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Sample records for dulce capsicum chinense

  1. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research shows that taking a combination supplement (Prograde Metabolism) containing capsicum extract (Capsimax, OmniActive Health Technologies) twice ... African Bird Pepper, African Chillies, African Pepper, Aji, Bird Pepper, Capsaicin, ... Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum ...

  2. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... qui se retrouve sur le marché international (FAO,. 2006). Les fruits de Capsicum ... piment, l'accès facile au site et sur la base d'une expérience dans le ... comprendre le mode d'emploi des pesticides. Pesticides chimiques ...

  3. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

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    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  4. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  5. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  6. Higroscopicidade das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hellismar W. da; Costa, Lílian M.; Resende, Osvaldo; Oliveira, Daniel E. C. de; Soares, Renato S.; Vale, Luís S. R.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMOA higroscopicidade de sementes fornece informações essenciais para otimização de processos de secagem, armazenamento e desenvolvimento de embalagens. O objetivo neste trabalho foi determinar as isotermas de dessorção das sementes de pimenta (Capsicum chinense L.), variedade Cabacinha, para diferentes condições de temperatura e atividade de água utilizando-se o método estático indireto, sendo a atividade de água (aw) determinada por meio do equipamento Hygropalm Model Aw1. Aos dados expe...

  7. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

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    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  8. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  9. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  10. Biocatalytic potential of vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The conversion of vanillin to vanillylamine is a key step in the biosynthetic route towards capsaicinoids in pungent cultivars of Capsicum sp. The reaction has previously been annotated to be catalysed by PAMT (putative aminotransferase; [GenBank: AAC78480.1, Swiss-Prot: O82521]), however, the enzyme has previously not been biochemically characterised in vitro. Results The biochemical activity of the transaminase was confirmed by direct measurement of the reaction with purified recombinant enzyme. The enzyme accepted pyruvate, and oxaloacetate but not 2-oxoglutarate as co-substrate, which is in accordance with other characterised transaminases from the plant kingdom. The enzyme was also able to convert (S)-1-phenylethylamine into acetophenone with high stereo-selectivity. Additionally, it was shown to be active at a broad pH range. Conclusions We suggest PAMT to be renamed to VAMT (vanillin aminotransferase, abbreviation used in this study) as formation of vanillin from vanillylamine could be demonstrated. Furthermore, due to high stereoselectivity and activity at physiological pH, VAMT is a suitable candidate for biocatalytic transamination in a recombinant whole-cell system. PMID:24712445

  11. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  12. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  13. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  15. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

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    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  16. Growth, phenology and chlorophyll fluorescence of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. under water stress conditions

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    Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation methods offer a good alternative for increasing water use efficiency. The main purpose of this study was to identify the best irrigation level for Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. plants based on available water capacity (AWC of substrate. An experiment carried out with three irrigation levels (20, 40 and 60% of AWC and five genotypes (H225, H241, H244, H226 and Jaguar. The irrigation level of 20% decreased the soil water potential to cause water stress in plants. At an irrigation level of 40%, average jaguar plant height (92 cm and H241 (79 cm, genotypes were greater than under the other treatments. Average leaf area of H225, H241 and H244 plants was at least 48% greater than Jaguar plants. Average total dry matter of H241 and Jaguar plants, were 30 and 28% greater than H226 plants; and values of maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm, relative electron transport rate and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II were higher in H241, H244 and H226 plants; i.e. they are less probably due to photo inhibition damage. However, flowering time was earlier in plants with an irrigation level (IL of 20% than plants with an IL of 40%, this was a consequence of stress due to water deficit. The 60% irrigation treatment caused flooding and all genotypes died before the inflorescence stage. These results suggest the enforcement of a suitable irrigation level based in available water capacity of substrate coupled with a vigorous genotype can encourage healthy plants and high water use efficiency.

  17. Biochemical characterization and immunolocalization studies of a Capsicum chinense Jacq. protein fraction containing DING proteins and anti-microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Tamayo-Sansores, José A; Madera-Piña, Dianeli; García-Villalobos, Francisco J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Kú-González, Ángela; Villanueva, Marco A; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Western immunoblotting with a custom-made polyclonal antibody raised against a sequence (ITYMSPDYAAPTLAGLDDATK), derived from the ∼7.57 kDa polypeptide, immunodetected an ∼ 39 kDa polypeptide in G10P1.7.57. Purification by electroelution followed by amino acid sequencing of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide yielded seven new peptide sequences and an additional one identical to that of the initially identified peptide. Western immunoblotting of soluble proteins from C. chinense seeds and leaves revealed the presence of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide at all developmental stages, with increased accumulation when the organs reached maturity. Immunolocalization using Dabsyl chloride- or Alexa fluor 488-conjugated antibodies revealed a specific fluorescent signal in the cell cytoplasm at all developmental stages, giving support to the idea that the ∼39 kDa polypeptide is a soluble DING protein. Thus, we have identified and characterized a protein fraction with a DING protein from C. chinense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring natural variation of photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters in a large panel of Capsicum chinense accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Souza, Laise; Scossa, Federico; Chaves, Izabel S; Kleessen, Sabrina; Salvador, Luiz F D; Milagre, Jocimar C; Finger, Fernando; Bhering, Leonardo L; Sulpice, Ronan; Araújo, Wagner L; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Collectively, the results presented improve upon the utility of an important genetic resource and attest to a complex genetic basis for differences in both leaf metabolism and fruit morphology between natural populations. Diversity of accessions within the same species provides an alternative method to identify physiological and metabolic traits that have large effects on growth regulation, biomass and fruit production. Here, we investigated physiological and metabolic traits as well as parameters related to plant growth and fruit production of 49 phenotypically diverse pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense grown ex situ under controlled conditions. Although single-trait analysis identified up to seven distinct groups of accessions, working with the whole data set by multivariate analyses allowed the separation of the 49 accessions in three clusters. Using all 23 measured parameters and data from the geographic origin for these accessions, positive correlations between the combined phenotypes and geographic origin were observed, supporting a robust pattern of isolation-by-distance. In addition, we found that fruit set was positively correlated with photosynthesis-related parameters, which, however, do not explain alone the differences in accession susceptibility to fruit abortion. Our results demonstrated that, although the accessions belong to the same species, they exhibit considerable natural intraspecific variation with respect to physiological and metabolic parameters, presenting diverse adaptation mechanisms and being a highly interesting source of information for plant breeders. This study also represents the first study combining photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters for Capsicum to date.

  19. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

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    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

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    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  3. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  4. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological

  5. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  6. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  7. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Angela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na(+) is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na(+) compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na(+) in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na(+) extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K(+) in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na(+), and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K(+). Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na(+) extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.

  8. Pudrición basal del ají dulce por haematonectria haematococca en el estado mérida, venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeño, Luis; Carrero, Chrystian; Jaimez, Ramón

    2003-01-01

    Se determinó Haematonectria haematococca (anamorfo Fusarium solani) como el agente causal de la enfermedad que en mayo 2002 pudrió el cuello y las raíces de aproximadamente 20000 plantas de ají dulce (Capsicum chinense), cultivadas bajo sombra de plantas de parchita (Passiflora edulis f. sp. flavicarpa) en el Municipio Alberto Adriani, estado Mérida, Venezuela. Posteriormente la enfermedad fue detectada en La Mucuy, Municipio Santos Marquina de Mérida. En el cuello de las plantas muertas, el ...

  9. Comportamiento de variedades de Chile dulce (capsicum annum en la región occidental de el Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesser Linares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicun annum en la región occidental de El Salvador. Con el objetivo de seleccionar material vegetativo adaptable a las diferentes condiciones agroecológicas de El Salvador, se implementó una investigación de seis variedades de chile dulce. Los ensayos se realizaron en Candelaria de la Frontera, Atiquizaya y Chalchuapa en el año 2002. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones y seis tratamientos, conformados por los variedades Nathalie, Comandante, Lido, Tikal, Quetzal y una variedad Criolla. Hubo diferencias significativas al 1 % de probabilidad para las variables de altura de planta, largo, peso, diámetro, numero de frutos y rendimiento, en el combinado de las tres localidades. El material Nathalie, sobresalió en las variables altura de planta (0,49 m, número de frutos (259.500 frutos/ha, y rendimiento (25,11 t/ha, y como consecuencia reportó el mejor ingreso ($ 19.332,80 y la mejor relación beneficio costo (3,31. La duración de anaquel varió entre seis y nueve días con respecto a los diferentes materiales de chile dulce. Los resultados obtenidos podrían crear la base para validar el cultivar Nathalie en las zonas de influencia.

  10. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray M. Baas-Espinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAP are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val and phenylalanine (Phe in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources′ participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  11. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... are regarded as waste after plants' fruits or seeds have been harvested. AMPs from ... including bacteria, fungi, viruses and oomycetes causing ..... Antibacterial effect of protein fraction from seeds of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

  12. Loropetalum chinense 'Snow Panda'

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Loropetalum chinense, ‘Snow Panda’, developed at the U.S. National Arboretum is described. ‘Snow Panda’ (NA75507, PI660659) originated from seeds collected near Yan Chi He, Hubei, China in 1994 by the North America-China Plant Exploration Consortium (NACPEC). Several seedlings from this trip w...

  13. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE EXTRATO DE PIMENTA-BIQUINHO COMO FORMA DE CONSERVAÇÃO PÓS-COLHEITA RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bittencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO – O consumo de pimenta-biquinho Capsicum chinense tem aumentado nos últimos anos na forma in natura ou na forma processada. Entretanto, um dos grandes entraves na sua cadeia produtiva é a ocorrência de perdas consideráveis dos frutos após a colheita, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas para a sua conservação pós-colheita. Desta forma, objetivou-se desenvolver extrato de pimenta-biquinho como forma de conservação da hortaliça e disponibilizar matéria-prima para a elaboração de produtos derivados, com alto valor agregado, principalmente em períodos de entressafra. Para o preparo do extrato, as pimentas foram lavadas, sanitizadas, branqueadas (80oC/3min, trituradas e concentradas até 12oBrix. Avaliou-se o rendimento, extrato seco, umidade, pH, acidez  titulável, oBrix, cor (L*, a*, b*, índices chroma e hue, teor de vitamina C e carotenoides, contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, mesófilos aeróbios, bactérias láticas, coliformes totais e termotolerantes e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., durante 90 dias de armazenamento.  Não houve variação de umidade, extrato seco, oBrix e  acidez  mas, observou-se  variação do pH. Os valores de L* indicaram baixa luminosidade e os valores de a* e b* indicaram a tendência do extrato para coloração vermelha e amarela. A concentração de vitamina C e de carotenoides foi considerável e, estável. A contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras variou de 2,0 a 4,1 Log UFC/g e de mesófilos aeróbios de <1,0 a 4,3 Log UFC/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de bactérias láticas foi <1,0 Log UFC/g, de coliformes totais e coliformes termotolerantes foi < 3 NMP/g e constatou-se ausência de Salmonella sp. em 25 g do extrato. O extrato de pimenta-biquinho é uma excelente alternativa para o processamento da hortaliça em períodos de entressafra e para prevenção de perda de matéria-prima pela agroindústria e em outras indústrias que

  14. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  15. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... (Capsicum chinense J.) somatic embryos during ... molecular weights to those reported for storage proteins in other .... were isolated by cutting with a razor blade. ... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE; 5% stacking gel [pH 6.8], 15% running ... Developmental stages correspond to C) globular, D) heart-shaped, ...

