of the Kuznetsk Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kupriyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of the restoration vegetation on the dumps of the coal enterprises of the Kuznetsk Basin. Studies have shown that the dumps have a wide range of environmental conditions and are potentially suitable for establishment of plants. To negative environmental factors at the mine dumps include the lack of productive moisture, failed penetration, contrasting temperature regime on the different elements of the relief, and low potential fertility of the embryonic soils. Positive – high humidity in the depressions, the high content of fine-grained deposits in the lower part of the elephant dumps, excessive accumulation of snow in the winter on separate dumping sites. On disturbed lands identified eight technogenic ecotopes, characterized by various microrelief, moisture level, amount of fine fractions of technogenic eluvium determining favorable, moderately favorable and unfavorable conditions for vegetation of disturbed land. Selected three stages of syngenesis: pioneer stage, simple plant communities and complex plant communities. The stage of zonal phytocenosis on the dumps was not detected. The basis of diagnostic signs consists of the projective cover, the nature of the host plants, the number of species part of the zonal species. The selected criteria are universal and can be applicable to most dumps. Speed of syngenetic succession does not depend on calendar age of the dumps, and environmental conditions, which are formed on separate sites.

  6. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to banded gastric bypass: greater incidence of dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Galvão Neto, Manoel; Moretto, Myriam; Barancelli, Fabiano; Schroer, Caroline Eckerdt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2009-11-01

    Dumping syndrome is one of ten most common complications in morbidly obese patients operated. Recent studies in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in patients submitted to gastric bypass led us to examine the different outcomes in this group of patients. Our objective was to determine the difference in the prevalence of dumping syndrome in patients with DM2 submitted to gastric bypass. In this retrospective study, 49 diabetic and 54 non-diabetic morbidly obese patients were submitted to gastric bypass and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The occurrence of dumping was determined by the patient's medical chart, where it was considered positive if recorded in at least one of three evaluations. The 103 patients evaluated had a mean BMI of 49.5 +/- 9.3 kg/m(2) and mean age of 38 +/- 9.7 years, with 75.7% being women. The prevalence of dumping syndrome in this population was 24.3%. The prevalence of dumping was greater in patients with DM2 (44.9%) when compared to the control group (5.6%; p DM2 as the only variable associated with dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome is a common postoperative complication in gastric bypass. Patients with DM2 show a greater postoperative prevalence of dumping.

  7. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  8. The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Refuse Dump sites on the Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of ground Water in some selected areas. ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home ... The pollution effect of refuse dumps on the quality of wells at Ojota, Lagos, Apete, Ibadan and Odopetu, Akure were studied.

  9. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  11. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model......Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model...

  12. The mathematical model of vertical solt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Yevhrashkina,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamics of porous media offer a range of mathematical models of vertical salt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass. designed several variants of dumps free overgrowth for the optimal performance for transpiration of wild plants.

  13. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, S.; Felix, M.; Sohr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  15. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  16. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  17. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  18. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Global dumping ground: The international traffic in hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, B.

    1993-01-01

    This book is based on the PBS's television documentary. It vividly describes the forces that encourage the USA and other industrialized nations to condone the disposal of industrial and domestic hazardous wastes in other countries. Often conducted illegally, this disposal affects the unsuspecting people of less developed nations, many of whom have less stringent environmental laws and regulations. The book also portrays the ill effects of this dumping on the health and environment and convey and important messages: something must be done to get the public involved in repairing a serious global problem and even small measures, illustrated in the book, are a good start. However, the book fails to confront the question of how the public wants the government to be involved

  20. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  1. Design and development of multi-megawatt beam dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.M.; Cooper, W.S.; Paterson, J.A.

    1976-11-01

    The next generation of U.S. fusion experiments which includes TFTR, MFTF, and Doublet III, will utilize neutral-beam injection for plasma heating. TFTR, for example, desires 20 MW of 120-keV deuterium atoms in pulses of 0.5-sec duration. In order to meet these requirements, a 15-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec pulse per minute module is presently under test at the neutral-beam test facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A 65-A, 120-keV, 0.5-sec module is under construction and is scheduled for assembly in April of this year. Some of the features of a calorimeter/beam dump that is presently being used in the testing and evaluation of these neutral beam sources are discussed

  2. New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-09-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Challenges faced by caregivers of children on antiretroviral therapy at Mutale Municipality selected healthcare facilities, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafune, Rhudzani V; Lebese, Rachel T; Nemathaga, Livhuwani H

    2017-08-28

    Children depend solely on caregivers who can be either parents or guardians for drug administration to enhance adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), which might pose any number of challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges faced by caregivers of children on ART at Mutale Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of 16 caregivers who were 18 years of age and above, and mentally capable, irrespective of educational qualifications, caring for children aged between 0 and 15 years who were on ART between April 2013 and October 2014. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select the 16 caregivers. Required permission, approval and ethical clearance were obtained from the University of Venda Higher Degree Committee, Limpopo Provincial Health Department and relevant institutions. An in-depth, individual, unstructured interview method was used to collect data. One central question was asked: 'What are the challenges you experience when caring for a child on antiretroviral treatment?' Subsequent questions were based on the participants' responses to the central question. Qualitative data were analysed by means of Tesch's open-coding method. The findings of this study revealed that participants, that is, caregivers of children on ART, experienced financial burdens because of transport costs needed to comply with follow-up dates and insufficient of money for food, clothing the child in need of care, pocket money for lunch boxes during school hours and time lost while waiting for consultations. Participants reported some level of stigmatisation against children on ART by family members, especially the husbands or in-laws of the secondary caregivers. Many primary and secondary caregivers seemed to have given up seeking support from government and community structures. The conclusions drawn from this research

  4. An assessment of the radiological impact of sea-dumping at the North East Atlantic dump site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delow, C.E.; Mobbs, S.F.; Hill, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the models and methodology developed for the assessment of the radiological impact of disposal of low and intermediate level waste on the seabed. The development of the waste package model and the combined model of radionuclide dispersion and interactions with sediments in the world's ocean is outlined. This integrated set of models was used for the radiological assessment of sea dumping at the North-East Atlantic site, which formed part of the recent NEA review of the continued suitability of this site. The predicted radiation doses to man are presented, together with the results of the analysis of the sensitivity of the annual individual doses to critical groups to variations in model parameters. (author)

  5. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  6. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  7. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  8. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  9. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  10. D0 Superconducting Solenoid Quench Data and Slow Dump Data Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.

    1998-01-01

    This Dzero Engineering note describes the method for which the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid Fast Dump and Slow Dump data are accumulated, tracked and stored. The 2 Tesla Solenoid has eleven data points that need to be tracked and then stored when a fast dump or a slow dump occur. The TI555(Texas Instruments) PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) which controls the DC power circuit that powers the Solenoid, also has access to all the voltage taps and other equipment in the circuit. The TI555 constantly logs these eleven points in a rotating memory buffer. When either a fast dump(dump switch opens) or a slow dump (power supply turns off) occurs, the TI555 organizes the respective data and will down load the data to a file on DO-CCRS2. This data in this file is moved over ethernet and is stored in a CSV (comma separated format) file which can easily be examined by Microsoft Excel or any other spreadsheet. The 2 Tesla solenoid control system also locks in first fault information. The TI555 decodes the first fault and passes it along to the program collecting the data and storing it on DO-CCRS2. This first fault information is then part of the file.

  11. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  12. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  13. Establishment of a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    International regulations on dumping of radioactive waste which until only recently were limited to general principles, have developed significantly during the past years, while radioactive waste sea, dumping operations were being undertaken during the same period under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The latter, in implementation of the London Convention and the IAEA Recommendations, has established a mechanism whose purpose is to place under international control radioactive waste sea dumping operations to ensure that all necessary steps are taken to avoid marine pollution. This paper analyses the technical and legal aspects of the mechanism. (NEA) [fr

  14. The waste bin: nuclear waste dumping and storage in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branch, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively small amounts of nuclear waste have been stored on Pacific islands and dumped into the Pacific Ocean since 1945. Governments of Pacific countries possessing nuclear power plants are presently seeking permanent waste storage and disposal solutions at Pacific sites including subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes and ocean dumping of low-level wastes. This article examines these plans and the response of Pacific islanders in their development of policies and international strategies to ban the proposed dumping on a regional basis. Island governments are preparing for a Regional Convention during which a treaty concerned with radioactive waste storage and disposal will be signed. (Author)

  15. Analysis of Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, Andrian; Musina, Valeria; Golovko, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal dumps and their impact on the environment of mining regions remain important environmental problem, in spite of the measures that are being taken. The paper presents the hypothesis, which states that the location of coal dumps at the boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks promotes the appearance of conditions for their combustion. At present geodynamically active crust faults that affect the operating conditions of engineering facilities are observed not only in the areas of tectonic activity, but also on platforms. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks. The purpose of the study is to estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia). Nine of sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically dangerous zones, which, taking into account relatively small area occupied by all geodynamically dangerous zones, results that there is a concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps, which is 14 times higher than the baseline value. While the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. Taking into account the stressed state of the rock massif in this region, all geodynamically dangerous zones can be divided into compression and tension zones. The statistic is limited, but nevertheless in tension zones the concentration of burning dumps is 2 times higher than in compression zones. Available results of thermal monitoring of

  16. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Luís E. E.

    2010-09-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emission losses, it is insensitive to the pump-dump-train delay, and it requires only basic pulse shaping.

  17. Price strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese exporters in the light of anti-dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may...... give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures...

  18. Assessment of the Influence of Dredge Spoil Dumping on the Seafloor Geological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonas J. Virtasalo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the development of suitable indicators for regular reporting on the environmental state and achievement of a good environmental status of EU's marine waters by 2020. The development of indicators for determining seafloor integrity and its possible disturbance by human activities have so far largely ignored the geological properties of seafloor. This paper presents a study of Vuosaari and Uusikaupunki-D offshore dumping sites in Finland, the northern Baltic Sea. Full coverage multibeam bathymetry and relative backscatter data, and a number of sediment cores were collected over the sites. The areas covered by dumped dredge spoil stand out in the multibeam images because of their irregular surface and elevated backscatter. The short gravity cores were studied for lithology, and in 1-cm slices for 137Cs activity, organic content, and grain size distribution. The dumped material is represented in the cores by the gravelly mud lithofacies with massive texture and angular coarse particles. The dumped material is coarser, less sorted and has higher kurtosis compared to natural sediment due to the admixing of blasted rock during the dredging activities, and limited sorting during fall through the water column upon dumping. Dispersed dredge spoil, which was suspended in the water column during the dumping activities or reworked from the dumped material mounds and redistributed along the seafloor soon thereafter, was deposited over a wide area as a thin layer that is not necessarily readily identifiable by visual inspection in the cores. Cesium activity helped distinguish the dumped material from the 137Cs-enriched natural sediments deposited after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Considering that the dumped material at many of the coring sites in the Vuosaari dumping area is covered by natural sediment, it probably is largely stable. In contrast, dumped material at the shallower Uusikaupunki-D site has

  19. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Cała, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Michał

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  20. Open dumping of municipal solid waste and its hazardous impacts on soil and vegetation diversity at waste dumping sites of Islamabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Maria Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating soil quality and decrease in vegetation abundance are grave consequences of open waste dumping which have resulted in growing public concern. The focus of this study is to assess the contribution of open waste dumping in soil contamination and its effect on plant diversity in one of the renowned green cities of Pakistan. Surface soil samples (n = 12 + 12 were collected from both the open waste dumping areas allocated by Capital Development Authority (CDA and sub- sectors of H-belt of Islamabad city (representative of control site. The diversity of vegetation was studied at both sampling sites. Significant modifications were observed in the soil properties of the dumping sites. Soils at the disposal sites showed high pH, TDS and EC regime in comparison to control sites. Various heavy metal concentrations i.e., Lead (Pb, Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr and Zinc (Zn were also found to be higher at the dumping sites except for Cadmium (Cd which had a higher value in control site. A similar trend was observed in plant diversity. Control sites showed diversified variety of plants i.e., 44 plant species while this number reduced to only 32 plant species at the disposal sites. This is attributed to changes in soil characteristics at disposal sites and in its vicinity areas.

  1. Energy dump of the ATLAS superconducting system simulations of electrical and thermal behaviour of magnet system at slow- and fast dump

    CERN Document Server

    van Beek, Martijn; Dudarev, A

    During the slow dump (discharge) of the Barrel Toroidal (superconducting) magnet of the ATLAS detector, the control system gave an alarm that the differences between the voltages over the conductors were too high. The alarm was not due to any danger, because of some sort of phenomenon observed in the first few seconds after start of the discharge. A possible explanation of the differences of the coil voltages is that the changing current through the conductors may cause induced currents in the coil casing around. The goal was to make a simulation of the electrical behaviour of the magnet system during a slow dump. In this way, an explanation can be found for the start phenomenon of the slow dump of the Barrel Toroid. Some extra analyses on the measurements were performed to describe the energy dissipation during a fast dump. This is done by calculating the resistance of the coils during the dump. With the maximum resistance, the maximum temperature can be estimated, which says something about the enthalpy of ...

  2. Experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in Mopani district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Mohale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional nurses working in rural, primary health-care settings are experiencing burnout due to serious shortages of personnel. This is exacerbated by the brain drain of nurses leaving the country. Rural settings are resource constrained in terms of personnel and equipment. This results in dissatisfaction among nurses due to the unbearable working conditions which result in stress and frustration. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences of nurses working in a rural primary health-care setting in the greater Letaba sub district in Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants. Data was collected in the form of in-depth interviews. The study revealed that nurses working in primary health-care settings were experiencing emotional and physical strain as a result of the shortage of human resources. It was recommended that policies that meet the health-care needs of rural communities be developed, and that strategies to retain professional nurses in primary health-care settings be formulated.

  3. The political ecology of human-wildlife conflict: Producing wilderness, insecurity, and displacement in the Limpopo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Massé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Like conservation-induced displacement, human-wildlife conflict (HWC has potentially negative implications for communities in and around protected areas. While the ways in which displacement emerges from the creation of 'wilderness' conservation landscapes are well documented, how the production of 'wilderness' articulates with intensifications in HWC remains under examined both empirically and conceptually. Using a political-ecological approach, I analyse increases of HWC in Mozambique's Limpopo National Park (LNP and the subsequent losses of fields and livestock, as well as forms of physical displacement suffered by resident communities. While intensifications of encounters between wildlife on the one hand and people and livestock on the other result in part from increases in wildlife populations, I argue that HWC and the ways in which it constitutes and contributes to various forms of displacement results more centrally from changing relations between wildlife and people and the power and authority to manage conflict between them. Both of these contributing factors, moreover, are the consequence of practices that aim to transform the LNP into a wilderness landscape of conservation and tourism. HWC and its negative impacts are thus not natural phenomena, but are the result of political decisions to create a particular type of conservation landscape.

  4. Occultism in an African context: a case for the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Mashau

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Occultism in Africa is as old as the primal religion itself, or what came to be known as African Traditional Religion (ATR in mo- dern times. It dates back to time immemorial. Occultism in Africa has taken various forms and has manifested in different ways over the ages, i.e. spiritism, divination, witchcraft and ma- gic. The underlying premise of African occultism is the belief in a spiritual world with spiritual forces that have power to inflict harm on the living. In the traditional African worldview suffering of every sort – illness, barrenness, drought and death – is nor- mally explained in personal terms: “there is always somebody”. This “somebody” often belongs to the world of the occult: a “spirit” has brought pain to human beings and must therefore be repelled or accommodated. This is very common among the Vhavenda-speaking people of the Limpopo Province. This ar- ticle seeks to investigate how occultism is practised among these people and to provide a reformed perspective as to how people who are suffering under demonic attacks can be helped. Contrary to other Christian traditions that see exorcism as the only way out, reformed theology suggests a missio-pastoral approach in dealing with the problem.

  5. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Malongane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.

  6. Perceptions of nurse educators regarding the implementation of the occupational specific dispensation at a selected nursing college in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Netshiswinzhe Mcur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD in a selected nursing college in Limpopo province. A qualitative approach was used with a purposive sampling method for the selection of 12 voluntary participants who had worked for more than five years and been subjected to the implementation of OSD. In-depth interviews were conducted and data analysed according to Tesch's method. The perceptions of nurse educators were shared through participants' responses to a central research question. Participants expressed different responses, both positive and negative. The findings of this study demonstrated: high expectations, unfair treatment in relation to the implementation, and reactions to introduction of OSD. Participants also identified envisaged ways of improving the situation through the identification of ways to correct the problems. This study recommended that management ensure that nurse educators' remuneration packages are competitive with those of similar professions in the clinical setting. Recognition of nurse educators' additional qualifications, long-service experiences and rural allowance reviews in nursing education should be taken into consideration urgently.