  16. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein profile was studied during the development of Capsicum chinense somatic embryos. The total protein content and profile of polypeptides (by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of somatic embryos at different developmental stages (globular, heart-shaped, torpedo and cotyledonary stages) ...

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M K; McGrath, Desmond J; Persley, Denis M; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-01-01

    Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and potential genetic engineering of resistance into Ca

  18. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  19. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  20. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-02-28

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features.

  1. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.

  2. Brazilian Capsicum peppers: capsaicinoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Stanislau; Libardi, Silvia H; Dias, Fernanda Fg; Coutinho, Janclei P; Bochi, Vivian C; Rodrigues, Daniele; Melo, Arlete Mt; Godoy, Helena T

    2018-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are known as a source of capsaicinoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Brazilian Capsicum peppers are important spices used in foods worldwide. However, little information is available on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of these peppers. Capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in extracts of three Brazilian peppers: Capsicum frutescens, C. chinense and C. baccatum var. pendulum, in two different harvest years and at two ripening stages. The bioactive compound content was dependent on harvest year, and changes in the concentration profiles were found for capsaicin. Mature fruits of C. chinense harvested in the first year had the highest capsaicin concentration (2.04 mg g -1 fresh pepper), and mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the same first year had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (0.95 mg g -1 fresh pepper). Mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the first year showed the major total phenolic compound content (2.46 mg g -1 fresh pepper). The total phenolic compound content was directly related to antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that phenolic compounds significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of the investigated peppers. Also, these data add valued novel information that enhances current knowledge of Brazilian pepper fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Allium chinense bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Pin Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Allium chinense is a medicinal plant and nutritional food commonly used in Eastern Asia. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity (scavenging of α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical, total phenol content, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity and constituents of various extracts from A. chinense. Moreover, we also studied the in vivo hypolipidemic effects of extracts on high-fat-diet Wistar rats. Ethanol extracts from A. chinense showed notable antioxidant activity, and its high-dose essential-oil extract both significantly reduced serum and hepatic total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels and increased serum high-density lipoprotein levels in high-fat-diet Wistar rats compared with those observed following treatment with the control drug probucol. Additionally, visceral fat in high-fat-diet Wistar rats was reduced. Furthermore, groups with high doses of essential-oil and residue extracts showed protective effects associated with histopathological liver alteration. These results suggested that A. chinense is a valuable plant worthy of further investigation as a potential dietary supplement or botanical drug.

  5. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  6. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Effects Of Capsicum Annuum And Capsicum Frutescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Peppers, containing Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens are frequently consumed as spice in food. It is also known that the capsaicin content of peppers is a cause of hyper acidity. Aims:This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism of action of the extracts of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum ...

  8. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  9. Mutagenesis and breeding for disease resistance in capsicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccardo, F.; Sree Ramulu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The principal diseases, for which no sources have so far been found within the cultivars of Capsicum annuum in Italy, are caused by Verticillium dahliae, Phytophthora capsici and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The wild species C. pendulum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. chacoense, C. pubescens and C. eximium were analysed to find out if the sources for resistance to the three diseases are available. It was observed that particularly the species C. frutescens and C. chinense had good sources of resistance to V. dahliae and Ph. capsici. However, the occurrence of reproductive barriers between the wild and cultivated species appears to be a problem for the transfer of disease-resistant genes. For CMV, none of the wild species showed good resistance; so in this case a screening technique was set up using mutagenic agents to isolate resistant types in the prominent agronomic cultivars of C. annuum. Also, for V. dahliae and Ph. capsici, mutation screening techniques were set up to induce disease resistance character directly in the cultivars of C. annuum, without causing any changes in the most important agronomic characters of the cultivars. (author)

  10. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  11. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper

  12. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Metabolites and Pungency Candidate Genes Expression between Bhut Jolokia and Other Capsicum Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpras M

    Full Text Available Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India. Significant intra and inter-specific variations for fruit morphological traits, fruiting habits and 65 fruit metabolites were observed in the collected Capsicum germplasm belonging to three Capsicum species i.e., Capsicum chinense (Bhut jolokia, 63 accessions, C. frutescens (17 accessions and C. annuum (56 accessions. The pungency level, measured in Scoville Heat Unit (SHU and antioxidant activity measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed maximum levels in C. chinense accessions followed by C. frutescens accessions, while C. annuum accessions showed the lowest value for both the traits. The number of different fruit metabolites detected did not vary significantly among the different species but the metabolite such as benzoic acid hydroxyl esters identified in large percentage in majority of C. annuum genotypes was totally absent in the C. chinense genotypes and sparingly present in few genotypes of C. frutescens. Significant correlations were observed between fruit metabolites capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, hexadecanoic acid, cyclopentane, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, comparative expression analysis (through qRT-PCR of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway revealed many fold higher

  14. Comparative Analysis of Fruit Metabolites and Pungency Candidate Genes Expression between Bhut Jolokia and Other Capsicum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Sarpras; Gaur, Rashmi; Sharma, Vineet; Chhapekar, Sushil Satish; Das, Jharna; Kumar, Ajay; Yadava, Satish Kumar; Nitin, Mukesh; Brahma, Vijaya; Abraham, Suresh K; Ramchiary, Nirala

    2016-01-01

    Bhut jolokia, commonly known as Ghost chili, a native Capsicum species found in North East India was recorded as the naturally occurring hottest chili in the world by the Guinness Book of World Records in 2006. Although few studies have reported variation in pungency content of this particular species, no study till date has reported detailed expression analysis of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoids (pungency) biosynthesis pathway and other fruit metabolites. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the diversity of fruit morphology, fruiting habit, capsaicinoids and other metabolite contents in 136 different genotypes mainly collected from North East India. Significant intra and inter-specific variations for fruit morphological traits, fruiting habits and 65 fruit metabolites were observed in the collected Capsicum germplasm belonging to three Capsicum species i.e., Capsicum chinense (Bhut jolokia, 63 accessions), C. frutescens (17 accessions) and C. annuum (56 accessions). The pungency level, measured in Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) and antioxidant activity measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay showed maximum levels in C. chinense accessions followed by C. frutescens accessions, while C. annuum accessions showed the lowest value for both the traits. The number of different fruit metabolites detected did not vary significantly among the different species but the metabolite such as benzoic acid hydroxyl esters identified in large percentage in majority of C. annuum genotypes was totally absent in the C. chinense genotypes and sparingly present in few genotypes of C. frutescens. Significant correlations were observed between fruit metabolites capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, hexadecanoic acid, cyclopentane, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, comparative expression analysis (through qRT-PCR) of candidate genes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway revealed many fold higher expression of

  15. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 93 accesions of Capsicum spp of germoplasm bank of National University of Colombia - Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.Morphologic characterization of 93 Capsicum accessions of Capsicum spp., from 11 countries (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú and El Salvador and representative of four species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, 21 IBPGR's descriptors were used (six quantitative y 15 qualitative; eight of vegetative traits, three of flower traits and ten of fruit and seed traits. Morphologic characterization permited confirm the presence of intragenetic variability, in special for of plant architecture descriptors, reproductive structures and production, wich explain the 78% of the total variability. Dice's distance permitted groups formation based in their origin and flower and fruit traits, but didn't permit to interespecific discrimination. Narrow genetic distances among C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense can indicate these three species conform only one morphological group.

  16. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch.

  17. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  18. Geografía dulce de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Estrada

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available No sin razón en 1976 Germán Castro Caicedo tituló Colombia amarga a una recopilación de informaciones  periodísticas sobre la situación social de nuestro país, las cuales, sin lugar a dudas, justificaban dicho título. Diez años más tarde (diciembre de 1986, el Instituto Distrital de Cultura y Turismo de Bogotá organiza en el Planetario Distrital una conspicua exposición divulgada bajo el nombre de Geografía Dulce de Colombia. Aun cuando se trata de dos realizaciones diametralmente opuestas, en donde la denominación de la primera posee una validez inobjetable, es nuestra intención, con este comentario, no solamente justificar el acertado nombre asignado a la mencionada exposición, sino también rescatar su valioso contenido como expresión sociocultural de las diferentes regiones geográficas que conforman el territorio colombiano.

  19. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS Y DE CONCENTRACIÓN DE CAPSAICINA EN CINCO ESPECIES NATIVAS DEL GÉNERO Capsicum CULTIVADAS EN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Yánez, Patricio; Balseca, Diana; Rivadeneira, Lorena; Larenas, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Los recursos genéticos del género Capsicum (ajíes), familia: (Solanaceae), son importantes por ser fuente natural de Capsaicina. Los reportes sobre esta característica en los ajíes nativos de Ecuador son escasos. En el presente estudio se analizaron variables morfológicas de plantas, frutos y semillas de cinco especies de este género: C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. pubescens, C. annuum y C. frutescens, procedentes de las provincias de Loja, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Esmeraldas, L...

  1. The Transport of Gmelina Logs on the Rio Dulce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martines, R.; Perlack, B.; Ranney, J.

    1997-02-01

    The Rio Dulce National Park is one of Guatemala's major environmental assets. The park contains the remaining remnants of an eastern Guatemalan tropical rainforest which has good but fast deteriorating value for the development of the ecotourism industry. The governmenial objective for the region as stated in the Master Plan for the park is ecotourism development and protection of biodiversity. The decisions to be made concerning the long-term, sustainable use of the natural resources of the Rio Dulce region appear to be directed by existing environmental laws and the Rio Dulce Master Plan. However, the wording of these instruments is ambiguous and lacks specific definitions and criteria for making necessary determinations. This, in combination with lack of enforcement in the region, has led to extensive disparity in interpretation of the laws and uncontrolled, conflicting actions by individuals and organizations.

  2. Genetic analysis of Penthorum chinense Pursh by improved RAPD and ISSR in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Mei

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.

  3. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preference mapping of dulce de leche commercialized in Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, L V; Oliveira, B R; Ferrao, L L; Granato, D; Cavalcanti, R N; Conte Júnior, C A; Cruz, A G; Freitas, M Q

    2015-03-01

    Dulce de leche samples available in the Brazilian market were submitted to sensory profiling by quantitative descriptive analysis and acceptance test, as well sensory evaluation using the just-about-right scale and purchase intent. External preference mapping and the ideal sensory characteristics of dulce de leche were determined. The results were also evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, partial least squares regression, artificial neural networks, and logistic regression. Overall, significant product acceptance was related to intermediate scores of the sensory attributes in the descriptive test, and this trend was observed even after consumer segmentation. The results obtained by sensometric techniques showed that optimizing an ideal dulce de leche from the sensory standpoint is a multidimensional process, with necessary adjustments on the appearance, aroma, taste, and texture attributes of the product for better consumer acceptance and purchase. The optimum dulce de leche was characterized by high scores for the attributes sweet taste, caramel taste, brightness, color, and caramel aroma in accordance with the preference mapping findings. In industrial terms, this means changing the parameters used in the thermal treatment and quantitative changes in the ingredients used in formulations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Lycium barbarum L. and Lycium chinense Mill. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill. leaves. The different leave extracts contain important amounts of flavonoids (43.73 ± 1.43 and 61.65 ± 0.95 mg/g, respectively and showed relevant antioxidant activity, as witnessed by the quoted methods. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of target phenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. Rutin was the dominant flavonoid in both analysed species, the highest amount being registered for L. chinense. An important amount of chlorogenic acid was determined in L. chinense and L. barbarum extracts, being more than twice as high in L. chinense than in L. barbarum. Gentisic and caffeic acids were identified only in L. barbarum, whereas kaempferol was only detected in L. chinense. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX and inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c assays revealing a better antioxidant activity for the L. chinense extract. Results obtained in the antimicrobial tests revealed that L. chinense extract was more active than L. barbarum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The results suggest that these species are valuable sources of flavonoids with relevant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  6. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  7. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  8. Divergent evolution of multiple virus-resistance genes from a progenitor in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saet-Byul; Kang, Won-Hee; Huy, Hoang Ngoc; Yeom, Seon-In; An, Jeong-Tak; Kim, Seungill; Kang, Min-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Ha, Yeaseong; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10. Despite the fact that these two genes recognize completely different viral effectors, the genomic structures and coding sequences of the two genes are strikingly similar. Phylogenetic studies revealed that these two immune receptors diverged from a progenitor gene of a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequence variations caused by gene duplication and neofunctionalization may underlie the evolution of the ability to specifically recognize different effectors. These findings thereby provide insight into the divergent evolution of plant immune receptors. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  10. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  11. [Light response characteristics of photosynthesis and model comparison of Distylium chinense in different flooding durations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-bin; Cheng, Rui-mei; Xiao, Wen-fa; Guo, Quan-shui; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    The light responses of photosynthesis of two-year-old Distytum chinense seedlings subjected to a simulated reservoir flooding environment in autumn and winter seasons were measured by using a Li-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system, and the light response curves were fitted and analyzed by three models of the rectangular hyperbola, non-rectangular hyperbola and modified rectangular hyperbola to investigate the applicability of different light response models for the D. chinense in different flooding durations and the adaption regulation of light response parameters to flooding stress. The results showed that the fitting effect of the non-rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under normal growth condition and under short-term flooding (15 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models, while the fitting effect of the modified rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under longer-term flooding (30, 45 and 60 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models. The modified rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted results of light compensation point (LCP) , maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(n max)) and light saturation point (LSP), and the non-rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted result of dark respiration rate (R(d)). The apparent quantum yield (Φ), P(n max) and LSP of D. chinense gradually decreased, and the LCP and R(d) of D. chinense gradually increased in early flooding (30 days), but D. chinense gradually produced adaptability for flooding as the flooding duration continued to increase, and various physiological indexes were gradually stabilized. Thus, this species has adaptability to some degree to the flooding environment.

  12. [Study on dynamic accumulation of index components from Bupleurum chinense in various collecting periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-shuai; Li, Xiao-kun; Yang, Yun; Xiao, Gong-sheng; Feng, Wei-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To study the dynamic change law of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract from Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan province, and to explore the optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense. With the contents of saikosaponin a and d, absorbance of volatile oil and percentage of alcohol-extract as indexes, HPLC-ELSD and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were successively used to analyze them. There are obvious differences among the contents of volatile oil, saikosaponin a, d and alcohol-extract in various collecting periods sample, the absorption of volatile oil in distillation was the highest in October, the content of saikosaponin a was the highest in September, the saikosaponin d in December and the percentage of alcohol-extract in October. The optimal harvest period of Bupleurum chinense at Songxian region in Henan is identified, which can provide scientific basis for crude drug production and processing.

  13. TÉCNICAS SUSTENTABLES PARA EL MANEJO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Esquivel G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una revisión de las investigaciones reportadas en diversas áreas de la agronomía que se pueden aplicar al sistema de producción de chile habanero. Se recopilaron algunos trabajos relacionados con la sustentabilidad propuestos para el cultivo en cuanto a nutrición, manejo de humedad, aplicación de productos hormonales, utilización de productos orgánicos y aplicación de microorganismos. Se concluye que es necesario conocer más a fondo los componentes involucrados en el sistema de producción del cultivo y así lograr una mejor relación beneficio-costo para el productor, de una manera realmente sustentable.

  14. Fast analysis of capsaicinoids in Naga Jolokia extracts (Capsicum chinense) by high-performance liquid chromatography using fused core columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcovich, Tea; Barbero, Gerardo F; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2018-01-15

    A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with a C18 reverse-phase fused-core column has been developed for the determination and quantification of the main capsaicinoids (nornordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in Naga Jolokia peppers. A fused-core Kinetex™ C18 column (50×2.1mm i.d.; 2.6μm) was used for the analysis. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a gradient method in which the mobile phase was water (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent A and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) as solvent B. The separation of all compounds was achieved in less than 3min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 10min. The robustness of the method was evaluated. The method showed excellent repeatability and intermediate precision expressed as coefficient of variance of less than 2%. The developed method was employed for the quantification of the major capsaicinoids present in different peppers and commercial products containing chilli peppers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytochemical Quantification and the In Vitro Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Phellodendron chinense and Its Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Lim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Yoonju; Lee, Jun; Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2017-06-02

    The dried bark of Phellodendron chinense has been used as a traditional herbal medicine to remove damp heat, relieve consumptive fever, and cure dysentery and diarrhea. In the present study, we performed quantitative analyses of the two components of P. chinense , phellodendrine and berberine, using high-performance liquid chromatography. A 70% ethanol extract of P. chinense was prepared and the two components were separated on a C-18 analytical column using a gradient solvent system of acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v / v ) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid. The ultraviolet wavelength used for detection was 200 nm for phellodendrine and 226 nm for berberine. The analytical method established here showed high linearity (correlation coefficient, ≥0.9991). The amount of phellodendrine and berberine used was 22.255 ± 0.123 mg/g and 269.651 ± 1.257 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, we performed an in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay and an amyloid-β aggregation test to examine the biological properties of phellodendrine and berberine as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease. Phellodendrine and berberine inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 36.51 and 0.44 μM, respectively). In contrast, neither phellodendrine nor berberine had an effect on amyloid-β aggregation. The P. chinense extract and phellodendrine, but not berberine, exhibited antioxidant activity by increasing radical scavenging activity. Moreover, P. chinense demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in hydrogen peroxide-treated HT22 hippocampal cells. Overall, our findings suggest that P. chinense has potential as an anti-Alzheimer's agent via the suppression of the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase and the stimulation of antioxidant activity.

  16. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T.; Lu, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  17. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  18. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  19. Evaluation of Aguas Dulces Black sands reserves, Rocha, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L.; Bossi, J.; Maldonado, S.; Schipilov; Campal, N.

    2003-01-01

    Black sands data in Aguas Dulces (Rocha) studied by ANCAP during 60 were reanalyzed with geological criterion in order to redefine the prefactibility of economic explotation with the present infrastructure and world market conditions.The sand deposits is limited between a high slope palaeocost and the ocean, with medium depth of 10m and 2% of useful minerals:ilmenite, rutile, monazite and zircon.Mineral reserves expressed in thousands of tons are of 3 kinds:proved (3.600), probable (5.500) and possible (16.000=.Demonstrated reserves (proved + probable) allow to estimate a value of U$S 650 million, taking in account year 2000 prices. A factory to process about 7 millions ton of raw sand needs an investment of U$S 13 million and will produce a sale of U$S 8 million per year

  20. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Wen; Wang, De-Lian; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2005-04-01

    Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae) standing for the monotypic genus is endemic to eastern China. Its conservation status is vulnerable as most populations are small and isolated. Monimopetalum chinense is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic structure of M. chinense and to suggest conservation strategies. One hundred and ninety individuals from ten populations sampled from the entire distribution area of M. chinense were investigated by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). A total of 110 different ISSR bands were generated using ten primers. Low levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (Isp=0.183) and at the population level (Ipop=0.083). High clonal diversity (D = 0.997) was found, and strong genetic differentiation among populations was detected (49.06 %). Small population size, possible inbreeding, limited gene flow due to short distances of seed dispersal, fragmentation of the once continuous range and subsequent genetic drift, may have contributed to shaping the population genetic structure of the species.

  1. Interspecific competition between Solenopsis invicta and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens and Monomorium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Cheng; Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng-Jen

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to understand the effects of the interspecific competition between red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren and two native ant species, Pheidole fervens Smith and Monomorium chinense Santschi, by conducting colony interference and individual confrontation tests under laboratory conditions. The colony interference test showed that both native ant species, owing to their numerical advantage, killed the Solenopsis invicta virus-1 (SINV-1)-infected or healthy queens of S. invicta. Significantly less time was required for M. chinense to kill all SINV-1-infected S. invicta compared with the time required to kill the healthy S. invicta. Compared with healthy S. invicta, SINV-1-infected S. invicta spent a longer time eliminating the P. fervens colonies. In confrontation tests, M. chinense killed a significantly higher number of infected S. invicta minors than they did healthy minors, but the number of S. invicta majors (either infected or healthy) killed was substantially less. This study found that the viral infection weakened the competitive ability of S. invicta and made them prone to be eliminated by M. chinense but not by P. fervens.

  2. Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan M; Sivakumar R; Rajeswary M; Yogalakshmi K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the adulticidal efficacy of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Sucrose-fed and blood starved mosquitoes were released into the tube, and the mortality effects of the extracts were observed every 10 min for 3 h exposure period. At the end of 1, 2, and 3 h exposure periods, the mosquitoes were placed in the holding tube. Cotton pads soaked in 10% sugar ...

  3. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  4. Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the adulticidal efficacy of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Sucrose-fed and blood starved mosquitoes were released into the tube, and the mortality effects of the extracts were observed every 10 min for 3 h exposure period. At the end of 1, 2, and 3 h exposure periods, the mosquitoes were placed in the holding tube. Cotton pads soaked in 10% sugar solution with vitamin B complex were placed in the tube during the holding period of 24 h. Mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results: Among five solvent extracts tested, the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract of leaves of P. dulce. The LC50 and LC 90 values of P. dulce leaves and seeds against Cx. quinquefasciatus were 234.97, 309.24 ppm and 464.86, 570.80 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the crude extract of P. dulce has excellent potential for controlling filariasis vector mosquito, Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito adulticidal activity of the reported P. dulce plant.

  5. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Palacios Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  6. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed...

  7. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    ONUS, Ahmet Naci

    2014-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  8. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia Morphological characterization of accesions of Capsicum spp. from the germoplasm collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica C.I. Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.68 accessions from the Capsicum collection of the Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Corpoica, Palmira were morphologically characterized by using 12 quantitative and 10 qualitative descriptors. For the principal components analysis the variables with highest contribution were associated to plant architecture and fruit descriptors and their explained 70.8% of total variability. Classification analysis based on quantitative data showed 5 groups but did not allow discrimination between species. For the multiple correspondence analysis 83.4% of the variability was explained by variables related with flower and fruit traits. The classification analyses using qualitative descriptors showed 4 groups and allowed discrimination of C. baccatum species. The discriminant analysis showed that C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. chinense are phylogenetically closely related.

  9. [Water birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vázquez, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, Mexico, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño), with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño). A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce and 73 in Ermitaño. The higher species richness and abundance was observed during winter, when migratory species arrived. Most species prefered shallow waters, except seabirds which prefered protected areas such as dunes in Agua Dulce. Other groups, like clucks and related species. prefered low salinity areas, for example in the south-east area of Ermitaño. The higher abundance of the shorehirds was found when the water level on the estuary was low. Herons were seen often at areas with high salinity and influenced by tides (e.g. mouth of Ermitaño).

  10. CAPSICUM CİNSİNE GENEL BİR BAKIŞ

    OpenAIRE

    ONUS, A. Naci

    2014-01-01

    Species of Capsicum are grown throung out the tropics and suptropics are valuable crops under protected cultivation in many temperature countries. Capsicum has been neglected by researchers when compared to tomato. Experiments conducted so far on capsicum proved that further improvement of all cultivated species of Capsicum through breeding is possible and genetic diversity to be used to achive different breeding purposes is certainly present in the genus.