  7. Knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of MoletjiMashashane Limpopo Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mamabolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Teenagers at the reproductive age face the dilemma of choosing the best birth control method. Knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs associated with an intention to use other contraceptive methods has rarely been investigated. This study investigated the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of Moletji-Mashashane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Objective. To assess the knowledge of and barriers against emergency contraception among secondary school learners. Methods. An anonymous questionnaire was used in the study. It included single and multiple-choice questions. Results. A total of 469 learners aged 14 - 18 years completed the anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that secondary school learners did not have good knowledge of emergency contraceptives; 47.5% reported that they had heard of emergency contraceptives, while 52.5% reported that they had never heard of emergency contraceptives. The majority of learners had misperceptions about the details and safety of ECPs. However, 48.4% reported that emergency contraceptives are effective in preventing pregnancy. Conclusion. The awareness of ECPs was not high in this group. An improved multisectoral approach to education about emergency contraceptives, with greater participation by schools and the Department of Health, is advised. A systematic and long-term intervention among secondary school learners must be conducted to educate learners about emergency contraceptives.

  8. Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna

    Full Text Available Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

  9. The Applied Communication Game: A Comment on Muma's "Communication Game: Dump and Play"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; Reichle, Joe E.

    1975-01-01

    Provided are some illustrative clinical uses of J. Muma's "dump" and "play" communication model (EC 073301), said to be most applicable to the less handicapped child who has "trained language" but needs to be taught interpersonal communication skills. (LS)

  10. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads...

  11. Hydrological investigations on an overburden dump in the Borken brown coal district, North Hessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, P.; Latif, A.

    1992-01-01

    After a general hydrological investigation of the Dosenberg overburden dump in North Hessen, a climatic water balance is established for the main vegetation periods of the years 1989, 1990, and 1991. This is followed by a description of the investigations of water levels of the plateau pools and time curves of water levels of observation holes drilled into the dump plateau. In all, the findings suggest that in the period under investigation, which comprised three draught years in sequence, the dump was largely an independent hydrological system. In this period, no significant discharge of water from the 'Dosenberg ecosystem' into the surrounding area occurred, i.e. the overburden dumps had no effect on the surrounding cultivated land and bodies of water. This may be different in wet years. On the other hand, the prevailing climate conditions give cause to assume that no negative effects need be expected. The investigation will be continued. (orig.) [de

  12. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... non-dumped comparisons. Several World Trade Organization (``WTO'') dispute settlement reports have... methodologies have been challenged as being inconsistent with the World Trade Organization (``WTO'') General... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 [Docket No. 101130598...

  13. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  14. An Engineering Model for Prediction of Waste Incineration in a Dump Combustor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arunajatesan, S

    1997-01-01

    An engineering model that can be used to obtain predictions of axial distributions of temperature and species concentrations in complex flows has been formulated and applied to waste incineration in a dump combustor...

  15. Changes to the LHC Beam Dumping System for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Borburgh, Jan; Carlier, Etienne; Gabourin, Stéphane; Goddard, Brennan; Magnin, Nicolas; Senaj, Viliam; Voumard, Nicolas; Weterings, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system performed according to expectations during Run 1 of the LHC (2009 – 2013). A brief overview of the experience is given, including a summary of the observed performance by comparison to expectations. An important number of changes are applied to the beam dumping system during the present Long Shutdown in order to further improve its safety and performance. They include the addition of a direct link between the Beam Interlock System and the re-triggering system of the dump kickers, the modification of the uninterrupted electrical power distribution architecture, the upgrade of the HV generators, the consolidation of the trigger synchronisation system, the modifications to the triggering system of the power switches and the changes to the dump absorbers TCDQ.

  16. Extracellular space, blood volume, and the early dumping syndrome after total gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Reilmann, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Koerber, H.K.; Kotzerke, J.; Hecker, H. (Medzinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-10-01

    Extracellular space and blood volume were measured using 82Br dilution and 51Cr-tagged erythrocytes in 24 tumor-free patients after total gastrectomy. Eleven of the patients suffered from early dumping. Age, blood volume, and extracellular space were significantly smaller in dumpers (P less than 0.05). The dumping score could be predicted by a multiple regression model considering blood volume per lean body mass and extracellular space (r = 0.637; P = 0.0039). Rapid (t1/2 less than 360 seconds) emptying of the gastric substitute, assessed using a 99Tc-labeled solid test meal, was significantly associated with dumping in addition to extracellular space and blood volume (r = 0.876; P = 0.0018). Both rapid emptying and a narrow extracellular space seem to contribute to the early dumping syndrome.

  17. A hybrid of QFD and AHP-TOPSIS for Durg dumping waste projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Chandrakar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Generation of solid waste is the integral consequence of civilization and its management is stand-ing as a big challenge in front of state government at present time. Municipal solid waste in Durg-Bhilai is littered with improper places due to lack of understanding about the scientific im-portance of garbage and its consequences. Our foremost concern is the selection of appropriate dumping area nearby Durg-Bhilai (C.G. and for the selection of appropriate dumping area, a multi criteria decision making technique is used. This paper attempts to evaluate 4 dumping areas based on 5 criteria. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP is used to determine the weighs for each criterion and quality function deployment (QFD is also implemented. The results indicate that Potiyakala was the best dumping site nearby Durg-Bhilai area.

  18. Design considerations for a steady state fusion reactor's thermal energy dump (TED) with emphasis on SAFFIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    This work examines the use of a thermal dump to handle the severe particle and energy handling requirements of a diverted plasma. We outline a general approach for evaluating the design parameters and limitations of a thermal dump, considering such things as thermomechanical and erosion effects, compatibility, availability, machinability, coolant recirculation, vacuum pumping, economics, lifetime, etc. To demonstrate how the performance requirements are reflected in design decisions, we apply a solid-walled dump to a small-sized field reversed mirror (FRM). We also examine a liquid-lithium droplet thermal dump and point out some distinct advantages of this new concept over the solid-wall design in reducing stress, erosion, and vacuum pumping problems. The chief disadvantages of this scheme include liquid-metal safe-handling problems, vapor pressure-temperature limitations, and the need for differential pumping if T/sub Li/ > 310 0 C is desired

  19. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    ...) and a Site Inspection at the inactive Clean Fill Dump (CFD) sites. The objective of the ASL study involved obtaining additional data to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the landfill operations...

  20. Forecast salt regime unwatered mine reclaimed dump in unstable conditions in Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamic of porous media was executed prognosis salt rate no suppying with water mine dumps of minimum sense transhiration in conditions no established rate.

  1. Development of the heat sink structure of a beam dump for the proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    The beam dump is the essential component for the good beam quality and the reliable performance of the proton accelerator. The beam dump for a 20 MeV and 20 mA proton accelerator was designed and manufactured in this study. The high heats deposited, and the large amount of radioactivity produced in beam dump should be reduced by the proper heat sink structure. The heat source by the proton beam of 20 MeV and 20 mA was calculated. The radioactivity assessments of the beam dump were carried out for the economic shielding design with safety. The radioactivity by the protons and secondary neutrons in designed beam dump were calculated in this sturdy. The effective engineering design for the beam dump cooling was performed, considering the mitigation methods of the deposited heats with small angle, the power densities with the stopping ranges in the materials and the heat distributions in the beam dump. The heat sink structure of the beam dump was designed to meet the accelerator characteristics by placing two plates of 30 cm by 60 cm at an angle of 12 degree. The highest temperatures of the graphite, copper, and copper faced by cooling water were designed to be 223 degree, 146 degree, and 85 degree, respectively when the velocity of cooling water was 3 m/s. The heat sink structure was manufactured by the brazing graphite tiles to a copper plate with the filler alloy of Ti-Cu-Ag. The brazing procedure was developed. The tensile stress of the graphite was less than 75% of a maximum tensile stress during the accelerator operation based on the analysis. The safety analyses for the commissioning of the accelerator operation were also performed. The specimens from the brazed parts of beam dump structure were made to identify manufacturing problems. The soundness of the heat sink structure of the beam dump was confirmed by the fatigue tests of the brazed specimens of the graphite-copper tile components with the repetitive heating and cooling. The heat sink structure developed

  2. A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1992-01-01

    On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia

  3. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.S.; Thawale, P.R.; Mowade, S.; Shrivastava, S.; Deshbhratar, P.B.; Juwarkar, A.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Upgrade of the Super Proton Synchrotron Vertical Beam Dump System

    CERN Document Server

    Senaj, V; Vossenberg, E

    2010-01-01

    The vertical beam dump system of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) uses two matched magnets with an impedance of 2 W and a combined kick strength of 1.152 Tm at 60 kV supply voltage. For historical reasons the two magnets are powered from three 3 W pulse forming networks (PFN) through three thyratronignitron switches. Recently flashovers were observed at the entry of one of the magnets, which lead, because of the electrical coupling between the kickers, to a simultaneous breakdown of the pulse in both magnets. To improve the reliability an upgrade of the system was started. In a first step the radii of surfaces at the entry of the weak magnet were increased, and the PFN voltage was reduced by 4%; the kick strength could be preserved by reducing the magnet termination resistance by 10 %. The PFNs were protected against negative voltage reflections and their last cell was optimised. In a second step the two magnets will be electrically separated and powered individually by new 2 W PFNs with semiconductor ...

  5. Conceptual plan for 100-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.M.; Day, R.S.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This document provides the conceptual plan for the 100-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The EDB is an outdoor concrete retention pond with a carbon-steel liner underlain with fiberglass. The EDB was originally designed as a quenching pool for reactor blowdown in event of a primary coolant leak. However, the EDB only received routine steam-generator blowdowns from 1963 to 1987. The steam-generator blowdown and leaking isolation valves allowed radioactively contaminated water (from primary and secondary reactor coolant leaks) to enter the EDB. Over the years, wind-blown sand and dust have settled in the EDB, resulting in the present layer of sediments. As of February 1996, the EDB contained an estimated 260,000 gal of water and approximately 2,300 ft3 of sediment. The average sediment thickness is estimated at 2.5 ft and is covered with approximately 12 ft to 14 ft of water. Vegetation (mostly reeds and cattails) grows in the basin corners where the sediment is exposed. To minimize animal and bird intrusion, a kneeling net has been installed over the EDB

  6. Disposal of sediments from the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.; Duncan, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the characterization of the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) sediments, summarizes the data obtained, the resultant waste categorization, and the preferred disposal method. The EDB is an outdoor, concrete storage pond with a 3/16-in. carbon steel liner. The basin (completed in 1963) originally served as a quenching pool for reactor blowdown in the event of a primary coolant leak. Later, the basin received blowdown from the N Reactor steam generators. The steam generator blowdowns and leading isolation valves allowed radioactively contaminated water (from primary and secondary reactor coolant leaks) to enter the basin. Windblown dust and sand have settled in the basin over the years (because of its outdoor location), causing the present layer of sediments. To minimize potential airborne contamination, the water level was kept constant by adding water. However, the addition of water was stopped to minimize the amount of contaminated water needing disposal. To ensure that the surfaces exposed as a result of evaporation pose no immediate airborne contaminant problem, the contamination levels are monitored by Radiation Control Technicians. As part of the deactivation of N Reactor facilities, the EDB will be stabilized for long-term surveillance and maintenance prior to final decontamination and demolition

  7. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which are covered by organic material could be realized applying these geophysical methods.

  8. Mathematical model of vertical mass transport in the mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina T.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate mathematical models of the recultivated, recultivated and dumping with dry system, recultivated in systematically irrigation conditions and free of overgrowth by wild plants are proposed, designed and quantified. The theory of physico-chemical hydrodynamics of pore space using analytical and numerical methods for solving the equations of motion and mass conservation of matter all models are based on. The adequacy of built models and man-maid processes that proceed inside the mine dumps is proved.

  9. Making ultracold molecules in a two color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 70}, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in t...

  10. Tracking of the nuclear wavepacket motion in cyanine photoisomerization by ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengrong; Nakamura, Takumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2011-06-01

    Understanding ultrafast reactions, which proceed on a time scale of nuclear motions, requires a quantitative characterization of the structural dynamics. To track such structural changes with time, we studied a nuclear wavepacket motion in photoisomerization of a prototype cyanine dye, 1,1'-diethyl-4,4'-cyanine, by ultrafast pump-dump-probe measurements in solution. The temporal evolution of wavepacket motion was examined by monitoring the efficiency of stimulated emission dumping, which was obtained from the recovery of a ground-state bleaching signal. The dump efficiency versus pump-dump delay exhibited a finite rise time, and it became longer (97 fs → 330 fs → 390 fs) as the dump pulse was tuned to longer wavelengths (690 nm → 950 nm → 1200 nm). This result demonstrates a continuous migration of the leading edge of the wavepacket on the excited-state potential from the Franck-Condon region toward the potential minimum. A slowly decaying feature of the dump efficiency indicated a considerable broadening of the wavepacket over a wide range of the potential, which results in the spread of a population distribution on the flat S(1) potential energy surface. The rapid migration as well as broadening of the wavepacket manifests a continuous nature of the structural dynamics and provides an intuitive visualization of this ultrafast reaction. We also discussed experimental strategies to evaluate reliable dump efficiencies separately from other ultrafast processes and showed a high capability and possibility of the pump-dump-probe method for spectroscopic investigation of unexplored potential regions such as conical intersections. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Ultrashort-pulse-train pump and dump excitation of a diatomic molecule

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, LEE

    2010-01-01

    An excitation scheme is proposed for transferring population between ground-vibrational levels of a molecule. The transfer is accomplished by pumping and dumping population with a pair of coherent ultrashort-pulse trains via a stationary state. By mismatching the teeth of the frequency combs associated with the pulse trains to the vibrational levels, high selectivity in the excitation, along with high transfer efficiency, is predicted. The pump-dump scheme does not suffer from spontaneous emi...

  12. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  13. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  14. External post-operational checks for the LHC beam dumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, N.; Baggiolini, V.; Carlier, E.; Goddard, B.; Gorbonosov, R.; Khasbulatov, D.; Uythoven, J.; Zerlauth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) is a critical part of the LHC machine protection system. After every LHC beam dump action the various signals and transient data recordings of the beam dumping control systems and beam instrumentation measurements are automatically analysed by the external Post-Operational Checks (XPOC) system to verify the correct execution of the dump action and the integrity of the related equipment. This software system complements the LHC machine protection hardware, and has to ascertain that the beam dumping system is 'as good as new' before the start of the next operational cycle. This is the only way by which the stringent reliability requirements can be met. The XPOC system has been developed within the framework of the LHC 'Post-Mortem' system, allowing highly dependable data acquisition, data archiving, live analysis of acquired data and replay of previously recorded events. It is composed of various analysis modules, each one dedicated to the analysis of measurements coming from specific equipment. This paper describes the global architecture of the XPOC system and gives examples of the analyses performed by some of the most important analysis modules. It explains the integration of the XPOC into the LHC control infrastructure along with its integration into the decision chain to allow proceeding with beam operation. Finally, it discusses the operational experience with the XPOC system acquired during the first years of LHC operation, and illustrates examples of internal system faults or abnormal beam dump executions which it has detected. (authors)

  15. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  16. Challenges in reporting on pre-determined objectives to the Auditor-General : the case of Limpopo Provincial Departments / Hilgard Maputle Mawela

    OpenAIRE

    Mawela, Hilgard Maputle

    2015-01-01

    All provincial departments are required to report on pre-determined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1. of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this study was to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting pre-determined objectives to the Auditor-General. Reporting pre-determined objectives has been a challenge over the past financial years and this is evident in the Audito...