  11. Radiocytogenetical studies on Capsicum, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Dormant dry seeds of an erectly oriented fruit variety of Capsicum annuum were irradiated with gamma-ray from a 60 Co source at 5, 10, 15 and 20 kR dose levels. The plants grown from the treated and control seeds were investigated for the meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility in M 1 and M 2 generations. Abnormal chromosomes included stickiness, clumping, altered association, breakage, bridges, unequal segregation, laggards and abnormal microspores, and their frequencies were dependent on dose. Pollen sterility increased with increase in dose. The per cent frequencies of the anomalies were more numerous in M 1 than M 2 , which could be due to the operation of recovery mechanisms or elimination of damaged chromosomes in the intervening period. (Mori, K.)

  12. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Liu

    Full Text Available Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (Tr, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qP, and electron transport rate (ETR in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  13. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zebin; Cheng, Ruimei; Xiao, Wenfa; Guo, Quanshui; Wang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate (ETR) in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P) in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  14. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen

    2016-05-10

    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense.

  15. Eficiencia de riego en el área de riego del Rio Dulce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angella, G.; Prieto, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Río Dulce Irrigation System is located in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The system water use efficiency was calculated as 36%. This figure can be ascribed to: 1- inadequate on-farm irrigation management; 2- poor maintenance of canal network. Application of very high depths

  16. Preliminary Sampling to assess the grade of contamination of Rio Dulce waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, H.; Ramirez, Patricia; Gudiel, E.; Pinto, Kalina; Giron, A. de; Molina, Karla; Benavides, R.

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate data from measurements of physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters. Because of sources of contamination like petroleum residues, and derivated products are out of the limits accepted at international level. In addition to this contaminatio was found high levels of microbiological load that are causing harms to ecosystems of the river Dulce

  17. A Further Analysis of the Relationship between Yellow Ripe-Fruit Color and the Capsanthin-Capsorubin Synthase Gene in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Indicated a New Mutant Variant in C. annuum and a Tandem Repeat Structure in Promoter Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xiao-Ling; Chang, Xiao-Bei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mature pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow, brown, and white. To better understand the genetic and regulatory relationships between the yellow fruit phenotype and the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene (Ccs), we examined 156 Capsicum varieties, most of which were collected from Northwest Chinese landraces. A new ccs variant was identified in the yellow fruit cultivar CK7. Cluster analysis revealed that CK7, which belongs to the C. annuum species, has low genetic similarity to other yellow C. annuum varieties. In the coding sequence of this ccs allele, we detected a premature stop codon derived from a C to G change, as well as a downstream frame-shift caused by a 1-bp nucleotide deletion. In addition, the expression of the gene was detected in mature CK7 fruit. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of Ccs from some pepper varieties were examined, and we detected a 176-bp tandem repeat sequence in the promoter region. In all C. annuum varieties examined in this study, the repeat number was three, compared with four in two C. chinense accessions. The sequence similarity ranged from 84.8% to 97.7% among the four types of repeats, and some putative cis-elements were also found in every repeat. This suggests that the transcriptional regulation of Ccs expression is complex. Based on the analysis of the novel C. annuum mutation reported here, along with the studies of three mutation types in yellow C. annuum and C. chinense accessions, we suggest that the mechanism leading to the production of yellow color fruit may be not as complex as that leading to orange fruit production. PMID:23637942

  18. Ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce embayments, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ureña, H

    1996-12-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in December (rainy season), 1993 and February (dry season), 1994, during the RV Victor Hensen German-Costa Rican Expedition to the Gulf of Nicoya and Gulfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Samples from the inner, central, and outer areas of each gulf were collected in oblique tows with a bongo net of 0.6 m mouth diameter, 2.5 m long and 1000-micron mesh. A total of 416 fish larvae of 22 families were sorted out of 14 samples. Stations of both the maximum (11) and the minimum (1) family richness were located in Golfo Dulce. Mean total larval abundances were 124.9 and 197.2 individuals 10 m-2 for the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce, respectively, while mean larval densities ranged from 95.3 larvae 10 m-2 in December to 236.7 larvae 10 m-2 in February. However, no statistical differences between gulfs or seasons were detected, due to the high within-group variability. Cluster Analysis, Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and non-parametric tests showed two well-defined major groups: (1) the Gulf of Nicoya neritic assemblage, represented by Engraulids, Sciaenids, and Gobiids (inner and central stations), and (2) the oceanic assemblage, dominated by Myctophids, Bregmacerotids, Ophiidids, and Trichiurids (outer stations off the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce). A third, although less defined group, was an Ophichthid-dominated assemblage (typical in areas nearby coral or rocky reefs). These assemblages closely resemble the clusters based upon adult fish data of the beamtrawl catches of the same cruise. This publication is the first to report on the ichthyoplankton community of Golfo Dulce.

  19. Scheme study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujica, H.; Marotta, L.

    1968-12-01

    This work is about a study of separation and concentration of heavy minerals from the black sand in Aguas dulces beach - Rocha. The beneficial minerals in that prospected zone are: ilmenite, zircon, rutile and monazite, associated with gangue minerals

  20. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  1. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  2. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mor...

  3. AFLP genome scanning reveals divergent selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong eYang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding adaptive genetic variation and its relation to environmental factors are important for understanding how plants adapt to climate change and for managing genetic resources. Genome scans for the loci exhibiting either notably high or low levels of population differentiation (outlier loci provide one means of identifying genomic regions possibly associated with convergent or divergent selection. In this study, we combined AFLP genome scan and environmental association analysis to test for signals of natural selection in natural populations of Liriodendron chinense (Chinese Tulip Tree; Magnoliaceae along a latitudinal transect. We genotyped 276 individuals from 11 populations of L. chinense using 987 AFLP markers. Two complementary methods (Dfdist and BayeScan and association analysis between AFLP loci and climate factors were applied to detect outlier loci. Our analyses recovered both neutral and potentially adaptive genetic differentiation among populations of L. chinense. We found moderate genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations with reduced genetic diversity towards the periphery of the species ranges. Nine AFLP marker loci showed evidence of being outliers for population differentiation for both detection methods. Of these, six were strongly associated with at least one climate factor. Temperature, precipitation and radiation were found to be three important factors influencing local adaptation of L. chinense. The outlier AFLP loci are likely not the target of natural selection, but the neighboring genes of these loci might be involved in local adaptation. Hence, these candidates should be validated by further studies.

  4. Lycium chinense leaves extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by suppressing hyperglycemia mediated renal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious and most frequently encountered diabetic complication, accounting for the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. This present study was aimed at exploring the protective/attenuative effect of Lycium chinense leaf extract (MELC) on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy in experimental Sprague Dawley rats. The oral administration of diabetic rats with MELC markedly ameliorated renal dysfunction as observed in the significant reduction in the serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and TGF-β1 as compared to the untreated diabetic control rats. In addition, the elevated levels of renal oxidative stress markers and pro-inflammatory parameters (GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly reduced in MELC treated diabetic rats. The results obtained in this study suggests that L. chinense leaf might have the potential as possible pharmacological agent against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing renal oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  6. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e divisão assincrônica. Os acessos estudados apresentaram um índice meiótico variando de 75,6 a 93,6%, e a viabilidade polínica em todos os acessos foi superior a 90%, demonstrando que as irregularidades meióticas observadas não comprometeram a viabilidade destes.The objective of this research was to study the meiotic behavior and pollen viability in four accessions of species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum. In all accessions, twelve bivalents were observed, confirming the number and ploidy level reported in the literature for these species. The results showed a normal cell division although some abnormalities had been detected, as early chromosome migration at metaphases I and II, later chromosomes at anaphase I and asynchronous division. The studied accessions presented a meiotic index (MI that varied from 75.6 to 93.6% and the pollen viability in all accessions was higher than 90%, demonstrating that the meiotic irregularities observed didn't affect their viability.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  8. Adulticidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Family: Fabaceae against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the toxicity of mosquito adulticidal activity of different solvent leaf and seed extracts of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Methods: Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf and seed methanol extract. The LC 50 and LC90 values of P. dulce leaf and seed extract against adults of Ae. aegypti were 218.64, 257.99 mg/L and 426.05, 507.73 mg/L, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of P. dulce leaf and seed was an excellent potential for controlling dengue vector mosquito, Ae. aegypti.

  9. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings were...

  10. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry of targeted carotenoids from red Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has gained attention as a fast and useful technology applied to the carotenoids analysis. However, no reports are available in the literature on the direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aim of this research was the development of an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography for a detailed targeted native carotenoids characterization in red habanero peppers. The online nature of the system, compared to offline approaches, improves run-to-run precision, enables the setting of batch-type applications, and reduces the risks of sample contamination. The extraction has been optimized using different temperatures, starting from 40°C up to 80°C. Multiple extractions, until depletion, were performed on the same sample to evaluate the extraction yield. The range of the first extraction yield, carried out at 80°C, which was the best extraction temperature, was 37.4-65.4%, with a %CV range of 2-12. Twenty-one targeted analytes were extracted and identified by the developed methodology in less than 17 min, including free, monoesters, and diesters carotenoids, in a very fast and efficient way. Quantification of the β-carotene was carried out by using the optimized conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Shehata, Afaf H.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Ezzat, Shahera M.

    2002-01-01

    An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl)-rhamnoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside) (2), quercitrin (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), rutin (6), and miquelianin (quercetin-3...

  13. La narrativa de Dulce Chacón: memoria de las perdedoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servén, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dulce Chacón´s narrative is committed to women, specially to the conflicts that women lived during the XXth century in Spain. Her writings can be divided in two main groups: on the one hand, the ones entitled The trilogy of the escape , which correspond to the beginnings of her work, and which reflect psychological concerns and feminine conflicts in Spain of the present times; on the other hand, the writings dedicated to recuperate the memories of women that were involved in the Spanish Civil war (1936-39, together with the period that corresponds to the post war. The most peculiar device in Chacón´s works is the fact that both, collective and individual identity, are related to memory, which appears to be embodied in the main characters of her stories, conditioning and determining their destiny. Dulce Chacón´s narrations point out a cultural reflection of the fighting of contemporary women in Spain, in spite of the fact that the feminine characters are not claiming any feminist doctrine in their discourses. One thing that readers should take into account is that Chacón´s stories originate from documented oral sources, and this confirms her particular interest towards oral expression and words; that might be the reason why she displays the most incredible expertise when building up the discourses of the different characters involved in the stories she wrote.La narrativa de Dulce Chacón se compromete con las mujeres, con los conflictos que ellas viven en la España del siglo XX. Sus relatos pueden dividirse en dos grupos: la Trilogía de la huida, que abarca las obras iniciales y que muestra psicología y conflictos femeninos en la España actual; y un segundo y último conjunto dedicado al rescate de la memoria de las mujeres durante la guerra civil de 1936-39 y la posguerra. En la mayor parte de las obras de la autora, la identidad individual y colectiva pende de la memoria, que se encarna en los personajes y condiciona sus destinos

  14. Superação de dormência em sementes de Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Guimarães, Isaías Porfírio; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; Torres, Salvador Barros; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; Benedito, Clarisse Pereira; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1); immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2), and 100 °C (T3), concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4), 10 minutes (T5 ), and 15 minutes (T6), mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7), mechanical scarification with sandpaper...