  17. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  18. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  19. Non-Metropolitan Drinking Water Suppliers’ Response to the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance in Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhashoni Dorcas Nefale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Without the planning of non-technical issues, water treatment plants may face challenges in sustaining safe drinking water. Parameters such as the planning of financial resources, human resources, a lack of professional process controllers, poor working conditions, staff shortages and a lack of appropriate training of process controllers contribute to the underperformance of drinking water treatment plants. This study aimed at applying the Diagnostic Tool for Non-Technical Compliance to assess the compliance of small drinking water plants with management norms. Six water treatments (Vondo water scheme, Malamulele, Mutshedzi, Mutale regional water treatment plant, Tshedza and Tshedza package plant were selected from the Vhembe district municipality of the Limpopo province in South Africa. From the abovementioned non-technical parameters, the results showed that during the first assessment period (August 2008 and June 2009 selected water treatment plants scored between 53% and 68% and fell under Class 2, indicating serious challenges requiring attention and improvement. During the second assessment period (November and December 2010, a slight improvement was observed as all plants scored between 72% and 80%, falling under the Class 2 category. Even after corrective actions and remeasurement, none of the plants met the compliance standards, which range from 90% to 100% to obtain the Class 1 compliance standard. The study recommended that tactical and strategic plans that clearly define the operational procedures, process controlling, financial planning, maintenance culture, emergency preparedness and regular monitoring and evaluation should be entrenched for the smooth running of the small water treatment plants. Furthermore, all water services providers and water services authorities should apply the diagnostic tools as developed, which provides guidance on a stepwise procedure on plant operations and management on a daily basis.

  20. Using participatory risk analysis to develop a song about malaria for young children in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chad M; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Kruger, Taneshka; McNeill, Fraser

    2018-04-27

    In 2015, malaria infected over 212 million people and killed over 429,000 individuals, mostly children under 5 years of age, with 90% of malaria cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim was to develop an age and culturally appropriate song for Tshivenda-speaking children under 5 years of age to decrease the risk of malaria in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Document review was used to identify appropriate disease determinants to decrease risk in children develop lyrics and music for a song about malaria in line with the principles of participatory risk analysis. The age and cultural appropriateness of the song as well as disease determinants chosen were reviewed using a modified Delphi technique, by 10 purposively selected experts in malaria (4), Vhavenda music (3) and early childhood education (3). Thereafter, the song was translated into Tshivenda and reviewed by two focus groups living in the study area, one including female caregivers and pre-school teachers (n = 7) and a second comprising of male community based malaria control personnel (n = 5). The experts surveyed and both focus groups strongly supported the inclusion of knowledge about the link between mosquitoes and malaria and that children should know the signs of malaria to facilitate early diagnosis. Although the expert group felt that bed nets should not be mentioned, both focus groups suggested the inclusion of bed nets and it was observed that community members were purchasing their own nets. Focus group members also felt that young children should not be involved in internal residual spraying initiatives. It was concluded that although risk communication on malaria prevention and treatment in young children should be aimed at caregivers, an age and culture appropriate song about malaria could be developed to help young children protect themselves. This song focused on understanding the link between mosquitoes and malaria, preventing exposure and recognising signs of disease.

  1. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  2. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (mining dumps. The resistivities of the dumped material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated with borehole stratigraphic data from a mineralogical drilling campaign. This is important for a precise time-depth conversion of reflectors from GPR measurement. This reflectors were taken from radargram and have been adopted as resistivity boundary in the start model of the geoelectric inversion algorithm.

  3. The impact of caring for persons living with HIV and AIDS on the mental health of nurses in the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the impact of caring for AIDS sufferers on the mental health of nurses. This assessment was measured against the level of burnout, stress and depression among 174 nurses caring for people living with HIV and AIDS in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire incorporated the AIDS Impact Scale (AIS, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the participants’ demographic and professional profiles. Participants were conveniently selected from five selected hospitals in Limpopo Province. The study participants’ valuation using the AIS showed that nurses tended to develop strong bonds and relationships with the patients; felt frustrated by their inability to help the terminally ill AIDS sufferers and were subsequently affected by the death of their patients. Personal accomplishments of the nurses remained high and the levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization levels were low. The BDI showed that over 3 out of 4 nurses were experiencing between mild mood disturbance and extreme depression. Higher average scores were noted for items of the depression scale like sadness, dissatisfaction, fatigue and low level of energy. The findings highlight the need to develop psychological support programmes for nurses caring for AIDS patients and promote the provision of social incentives and recognition of the role of nurses in AIDS care.

  4. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  5. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV guidelines: Nurses’ views at four primary healthcare facilities in the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Hanrahan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: When new guidelines for existing programmes are introduced, it is often the clinicians tasked with the execution of the guidelines who bear the brunt of the changes. Frequently their opinions are not sought. In this study, the researcher interviewed registered nurses working in the field of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV to gain an understanding of their perspectives on the changes introduced to the guidelines. The guideline changes in 2014 were to move from the World Health Organization (WHO Option B to Option B + which prescribes lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART for all HIV-positive pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count. Objective: To determine what the registered nurses’ perspectives are on the PMTCT programme as implemented at four PHC facilities in the Limpopo Province. Method: For this qualitative investigation, a descriptive research design was implemented. The data were collected during semi-structured interviews with nurses from four primary healthcare facilities in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Challenges preventing effective implementation (e.g. increased workloads, viz. staff shortages; poor planning of training; equipment and medication shortages and long lead times; poor patient education were identified. Conclusion: In spite of the successes of the PMTCT programme, considerable challenges still prevail; lack of patient education, poor facilities management and staff shortages could potentially influence the implementation of the PMTCT guidelines negatively.

  6. Challenges to Sustainable Safe Drinking Water: A Case Study of Water Quality and Use across Seasons in Rural Communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of microbial-contaminated water can result in diarrheal illnesses and enteropathy with the heaviest impact upon children below the age of five. We aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of water quality in a low-resource setting in Limpopo province, South Africa. Surveys were conducted in 405 households in rural communities of Limpopo province to determine their water-use practices, perceptions of water quality, and household water-treatment methods. Drinking water samples were tested from households for microbiological contamination. Water from potential natural sources were tested for physicochemical and microbiological quality in the dry and wet seasons. Most households had their primary water source piped into their yard or used an intermittent public tap. Approximately one third of caregivers perceived that they could get sick from drinking water. All natural water sources tested positive for fecal contamination at some point during each season. The treated municipal supply never tested positive for fecal contamination; however, the treated system does not reach all residents in the valley; furthermore, frequent shutdowns of the treatment systems and intermittent distribution make the treated water unreliable. The increased water quantity in the wet season correlates with increased treated water from municipal taps and a decrease in the average contaminant levels in household water. This research suggests that wet season increases in water quantity result in more treated water in the region and that is reflected in residents’ water-use practices.

  7. Community perception of quality of (primary health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T-AB Mashego

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants. Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1 conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy, (2 technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes, (3 health care facility, (4 health care organisation, (5 drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment, and (6 waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action.

  8. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 7 October 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Wallace, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensor experiment was conducted at a sewage sludge dump site off the Delaware/Maryland coast. Two aircraft serving as remote sensor platforms flew over the dump site during a sludge dump. One aircraft carried a multispectral scanner and the other aircraft carried a rapid scanning spectrometer. Data from sea-truth stations were collected concurrent with overpasses of the aircraft. All sensors were operational and produced good digital data.

  9. Distribution, ecology and inhibition of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in relation to acid drainage from Witwatersrand gold mine dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillier, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution and ecology of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in gold mine dumps and possible means for its inhibition were investigated. A literature survey of the micro-ecology of mine waste dumps in various parts of the world was undertaken. A linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), NANSA 80/S, and a cetyl pyridinium chloride, Ceepryn, were tested as possible inhibitors for mine dump application. The LAS was rejected because it is poorly soluble in water and required higher concentrations than SLS for the inhibition of T.ferrooxidans. Ceepryn was an efficient inhibitor, but its efficiency was dramatically impeded in the presence of mine dump sand making it unsuitable for application on dumps. The SLS and LAS were tested against a mixed population of T.ferrooxidans from gold mine dumps and these bacteria were shown to be marginally more resistant to the inhibitors than the pure T.ferrooxidans culture. Sampling from mine dumps on the Witwatersrand suggested that the major T.ferrooxidans populations occurred in the moist sand of the drainage areas at the base of dumps, with few viable iron-oxidising bacteria located on the surfaces or in the centre of dumps. Sites of low moisture in dumps contained few or no viable bacteria. In the laboratory the bacterial viability decreased rapidly with loss of moisture from the sand. Moisture was shown to be important to bacterial activity and should be considered with respect to acid drainage control. Experimental sand columns showed that iron was leached with water from mine dump sand in the absence and presence of bacteria. In this study substrates, moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide availability, ph, temperature, microorganisms and metal pollutants of uranium waste dumps are also covered

  10. Influence of dump voltage and allowable temperature rise on stabilizer requirements in superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting winding must have enough stabilizer to satisfy two sets of criteria. During normal operation, the amount of stabilizer must be large enough either to make the coil unconditionally stable or to give a certain desired stability margin. Once a dump occurs, the amount of stabilizer must be large enough to carry the current without generating excessive dump voltages or allowing the winding to exceed a certain maximum temperature (and maximum pressure, in the case of force-cooled coils). The voltage criterion often dominates for very large coil systems, but it is frequently ignored in initial design studies. This paper gives some simple relations between the dump voltage and the stored energy, temperature rise, and coil geometry that are useful in scooping the required amount of stabilizer. Comparison with some recently proposed fusion magnet system designs indicates that excessive dump voltages could result in some cases. High-temperature superconductors may require more stabilizer than the conventional alloys. Calculations with simple model coil systems indicate how trade-offs between various coil parameters affect the dump voltage. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilov, Mikhail [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Aaron, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Amroussia, Aida [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bergez, Wladimir [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Boehlert, Carl [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Colin, Catherine [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Durantel, Florent [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Graves, Van [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Grygiel, Clara [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Kramer, Jacob [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mittig, Wolfgang [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Monnet, Isabelle [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Patel, Harsh [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from {sup 16}O to {sup 238}U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti–6Al–4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  12. Radionuclides and toxic elements transfer from the princess dump to water in Roodepoort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, S G; Mathuthu, M M; Tshivhase, V M

    2016-03-01

    High concentrations of radionuclides and toxic elements in gold mine tailings facilities present a health hazard to the environment and people living near that area. Soil and water samples from selected areas around the Princess Mine dump were collected. Soil sampling was done on the surface (15 cm) and also 100 cm below the surface. Water samples were taken from near the dump, mid-stream and the flowing part of the stream (drainage pipe) passing through Roodepoort from the mine dump. Soil samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a HPGe detector to determine the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (4) (​40)K from the activities of the daughter nuclides in the respective decay chains. The average activity concentrations for uranium and thorium in soil were calculated to be 129 ± 36.1 Bq/kg and 18.1 ± 4.01 Bq/kg, respectively. Water samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Transfer factors for uranium and thorium from soil to water (at point A closest to dump) were calculated to be 0.494 and 0.039, respectively. At point Z2, which is furthest from the dump, they were calculated to be 0.121 and 0.004, respectively. These transfer factors indicate that there is less translocation of the radionuclides as the water flows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing Dredge-and-Dump Activities for River Navigability Using a Hydro-Morphodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J. Paarlberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, significant dredging activities of riverbed sediment are employed to ensure that freight transportation on rivers can continue year-round. Imbalances of sediment budget may produce relevant impacts regarding river morphology and related environmental services. This study shows that hydro-morphodynamic modeling tools can be used to optimize dredge-and-dump activities and, at the same time, mitigate problems deriving from these activities in rivers. As a case study, we focused on dredging activities on the Lower Parana River, Argentina. Navigation on this river is of crucial importance to the economies of the bordering countries, hence, each year significant dredging activities are employed. To estimate dredging loads under different strategies, a 25 km river reach of the Parana River was modeled using the Delft3D-modelling suite by Deltares. The Netherlands, to simulate flow-sediment interactions in a quasi-steady and uncoupled approach. Impacts of dredging activities were explicitly included. Different dredge-and-dump strategies included variations in dredging over-depth (clearance and variations in dumping locations. Our results indicate that dredge-and-dump strategies can be targeted to stimulate natural processes that improve the depth and stability of the navigation channel and to counteract unwanted bed level responses in the long-medium term. A ~40% reduction in dredging effort could be achieved by moving the dredged material to distant locations in the secondary channel rather than dumping to the side of the waterway in the main channel.

  14. Conceptual design of Dump resistor for Superconducting CS of SST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Swati; Raj, Piyush; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    Under upgradation activities for SST-1, the existing resistive central solenoid (CS) coil will be replaced with Nb3Sn based superconducting coil. Design of Central solenoid had been completed and some of the initiative has already taken for its manufacturing. The superconducting CS will store upto 3 MJ of magnetic energy per operation cycle with operating current upto 14 kA. During quench, energy stored in the coils has to be extracted rapidly with a time constant of 1.5 s by inserting a 20 mΩ dump resistor in series with the superconducting CS which is normally shorted by circuit breakers. As a critical part of the superconducting CS quench protection system, a conceptual design of the 20 mΩ dump resistor has been proposed. The required design aspects and a dimensional layout of the dump resistor for the new superconducting CS has been presented and discussed. The basic structure of the proposed dump resistor comprises of stainless steel grids connected in series in the form of meander to minimize the stray inductance and increase the surface area for cooling. Such an array of grids connected in series and parallel will cater to the electrical as well as thermal parameters. It will be cooled by natural convection. During operation, the estimated maximum temperature of the proposed dump resistor will raise upto 600 K.

  15. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  16. Secondary succession of nematodes in power plant ash dumps reclaimed by covering with turf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowska, E.; Ilieva-Makulec, K. [Polish Academy of Science, Lomianki (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of successive changes in nematode assemblages in reclaimed waste area offers information about the sensitivity of species or groups of nematodes to specific conditions and ability to colonise new habitats. The study was carried in ash dumps being a by-product of the combustion of hard coal and reclaimed by covering with mineral turf (light loam warp soil) or organic turf (alder peat). In the first 3 years of reclamation diversity of nematodes was low, especially in, the dump covered with mineral turf - Shannon diversity index below 3. Later on the value of Shannon index increased and did not differ from those recorded for meadows in Poland. In the ash dump, reclaimed for a longer time period (8-11 years), the contribution of K strategist species was higher than in the dumps reclaimed for a shorter time period (2-5 years). At the earlier stages of succession bacterivores Acrobeloides, and two fungivores Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus, predominated. In the ash dump reclaimed longer the dominance of these three genera decreased and some plant feeders achieved high contribution ({gt} 30%). The composition of nematode communities depended. significantly on the period of reclamation, but did not depend either on the soil moisture and pH or on season.

  17. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  18. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  19. The possibility of distance methods application for snow dump sites monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasko Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of remote sensing of the Earth for monitoring of four snow dump sites in Tomsk are described. Their compliance with permitted type of the territory use was evaluated. Earlier unknown time of the operation start was identified. The spatial-temporal variability of areas was defined. The temperature profiles of snow dump and background sites were analyzed. Use of remote sensing data allowed easy identification of snow dump sites creation time. The fact that the sites are located out of zones of permitted type of the territory use was revealed, that is violation of the law. For the first time the cartographic material was collected and showed that in the recent years their areas increased in average in 18%. The fore-cast for the nearest years was made. The article contains satellite images indicting the degradation of soil-vegetative cover of snow dumps. The reasons are contamination and overcooling of the soil in the beginning of vegetation period. The research results became the initial material for perfection of snow dumps territories management and will be applied in the work of environmental protecting service. Approaches proposed by authors may be used in solving similar problems in any region.

  20. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  1. STRESS LOADING SIMULATION OF HYDRO-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF DUMP TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sidorov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission model and software package to investigate stress loading of a hydromechanical transmission of a dump truck have been developed. The given software package allows to model stress loading of transmission gears in taking-off and acceleration modes at various road resistance, positions of an engine control pedal and initial revolutions of an engine crankshaft, various laws of friction clutch switching and some other parameters that permit to reveal a rate of various operational mode influence on stress loading of a dump truck transmission. An equivalence of the developed software is proved by the comparison of the experimentally obtained stress loading process of the hydro-mechanical transmission of a BelAZ- 7555 dump truck with the results of the simulation 

  2. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  3. R dump converter without DC link capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  4. Properties and interactions of neutrino (1977-1980) beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Data on search of instantaneous muon and electron neutrinos in experiments of beam dump type are presented in the review. Neutrino is formed in decays of particles rusulted from pN interactions. First experiments of the dump beam type have been realized at the CERN/SPS accelerator in 1975 and Serpukhov accelerator by the ITEF-IFVE group in 1977 with proton energies of 26 and 70 GeV, respectively. The results of beam dump experiments of the second generation in 1979 in CERN are considered in detail. These experiments have been intended for measuring the effect of instantaneous neutrino. The conclusion is drawn on the presence of instantaneous muon neutrinos in the above experiments [ru

  5. Furfurol-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Cowgill, M.G.; Alexandrov, V.P.; Dyer, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding ∼ 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker 'Lenin' was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfurol (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. The properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states are discussed, and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea is evaluated. (author)

  6. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  7. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  8. ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION PROCESS OF THE GROUDWATER COTAMINATION IN AN ILLEGAL DUMPING SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norikazu; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    Among on-site remediation technologies applied to illegal dumping sites, a technology to remedy contaminated groundwater without removal of the dumped waste is expected to provide a great opportunity to fulfill a societal need due to its economic advantage compared to removal of all waste. However heterogeneously-distributed waste makes the remedial process difficult. In this study, an in situflushing technology was applied to an illegal dumping site in Kuwana city, Mie, in order to remedy groundwater contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within five years. The key to successfully achieve the target was to conduct a series of advanced remediation processes; introducing a new indicator by which multiple VOCs can be estimated integratelly, monitoring the progress of remediation with a contour map of VOC concentration as well as the weighted averages of the concentration derived from the indicator, pinpointing residual contaminants area, reexamining the plan, and taking additional steps that promote further remediation.

  9. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm -1 . The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient

  10. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.

    1985-10-01

    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  11. Furfurol-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H.; Cowgill, M.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Sivintsev, Yu.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, V.P. [Research and Design Inst. for Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Dyer, R.S. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding {approx} 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker `Lenin` was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfurol (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. The properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states are discussed, and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea is evaluated. (author) 4 refs.

  12. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  13. Design of the 70 mm twin aperture superconducting quadrupole for the LHC dump insertion

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G A; Taylor, T M; Trinquart, G

    1996-01-01

    The LHC dump insertion features a pair of superconducting quadrupoles located on either side of a 340 m long straight section. Two horizontally deflecting kickers, located in between the quadrupole pairs, and a septum in the centre of the insertion, vertically deflect the two counter-rotating beams past the quadrupoles on the downstream sides, and into the dump areas. Due to the layout, the optical ß function in the quadrupoles is around 640 m, the largest around the LHC at injection. The quadrupoles must therefore have enlarged aperture and specially designed cryostats to allow for the safe passage of both the circulating and ejected beams. In this paper we present the design of the twin aperture dump quadrupole based on the 70 mm four layer coil proposed for the LHC low-ß quadrupoles. In preparation for model construction, we report on improvements of the coil design and a study of the retaining structures.

  14. The network of dump design. A report on experience; Das Netzwerk der Haldenkunst. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Josef [Buero Hermanns Architekten - Ingenieure - Landschaftsarchitekten, Hattingen (Germany)

    2009-10-22

    On the basis of long experience in the planning of the most diverse mining projects consideration was already given at the end of the last century in the Hermanns architects' office to the planning of dirt heaps from specific points of view differently from the conventional way. The office was concerned in particular with the potential for subsequent use of dumps under the premises specified by the mining companies. Hence the idea of considering dumps from architectural and artistic points of view arose at the end of 2006, because in association with the region chosen in 2006 to be European city of culture in 2010 - Essen for the Ruhr district - an opportunity arose to place the subject of dumps in an artistic and cultural context with the result that the hypothesis of implementation of new ideas in a regional context would be more easily formulated. (orig.)

  15. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-03-29

    Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation

  16. Radioactive-waste ocean dumping will have negligible enviromental impact. Conclusion of draft assessment of NSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This draft report is the result of extensive studies based on the best available information in the field of oceanography, marine radiobiology and health physics. On various basic considerations, assessment was undertaken, and the following conclusion was reached. The quantity of radioactivity to be dumped at one time is assumed to be 500 Ci in the case of test dumping, and 10/sup 5/ Ci/year in the case of full-scale dumping. The conditions required for the dumping sea area are that the bottom water flow and upwelling amount are limited, and that the sea bottom is flat. The horizontal dispersion coefficient of 10/sup 7/ cm/sup 2//sec and the vertical dispersion coefficient of 2 x 10/sup 2/ cm/sup 2//sec are assumed. It is assumed that the radionuclides in the disposed package would leached out as soon as it reaches the sea bottom, and would not show any physicochemical behavior. Typycal radionuclides are classified into 5 groups in terms of their half lives, and their estimated concentrations at 1 km depth are tabulated. The maximum level of individual dose and the magnitude of population dose were assessed on the fishermen working in the dumping sea area, and the adults, children and infants who were expected to receive higher dose on account of the larger intake of fish products than average. The dose level given with the dose assessment model and various panamentors under the dumping conditions is much lower than natural radiation and the permissible level recommended by ICRP.

  17. Specifics of stands formation at coalmine dumps in forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Murzakmаtov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rock dumps of coalmines have high potential for forest regeneration and environmental capacity, which are dependent on the technology of reclamation and the properties of technogenic soils and grounds. Traditional forestry methods for obtaining the main criteria of biological indicators of woody vegetation were used in the study as follows: ground seed germination, seedling planting technology, composition and increment of tree stands, root structure, care harvesting of undergrowth, biotopic classification. Natural overgrowing of dumps is dependent on the availability of seeds and conditions for their germination and subsequent growth. Most of the zonal tree and shrub species are able to colonize and grow on the coalmine dumps. Mineralization of the dumps surfaces without rich soil stratum, porosity of the upper horizon of lithostratum, and low nutrient content (nitrogen give benefits in the growth and subsequent formation of birch, pine and sea-buckthorn stands. Afforestation is the cheapest and most effective method of biological reclamation. The analysis of artificial reforestation shows the probability of targeted plantation cultivation of various tree species. The use of a wide range of tree and shrub species make it possible to create biologically diverse intrazonal technogenic ecosystems with high recreational and economic productivity. Wildfires spreading out in spring season on herbaceous rags limit the overgrowth of the dumps by forest vegetation. Two-year cyclical increment decline of trees due to provocative spring warming takes place. The zoogenic factor, especially zoo chores distribution of berry plants, has essential value for forest forming process. By the results of forest formation analysis at rock dumps, alveolate-hilly technology of mine reclamation was developed, which allows to significantly improve dumps’ afforestation capacity, their biological posttechnogenic diversity and productivity.

  18. Interventions for improving management of chronic non-communicable diseases in Dikgale, a rural area in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Marianne; Bastiaens, Hilde; Fraeyman, Jesicca; Meulemans, Herman; Wens, Johan; Van Geertruyden, Jeane Pierre

    2018-05-04

    Chronic disease management (CDM) is an approach to health care that keeps people as healthy as possible through the prevention, early detection and management of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop interventions to improve management of chronic diseases in the form of an integrated, evidence-based chronic disease management model in Dikgale, a rural area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A multifaceted intervention, called 'quality circles' (QCs) was developed to improve the quality and the management of chronic diseases in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). These QCs used the findings from previous studies which formed part of the larger project in the study area, namely, the quantitative study using STEPwise survey and qualitative studies using focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The findings from previous studies in Dikgale HDSS revealed that an epidemiological transition is occurring. Again, the most widely reported barriers from previous studies in this rural area were: lack of knowledge of NCDs; shortages of medication and shortages of nurses in the clinics, which results in patients having long waiting-time at clinics. Lack of training of health care providers on the management of chronic diseases and the lack of supervision by the district and provincial health managers, together with poor dissemination of guidelines, were contributing factors to the lack of knowledge of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management among nurses and community health care workers (CHWs). Consideration of all of these findings led to the development of model which focuses on integrating nursing services, CHWs and traditional health practitioners (THPs), including a well-established clinical information system for health care providers. A novel aspect of the model is the inclusion of community ambassadors who are on treatment for NCDs and are, thus, repositories of knowledge who can serve as a bridge between

  19. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geere Jo-Anne L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size

  20. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  1. Conceptual design of a calorimeter and residual ion dump for the ITER negative ion injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual design for the ITER Negative Ion Injectors' Calorimeter and Residual Ion Dump systems has been carried out. The work was undertaken in support of detailed studies performed by the Russian Federation. Concepts for both systems incorporate actively water cooled hypervapotrons as the primary beam stopping elements. The Calorimeter drive has been based on the utilisation of a novel force translation system via magnetic coupling. The Residual Ion Dump necessitates the use of double sided hypervapotron elements in order to cater for the restricted space envelope defined by the Accelerator Grid hole pattern. (author)

  2. Restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K.; Tewary, B.K.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1996-03-01

    For the restoration of a coal-mine overburden dump, five tree species viz Delgergia sisoo, Azadirachta indica, Albizia procera, Delonix regia and Acacia nilotica were seeded to evaluate their germination and growth performance. Dalbergia sisoo was found to be the best early successional leguminous plant species showing maximum increase in shoot length and diameter on the mine dump. Therefore, it is recommended that the findings of this study be implemented on mass scale in the dry tropics of India. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Study of Energy Deposition and Activation for the LINAC4 Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Mauro, E; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This document provides estimates of energy deposition and activation for the dump of the future LINAC4 accelerator. Detailed maps of power density deposited in the dump are given, allowing to perform further thermo mechanical studies. Residual dose rates at a few cooling times for different irradiation scenarios have been calculated. Moreover, the air activation has been evaluated and doses to the reference population group and to a worker intervening in the cave at the shutdown have been predicted. Calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport and interaction code FLUKA.

  4. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively

  5. The recovery of gold and pyrite from a residue dump at Crown Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keleghan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of ore-dressing methods to a residue dump at Crown Mines has been examined. The use of either single-stage or double-stage gravity concentration is advocated for the recovery of the gold. Flotation and wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) are not recommended. The two-stage gravity process facilitates the recovery of most of the pyrite in the residue (over 70 per cent) at commercial grade (40 per cent sulphur), but sacrifices some of the gold obtainable by a single-stage operation. There is little prospect of the commercial recovery of uranium from the dump at Crown Mines

  6. Mobilization and transport of pollutants in an abandoned dump in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinson, Natalia; Shinzato, Marjolly; Wendland, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The valuation and treatment techniques of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries are not sufficiently developed, and therefore, the volume of waste destined for disposal still presents significant amounts. In Brazil, the more common practice of final destination is the deposition on the soil, due to its simple operation and low cost compared to other techniques. One of the most serious negative environmental impacts in the irregular disposal of solid waste is the contamination of soil and groundwater by waste leachates. The final disposal in dumps is forbidden by Brazilian law since 2010, nevertheless, the public administration is not prepared to monitor waste disposal areas and the risk of contamination of water. In this sense, a research has been developed in an abandoned dump installed over an outcrop of the Botucatu Formation, which is part of the Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore, is an area of high water vulnerability. In this dump, an old gully was used as a final waste disposal area for urban, construction and demolition, medical and industrial waste from 1980 to 1996. Since the end of the deposition, the waste body is kept with inefficient hydraulic control. The water infiltration due to rainfall promotes the mobility of contaminant in the deposit. The present water quality in the dump has been monitored through physical and chemical analysis of samples collected in the unsaturated zone (inside the waste mass using vacuum lysimeters) and in the saturated zone (monitoring wells). The rainfall variation observed in the years 2014 (dry year) and 2015 (wet year) contributed significantly to evaluate the mobilization of pollutants within the dump. The reduction of the water volume that infiltrates the waste mass affected the quality of the leachate collected in the lysimeters. The groundwater collected in monitoring wells outside the dump area presents low turbidity values (1000 µS.cma-1 in leachate) and chlorides values (>800 mg.L-1

  7. Nuclear waste dumping in the oceans: Has the Cold War taught us anything?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-O'Grady, K.

    1995-01-01

    The United States and other international actors have relied without much success on traditional approaches to contain environmental damage done to our oceans by Russian dumping of nuclear waste. Our arms control experience suggests that on-site inspection is successful in situations where there is a lack of information or a lack of trust. Using on-site inspection to gather information and bolster trust could ameliorate the problem of Russian dumping of radioactive wastes into the ocean, so long as the political and financial costs of on-site inspection do not prove to be prohibitively high

  8. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively [es

  9. Calibration Measurements of the LHC Beam Dumping System Extraction Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Gräwer, G; Olivieri, F; Pereira, L; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2006-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must protect the LHC machine from damage by reliably and safely extracting and absorbing the circulating beams when requested. Two sets of 15 extraction kicker magnets form the main active part of this system. They have been produced, tested and calibrated by measuring the integrated magnetic field and the magnet current at different beam energies. The calibration data have been analysed, and the critical parameters are compared with the specifications. Implications for the configuration, control and operation of the beam dumping system are discussed.

  10. Anti-Dumping with Heterogeneous Firms: New Protectionism for the New-New Trade Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    This paper analyzes anti­-dumping (AD) policies in a two-country model with heterogeneous firms in monopolistic competition. Effective AD legislation in one country imposes a no-dumping condition on firms exporting from the other country, altering their pricing both domestically and abroad. Some...... firms with intermediate productivities cease export activity, and entry shifts towards the AD protected country, which has now become relatively more attractive. Protecting firms with AD therefore increases the number of firms entering and eventually increases competition, and the consumers enjoy...

  11. Fluka and thermo-mechanical studies for the CLIC main dump

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, Alessio; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    In order to best cope with the challenge of absorbing the multi-MW beam, a water beam dump at the end of the CLIC post-collision line has been proposed. The design of the dump for the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) was checked against with a set of FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, for the estimation of the peak and total power absorbed by the water and the vessel. Fluence spectra of escaping particles and activation rates of radio-nuclides were computed as well. Finally, the thermal transient behavior of the water bath and a thermo-mechanical analysis of the preliminary design of the window were done.

  12. Recuperation of ISR Dipole Magnet Yokes for Use as Shielding for the LHC Beam Dumps TDE

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M

    1999-01-01

    The quantity of iron shielding required for two LHC dumps was estimated at about 1500 tons. Possible sources of slightly irradiated iron shielding were considered, in particular, the ISR dipole yokes, which were stocked in the I2. Of rectangular form and weighing 22 tons each, they were well suited to the LHC dump geometry. Furthermore, they were to all intents and purposes non-radioactive. The preferred solution was to cut off four lifting pads and three support plates using arc/air equipment, seal temporarily each end with shutters, fit two lifting "anchor" pins, and fill with concrete.

  13. Monitoring the rehabilitated waste rock dumps at the Rum Jungle mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Harries, J.R.; Ritchie, A.I.M.

    1988-01-01

    Acid drainage and the release of heavy metals create a major environmental problem at many mine sites and the problem can continue long after mine operations cease. The long term control of these pollutants is essential for the acceptance of mining as a temporary land use. There is a need to compare the advantages, disadvantages and costs of various rehabilitation techniques. This paper describes measurements on two dumps of pyritic mine wastes from open cut mining before and after rehabilitation of the dumps. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation is discussed

  14. Data on coal dumps retrieving in petroşani basin using sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents data on the sea buckthorn (Hippöphae rhamnoides, with focus on its value on coal dumps retrieving in the Petroşani Basin. Due to its peculiar roots exposing a lot of nodules, this plant has an important role in fixing the atmospheric azoth and soil genesis. It is very adaptable to any kind of soil and has wide climatic exigencies, but is depending on light intensity. It has a large dissemination capacity, due to its light and numerous seeds. Besides its utilization on dump retrieving, sea buckthorn is used in medicine and pharmacy, as well as in organic fuel production.

  15. Bekæmpelse af social dumping er også en kommunal opgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Kommunal indsats mod social dumping er en væsentlig del af den samlede indsats, og en evaluering af Københavns Kommunes indsats har givet indsigt i nogle af betingelserne for at få effektiviseret en sådan. Dette er også fulgt op politisk.......Kommunal indsats mod social dumping er en væsentlig del af den samlede indsats, og en evaluering af Københavns Kommunes indsats har givet indsigt i nogle af betingelserne for at få effektiviseret en sådan. Dette er også fulgt op politisk....