  15. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Villota-Cerón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando 12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las características de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de correspondencia múltiple el 83.4% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de flor y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  16. Caracterización morfológica de introducciones de Capsicum spp. existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo de Corpoica C.I. Palmira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Vásquez Juan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se caracterizaron morfológicamente 68 introducciones del género Capsicum existentes en el Banco de Germoplasma activo del Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Corpoica Palmira, utilizando

    12 descriptores cuantitativos y 10 cualitativos. En el análisis de componentes principales las carac- terísticas de mayor contribución fueron las relacionadas con el fruto y la arquitectura de planta, que explicaron el 70.8% de la variabilidad. El análisis de clasificación permitió conformar cinco grupos con base en características cuantitativas, pero no permitió discriminar entre especies. En el análisis de co- rrespondencia multiple el 8%.&% de la variabilidad fue explicada por los descriptores de for y fruto. El análisis de agrupamiento para las variables cualitativas generó cuatro grupos y discriminó la especie C. baccatum. El análisis discriminante mostró que las especies C. annuum, C. frutescens, y C. chinense son cercanas filogenéticamente.

  17. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  18. Fine Mapping of the Dominant Potyvirus Resistance Gene Pvr7 Reveals a Relationship with Pvr4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Jelli; An, Jeongtak; Kang, Won-Hee; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2018-01-01

    Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) is the most common potyvirus infection of pepper plants and causes significant yield losses. The Pvr7 gene from Capsicum chinense PI159236 and the Pvr4 gene from C. annuum CM334 both have been reported to confer dominant resistance to PepMoV. The Pvr7 locus conferring resistance to PepMoV in C. annuum '9093' was previously mapped to chromosome 10. To develop a high-resolution map of the Pvr7 locus in 9093, we constructed an intraspecific F 2 mapping population consisting of 916 individuals by crossing PepMoV-resistant C. annuum '9093' and the PepMoV-susceptible C. annuum 'Jeju'. To delimit the Pvr7 target region, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from the Pvr4 region were used for genotyping the F 2 population. Molecular mapping delimited the Pvr7 locus to a physical interval of 258 kb, which was the same region as Pvr4 on chromosome 10. Three SNP markers derived from Pvr4 mapping perfectly cosegregated with PepMoV resistance. Sequencing analyses of the Pvr7 flanking markers and the Pvr4-specific gene indicated that Pvr7 and Pvr4 are the same gene. Resistance spectrum analysis of 9093 against pepper potyviruses showed that 9093 has a resistance spectrum similar to that of cultivar CM334. These combined results demonstrate that, unlike previously thought, the dominant PepMoV resistance in 9093 could be derived from C. annuum 'CM334', and that Pvr4 and Pvr7 should be considered as the same locus.

  19. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  20. Caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dávila Mario Augusto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para la caracterización morfológica de 93 accesiones de Capsicum spp, procedentes de 11 países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, México, Perú, y El Salvador y representativas de cuatro especies (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, se utilizaron 21 descriptores IBPGR (seis cuantitativos y 15 cualitativos; ocho de caracteres vegetativos, tres de flor y 10 de fruto y semilla. La caracterización morfológica confirmó la variabilidad dentro del género, en especial los descriptores de arquitectura de planta, estructuras reproductivas y producción, que explicaron el 78% de la variabilidad total (análisis de componentes principales- ACP. La distancia Dice posibilitó formar grupos con base en el origen de las accesiones y caracteres de flor y fruto, pero no discriminó entre especies. Las cortas distancias genéticas resultantes del análisis discriminante entre C. annuum, C. frutescens y C. chinense indicaron que conforman un solo grupo morfológico.

  1. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James C R; Able, Amanda J

    2013-11-28

    Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the 'Breaker stage'. Whether ethylene, and components of the ethylene pathway such as 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS) and the ethylene receptor (ETR), contribute to non-climacteric ripening in capsicum has not been studied in detail. To elucidate the behaviour of ethylene pathway components in capsicum during ripening, further analysis is therefore needed. The effects of ethylene or inhibitors of ethylene perception, such as 1-methylcyclopropene, on capsicum fruit ripening and the ethylene pathway components may also shed some light on the role of ethylene in non-climacteric ripening. The expression of several isoforms of ACO, ACS and ETR were limited during capsicum ripening except one ACO isoform (CaACO4). ACS activity and ACC content were also low in capsicum despite the increase in ACO activity during the onset of ripening. Ethylene did not stimulate capsicum ripening but 1-methylcyclopropene treatment delayed the ripening of Breaker-harvested fruit. Some of the ACO, ACS and ETR isoforms were also differentially expressed upon treatment with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. ACS activity may be the rate limiting step in the ethylene pathway of capsicum which restricts ACC content. The differential expression of several ethylene pathway components during ripening and upon ethylene or 1-methylclopropene treatment suggests that the ethylene pathway may be regulated differently in non-climacteric capsicum compared to the climacteric tomato. Ethylene independent pathways may

  2. Thermophysical and rheological properties of dulce de leche with and without coconut flakes as a function of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Camarinha Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dulce de leche (DL, a dairy dessert highly appreciated in Brazil, is a concentrated product containing about 70% m/m of total solids. Thermophysical and rheological properties of two industrial Brazilian Dulce de leche formulations (classic Dulce de leche and Dulce de leche added with coconut flakes 1.5% m/m were determined at temperatures comprised between 28.4 and 76.4 °C. In general, no significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed in the presence of coconut flakes in the two formulations. Heat capacity varied from 2633.2 to 3101.8 J/kg.°C; thermal conductivity from 0.383 to 0.452 W/m.°C; specific mass from 1350.7 to 1310.7 kg/m³; and, thermal diffusivity from (1.082 × 10-7 to 1.130 × 10-7 m²/s. The Bingham model was used to properly describe the non-Newtonian behavior of both formulations, with yielding stress values varying from 27.3 to 17.6 Pa and plastic viscosity from 19.9 to 5.9 Pa.s.

  3. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gloria E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here. PMID:22171173

  4. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  5. Isolation of a novel strain of Planomicrobium chinense from diesel contaminated soil of tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Reena; Tiwary, Bhupendra N

    2013-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain (B6) degrading high concentration of diesel oil [up to 2.5% (v/v)] was isolated from a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. The strain demonstrated efficient degradation for diesel oil range alkanes (C14 to C36 i.e., mostly linear chain alkanes). It was identified to be 99% similar to Planomicrobium chinense on the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical characteristics. The efficiency of degradation was optimized at pH 7.2 and temperature at 32 °C. GC analysis demonstrated complete mineralization of higher chain alkanes into lower chain alkanes within 96 h. The organism also displayed surface tension reduction by producing stable emulsification on the onset of stationary phase. A multidimensional characteristics of the strain to grow at a high temperature range, resistance to various heavy metals as well as tolerance to moderate concentration of NaCl makes it suitable for bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil in tropical environment. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. [Energy accumulation and allocation of main plant populations in Aneurolepidium chinense grassland in Songnen Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guohui; Wen, Mingzhang; Guo, Jixun

    2003-05-01

    The calorific value of plants is dependent on their biological characteristics and energy-containing materials. The allocation of calorific value in different organs of Aneurolepidium chinese, Calamagrostic epigejos, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata was inflorescence > leaf > stem > dead standing. The seasonal dynamics of standing crop energy of aboveground part of four plant populations showed single-peak curve, and the energy production was Aneurolepidium chinense > Calamagrostic epigejos > Chloris virgata > Puccinellia tenuiflora. Energy increasing rate showed double-peak curve, with the first peak at heading stage and the second peak at maturing stage of seeds. Energy increasing rate was negative at the final stage of growth. The horizontal distribution of energy of aboveground part was that the allocation ratio of different organs at different growth stages was different. There existed a similar trend for vertical distribution of energy among four plant populations, i.e., was the vertical distribution of energy of aboveground part showed a tower shape, with the maximum value in 10-30 cm height. The vertical distribution of energy of underground part showed an inverted tower shape from soil surface to deeper layer, with the maximum value in 0-10 cm depth. The standing crop energy of underground part was about 3-4 times than that of aboveground part.

  7. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  8. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Rajeswary, M; Sivakumar, R

    2013-01-01

    In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  9. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  10. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo-Campos, María Cecilia; Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-04-01

    The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce-only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (-3.0% [-33 mmol/mol]) and PD (-2.6% [-28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (-1.3% [-14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P improvements were observed on other clinical and self-report indicators but did not vary significantly across groups. Project Dulce with and without wireless technology substantially improved glycemic control and diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations.

  12. Indicadores de desempeño del sistema de riego del Rio Dulce, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prieto, D.; Angella, G.; Angueira, M.C.; Pérez Carrera, A.; Moscuzza, C.

    2005-01-01

    Mucha atención se ha puesto en el estudio del desempeño de los sistemas de riego a partir de la década de 1990, al tomarse conciencia de los bajos resultados de muchos de ellos, y su impacto ambiental negativo. El Sistema de Riego del Río Dulce en Santiago del Estero (PRD), no es la excepción,

  13. In vitro activity of Pithecellobium dulce and Lysiloma acapulcensis on exogenous development stages of sheep gastrointestinal strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Olmedo-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two lyophilised aqueous extracts of Lysiloma acapulcensis (LAE and Phitecellobium dulce (PDE tree leaves on in vitro assessment of hatching of eggs, larval development and migration of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using a general linear model. Treatments contained extracts from both species at concentrations of 0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL. Both albendazole and levamisole were used at a level of 1% as positive control. The extract of LAE, compared to PDE, showed better inhibition (P<0.05 of egg hatching. Different doses of both the LAE and PDE extracts showed a larvicidal effect (P<0.05 on all larvae exposed to different doses of the extracts. In the larval migration assay, a similar effect with levamisole at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL occurred with the LAE extract. The extract of P. dulce had a lower larvicidal effect (P<0.05 than levamisole and L. acapulcensis extracts. Using aqueous extracts of both species of L. acapulcensis and P. dulce could be a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics as treatments of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in organic and conventional production systems under subtropical conditions.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  15. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  16. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Buckweed Fire Perimeter, Agua Dulce Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  17. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  18. The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and scent leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were introduced to fresh water snail samples, the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, to test their molluscicidal effects. The materials were extracted using soxhlet extraction. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was ...

  19. Molecular and functional diversity in Capsicum landraces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study analyzed the diversity in 26 landraces of Capsicum from Andaman Islands using 20 morphological, 16 biochemical and 10 DNA markers. Significant differences were observed in tested landraces and 16 reference genotypes from mainland India. Biochemical markers grouped all the genotypes into eight ...

  20. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-06-18

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum.

  1. Gene expression in isolated plastids from fruits of capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, D.S.; Pryke, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Plastids were obtained from the ripening fruits of Capsicum annum, and incubated in vitro in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine(Met). There was polypeptide synthesis at all stages of pepper tissue studied in both chloroplasts and chromoplasts, dependent on the addition of nuclioside triphosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate and inhibited by D-threo-chloramphenicol. l8. refs. (author)

  2. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  3. Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with ...