  16. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  17. U Pb and Lu Hf isotope record of detrital zircon grains from the Limpopo Belt Evidence for crustal recycling at the Hadean to early-Archean transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Klemd, Reiner; Barton, J. M., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Detrital zircon grains from Beit Bridge Group quartzite from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt near Musina yield mostly ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, minor 3.15-2.51 Ga components, and numerous older grains grouped at approximately 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 Ga. Two grains yielded concordant Late Hadean U-Pb ages of 3881 ± 11 Ma and 3909 ± 26 Ma, which are the oldest zircon grains so far found in Africa. The combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf datasets and field relationships provide evidence that the sedimentary protolith of the Beit Bridge Group quartzite was deposited after the emplacement of the Sand River Gneisses (3.35-3.15 Ga), but prior to the Neoarchean magmatic-metamorphic events at 2.65-2.60 Ga. The finding of abundant magmatic zircon detritus with concordant U-Pb ages of 3.35-3.15 Ga, and 176Hf/ 177Hf of 0.28066 ± 0.00004 indicate that the Sand River Gneiss-type rocks were a predominant source. In contrast, detrital zircon grains older than approximately 3.35 Ga were derived from the hinterland of the Limpopo Belt; either from a so far unknown crustal source in southern Africa, possibly from the Zimbabwe Craton and/or a source, which was similar but not necessarily identical to the one that supplied the Hadean zircons to Jack Hills, Western Australia. The Beit Bridge Group zircon population at >3.35 Ga shows a general ɛHf t increase with decreasing age from ɛHf 3.9Ga = -6.3 to ɛHf 3.3-3.1Ga = -0.2, indicating that Hadean crust older than 4.0 Ga ( TDM = 4.45-4.36 Ga) was rejuvenated during magmatic events between >3.9 and 3.1 Ga, due to a successive mixing of crustal rocks with mantle derived magmas. The existence of a depleted mantle reservoir in the Limpopo's hinterland is reflected by the ˜3.6 Ga zircon population, which shows ɛHf 3.6Ga between -4.6 and +3.2. In a global context, our data suggest that a long-lived, mafic Hadean protocrust with some tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite constituents was destroyed and partly recycled at the Hadean/Archean transition, perhaps

  18. Using geographical information systems (GIS to examine sanitary implications of rubbish dump locations at human activity centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenos Koku Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate health risks that refuse dump locations have on people. The global positioning systems (GPS were used to take location coordinates of 28 rubbish dump centers and human activity centers (clinics, restaurants, markets etc spread across a university campus in Ghana. The ArcGIS software was used to plot the coordinates and draw a buffer of 50 meters around the rubbish dump locations (RDL to show the closeness between the dump sites and the human activity centers (HAC, and the sanitary implications of the closeness. More than 90% of the HACs fell within the 50 meters buffer zone of the rubbish dump sites. The findings indicated that some sensitive HACs like food joints, laundries etc. were less than 15 meters from rubbish dump sites. The findings confirmed that the location of rubbish dump sites pose serious threat to the health of the human community in the university. The findings of this study can be used to make evidence- based decisions about possible relocation of rubbish dump containers in the university. This study is also an initiative to set the tone for more detailed research work on the health implications of rubbish disposal management on Ghanaians.

  19. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENTOF DUMPING SYNDROME AND ITS RELATION TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Yasmin da Silva; Destefani, Afrânio Côgo

    The dumping syndrome is frequent in bariatric surgery. It is probably the most common syndrome following partial or complete gastrectomy. Its prevalence in partial gastrectomy can reach up to 50%, thus it can be a significant complication arising from some types of bariatric surgeries. Critical analysis on dumping syndrome, its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. A literature review was performed using the key words: 'dumping syndrome', 'bariatric surgery' and 'rapid dumping syndrome'. Inclusion criteria were: books, original works, case reports and meta-analyzes, and the exclusion criterion was literature review. Concerning the publication time, articles were screened between 1960 and May 2015. The dumping syndrome is complication arising from obesity surgeries, but also can be a result of vagus nerve damage. Diagnosis is done primarily through the use of questionnaires based on scores. The Sigstad score and Arts survey are valid means for assessing the dumping syndrome. Initial therapy consists in the adoption of dietary measures, short acting drugs administration. A síndrome de dumping é frequente após operações bariátricas. É, provavelmente, a mais comum das síndromes que sucedem gastrectomias parciais ou completas. Sua prevalência, em gastrectomias parciais pode chegar a até 50%, tornando-se assim complicação significante em alguns tipos de operações bariátricas. Realizar análise crítica sobre a síndrome de dumping em sua fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica utilizando os descritores: 'síndrome de dumping', 'cirurgia bariátrica' e 'síndrome do esvaziamento rápido'. Os critérios de inclusão foram: livros, trabalhos originais, relatos de caso e metanálises; excluíram-se as revisões bibliográficas. Quanto ao tempo de publicação, foram selecionados artigos entre 1960 e maio de 2015. A síndrome de dumping é complicação gastrointestinal oriunda de operações para obesidade, mas tamb

  20. Hydroacoustic detection of dumped ammunition in the Ocean with multibeam snippet backscatter analyses. A case study from the 'Kolberger Heide' ammunition dump site (Baltic Sea, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Tina; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Dumped ammunition in the sea is a matter of great concern in terms of safe navigation and environmental threads. Because corrosion of the dumped ammunition's hull is ongoing, future contamination of the ambient water by their toxic interior is likely to occur. The location of such dump sites is approximately known from historical research and ship log book analyses. Subsequent remote sensing of ammunition dumping sites (e.g. mines) on the seafloor is preferentially performed with hydro-acoustic methods such as high resolution towed side scan or by the sophisticated synthetic aperture sonar approach with autonomous underwater vehicles. However, these are time consuming and expensive procedures, while determining the precise position of individual mines remains a challenging task. To mitigate these shortcomings we suggest using ship-born high-frequency multibeam sonar in shallow water to address the task of mine detection and precise localization on the seabed. Multibeam sonar systems have improved their potential in regard to backscatter analyses significantly over the past years and nowadays present fast and accurate tools for shallow water surveying to (1) detect mines in multibeam snippet backscatter data (2) determine their precise location with high accuracy intertial navigation systems. A case study was performed at the prominent ammunition dumping site 'Kolberger Heide' (Baltic Sea, Germany) in the year 2014 using a modern hydro-acoustic multibeam echosounder system with 200-400 kHz (KONGSBERG EM2040c). With an average water depth of not even 20 m and the proximity to the shore line and dense waterways, this investigated area requires permanent navigational care. Previously, the study area was surveyed by the Navy with the very sophisticated HUGIN AUV equipped with a synthetic aperture sonar with best resolution by current technology. Following an evaluation of the collected data, various ammunition bodies on the sea floor could be clearly detected. Analyses

  1. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 228.5 and 40 CFR 228.6(a)). General Selection Criteria 1. The dumping of materials into the ocean will... maintenance material dredged from the ARBC by hydraulic cutterhead pipeline dredging and hopper dredging. If... site. Additionally, several large natural gas pipelines cross the ODMDS-West. Because of the dispersive...

  2. The problem with coal-waste dumps inventory in Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Anna; Chybiorz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Coal-waste dumps are the side effect of coal mining, which has lasted in Poland for 250 years. They have negative influence on the landscape and the environment, and pollute soil, vegetation and groundwater. Their number, size and shape is changing over time, as new wastes have been produced and deposited changing their shape and enlarging their size. Moreover deposited wastes, especially overburned, are exploited for example road construction, also causing the shape and size change up to disappearing. Many databases and inventory systems were created in order to control these hazards, but some disadvantages prevent reliable statistics. Three representative databases were analyzed according to their structure and type of waste dumps description, classification and visualization. The main problem is correct classification of dumps in terms of their name and type. An additional difficulty is the accurate quantitative description (area and capacity). A complex database was created as a result of comparison, verification of the information contained in existing databases and its supplementation based on separate documentation. A variability analysis of coal-waste dumps over time is also included. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018.

  3. 77 FR 61819 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Relating to Imports from Nonmarket Economy Countries.'' China also challenges the concurrent application of... Proceeding Regarding United States-- Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Products From China... 17, 2012, the People's Republic of China (``China'') requested consultations with the United States...

  4. 77 FR 73732 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States ; Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... States ; Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Products From China AGENCY: Office of the... Republic of China (``China'') requested the establishment of a dispute settlement panel with the United... to nonmarket economy countries, and for other purposes'' (``Pub. L. 112-99''), and the countervailing...

  5. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... 2University of Mines and Technology, P.O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana ... The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps and the closure activity ... incur additional cost, it was advised that the mine should execute the closure and reclamation plan without delay. .... Progressively rehabilitate the project area.

  6. Hydrodynamic calculations of 20-TeV beam interactions with the SSC beam dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.; Wingate, C.A.; Goldstein, J.C.; Godwin, R.P.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The 300μs, 400 MJ SSC proton beam must be contained when extracted to the external beam dump. The current design for the SSC beam dump can tolerate the beat load produced if the beam is deflected into a raster scan over the face of the dump. If the high frequency deflecting magnet were to fail, the beam would scan a single strip across the dump face resulting in higher local energy deposition. This could vaporize some material and lead to high pressures. Since the beam duration is comparable to the characteristic time of expected hydrodynamic motions, we have combined the static energy deposition capability of the MARS computer code with the two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the MBA and SPHINX codes. EOS data suggest an energy deposition threshold of 15 kJ/g, below which hydrodynamic effects are minimal. Above this our 2D calculations show a hole boring rate of 7 cm/μs for the nominal beam, and pressures of a few kbar. Scanning the nominal beam faster than 0.08 cm/μs should minimize hydrodynamic effects. 3D calculations support this

  7. Activation of the IFMIF prototype accelerator and beam dump by deuterons and protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, Pavel; Burjan, Václav; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R.A.; Götz, Miloslav; Honusek, Milan; Klein, H.; Kroha, Václav; Novák, Jan; Sauer, A.; Šimečková, Eva; Tiede, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-12 (2008), s. 1543-1547 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : IFMIF * Protons and deuterons accelerator * Beam dump Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2008

  8. Research on hydraulic system of KZC-5 type rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2005-01-01

    KZC-5 type rear dump truck in underground mine is introduced in this paper. The determining principles and ways of two main hydraulic systems are discussed. It has been proved that the hydraulic systems are reasonable in the industrial scale test. (author)

  9. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...), US--Zeroing (Japan), US--Stainless Steel (Mexico), and US--Continued Zeroing (EC) found the denial of... comparisons between transaction-specific export prices and average normal values and does not offset the amount of dumping that is found with the results of comparisons for which the transaction-specific export...

  10. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  11. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…

  12. Down in the dumps - cheerfully. [Methods for the recovery of uranium and gold from tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhmer, W.T. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1984-07-01

    Scavenging gold and uranium from the sands dumps and slimes dams is a highly profitable operation. In a few pages the author summarises some of the permutations and combinations of the various processes employed by South African concerns to achieve economic results.

  13. Analisis hydrogeological conditions in the area near mine dump Samara (Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherstyuk N.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of formation of the chemical composition of groundwater in the area near the mine dump of Samara were installed. The geochemical type of groundwater by the formula M. Kurlova and degree of balance and groundwater with the main rock-forming minerals using diagrams of their fields of sustainability were defined.

  14. Risk assessment and monitoring at the Farallon Islands (CA) radioactive waste dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curl, H. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Roletto, J.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1946 and 1965 over 47,000 drums, concrete blocks and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped at three sites southwest of the Farallon Islands off the coast of San Francisco, CA. A total of approximately 4,500 Ci of thorium, uranium and other radionuclides was dumped. After 1965, and until 1972, dumping of dredged spoils, laboratory waste, etc. containing unknown amounts of toxic materials, continued. Concerns have arisen from time to time about the integrity of the containers and possible release of radionuclides and toxic materials into the ecosystem and the human food chain. Based on evaluation of all dumping records, sampling of fish and sediments, and modeling the authors conclude: the risk to resources at present is well below the level of concern. Hazard quotients of 4.7 x 10 exp -2 or less were calculated for all target species. The dominant radiation source is from external gamma radiation from the short-lived daughter of 137 Cs, 137 Ba, in sediments. Much of the 137 Cs has already decayed. The long-lived isotopes of Pu and Am will reach maximum advective release rates 80--200 after disposal. The maximum dose from these isotopes is an order of magnitude less than from 137 Cs. Radioanalysis of fish and sediments from one dumpsite in 1992 show values equal to those from two nearby reference sites

  15. The environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, van B.; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, de M.; Besten, den P.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity,

  16. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-05-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pwaste dumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2005-01-01

    Dumping is present in the European Union market when the export price at which a product is sold in the Community market is shown to be lower than what is considered "normal value". While in most cases the normal value is calculated as the price in the exporter's home market, the normal value, in...

  18. Safety Analysis of the Movable Absorber TCDQ in the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers. In the case of an asynchronous beam dump the TCDQ absorber protects the machine aperture. It is a single sided collimator, positioned close to the beam and it has to follow the beam position and beam size during the energy ramp. This report assesses the different failure scenarios of TCDQ positioning and their likelihood. The failure probability for the two TCDQ systems together is estimated to be 3.6 E-05 (mean value) for one year of LHC operation. This corresponds to a SIL4 safety level, which is considered sufficient. The three dominant failure modes are highlighted. The calculated failure probability refers to scenarios that are generated and developed inside the TCDQ system. Potential failure sources not included are the interaction with external systems: the transmission of the start signal to the PLC from a dedicated timing card and the manual opti...

  19. 76 FR 52045 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') concerning anti-dumping measures... of the World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org . Comments open to public inspection may be... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Dispute No. WTO/DS422] WTO Dispute Settlement...

  20. Joint Russian-Norwegian collaboration on radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Salbu, B.; Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    Joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea have taken place annually since 1992. The 1992 expedition to the open Kara Sea included for the first time scientists from Western countries. During the 1993 expedition underwater investigations of dumped objects in the Tsivolky Fjord and the Stepovogo Fjord was performed in addition to sample collection. This program was also carried out in the Abrosimov Fjord and the Stepovogo Fjord in 1994. The enhanced levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and the presence of 60 Co in sediments from Stepovogo Fjord as well as traces of 60 Co in samples from Tsivolky Fjord, show that leakage from dumped radioactive water has taken place. The contamination was localized to nearby dumped objects. The concentrations of radionuclides in waters and sediments in the open Kara Sea are presently very low and significantly lower than in other marine areas, e.g. the Irish Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The results imply that the impact of radioactive contamination from dumped radioactive waste on the Kara Sea environment is at present very low. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Radiological characterisation of an industrial waste dump at a fertilizer plant in Tarragona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Amor Duch, M.; Valles, I.; Vargas, A.; Lopez, N.

    2006-01-01

    The solid waste coming from the fertilizer factory belonging to the Ercros Company in the town of Flix (Tarragona-Spain) is stocked in an industrial dump located close to the town. Measurements of natural radionuclide activity, principally from the U-238 chain, were done from mud samples taken from various depth points and areas within the dump. Specific activity of the various components of the chain reaches values in the range of 2000 to 4500 Bq/kg. There were some values outside this range, chiefly in the case of Th-230, which reached values of 13000 Bq/kg. The total radioactive inventory in the dump if long-period radioisotopes are considered, can be estimated to be approximately 9000 GBq. Determination of equivalent environmental dose using thermoluminescent dosemeters reached values less than 1.8 mSv/year, if permanence was supposed. Radiological testing of atmospheric dust collected at the site did not show significant values. Average radon concentrations of 30 Bq/m 3 , were measured, slightly higher than 10 Bq/m 3 , a value that was considered as a reference value for the area. Values for the increase of the effective dose due to external or internal exposure caused by the waste at the dump are lower than 1 mSv/year. (authors)

  2. New exclusion limits for dark gauge forces from beam-dump data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Brunner, Juergen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. (France). CNRS/IN2P3

    2011-04-15

    We re-analyze proton beam dump data taken at the U70 accelerator at IHEP Serpukhov with the {nu}-calorimeter I experiment in 1989 to set mass-coupling limits for dark gauge forces. The corresponding data have been used for axion and light Higgs particle searches before. We determine new mass and coupling exclusion bounds for dark gauge bosons. (orig.)

  3. Using an active contour method to detect bilge dumps from SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An automatic approach to detect bilge dumping in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over Southern African oceans is proposed. The approach uses a threshold-based algorithm and a region-based active contour model (ACM) algorithm to achieve...

  4. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and methods of disposal or recycling available, including without limitation, storage until treatment facilities are completed, which have less adverse environmental impact or potential risk to other parts of... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  5. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  6. Evaluation of the superficial water quality in the affected area of a waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Relvas Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Improper disposal of solid waste in dumps can create various environmental problems, including risk of contamination of surface and groundwater by leachate, a fact which may have serious consequences for public health. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the superficial water quality of the Juma River near the Apui/AM dump. Analyses were performed in dry and rainy seasons and at two points, one upstream and one downstream from the dump. The following physical, chemical and biological parameters that comprise the Water Quality Index (Portuguese acronym, IQA were evaluated: thermotolerant coliforms, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5,20, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, total residue, water temperature and turbidity. All of the parameters were within the range permitted by regulation, with the exception of pH, which was out of the minimum permitted value, due to the natural characteristics of the watershed. The IQA showed good quality, varying from 62% to 66% between the collection points, indicating that the dump has no influence on water quality.

  7. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2004-01-01

    probability of achieving market economy status. Generally, evidence of independence of the Chinese public authorities is important. Thirdly, owner structure also counts in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation...

  8. Molecular alignment effect on the photoassociation process via a pump-dump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Han, Yong-Chang; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2015-09-01

    The photoassociation processes via the pump-dump scheme for the heternuclear (Na + H → NaH) and the homonuclear (Na + Na → Na2) molecular systems are studied, respectively, using the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. For both systems, the initial atom pair in the continuum of the ground electronic state (X1Σ+) is associated into the molecule in the bound states of the excited state (A1Σ+) by the pump pulse. Then driven by a time-delayed dumping pulse, the prepared excited-state molecule can be transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state. It is found that the pump process can induce a superposition of the rovibrational levels |v, j> on the excited state, which can lead to the field-free alignment of the excited-state molecule. The molecular alignment can affect the dumping process by varying the effective coupling intensity between the two electronic states or by varying the population transfer pathways. As a result, the final population transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state varies periodically with the delay time of the dumping pulse.

  9. Monitoring the radon flux from gold-mine dumps by gamma-ray mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, R; de Meijer, RJ; Maleka, PP; Newman, RT; Motlhabane, TGK; de Villiers, D

    The exhalation of radon from the large mine dumps at the gold mines in South Africa is a potential health hazard. Determination of radon fluxes from these dumpsites is problematic due to the scatter in the data in time and place and the cost involved in getting a representative sample. gamma-ray

  10. Potential conflicts connected with the recovery of secondary materials from post mining waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine spoil dumping grounds are present in the landscape of every mining region. Although the composition of waste material is in general safe for the environment (sedimentary rocks – sandstones, mudstones and siltstones, there may be up to 10% of coal particles in disposed wastes. The presence of organic material causes self-ignition processes and fire hazards. There is a need and the possibility of the recovery of coal, and which should be conducted according to legal regulations and environmental protection rules. The recovery should also be preceded by a feasibility study, a drilling campaign, laboratory tests and requires different environmental permissions. Recovery processes are connected with the work of a preparation plant, which is usually linked with protests from the local community and potential conflicts. This article presents the most significant hazards to the environment, health and human life connected with the functions associated with the installation of the recovery processes of coal from waste material deposited on the dumps. The methods of reducing these threats are described with regards to legal regulations, particularly law deeds concerning the safe recovery processes and further reclamation and restoration of degraded post-mining dumping grounds. The role and participation of interested community members at the preparation for investment stage as well as the period of realization of the preparation processes is described. The question of re-using and managing the post-mining dumping grounds after completion of the recovery processes is discussed.

  11. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate...

  12. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important...

  13. Impact of mine dumps on transport the invasive plant species to Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotkova, N.; Lokajickova, B.; Mec, J.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.

    2017-10-01

    Human activities significantly change the species composition in the area. The main factor of change was the mining industry, which changed the natural conditions on Upper Silesia. The anthropogenic relief of mine dumps are the main centre of alien plant in an industrial landscape. The poster deals with the state of the invasive plant species by the phyto-sociological surveys on Upper Silesia.

  14. Primary succession of soil rotifers in clays of brown coal post-mining dumps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Frouz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 2 (2011), s. 164-174 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil rotifers * post mining dumps * primary succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2011

  15. Self-closing sheet for encapsulating and dumping a bulk of material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a sheet (1) to be placed in relation to a split barge (100) for encapsulating a bulk of material (101) to be dumped when the bulk of material is released, the sheet comprising a material containing portion (4) and at least one material free portion (3) extending from...

  16. Feathered Detectives : Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, J.; Grémillet, D.; Afán, I.; Ramírez, F.; Bouten, W.; Forero, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic

  17. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  18. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, H.

    1995-01-01

    From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas from by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extreme biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964). The utilization of the computer program Flora D enabled the ecological characterization of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 11 and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are dominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophypes, geophytes and phanerophytes. Biological radiation investigations were performed using the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as bioindicator. The radioactivity in bee products was determined by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that the radioactivity in honey is twice to three times as high as in that from unpolluted control areas. Nonetheless, the level of honey radioactivity observed in the studied area does not endanger human health. Also the contents of radionuclides from the fission of uranium (U-235, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and Ra-228) in plants were determined. The effective equivalent dose for adults through different paths of exposure was

  19. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH 3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L −1 . Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R 2 = 0.97, p < 0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. - Highlights: • More than 250 year-old arsenopyrite-rich mine waste dump was studied. • Mineral transformation and the environmental stability of different secondary arsenic mineral phases were assessed. • High efficiency of As

  20. Chronic respiratory disease among the elderly in South Africa: any association with proximity to mine dumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-04-03

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors such as air pollution from mine dumps, increase the risk of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between proximity to mine dumps and prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in people aged 55 years and older. Elderly persons in communities 1-2 km (exposed) and 5 km (unexposed), from five pre-selected mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Province, in South Africa were included in a cross-sectional study. Structured interviews were conducted with 2397 elderly people, using a previously validated ATS-DLD-78 questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council. Exposed elderly persons had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases than those who were unexposed., Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that living close to mine dumps was significantly associated with asthma (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20 - 2.05), chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.74; 95 CI: 1.25 - 2.39), chronic cough (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.58 - 2.57), emphysema (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.11 - 2.77), pneumonia (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.77) and wheeze (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.73 - 2.54). Residing in exposed communities, current smoking, ex-smoking, use of paraffin as main residential cooking/heating fuel and low level of education emerged as independent significant risk factors for chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. This study suggests that there is a high level of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases among elderly people in communities located near to mine dumps in South Africa.

  1. Phytomass of plant communities at the dumps of opencast coal mines in the south of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Trefilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the evaluation of the stock and structure of plant communities formed in the dumps of the Borodino brown coal pit (the eastern part of the Kansk-Achinskcoal basin. A comparison of different age dumps reclaimed with top soil (TS, planned dumps and slopes. The observations cover the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2013. Almost immediately after its creation, on the surface dumps with TS a solid grassy vegetation formed, which was characterized by high productivity. Over the next two decades, a biomass reserve decreased more than 2 times. The major portion of the biomass of 7 and 31–year–old community is concentrated in the 0–10 cm layer. The plant communities amount to the original level of stocks and the structure of the biomass of both aboveground and underground are as no earlier than in 25–30 years. Forest plantations making to force the accumulation of biomass of young biogeocenosis formed on poor substrate (litostratah. The stock biomass of pine man–made stands on 30 % less than in the grass lands to growing on the dumps with TS. Slopes of reclaimed dumps were slowly overgrown and emerging communities were characterized by a low cover and productivity. The major portion of biomass was located above ground. Significant seasonal variations in quantities of above–ground phytomass of plant communities of old dumps, indicating their«immaturity»in spite of thethirty years of the formation of vegetation.

  2. Design for a 1.3 MW, 13 MeV Beam Dump for an Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Charles K; Smith, Colin H

    2005-01-01

    The electron beam exiting an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is dumped close to the injection energy. This energy is chosen as low as possible while allowing the beam quality specifications to be met. As ERLs are designed for high average beam current, beam dumps are required to handle high beam power at low energy. Low energy electrons have a short range in practical dump materials, requiring the beam size at the dump face be enlarged to give acceptable power densities and heat fluxes. Cornell University is developing a 100 mA average current ERL as a synchrotron radiation source. The 13 MeV optimum injection energy requires a 1.3 MW beam dump. We present a mature design for this dump, using an array of water-cooled extruded copper tubes. This array is mounted in the accelerator vacuum normal to the beam. Fatigue failure resulting from abrupt thermal cycles associated with beam trips is a potential failure mechanism. We report on designs for a 75 kW, 750 keV tube-cooled beryllium plate dump for electron gun test...

  3. Decision of the Council establishing a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Mechanism set up by the OECD Council on 22nd July, 1977 supplements the system established by the 1975 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and the IAEA provisional definition and recommendations. It lays down further compulsory rules on sea dumping of radioactive waste and provides for a prior notification and consultation procedure (choice of dumping site, containers, ships etc), international surveillance and an information system consisting of regular updating of standards guidelines and recommendations to be applied in the field. (NEA) [fr

  4. Design and R and D for manufacturing the MITICA Neutraliser and Electron Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.dallapalma@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Sartori, Emanuele; Gonzalez, Winder [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova (Italy); Tiso, Andrea; Trevisan, Lauro; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Analyses and verifications supporting the design of the MITICA Neutraliser and Electron Dump. ► Instrumentation and control systems have been analysed for protection, calorimetry, interlock. ► Assembly procedure, acceptance tests, and RH compatibility have been verified. ► R and D activities for design validation are ongoing to demonstrate the technical feasibility. -- Abstract: One MeV negative particle beam accelerated in the beam source of the ITER Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) will be neutralised in the Neutraliser gas cell. Four narrow beam channels are foreseen in the Neutraliser where the neutralisation process will occur with controlled gas pressure being the four channels delimited by five copper wall panels. Stray particles will be dumped on the copper Electron Dump and CuCrZr leading edges to be installed at the Neutraliser frontal section: the Electron Dump will intercept stray electrons in order to reduce the cryo pump thermal load; enhanced heat transfer in subcooled boiling conditions will occur in the panel leading edges with twisted tapes as turbulence promoters. The copper panels will be thermally controlled by means of embedded cooling circuits; thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses and verifications have been carried out considering several load combinations and satisfying the design rules as for ITER structural design criteria for in vessel components. Gas flow analyses have been carried out with molecular flow in the in-vessel vacuum environment to evaluate the gas pressure profile along the beam line also considering the presence of the Electron Dump. Furthermore, transient analyses of the gas flow inside channels have been performed to simulate the effect of last valve closure; analysis results demonstrate that gas flow variations can be detected by thermal measurements. The Neutraliser assembly, installation, and positioning inside the vacuum vessel have been verified considering alignment requirements and

  5. Models for settlement prediction of structures in opencast dumps; Modelle zur Setzungsprognose von Bauwerken auf Tagebaukippen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik

    2016-05-01

    For construction projects at opencast dumps e.g. for planning of traffic routes or individual buildings a prognosis of dump subsicence after the establishment of the structures is required. It should be noted that on dump surfaces time-dependent subsidence are observed which can change by construction activities at the dump surface. As tools for describing the dump subsidence phenomenological models that have been developed based on the evaluation of dump characteristic subsidence and allow a one-dimensional analysis of creep deformation and visco-elastoplastic material models within the finite element method for analyzing complex geometric boundary conditions. [German] Fuer Baumassnahmen auf Tagebaukippen beispielsweise zur Planung von Verkehrswegen oder einzelnen Bauwerken ist eine Prognose der Kippensetzungen nach Errichtung der Bauwerke erforderlich. Dabei ist zu beachten, dass auf Kippenoberflaechen ausgepraegte zeitabhaengige Setzungen beobachtet werden, die sich durch Baumassnahmen an der Kippenoberflaeche aendern koennen. Als Werkzeuge zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen stehen prinzipiell phaenomenologische Modelle, die auf Basis der Auswertung von Kippeneigensetzungen entwickelt wurden und die eine ein-dimensionale Analyse der Kriechverformungen zulassen sowie visko-elastoplastische Stoffmodelle im Rahmen der FiniteElemente- Methode zur Analyse komplexer geometrischer Randbedingungen zur Verfuegung. In Abhaengigkeit vom Randwertproblem ist zu entscheiden, welches der Modelle zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen heranzuziehen ist. Mit phaenomenologischen Kriechmodellen und einer ein-dimensionalen Analyse der Verformungen koennen die sich nach Ende der Verkippung einstellenden Kippensetzungen in der Regel genuegend genau beschrieben werden, sofern an der Kippenoberflaeche keine signifikanten Spannungsaenderungen infolge von Baumassnahmen eingetragen werden. Kommt es dagegen zu Spannungsaenderungen, beispielsweise durch die Errichtung eines hohen

  6. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S P [Forskningscente Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Iosjpe, M; Strand, P [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs.

  7. The influence of oil leak in modern vehicle shock absorber on its dumping characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the modern vehicle shock absorbers’ researches on indicator test stand. On this stand can be determined the diagrams of force versus displacement and force versus velocity. These diagrams can be determined for changeable strokes and constant velocities or the opposite way round. In researches the modern hydraulic twin-tube vehicle shock absorber was modificated and the changes of oil volume were possible. There was determined the influence of oil volume changes on force versus displacement and force versus velocity diagrams. On the basis of force versus velocity diagrams, the dumping characteristics were determined (value of force for maximum velocity on this diagram. The influence of oil volume changes on dumping characteristics was determined too. The results of this investigation can be used in simulation researches of vehicle suspension dynamic.

  8. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario, which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater, is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansievert calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide 137 Cs is found to dominate the doses. 19 refs., 56 figs., 8 tabs

  9. Fluka studies of the Asynchronous Beam Dump Effects on LHC Point 6

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Goddard, B; Mereghetti, A; Schmidt, R; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is a record-breaking machine for beam energy and intensity. An intense effort has therefore been deployed in simulating critical operational scenarios of energy deposition. Using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the effects of an asynchronous beam dump at the LHC Point 6 where beams, with a stored energy of 360 MJ, can instantaneously release up to a few J cm^-3 in the cryogenic magnets which have a quench limit of the order of the mJ cm^-3. In the present paper we will describe the simulation approach, and discuss the evaluated maximum energy release onto the superconducting magnets during an asynchronous beam dump. We will then analyze the shielding provided by collimators installed in the area and discuss safety limits for the operation of the LHC.

  10. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Artic Seas - The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA has initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to address the widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of IAEA responsibilities to the London Convention 1972. It is envisaged that the project will last for four years and be run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from relevant IAEA member states. The project is aimed at producing an assessment of the potential radiological implications of the dumping and at addressing the question of possible remedial measures. At the same time, it is intended to provide a focus for the reporting of national research and assessment work and a mechanism for encouraging international co-operation and collaboration

  11. A review of acid drainage from waste rock dumps and mine sites (Australian and Scandinavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1990-05-01

    This report reviews the literature from Australia and Scandinavia on acid drainage from pyritic waste rock dumps with an emphasis on measurements and theory of processes that control the rage of oxidation and the release of pollutants. Conditions within waste rock dumps have been measured at several mine sites and a range of rehabilitation treatments have been tried to reduce the release of pollutants. A number of models have been proposed to calculate air flow, water transport and geochemistry. The data and experience at the mine sites are compared with predictions of the models. Details of Australian and Swedish mine sites where waste rock is a source of acid drainage are described in the Appendices. 92 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  12. LHC Asynchronous Beam Dump: Study of new TCDQ model and effects on downstream magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V

    2012-01-01

    An asynchronous beam dump is one of the most critical accidents the LHC could face. In the effort to have a better protection of the machine, and to increase the robustness of the protection device itself, new models for the TCDQ (Target Collimator Dump Quadrupole) have been proposed and are under evaluation. Within this frame we have performed FLUKA evaluation of the energy deposition on one of the proposed models and on the downstream quadrupoles, MQY.4R6 and MQY.5R6, in order to evaluate the protection provided by the proposed model. The results of our study are compared to a similar one for a different proposed model and are input for the evaluation of the heat load on the proposed collimator.

  13. Conceptual Design of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements TCDS and TCDQ

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Sans-Merce, M; Weterings, W

    2004-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider, presently under construction at CERN, consists, per ring, of a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred metres further downstream, an absorber block. A fixed diluter (TCDS) will protect the septa in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers which will cause the beam to sweep over the septum. Another, mobile, diluter block (TCDQ) will protect the superconducting quadrupole immediate downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters. This paper describes the conceptual design of the protection elements.