  4. Evaluación de la diversidad genética del género Capsicum sp. presente en los Departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo por medio de Isoenzimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Capsicumcomprende 25 especies de las cuales cinco han sido domesticadas y dadoorigen a numerosos cultivares. Sin embargo, la alta selección a la que está siendo sometido elgénero podría llevarla a su erosión genética, por ello se requiere la introducción de nuevogermoplasma que suministre una fuente de diversidad genética, para el mejoramiento de loscultivares comerciales. Dicha fuente se debe encontrar en aquellas zonas donde las especiessilvestres, cercanas y/o relacionadas se distribuyen, ya que estas áreas funcionan como reser-vorio de genes y es allí donde se encuentran variedades con acervos genéticos amplios; fuentesgenéticas para resistencia a enfermedades, alta productividad y calidad nutricional. Teniendoen cuenta lo anterior la región amazónica colombiana tiene un valor potencial en la exploraciónde germoplasma importante para el género Capsicum, por ser considerada como el lugar deorigen del complejo silvestre annuum-chinense-frutescens. Así mismo se requiere de unaevaluación urgente de la diversidad genética de la región amazónica, antes de que se agotela disponibilidad de material vivo debido al proceso de deforestación. Con el propósito devalorar la diversidad genética presente del género Capsicum, en la Amazonía colombiana seutilizó la técnica de electroforésis de isoenzimas para los materiales de Ají colectados enhuertos y chagras indígenas de los departamentos de Vaupés, Guainía y Putumayo. Para laevaluación se utilizaron cinco isoenzimas polimórficas: alfabetaEST (alfabeta esterasa, GOT(glutamato oxaloacetato transaminasa, PRX (peroxidasa, 6PGDH (6-fosfoglucona-todehidrogenasa y ME (enzima málica. Con los resultados de presencia-ausencia de bandasse construyeron fenogramas con el índice de similaridad de Dice o Nei (1945 por mediodel programa estadístico NTSYS (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analisys System. Deacuerdo a los resultados se pudo establecer la alta variabilidad

  5. Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity via Regulation of PPAR-γ and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-01-01

    The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[Formula: see text] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.

  6. ANALISIS FENETIK KULTIVAR CABAI BESAR Capsicum annuum L. DAN CABAI KECIL Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Agustina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the “Phenetic analysis of Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. “ has been conducted from June to August 2012. The aim of the research is to know the relationship amoung big chillis and small chillis based on morphology. The samples were taken from 5 villages in Sukamantri Sub-district, Ciamis. The method used in this research was explorative survey with purposive random sampling. The character data of big chili and small chili morphologies were analyzed descriptively to determine the relationship using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Mean Arithmetic methods. The result of this study showed that there were seven cultivars of big chilli, namely C. annuum „Hot Chili‟, Gada, Fantastik, Keriting TM 888, Tanjung 2, Keriting TM 999, Hot Beauty, and four cultivars of small chilli namely C. frutescens „Cakra Ungu‟, Cakra Hijau, Bendot, and Cakra Putih. The fenogram showed that there were five groups, two groups of C. annuum and three groups of C. frutescens. The first group consisted of C. annuum „Hot Chili‟, Keriting TM 888, Fantastik, and Tanjung 2. The second group consisted of C. annuum „Gada‟, Hot Beauty, and Keriting TM 999. The third group was C. frutescens „Bendot‟. The fourth group consisted of C. frutescens „Cakra Putih‟, and C. frutescens „Cakra Hijau‟. The fifth group was C. frutescens „Ungu‟. The closest relationship was between C. annuum „Keriting TM 999‟ and C. annuum „Hot Beauty‟ and the farthest relationship was between C. frutescens „Bendot‟ and C. frutescens „Ungu‟.

  7. Rendimiento y valor nutricional de tres variedades de sorgo dulce cultivadas en cuatro ambientes de Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez Ocampo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El sorgo dulce muestra alto rendimiento de forraje para la alimentación de rumiantes. El objetivo fue evaluar el rendimiento y calidad forrajera de tres variedades de sorgo en Durango. En 2014, se evaluaron las variedades Lico, TOM 3 y Mercedes, en la Colonia Hidalgo (CH, Campo Experimental Valle del Guadiana (CEVAG, La Soledad (LS y La Goma (LG. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio con arreglo factorial y cinco repeticiones. Se evaluó forraje verde (FV, forraje seco (FS, proteína cruda (PC, digestibilidad verdadera in vitro (DIVMS, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, lignina (L, celulosa (Cel, hemicelulosa (HE, valor relativo (VRF y calidad relativa del forraje (CRF. Se observaron diferencias significativas (P≤0.01 y 0.05 entre ambientes y variedades para FV, FS, L, VRF y CRF y entre ambientes para PC, FDN, FDA, CEL, HE y DIVMS. En CEVAG, se registró el mayor rendimiento de FV (75.9 t ha-1 y FS (12.4 t ha-1. El valor más alto de PC se obtuvo en LG (10 %; mientras que la DIVMS fue alta en LS (78.2 % y más baja en LG (63.9 %. El contenido de L fue más alto en CH (6.3 % y LG (6.2 %; mientras que, en LS fue de 3.4 %. Exceptuando LG, en todos los ambientes se obtuvo alta calidad forrajera (CRF= 106.7 a 135.0 %. El sorgo es una opción forrajera en Durango, aunque debe cuidarse la fecha de siembra y cosecha, control de insectos, riego y fertilización para incrementar el rendimiento y calidad nutricional.

  8. Three new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E

    2015-08-04

    Horismenus abnormicaulis sp. nov., H. patensis sp. nov. and H. zuleidae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), all authored by Pikart, Costa & Hansson, are described from material obtained from seed pods of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) collected in Northeastern Brazil. The seed pods were infested with larvae of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae (Bruchinae) and Curculionidae). The associations of the Horismenus species and the beetle larvae have not been established. Morphological similarities between these new species and previously described species with host known suggest that H. patensis and H. zuleidae are primary parasitoids of Bruchinae, whereas H. abnormicaulis may act as a hyperparasitoid on other Horismenus species. The three species are compared with similar species of Horismenus.

  9. Comportamiento de las masas de agua en el Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica durante El Niño (1997 - 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Quesada-Alpízar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los patrones de circulación oceánica, la estructura vertical de la columna de agua y la posición vertical de la termoclina son factores de gran importancia para comprender la distribución vertical de los organismos planctónicos en los océanos. Este trabajo estudia la hidrografía del Golfo Dulce, un fiordo tropical en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical (POT, y la posible influencia sobre dicho sistema del ENOS 1997-1998. Se seleccionó un total de cinco estaciones de muestreo, para las cuales se obtuvo, mensualmente, perfiles verticales de temperatura (ºC, salinidad (‰ y oxígeno disuelto (mg O2 /l durante un periodo de dos años. Los resultados muestran una fuerte estratificación vertical de la columna de agua asociada a la morfología de la cuenca del Golfo Dulce y a la incidencia del fenómeno ENOS. Además, se determinó que existen diferencias significativas en las características hidrográficas de las partes interna y externa de la cuenca del Golfo Dulce. Finalmente, se detectaron eventos bianuales de entrada de agua oceánica fría, con salinidad y concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto relativamente altas, a la cuenca. Estos eventos podrían estar asociados al sistema de afloramiento costero del Golfo de PanamáIn order to understand the vertical distribution of planktonic organisms in the oceans, it is important to consider a number of factors. Including oceanic circulation patterns, the vertical structure of the water column and the vertical position of the thermocline. This study examines the hydrography of Golfo Dulce, a tropical fjord -like embayment in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and the influence of the 1997-1998 ENSO on the system. Five sampling stations were selected and visited once a month for two years in order to obtain vertical profiles of temperature (ºC, salinity (‰ and dissolved oxygen (mg O² /l. Results show a strong vertical stratification of the water column associated to the morphology of Golfo Dulce

  10. Innovaciones para la elaboración de productos lácteos azucarados saludables tipo dulce de leche

    OpenAIRE

    Ranalli, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    La presente Tesis está enfocada en contribuir al desarrollo de alimentos procesados sanos y nutritivos mediante la modificación y mejora de formulaciones y procesos involucrados en la elaboración de productos lácteos azucarados tipo dulce de leche reemplazando totalmente la fase lipídica de origen bovino por aceite vegetal rico en ácidos grasos insaturados. Se buscó que dicho reemplazo mejore el perfil de ácidos grasos del producto, disminuyendo los saturados provenientes de la lech...

  11. Aves acuáticas de la Laguna de Agua Dulce y el Estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández Vázquez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la presencia y número de aves acuáticas, así como la distribución estacional y espacial de los diferentes grupos en la laguna de Agua Dulce y el estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México, entre diciembre de 1997 a noviembre de 1998. Considerando únicamente el mes de máxima abundancia de cada especie hubo 86 471 aves en ambos humedales (29 686 en Agua Dulce y 56 785 en El ermitaño, y una abundancia acumulada (suma de las abundancias mensuales de 179 808 aves (66 976 en Agua Dulce y 112 832 en Ermitaño. Se identificaron 87 especies de aves, de las cuales 78 especies estuvieron presentes en Agua Dulce y 73 especies en El Ermitaño. La riqueza y abundancia fueron influenciados por la llegada de aves migratorias por lo que el mayor número de especies e individuos se presentó durante el invierno. En general las aves mostraron preferencia por áreas someras, excepto las marinas que prefirieron áreas arenosas y protegidas por dunas como las que se encuentran en Agua Dulce. Los demás grupos como los patos y afines prefirieron las áreas con salinidades bajas, como las que se encuentran al sureste del estero El Ermitaño. La mayor abundancia de aves playeras fue observada en niveles de agua bajos, y al igual que las garzas se les observó con mayor frecuencia en sitios con salinidades altas e influenciados por las variaciones en las mareas, como los que se encuentran cerca de la boca-barra del ErmitañoWater birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico. Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, México, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño, with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño. A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  13. Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): occurrence and taxonomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onus, A Naci; Pickersgill, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3-24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C. pubescens complex from the remainder of the genus.

  14. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  15. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  16. Estabilidad de un producto dulce de tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea conservado por métodos combinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xadeni Villegas-Ruíz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue aplicar la tecnología de métodos combinados para elaborar una base dulce (BDT de tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea, así como evaluar su estabilidad durante el almacenamiento. La BDT fue preparada al pH natural de la fruta (3,72, con una actividad de agua (aw reducida (0,901 mediante la adición de sacarosa, y adicionada con benzoato de sodio (0,1% como antimicrobiano. La BDT se almacenó en refrigeración (4°C, protegida de la luz, y se evaluó cada tercer día durante 60 días determinando sus características fisicoquímicas (color, aw, pH y acidez titulable como ácido cítrico; antioxidantes (capacidad antioxidante, fenoles totales y antocianinas; y microbiológicas (bacterias mesófilas aerobias, mohos y levaduras. La BDT fue adicionada a yogurt natural para evaluar sensorialmente su aceptación general durante el almacenamiento; esta evaluación se llevó a cabo cada siete días durante 49 días. El tiempo de almacenamiento no tuvo efecto sobre la aw, el pH y la acidez de la BDT. Se observó un aumento en el cambio neto de color (de 0 a 4,9 y se registró disminución en los compuestos fenólicos totales (de 1,213 a 0,816 mg de ácido gálico/g BDT, en las antocianinas monoméricas totales (de 0,910 a 0,611 mg cianidina-3-glucósido/g de BDT y en la capacidad antioxidante (de 5,816 a 3,576 μmol Trolox/g BDT. Las cuentas de bacterias mesófilas aerobias, mohos y levaduras, aumentaron ligeramente durante el almacenamiento (de 0,05 durante el almacenamiento.