  14. Determination of heat production zones at open-cast mine dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, M.; Nishigaki, M.; Glaser, H.R.; Christoph, G.; Grosswig, S.; Hurtig, E.; Kasch, M.; Kuhn, K.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical processes and their thermal effects taking place inside a dump of an open-cast mine (Cospuden) during a reclamation process were investigated. Fiber-optic-distributed-temperature sensing (DTS) was applied together with a soil ground water monitoring system (SGM-System). An optical fiber was mounted at the entire length of a double-pipe SGM-System. The temperature was measured monthly, along the depth of 50 m, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The system was utilized for the localization of heat production zones in the subsurface, for the determination of the temperature variation's penetration depth from the surface into the soil of the dump and for the determination of the influence of the SGM-System on the subsurface temperature balance. The results were compared with a heat transport model and then interpreted

  15. A preliminary assessment of potential doses to man from radioactive waste dumped in the Arctic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary radiological assessment of collective doses to the world population from radioactive material dumped in the Barents and Kara Seas in the period 1961-1991. Information on the dumped waste and the rates of release of radionuclides have been available from Russian sources and from the International Atomic Energy Agency. A box model has been used to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment and to calculate the contamination of seafood and the subsequent radiation doses to man. Two release scenarios have been adopted. The worst-case release scenario which ignores the presence of barriers between spent nuclear fuel and seawater is estimated to give rise to about 10 mansieverts calculated to 1000 years from the time of release. A more realistic release scenario is estimated to cause about 3 mansieverts. In both cases exposure from the radionuclide 137 Cs is found to dominate the doses. (au) 8 tabs., 56 ills., 19 refs

  16. Rubber-based carbon electrode materials derived from dumped tires for efficient sodium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yue; Ma, Chao; Bai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Si; Wang, Shi-Feng; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2018-04-03

    The development of sustainable and low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries has attracted considerable attention. In this work, a carbon composite material decorated with in situ generated ZnS nanoparticles has been prepared via a simple pyrolysis of the rubber powder from dumped tires. Upon being used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries, the carbon composite shows a high reversible capacity and rate capability. A capacity as high as 267 mA h g-1 is still retained after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1. The well dispersed ZnS nanoparticles in carbon significantly enhance the electrochemical performance. The carbon composites derived from the rubber powder are proposed as promising electrode materials for low-cost, large-scale energy storage devices. This work provides a new and effective method for the reuse of dumped tires, contributing to the recycling of valuable waste resources.

  17. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  18. Pithouses or ritual dumps? On Late Bronze and Early Iron Age’s material context type in the South of the Iberian Peninsula. The dump of Cortijo Riquelme (Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis LÓPEZ CASTRO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortijo Riquelme is a Late Bronze and Early Iron Age’s archaeological dump in the South East of the Iberian Peninsula which belongs to the so called pithouses. This traditional interpretation has been rejected by recent critical studies. Following this positions, the paper analyzes the mentioned dump, which mainly contained Late Bronze and very ancient Phoenician imported pottery, showing the introduction of Phoenician wine and the service for its consumption. A comparison is done with other similar dumps distributed in the South of the Iberian peninsula from Late Bronze Age, though the majority are dated during the early centuries if the 1st millennium bc, coinciding with the Phoenician colonization. Another Mediterranean dumps from Crete, Cyprus, Sicily and North Africa related with feasts help to propose an interpretation for the dump of Cortijo Riquelme and others of the same type, in which the ritual deposit of the containers used in feasts should contribute to the formation of dumps, in a context of increasing competition of local elites in processes of social differentiation.

  19. Selected Black-Coal Mine Waste Dumps in the Ostrava-Karviná Region: An Analysis of Their Potential Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Dominik; Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Marschalko, Marian; Kubáč, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims to analyse the options for the use of selected black-coal mine waste dump bodies in the Ostrava-Karviná Region. In the Czech Republic there are approximately 70 mine waste dumps, out of which 50 are located in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District. The issue is highly topical, particularly in the region, because the dump bodies significantly affect the landscape character of the Ostrava-Karviná Region and pose ecological risks. In such cases, their redevelopment and land reclamation are not easy either from the environmental or economic points of view. It is clear that the redevelopment of such geological environment is difficult, and it is vital to make the right decisions as for what purposes the mine waste dumps should be used. Next, it is important to take into account all the economic and environmental aspects of the locality in question.

  20. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ILLEGAL DUMPING AND IT’S SPATIAL AUTOREGRESSION: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Chang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the data pertaining to the illegal dumping of municipal solid waste in the Republic of Korea for the year 2011 to check for the presence of spatial autoregression of illegal dumping among 224 basic autonomous units with reference to the “Broken Windows Theory.” We found that a pure neighborhood effect exists even after controlling for conventional variables that explain illegal dumping behavior. Interestingly, however, the neighborhood effect is largely offset by so-called relative price effect such that the number of illegal dumping reported in one region is in fact decreased as the price of vinyl bag for MSW in neighboring regions increases, which is seemingly against the implication of the “Broken Windows Theory.”

  1. Mathematical Analysis of Malfunctions Caused by Seepage Water to the Republic Radioactive Waste Dump in Mochovce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kuzma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of radioactive waste and the problem of assuring the low and medium radioactive waste is an actual interdisciplinary problem. An important factor influencing on a complex approach to solving these problems is also a creation of suitable technical conditions for its long-term storage. In this article we mathematically analyze an influence of the break covering and its effect on the long-term stability and reliable serviceability of the Republic radioactive waste dump in Mochovce.

  2. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  3. Structure of energy consumption and improving open-pit dump truck efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of the improvement of wheel type transport vehicles environmental and energy performance in open-pit mines. The paper discloses characteristics of the gas turbine engine with capacity of 1250 hp, mounted on tanks, and technical-economic calculations, confirming reasonability of their use in open-pit dump trucks with the 120 …130-ton loading capacity. The general layout scheme of mechanical transmission with the gas turbine engine is shown.

  4. STRESS LOADING SIMULATION OF HYDRO-MECHANICAL TRANSMISSION OF DUMP TRUCK

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sidorov

    2006-01-01

    The Transmission model and software package to investigate stress loading of a hydromechanical transmission of a dump truck have been developed. The given software package allows to model stress loading of transmission gears in taking-off and acceleration modes at various road resistance, positions of an engine control pedal and initial revolutions of an engine crankshaft, various laws of friction clutch switching and some other parameters that permit to reveal a rate of various operational m...

  5. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  6. United States of America Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1981. Dredged Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    ocean dumping rules and regulations, F.R. Vol 42 No. 7, 11 Jan 1977 (2) Metals: () esame as above(3) Orga& nics : same as above 1). Other :iiLvs.is: (I...results: (1) Nutrients: Meets chemical - biological testing criteria II (2) Metals: * B 1 t U S(3) Orga! nics : b. Other analyses: (1) Metals: (2...description of dredged material, dredging, and transportation made: a. Description: Silty sand to silty clay noncohesive Hydrogen Sulfide smell. BIDDLE b

  7. Peranan Komunikasi Pemasaran Mobil Toyota Dump Truck Dyna Pada Masyarakat Kota Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Roring, Benny; Mewengkang, Norma; Harilama, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    The role of marketing communications cars toyota dyna dump truck in Manado city community. Background: The Community of Indonesian automotive world has witnessed many different brands and types of new cars milling about on the highway though the brand and type of the car recently launched by the automotive world produsennya.perkembangan archipelago is the influx of cars with the latest technology and some of them even offer technology Toyota concept depan.Kehadiran period of 40 years in Indon...

  8. Illegal dumping and crime prevention: A case study of Ash Road, Liverpool Council

    OpenAIRE

    Crofts, Penny; Morris, Tara; Wells, Kim; Powell, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Illegal waste disposal is an increasingly significant and costly problem. This paper considers a specific hot-spot for illegal dumping in Sydney, Australia from criminological perspectives. We contribute to the developing criminological literature that considers environmental harms as a crime. This draws upon the symbolic aspect of criminal law, contributing to the notion of environmental harms as wrongs worthy of sanction, and facilitates analysis through the prism of criminological literatu...

  9. IAEA programmes on controlled and accidental radioactive waste dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The IAEA data base on sources of radioactive material entering the marine environment consists of two modules at present. The module Sea Disposal of Radioactive Wastes includes information on wastes containing a total activity of 140 PBq dumped between 1946 and 1992. The second module Accidents and Losses at Sea contains confirmed information on 18 accidents involving nuclear submarines, aircraft etc., as well as losses in the sea of more than 100 sealed sources. (orig.)

  10. Incoherent Manipulation of the Photoactive Yellow Protein Photocycle with Dispersed Pump-Dump-Probe Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Delmar S.; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Vengris, Mikas; van der Horst, Michael A.; de Weerd, Frank L.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy, where the photocycle can be started and interrupted with appropriately tuned and timed laser pulses. This ``incoherent¿¿ manipulation of the photocycle allows for the d...

  11. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex has long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent m...

  12. Long-term terrain protection over the underground log dumps. Dlouhodoba ochrana terenu nad podzemnimi slozisti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacek, J [Ustav geotechniky CSAV, Praha (Czechoslovakia)

    1992-02-01

    Results of experimental research of surface danger of the terrain over underground log dumps are given. Time influence and rock structure influence on surface deformation were analyzed for the purpose of solving rock stability. The example of solving underground cavities influence on surface by using equivalent modelling method is described. This way enables us to take geotechnic route, influence of driving advance and the method backfilling into consideration. The method is convenient for evaluation of landslide effects and for safeguarding measures. 9 figs.

  13. Deep circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and its implication for the dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The complexity of ocean transport processes has meant that the limits for the dumping of low-activity radioactive wastes have had to be based on very simplified models of the oceans. This report discusses the models used to determine dumping limits and contrasts them with the known ocean circulation patterns. The deep circulations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are reviewed to provide a basis for estimating the possible destinations and likely transit times for dissolved material released at the ocean floor

  14. VULNERABILITY OF MOUNTAIN RIVERS TO WASTE DUMPING FROM NEAMT COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-CONSTANTIN MIHAI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lack of waste management facilities from mountain region often lead to uncontrolled disposal of waste on river banks polluting the local environment and damaging the tourism potential. Geographical conditions influences the distribution of human settlements which are located along the rivers and its tributaries. This paper aims to estimate the amounts of household waste generated and uncollected disposed into mountain rivers, taking into account several factors such as:proximity of rivers to the human settlements, the morphology of villages, length of river that crosses the locality(built up areas, local population, the access to waste collection services and waste management infrastructure. Vulnerability of rivers to illegal dumping is performed using GIS techniques, highlighting the localities pressure on rivers in close proximity. For this purpose, it developed a calculation model for estimation the amounts of waste (kg that are dumped on a river section (m that crosses a locality (village or it is in close proximity. This estimation is based on the “principle of proximity and minimum effort” it can be applied in any mountainous region that are lacking or partially access to waste collection services. It is an assessment tool of mountain rivers vulnerability to waste dumping,taking into account the geographical and demographic conditions of the study area. Also the current dysfunctions are analyzed based on field observations.

  15. Large scale organized motion in isothermal swirling flow through an axisymmetric dump combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daddis, E.D.; Lieber, B.B.; Nejad, A.S.; Ahmed, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on velocity measurements that were obtained in a model axisymmetric dump combustor which included a coaxial swirler by means of a two component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) at a Reynolds number of 125,000. The frequency spectrum of the velocity fluctuations is obtained via the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The velocity field downstream of the dump plane is characterized, in addition to background turbulence, by large scale organized structures which are manifested as sharp spikes of the spectrum at relatively low frequencies. The decomposition of velocity disturbances to background turbulence and large scale structures can then be achieved through spectral methods which include matched filters and spectral factorization. These methods are demonstrated here for axial velocity obtained one step height downstream of the dump plane. Subsequent analysis of the various velocity disturbances shows that large scale structures account for about 25% of the apparent normal stresses at this particular location. Naturally, large scale structures evolve spatially and their contribution to the apparent stress tensor may vary depending on the location in the flow field

  16. Dark Matter Search in a Proton Beam Dump with MiniBooNE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Backfish, M; Bashyal, A; Batell, B; Brown, B C; Carr, R; Chatterjee, A; Cooper, R L; deNiverville, P; Dharmapalan, R; Djurcic, Z; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Grange, J; Green, J A; Huelsnitz, W; de Icaza Astiz, I L; Karagiorgi, G; Katori, T; Ketchum, W; Kobilarcik, T; Liu, Q; Louis, W C; Marsh, W; Moore, C D; Mills, G B; Mirabal, J; Nienaber, P; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Shaevitz, M H; Shahsavarani, S; Stancu, I; Tayloe, R; Taylor, C; Thornton, R T; Van de Water, R; Wester, W; White, D H; Yu, J

    2017-06-02

    The MiniBooNE-DM Collaboration searched for vector-boson mediated production of dark matter using the Fermilab 8-GeV Booster proton beam in a dedicated run with 1.86×10^{20} protons delivered to a steel beam dump. The MiniBooNE detector, 490 m downstream, is sensitive to dark matter via elastic scattering with nucleons in the detector mineral oil. Analysis methods developed for previous MiniBooNE scattering results were employed, and several constraining data sets were simultaneously analyzed to minimize systematic errors from neutrino flux and interaction rates. No excess of events over background was observed, leading to a 90% confidence limit on the dark matter cross section parameter, Y=ε^{2}α_{D}(m_{χ}/m_{V})^{4}≲10^{-8}, for α_{D}=0.5 and for dark matter masses of 0.01dark matter. This is the best limit from a dedicated proton beam dump search in this mass and coupling range and extends below the mass range of direct dark matter searches. These results demonstrate a novel and powerful approach to dark matter searches with beam dump experiments.

  17. Requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, H.C.

    1982-10-01

    This report outlines the requirements of the London Convention for dumping radioactive waste at sea and considers their scientific basis more fully. It is intended primarily as an appraisal and aid to understanding of the two documents IAEA 210 and IAEA 211, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and relating to the oceanographic and radiobiological basis of their definitions of high level waste and recommendations relating to its dumping at sea, which were required for London Convention purposes. The adequacy and conservation in these recommendations are considered, and the report also compares the predictions of the model on which the recommendations are based with some limited but relevant observations on radiation doses resulting from natural causes (radium in the sea), and from fallout from nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that if dumping is carried out within the limits and according to the recommendations required by the IAEA, then it is extremely unlikely that this could lead to significant human hazard, either now or in the future. Some of the reasons for this conclusion are summarised in the final chapter

  18. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  19. Dark Matter Search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglieri, M.

    2016-01-01

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a ∼ 1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10 22 electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle χ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the results obtained with a prototype detector running at INFN-LNS (Italy), while the beam-related background has been evaluated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed experiment will be sensitive to large regions of DM parameter space, exceeding the discovery potential of existing and planned experiments in the MeV-GeV DM mass range by up to two orders of magnitude.

  20. Analysis of Maintenance Service Contracts for Dump Trucks Used in Mining Industry with Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymasius, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Iskandar, B. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mining company needs high availability of dump trucks used to haul mining materials. As a result, an effective maintenance action is required to keep the dump trucks in a good condition and hence reducing failure and downtime of the dump trucks. To carry out maintenance in-house requires a high intensive maintenance facility and high skilled maintenance specialists. Often, outsourcing maintenance is an economic option for the company. An external agent takes a proactive action with offering some maintenance contract options to the owner. The decision problem for the owner is to decide the best option and for the agent is to determine the optimal price for each option offered. A non-cooperative game-theory is used to formulate the decision problems for the owner and the agent. We consider that failure pattern of each truck follows a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a queueing theory with multiple servers is used to estimate the downtime. As it involves high complexity to model downtime using a queueing theory, then in this paper we use a simulation method. Furthermore, we conduct experiment to seek for the best number of maintenance facilities (servers) which minimises maintenance and penalty costs incurred to the agent.