  17. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein family and its transmembrane regulator from capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Castillo, Rafael A; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; León-Félix, Josefina; Pandey, Sona

    2015-05-01

    Throughout evolution, organisms have created numerous mechanisms to sense and respond to their environment. One such highly conserved mechanism involves regulation by heterotrimeric G-protein complex comprised of alpha (Gα), beta (Gβ) and gamma (Gγ) subunits. In plants, these proteins play important roles in signal transduction pathways related to growth and development including response to biotic and abiotic stresses and consequently affect yield. In this work, we have identified and characterized the complete heterotrimeric G-protein repertoire in the Capsicum annuum (Capsicum) genome which consists of one Gα, one Gβ and three Gγ genes. We have also identified one RGS gene in the Capsicum genome that acts as a regulator of the G-protein signaling. Biochemical activities of the proteins were confirmed by assessing the GTP-binding and GTPase activity of the recombinant Gα protein and its regulation by the GTPase acceleration activity of the RGS protein. Interaction between different subunits was established using yeast- and plant-based analyses. Gene and protein expression profiles of specific G-protein components revealed interesting spatial and temporal regulation patterns, especially during root development and during fruit development and maturation. This research thus details the characterization of the first heterotrimeric G-protein family from a domesticated, commercially important vegetable crop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. A comparative study on genetic effects of artificial and natural habitat fragmentation on Loropetalum chinense (Hamamelidaceae) in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, N; Comes, H P; Cao, Y N; Guo, R; Zhang, Y H; Qiu, Y X

    2015-06-01

    Elucidating the demographic and landscape features that determine the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation has become fundamental to research in conservation and evolutionary biology. Land-bridge islands provide ideal study areas for investigating the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation at different temporal and spatial scales. In this context, we compared patterns of nuclear microsatellite variation between insular populations of a shrub of evergreen broad-leaved forest, Loropetalum chinense, from the artificially created Thousand-Island Lake (TIL) and the Holocene-dated Zhoushan Archipelago of Southeast China. Populations from the TIL region harboured higher levels of genetic diversity than those from the Zhoushan Archipelago, but these differences were not significant. There was no correlation between genetic diversity and most island features, excepting a negative effect of mainland-island distance on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity in the Zhoushan Archipelago. In general, levels of gene flow among island populations were moderate to high, and tests of alternative models of population history strongly favoured a gene flow-drift model over a pure drift model in each region. In sum, our results showed no obvious genetic effects of habitat fragmentation due to recent (artificial) or past (natural) island formation. Rather, they highlight the importance of gene flow (most likely via seed) in maintaining genetic variation and preventing inter-population differentiation in the face of habitat 'insularization' at different temporal and spatial scales.

  20. Quality control of goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.): A value chain analysis perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Wang, Zigui; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-06-14

    Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted during five months of fieldwork in the main production areas in China with a total of 65 stakeholders. Quality of goji, behaviour and financial performance of stakeholders was documented and analysed for different VCs. Ten different types of VCs were identified. VCs with vertical integration and horizontal collaboration were found to have a more coherent quality control and better goji quality as well as improved stakeholders' financial performance. Vertical integration at different levels was found for independent farmer-based VCs, horizontal collaboration was found in the cooperative-based VCs. Full vertically integrated VCs were found in large-scale production. Goji quality and stakeholders' revenues are linked with different types of VCs which mirror stakeholders' behaviour driven by target markets. Considering their positive influence on quality and revenues, well-developed vertically integrated value chains are likely to become more important in the near future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dulce Wireless Tijuana: A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Impact of Project Dulce and Short-Term Mobile Technology on Glycemic Control in a Family Medicine Clinic in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sonia; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana; Menchaca-Díaz, Rufino; Fortmann, Addie; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The global epidemic of diabetes calls for innovative interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Project Dulce model, with and without wireless technology, on glycemic control and other clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Mexico. Subjects and Methods: Adults with type 2 diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥8% were recruited from Family Medical Unit #27 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Tijuana, México, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: Project Dulce–only (PD); Project Dulce technology-enhanced with mobile tools (PD-TE); or IMSS standard of care/control group (CG). Clinical and self-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 10. Time-by-group interactions and within-group changes were analyzed. Results: HbA1c reductions from baseline to Month 10 were significantly greater in PD-TE (−3.0% [−33 mmol/mol]) and PD (−2.6% [−28.7 mmol/mol]) compared with CG (−1.3% [−14.2 mmol/mol]) (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). PD-TE and PD also exhibited significant improvement in diabetes knowledge when compared with CG (P diabetes knowledge in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in a Mexican family medical unit, suggesting that integrating peer-led education, nurse coordination, and 3G wireless technology is an effective approach for improving diabetes outcomes in high-risk populations. PMID:26914371

  2. Novel and highly informative Capsicum SSR markers and their cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buso, G S C; Reis, A M M; Amaral, Z P S; Ferreira, M E

    2016-09-23

    This study was undertaken primarily to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Capsicum. As part of this project aimed at broadening the use of molecular tools in Capsicum breeding, two genomic libraries enriched for AG/TC repeat sequences were constructed for Capsicum annuum. A total of 475 DNA clones were sequenced from both libraries and 144 SSR markers were tested on cultivated and wild species of Capsicum. Forty-five SSR markers were randomly selected to genotype a panel of 48 accessions of the Capsicum germplasm bank. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 6 alleles. The polymorphism information content was on average 0.60, ranging from 0.20 to 0.83. The cross-species transferability to seven cultivated and wild Capsicum species was tested with a set of 91 SSR markers. We found that a high proportion of the loci produced amplicons in all species tested. C. frutescens had the highest number of transferable markers, whereas the wild species had the lowest. Our results indicate that the new markers can be readily used in genetic analyses of Capsicum.

  3. Fixed-nitrogen loss associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses in a coastal oxygen minimum zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...

  4. The Death of Patriotism: Wilfre Owen’s Dulce et Decorum Est as an Anti-War Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barış Ağır

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Being one of the biggest fluctuations in world history, humanity had never seen an event such World War I that so completely convulsed its existing ideals. Collapsing the existing ethos, the war soon showed its potencies in art and aesthetic. It would be unimaginable that poetry stood indifferent to the massive carnage. The poets who witnessed fighting on the front lines inscribed their experiences into their literary lives and used poetry as a medium of opposing war. They shaped their works to criticize threats directed to humanity. With these pecularities, war poetry, an important move towards modern poetry, stands for a geniune disengagement from the previous naturalistic poetry and signals a change in 20th century thinking. Among war poets, Wilfred Owen is an important figure whose works juxtapose the expected and the actual circumstances of war and his best known poem Dulce Et Decorum is probable to be read as an anti-war manifesto.

  5. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. stem bark hydroalcoholic extract on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard A. Toudji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pithecellobium dulce (PD is an annual herbaceous plant commonly used in African traditional medicine as a purgative, antipyretic, anti-ulcer and wound dressing agent. Aims: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of P. dulce stem bark hydroethanolic extract in Wistar rats. Methods: In the acute test, a single dose of 5 g/kg body weight was administered to Wistar rats afterwards they were observed individually 4 hours post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sub-acute toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration of 0.5 and 1 g/kg extract, for 28 days. Biochemical and hematological parameters assessment as well as body and organ weights of the rats were carried out. Results: The limit dose of 5 g/kg did not cause any mortality or signs of acute toxicity on the rats during the experimentation period. In the sub-acute test, uterus-ovary-trompe (UOT weight decreased dose-dependently: Control group (0.82 ± 0.03 g; Extract 0.5 g/kg (0.57 ± 0.06 g; Extract 1g/kg (0.48 ± 0.01 g (p ˂ 0.01. Extract lowered urea values in female group treated with 1 g/kg (p < 0.01. Lymphocytes percentage was dose dependently increased in treated male groups: Control group (53.00 ± 0.58%; extract 0.5 g/kg (58.67 ± 0.67% and extract 1 g/kg (60.67 ± 2.41%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is relatively safe when administered orally in rats but is slightly atrophic for female reproductive organs.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the carotene content of mangos and red capsicums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Beattie, T.R.; Banos, C.; Gillen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of red capsicums (cv. Five Star) at 75 and 300 Gy had no significant effects on the carotene level of unstored red capsicums or red capsicums stored at 5 degrees C for 3 wk. Gamma irradiation of mangos (cv. Kensington Pride) at 75, 300 and 600 Gy had no significant effects on the carotene content. Altering the conditions of irradiation (lower temperature nitrogen atmosphere, lower dose rate) resulted in slightly higher carotene levels than those associated with irradiation under normal ambient conditions

  7. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Capsicum annuum fruit paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan M. Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-corrosive property of Capsicum annuum fruit paste (CFP on mild steel was investigated. Weight loss and SEM analysis showed that the aqueous and ethanolic solutions of CFP exhibits excellent corrosion inhibition in 2 M HCl. Contact angle, surface atomic composition and FTIR studies verified the presence of an organic film on the mild steel surface. The FTIR spectra also indicated the formation of active compound-Fe complex. CFP thus shows potential as an inexpensive environment friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel.

  8. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  9. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  11. Malacología Latinoamericana: Moluscos de agua dulce de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estado de situación y una lista actualizada y comentada sobre las especies de moluscos de agua dulce de la República Argentina. Se aborda en Gastropoda y Bivalvia la distribución a nivel de familias; las entidades endémicas, exóticas, invasoras y de importancia sanitaria. Los moluscos relacionados a la cuenca del Plata presentan la mayor riqueza específica. Base de datos: 4 500 registros relevados de las tres colecciones más importantes de la Argentina: MLP, MACN y FML. Además, se incluye información de recolecciones actuales y localidades citadas por otros autores. Hasta el presente han sido descritas 166 especies. De ellas 101 pertenecen a 10 familias de Gastropoda y 65 a 7 de Bivalvia. Las familias que presentan mayor riqueza específica son Lithoglyphidae (22 y Sphaeriidae (25, respectivamente. Sphaeriidae, Cochliopidae, Chilinidae y Lymnaeidae se distribuyen prácticamente en todo el país. Erodonidae y Solecurtidae se registran en ambientes mixohalinos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Thiaridae y Glacidorbiidae presentan una distribución muy restringida. Especies endémicas de la Argentina: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1, Cochliopidae (10, Lithoglyphidae (11, Thiariidae (3, Chilinidae (11, Lymnaeidae (2 y Physidae (2?; Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?; Etheriidae (1? y Sphaeriidae (10. Especies de interés sanitario: propagadoras de: Esquistosomiasis, Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila (Planorbidae; Fasciolasis, Lymnaea viatrix y L. columnella (Lymnaeidae; y dermatitis esquistosómicas, Chilina gibbosa y C. fluminea (Chilinidae. Especies de origen asiático: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae y Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae. Es prioritaria la formación de áreas protegidas para la conservación de especies endémicas, especialmente de la Mesopotamia Argentina.Latin American Malacology. Freshwater Mollusks from Argentina. A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of

  12. El escritor, las sombras y la Patria: En esta dulce tierra de Andrés Rivera The writer, the shadows and the homeland in Andrés Rivera's "La dulce tierra"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Perilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La novela En esta dulce tierra arma un simulacro histórico que se desintegra en una narración de finales múltiples. Parodia su nombre "en esta dulce tierra" ya que el circunstancial anuncia sucesos terribles que hacen estallar el adjetivo. Remite a la literatura decimonónica, en especial a los romances fundacionales como Amalia de José Mármol. La nación se imagina como espacio cerrado, clausurado por el despotismo en el asilo, la morgue, la cárcel, el sótano. Los protagonistas se mueven ilusoriamente de Sur a Norte. Si Sarmiento invoca la sombra de Facundo, Rivera evoca en Cufré otras propias sombras, dobles en tiempos y lugares otros. La narración de la historia argentina es la narración de una derrota, la de la civilización. La imagen histórica es disfórica: el mundo está enfermo, ebrio de sangre y violencia. Facundo es la sombra de la barbarie, cifra de la naturaleza americana, producto de los llanos riojanos. Cufré es la sombra de una clase "culta" que dibuja en su trayectoria una figura paradojal. Las dos son víctimas de una tierra concebida como naturaleza bárbara en un caso y de una tierra construida como patria siniestra en el otro. El Poder actúa como una segunda naturaleza que, en esta tierra, tiene el sabor de la muerte.The novel En esta dulce tierra sets up a historical pretense that disintegrates into several endings. The title is an irony, since terrible events take place in this "sweet land." It refers to the literature of the XIX century, especially to the founding romances such as that of José Mármol's Amalia. The nation is envisioned as a closed space relegated by despotism to the asylum, the morgue, the jail, the basement. The characters live an illusion moving from north to south. If Sarmiento invokes the shadow of Facundo, Rivera evokes some of his own shadows in Cufré, doubles in different times and spaces. The narration of the Argentine history is a story of defeat: civilizarion's. The historical

  13. Estudio de la biodegradación de bolsas oxo - biodegradables en agua dulce y salada, simulando condiciones ambientales de Costa, Sierra y Oriente Ecuatoriano.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Silva, Nelly Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This work allowed the study of biodegradation of four types of oxo-biodegradable bags by environmental conditions simulated in fresh and salt water of the Costa, Sierra and Oriente regions. El presente trabajo permitió el estudio de la biodegradación de cuatro tipos de bolsas oxo-biodegradables mediante condiciones ambientales simuladas en el agua dulce y salada de las regiones Costa, Sierra y Oriente ecuatoriano.