  1. Upgrade of the TCDQ: A dumping protection system for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakakis, T

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LHC, an asynchronous beam dump could be destructive. In order to ensure the safety of the machine and its surroundings a model of the TCDQ dump has been designed. The length of the TCDQ dump is increased by 50% and its material distribution along its length is changed from graphite to a carbon composite that clearly withstands higher stresses then its counterpart. There are two different density composites used along the dump‘s length in a similar distribution than that of the TCDS, varying from high density to low then back to high. The power deposition within the duration of a pulse is given by FLUKA simulations and is used to predict temperature and stress distributions in space and time. The results are compared with previous studies in which graphite material was used. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of the two materials explains the reduced stresses in the newer design. Due to the high cost of carbon composites an alternative solution is thought without jeopar...

  2. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures.

  3. Effect of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on ground water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to elucidate the effects of Mehmood Booti dumping site in Lahore on the quality of groundwater in conterminous areas and recommend improvement measures. For this purpose, five tube wells were selected for collection of water samples. One of these was located within the premises of Mahmood Booti dumping site while another tube well at a distance of 8 km near Mall Road was selected as the control point to compare the test results. Three samples from each sampling point were collected before monsoon and three after monsoon with a total of thirty (30) samples for statistical significance. To find out the effect of leachate on groundwater quality, five parameters i.e. turbidity, pH, hardness, total dissolved solids and fecal coliform were tested. Mean value of test results was compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. It was indicated by the test results that physico-chemical quality of all sources (tube wells) was satisfactory. The test results indicated that 20% of water samples collected from the tube wells before monsoon contained fecal contaminant and that percentage rose to 60% after monsoon. The analysis of results showed that Mehmood Booti dumping site has no significant effect on the selected water quality parameters. (author)

  4. Furfural-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Cowgill, M.G.; Sivintsev, Y.V.; Alexandrov, V.P.; Dyer, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding ∼ 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker Lenin was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfural (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. In the liquid state (prior to polymerization) Conservant F is a low viscosity, homogeneous resin blend that provides long work times (6--9 hours). In the cured state, Conservant F provides resistance to water and radiation, has high adhesion properties, and results in minimal gas evolution. This paper discusses the properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea

  5. Scenarios for potential radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, N.; Mount, M.; Gussgard, K.

    1995-01-01

    The largest inventory of radioactive materials dumped in the Kara Sea by the former Soviet Union comes from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of seven marine reactors, the current (1994) inventory of which makes a total of approximately 4.7x10 15 Bq. In progressing its work for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Source Term Working Group has analysed the Source Term and subsequently developed a number of model scenarios for the potential release patterns of radionuclides into the Kara Sea from the SNF and activated components dumped within the marine reactors.These models are based on the present and future conditions of the barrier materials and their configuration within the dumped objects. They account for progressive corrosion of the outer and inner steel barriers, breakdown of the organic fillers, and degradation and leaching from the SNFs. Annual release rates are predicted to four thousand years into the future. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Reaction pathways of photoexcited retinal in proteorhodopsin studied by pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupenyan, Alisa; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Arents, Jos C; van Grondelle, Rienk; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Groot, Marie Louise

    2009-12-17

    Proteorhodopsin (pR) is a membrane-embedded proton pump from the microbial rhodopsin family. Light absorption by its retinal chromophore initiates a photocycle, driven by trans/cis isomerization on the femtosecond to picosecond time scales. Here, we report a study on the photoisomerization dynamics of the retinal chromophore of pR, using dispersed ultrafast pump-dump-probe spectroscopy. The application of a pump pulse initiates the photocycle, and with an appropriately tuned dump pulse applied at a time delay after the dump, the molecules in the initial stages of the photochemical process can be de-excited and driven back to the ground state. In this way, we were able to resolve an intermediate on the electronic ground state that represents chromophores that are unsuccessful in isomerization. In particular, the fractions of molecules that undergo slow isomerization (20 ps) have a high probability to enter this state rather than the isomerized K-state. On the ground state reaction surface, return to the stable ground state conformation via a structural or vibrational relaxation occurs in 2-3 ps. Inclusion of this intermediate in the kinetic scheme led to more consistent spectra of the retinal-excited state, and to a more accurate estimation of the quantum yield of isomerization (Phi = 0.4 at pH 6).

  7. Radionuclide distributions in sediments of marine areas used for dumping solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.; Livingston, H.D.

    A number of sediment samples, collected both by coring and by grabbing, from the shallow Pacific solid waste radioactive dump site and from the Atlantic dump site, have been analyzed carefully for a number of long-lived radionuclides. Both dump sites yielded samples that were expected to serve as controls, collected at considerable distance from any visually-located waste containers, as well as other samples that were collected close to identified waste drums, some of which showed evidence of physical disintegration. The Atlantic site shows evidence of wide-spread, general contamination, with 137 Cs and possibly with 241 Am. The Pacific site is perhaps less generally contaminated with 137 Cs, but shows evidence of widespread general contamination with several transuranic nuclides. Samples collected near to identified waste containers, at both sites, show that significant portions of leached radioactivity ( 137 Cs, 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm) are immobilized by the sediments within very short distances, possibly measured in meters or tens of meters. The data also suggest considerable differences among the horizontal trajectories of the various leached transuranic elements. It is argued that careful study of nuclide distributions around such old waste containers would provide data of great value in helping to predict long-term behavior of radionuclides released to marine environments

  8. Dark Matter Search in a Beam-Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglieri, M. [Univ. of Genova (Italy). National Institute for Nuclear Physics. et al

    2016-07-05

    MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. This proposal presents the MeV-GeV DM discovery potential for a $\\sim$1 m$^3$ segmented CsI(Tl) scintillator detector placed downstream of the Hall A beam-dump at Jefferson Lab, receiving up to 10$^{22}$ electrons-on-target (EOT) in 285 days. This experiment (Beam-Dump eXperiment or BDX) would be sensitive to elastic DM-electron and to inelastic DM scattering at the level of 10 counts per year, reaching the limit of the neutrino irreducible background. The distinct signature of a DM interaction will be an electromagnetic shower of few hundreds of MeV, together with a reduced activity in the surrounding active veto counters. A detailed description of the DM particle $\\chi$ production in the dump and subsequent interaction in the detector has been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the expected backgrounds: the cosmogenic background has been extrapolated from the results obtained with a prototype detector running at INFN-LNS (Italy), while the beam-related background has been evaluated by GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed experiment will be sensitive to large regions of DM parameter space, exceeding the discovery potential of existing and planned experiments in the MeV-GeV DM mass range by up to two orders of magnitude.

  9. Quantitative mapping of particulate iron in an ocean dump using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    A remote sensing experiment was conducted at the industrial acid waste ocean dump site located approximately 38 n mi SE of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, to see if there was a relationship between aircraft remotely sensed spectral signatures and the iron concentration measured in the plume. Results are presented which show that aircraft remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. A single variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440-490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540-580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the acid plume and the surrounding water. The acid waste varied in age from freshly dumped to 3 1/2 hours old. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/liter at the 0.46 meter depth. A classification technique was developed to remove sunglitter-affected pixels from the data set.

  10. Upper plenum dump during reflood in PWR loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Griffith, Peter.

    1981-01-01

    Upper plenum dump during reflood in a large break loww-of-coolant accident of PWR is studied with the emergency core coolant injection into the upper plenum in addition to the cold leg. Transient experiments were carried out by injecting water into the upper plenum and the simple analysis based on a one-dimensional model was done using the drift flux model in order to investigate the conditions under which water dump through the core occurs during reflood. The most significant result is an upper plenum dump occurs when the pressure (hydrostatic head) in the upper plenum is greater than that in the lower plenum. Under those circumstances the flow regime isco-current down flow in which the upper plenum is rapidly emptied. On the other hand, when the upper plenum pressure (hydrostatic head) is less than the lower plenum pressure (hydrostatic head), the co-current down flow is not realized but a counter-current flow occurs. With subcooled water injection to the upper plenum, co-current down flow is realized even when the upper plenum hydrostatic head is less than the lower plenum hydrostatic head. The importance of this effect varies according to the magnetude of water subcooling. (author)

  11. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  12. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone

  13. Principles for an interactive multi-scale assessment of sustainable production limits - lessons from the Limpopo river basin case, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebrich, Jochen; de Cleccq, Willem; Veraart, Jeroen; Vullings, Wies

    2015-04-01

    About 7.2 billion people currently live on the Earth and the population is projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, that growth will be mainly in developing countries, with more than half in Africa (United Nations 2013). Any local extension of irrigated agriculture in a region of scarce natural resources may potentially restrict the possibility to extend land and water use at another location of the same river basin. In order to support, develop and to assess such future interventions, it is important to define limits until which a sustainable production can take place at a given location, taking into account competing claims on natural resources, human welfare and impacts on environmental quality. We define Sustainable production limits as limits for the possible resource use, within which a production can be extended without restricting the growth opportunities at a neighboured location. The more threatened the natural resources become, the more important it is to consider the effect of other upcoming interventions within the same region. As a consequence, interventions for future resource use have to be assessed against the future available natural resources. This is of particular relevance for evaluating possible extensions of irrigation areas within a river basin. Investigating possible limits for extending irrigated agriculture at local scale requires an understanding of the complexity, including boundaries, activities, stakeholders, and opportunities at river basin scale, and more. Switching between the scales in this information, in a participatory process, appears to be a challenge in its own. Within the Limpopo River basin (South Africa), we analysed (i) possible interventions at local scale (transdisciplinary innovation of irrigation by smallholders, launching of PPPs), (ii) restrictions for developing irrigation at the Letaba sub basin scale, and (iii) water balance at the scale of the Limpopo basin. Experiences from the Limpopo case revealed, that

  14. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the available natural flow in the streams is sometimes less than the flow required for water supply or irrigation, however water can be stored in times of surplus, for example, from a wet season to a dry season. Efficient water management and sound reservoir planning are hindered by the lack of information about the functioning of these reservoirs. Reservoirs in these regions were constructed in a series of projects funded by different agencies, at different times, with little or no coordination among the implementing partners. Poor record keeping and the lack of appropriate institutional support result in deficiencies of information on the capacity, operation, and maintenance of these structures. Estimating the storage capacity of dams is essential to the responsible management of water diversion. Most of SR in these basins have never been evaluated, possibly because the tools currently used for such measurement are labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. The objective of this research was to develop methodology to estimate small reservoir capacities as a function of their remotely sensed surface areas in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta basins, as a way to contribute to improve the water resource management in those catchments. Remote sensing was used to identify, localize and characterize small reservoirs. The surface area of each was calculated from satellite images. A sub-set of reservoirs was selected. For each reservoir in the sub-set, the surface area was estimated from field surveys, and storage capacity was estimated using information on reservoir surface

  15. Effect of the decommissioned Roger open dump, João Pessoa, Brazil, on local groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano de Souza Fagundes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 45 years (1958-2003 the solid wastes from João Pessoa were disposed off in the former Roger’s open dump, which is situated adjacent to the mangrove at the sides of Sanhauá river, intensifying environmental problems and threatening the health of people living nearby. Between 1999 and 2003 the decommissioned open dump received wastes from the cities of Cabedelo and Bayeux. Several environmental impacts result from this inadequate disposal of solid wastes, including the pollution of groundwater nearby the former Roger´s open dump, which is the major point of investigation of this paper. The water quality of 6 wells situated in the region of influence of the open dump were monitored. Results have shown that the groundwater near the open dump cannot be drunk by the population without previous treatment, since it has some parameters of water quality in discordance with Brazilian legislation concerned with drinking water. Results have also shown that the level of pollution is higher in the wells closer to the open dump.

  16. Moessbauer, TEM/SAED and XRD investigation on waste dumps of the Valea lui Stan gold mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, Serban Grigore, E-mail: sconst@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Udubasa, Sorin S.; Udubasa, Gheorghe [University of Bucharest, Fac. of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Kuncser, Victor; Popescu-Pogrion, Nicoleta; Mercioniu, Ionel; Feder, Marcel [National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    The complementary investigation techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the fate of the Valea lui Stan, Romania, gold-ore nanoscale-minerals during the long time of residence in the waste dumps. The preliminary investigations showed such waste dumps to contain significant amount of metals which cannot be identified by conventional methods. An intense research activity started up in order to evaluate the possibilities to recycle Valea lui Stan waste dumps and to recover metals by chemical or phytoextraction procedures. The waste dumps naturally show different mineral constituents with clay minerals as major phases, observed by XRD-technique. Although the waste dumps materials have whitish-yellowish colours, MOeSSBAUER technique evidences the presence of the finely dispersed iron bearing minerals. The authors are focusing to inspect and analyze Fe-compounds in the samples collected from Valea lui Stan's waste dumps in order to identify the magnetic phases by Moessbauer technique.

  17. A programme for exposure and epidemiological surveillance of populations living in the vicinity of industrial waste dumps in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Hours, M.; Fabry, J.

    1991-01-01

    Following the environmental contamination at the industrial waste site of Montchain, the government of France has resolved to sponsor a programme for monitoring the impact of industrial waste dumps on the environment and on the health of neighbouring populations. The epidemiological approach is generally limited in its power to quantify risks and even to identify hazards because of: 1. the usual lack of information on the identify and level of toxic substances in the dump itself, on the exposures of individuals in the vicinity and therefore on the diseases and symptoms to be studied; 2. the relatively small size of the populations 'at risk' of exposure. The proposed solution is to carry out a systematic - prospective - surveillance of specific exposures in, and around, every industrial waste site in activity in France. The surveillance will be tailored to each dump. This will yield much needed information on the distribution and temporal pattern of exposures in the population. Risk projection models can then be applied and ranges of risk estimates derived in order that public authorities can make decisions on the operation of the dump. A health risk information campaign will be set up. A prospective epidemiologic study of dump workers, involving exposure monitoring, and biological and clinical follow-up, will also be set up. Subsequently, and depending on the agents and levels of exposure identified at individual dumps, epidemiologic surveillance of high risk groups (pregnant women, children) and biological monitoring of a subsample of the population may be set up

  18. Review of the continued suitability of the dumping site for radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    Under the terms of the Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste, NEA is requested to assess, in consultation with the Environment Committee, the suitability of dumping sites proposed by the national authorities of Participating countries and to keep under review those previously considered suitable. Since 1974 radioactive waste sea dumping operations have been carried out in a single site located in the North-East Atlantic region. To fulfil the objectives of the Council Decision, an international group of oceanographic and radiation protection experts was convened by NEA in November 1979 to undertake a review of the continued suitability of the dumping site, taking into account the relevant provisions of the London Dumping Convention and the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the purposes of the Convention. The results of the review are contained in this Report. The Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy confirmed in April 1980 that, on the basis of the review, the existing site was suitable for continued dumping of radioactive waste for the next five years, under the conditions specified by the Group of Experts in their conclusions and recommendations. At the same time, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy agreed on the need for developing a co-ordinated site-specific scientific programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfert of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that future assessments can be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data

  19. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  20. Towards the elimination of malaria in South Africa: a review of surveillance data in Mutale Municipality, Limpopo Province, 2005 to 2010

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    Khosa Ester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has targeted to eliminate malaria by the year 2018. Constant monitoring of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in affected subpopulations is therefore crucial in guiding and refining control interventions. Mutale Municipality in Limpopo Province is one of the areas with the highest risk of malaria in the country. This paper describes trends in malaria incidence, case fatality and household indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage in Mutale Municipality, during the period 2005 to 2010. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted on malaria data routinely collected through the Limpopo provincial malaria information system between July 2005 and June 2010. Five malaria seasons were defined. Annualized malaria incidence rates, case fatality rates (CFR and IRS coverage rates were calculated. Results Cumulatively, 4,663 malaria cases and 21 malaria deaths were reported in Mutale between July 2005 and June 2010. Investigation of likely origin of the malaria in 3,517 patients revealed that 6.6% were imported cases, mostly from neighbouring Zimbabwe (222/231. Malaria incidence rates fell from 13.6 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2005–2006 season to 2.7 cases per 1,000 person-years in the 2009–2010 season. The mean malaria CFR was stable between 0.3 and 0.6% during the first four seasons, and increased sharply to 2.1% in the 2009–2010 season. The median age of the 21 malaria deaths was 34 years (range: 16 to 60 years. CFRs were 0% in children below 15 years and above 0.5% in patients more than 24 years old. Regular IRS achieved coverage above 80% in all five seasons. Conclusion Malaria control interventions implemented in Mutale significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. In order to accurately monitor progress towards the elimination goal, the malaria control programme should strengthen the reporting and capturing of the data in the provincial malaria information system; all