  14. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in non-solanaceous weeds erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta) and asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa), and sweet chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has recently been detected in tomato, bell pepper, jimsonweed and lettuce in Puerto Rico. Observations of weeds and additional crops in 2015 and 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Puerto Ric...

  15. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  16. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  17. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  18. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  19. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  1. Characterization of a pepper collection (Capsicum frutescens L.) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M F; Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Faleiro, F G; Reifschneider, F J B

    2017-08-31

    Germplasm banks are essential as sources of genetic variability for plant breeding programs. To characterize a Brazilian Capsicum frutescens collection, 21 malagueta and 5 Tabasco hot pepper accessions were evaluated under field and greenhouse conditions regarding morphological and molecular traits, as well as resistance to viruses. Morphological characterization was performed using 53 IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) descriptors, 15 vegetative, 13 inflorescence, 22 fruit, and 3 seed. Molecular characterization was carried out with 60 polymorphic markers from 29 RAPD primers. The incidence of major viruses infecting Capsicum spp, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was evaluated by ELISA. Based on the average genetic distance among genotypes, six groups were defined for the 53 IPGRI descriptors. When considering only 11 quantitative traits (five vegetative and six fruit), six groups were also determined, and the traits plant canopy width (56.05%) and days to fruiting (25.07%) most explained the genetic diversity among genotypes. Molecular analysis defined five groups of accessions with partial correspondence to the morphological characterization data. The incidence of viruses in field-grown plants varied among genotypes and according to virus species, from 5.6% (GRSV; CNPH 3286) to 100% (PMMoV; CNPH2871), and indicated some accessions as potential sources of virus resistance. These results demonstrate the genetic variability within the group of 26 hot pepper accessions, as well as virus-resistant genotypes that can be used in breeding programs.

  2. Genome-wide divergence and linkage disequilibrium analyses for Capsicum baccatum revealed by genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to show the distribution of these 2 important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide...

  3. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  4. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Productive and morphological characteristics of new capsicum varieties created in agricultural and technological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Živka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum altogether with tomato is leading species of vegetable in our region. The claim of the marketplace and climatic conditions qualifies route of the selection. A capsicum variety has to be with high yield, to have quality and adaptability according to the ecological conditions of the region. In the Agricultural and technological research center-Zajecar during perennial research capsicum was the most important species. National committee verified two capsicum cultivars on year 2002nd as the product of this work One of them is the cultivar Julija; sweet capsicum with long fruits and the other is the cultivar Mina, chilly pepper. Variety Julija (known as L-ZA-10 were analyzing during two years on the three different locations (Novi Sad, Smederevska Palanka and Zajecar. Yield of the variety was on the level of standard - Župska rana and Gold medal. Julija always had a higher level of the yield than other varieties which were researched, especially in conditions of extremely high level of temperature and base air humidity. Variety Mina (known as L-ZA-1 was early maturing variety with higher yield and higher tolerance to plant diseases and vermins than standard variety Yellow hot chilli pepper. .

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  7. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth—a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the ...

  8. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  9. [Effect of Capsicum annum L (pucunucho, ají mono) in gastric ulcer experimentally induced in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Montero, Rocío; Flores Cortez, Daisy; Villalobos Pacheco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats. We used the model of indomethacin gastric ulcer-induced and the gastric ulcer model induced by pylorus ligation in rats. The rats were divided in five treatment groups as follow: G1: Distilled water 1 ml/Kg; G2: Ranitidine 50 mg/kg, G3: Capsicum 10mg/kg, G4: Capsicum 100 mg/kg, G5: Capsicum 1000 mg/kg. The results of the first model showed an ulcer inhibition of 60,4% and 66,7% using the doses of Capsicum at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The results of the second model showed that neither the pH nor the volume of the gastric content were modified by the administered extract (p >0.05); however, by using the doses of Capsicum at 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, there was clearly an ulcer inhibition of 75.59% and 81.63% respectively, which were even greater than the inhibition obtained by ranitidine (75.51%). Therefore, in this experiment we demonstrated that the Capsicum annum L lyophilized fruit extract has a gastroprotective effect in experimentally-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  11. [Evaluation of the mercury accumulating capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vargas, Híver M; Vidal-Durango, Jhon V; Marrugo-Negrete, José L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mercury accumulating capacity in contaminated soils from the community of Mina Santa Cruz, in the south of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum), in order to establish the risk to the health of the consuming population. Samples were taken from tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) of pepper plants grown in two soils contaminated with mercury and a control soil during the first five months of growth to determine total mercury through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury was determined in the samples of pepper plant fruits consumed in Mina Santa Cruz. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the roots were higher than in stems and leaves. Accumulation in tissues was influenced by mercury levels in soil and the growth time of the plants. Mercury concentrations in fruits of pepper plant were lower than tolerable weekly intake provided by WHO. Percent of translocation of mercury to aerial parts of the plant were low in both control and contaminated soils. Despite low levels of mercury in this food, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food contaminated with this metal.

  12. Genetic diversity of some chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on genetic diversity was conducted with 54 Chili (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes through Mohalanobis’s D2 and principal component analysis for twelve quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of secondary branch/plant, canopy breadth , days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, fruits/plant, 5 fruits weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, seeds/fruit, 1000 seed weight and yield/plant were taken into consideration. Cluster analysis was used for grouping of 54 chili genotypes and the genotypes were fallen into seven clusters. Cluster II had maximum (13 and cluster III had the minimum number (1 of genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and III and the lowest between cluster II and VII. The characters yield/plant, canopy breadth, secondary branches/plant, plant height and seeds/fruit contributed most for divergence in the studied genotypes. Considering group distance, mean performance and variability the inter genotypic crosses between cluster I and cluster III, cluster III and cluster VI, cluster II and cluster III and cluster III and cluster VII may be suggested to use for future hybridization program.

  13. Anatomical traits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the epidermis as well as the anatomy of the pericarp and fruit pedicle in Capsicum annuum L., cv. 'Red Knight F1', were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp was found to consist of an epidermis with strongly thickened outer walls, several layers of tangential and angular collenchyma as well as multi-layered parenchyma composed of cells of varying size in which very large lobed nuclei were observed. Chromoplasts were found in the cells of the above-mentioned tissues. The inner epidermis of the pericarp was characterized by thick cell walls and numerous straight pits. Among the tissues of the fruit pedicle, we observed epidermis with numerous stomata, collenchyma, chlorenchyma with very large intercellular spaces, small clusters of sclerenchyma, secondary phloem and xylem as well live and dead cells of the pith which were characterized by the presence of thin walls with numerous pits. The structural traits of the pericarp of the red pepper cultivar under study show adaptations to significantly reduced transpiration, which is an important feature during storage. At the same time, the strongly thickened and cutinized walls of the fruit contribute to a reduction in its digestibility and impede nutrient penetration in non-root feeding.

  14. Proteome analysis of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Muhammad Asim; Grossmann, Jonas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baginsky, Sacha

    2006-12-01

    We report a comprehensive proteome analysis of chromoplasts from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The combination of a novel strategy for database-independent detection of proteins from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data with standard database searches allowed us to identify 151 proteins with a high level of confidence. These include several well-known plastid proteins but also novel proteins that were not previously reported from other plastid proteome studies. The majority of the identified proteins are active in plastid carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among the most abundant individual proteins are capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillin, which are involved in the synthesis and storage of carotenoids that accumulate to high levels in chromoplasts. The relative abundances of the identified chromoplast proteins differ remarkably compared with their abundances in other plastid types, suggesting a chromoplast-specific metabolic network. Our results provide an overview of the major metabolic pathways active in chromoplasts and extend existing knowledge about prevalent metabolic activities of different plastid types.

  15. Influences of chia flour and the concentration of total solids on the characteristics of ‘dulce de leche’ from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves CHAVES

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A factorial categorical design totalling six treatments was applied to investigate the influence of the substitution of corn starch with whole and partially defatted chia flour under the technical characteristics (centesimal composition, instrumental analyses, and sensory evaluation and nutritional disorders (composition of fatty acids and index of the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction of ‘dulce de leche’ concentrated to 72 and 78 °B. The treatments with chia flour concentrated to 72 °B showed higher moisture content and lower compression force, and when the concentration range increased to 78 °B, the levels of total lipids amounted up to 1.40 times when compared to treatment with corn starch. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 and omega-6 levels, were higher in treatments with chia flour on both tracks of concentration, allowing a reduction in the atherogenic index and thrombogenic index effects and the n-6/n-3 ratio. The treatments of ‘dulce de leche’ with a lower concentration of soluble solids obtained greater acceptance and consumer purchase intention. The application of whole chia flour in small proportions and in the concentration of 72 °B was the most appropriate under the studied conditions, showing improvement in the nutritional quality and with good technical aspects of candy made with goat milk.

  16. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32 P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F 1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  17. Aroma changes in fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) after hot-air drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Yuksel, D.; Vuurst de Vries, van R.; Roozen, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aroma of fresh and hot-air dried bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated by sensory and instrumental methods. Hot-air drying decreased levels of the odor compounds (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-heptanone, (Z)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol, and linalool, which have

  18. Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal | Niu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the depletion of fossil fuel and the concern about environmental issues, the utilization of biomass resources has attracted increasing worldwide interest. The pyrolysis behavior of capsicum stalks and Baoji coal mixtures was investigated by TG-DSC. Results show that the thermal degradation temperature range of ...

  19. Meiotic anomalies induced by X-rays in Capsicum annuum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash, K; Nizam, J [Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Vidyaranyapuri, Warangal (A.P.) (India)

    1977-01-01

    Various types of meiotic anomalies in the M/sub 1/ generation such as multivalents, fragments, bridges, micronuclei, polyads and in particular multispindle formation, were observed after seed X-ray irradiation in Capsicum annuum L. With increasing dose the number of aberrations gradually increased.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON MITOTIC DIVISION AT CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, the caffeine effects in mitotic division at Capsicum annuum L.. The treatment has determined the lessening of the mitotic index (comparative with the control variant, until mitotic division total inhibition, as well as an growth frequency of division aberation in anaphase and telophase.

  1. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  2. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  3. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  4. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  5. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  6. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and

  7. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with capsicum and turmeric oleoresin increases resistance to necrotic enteris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  8. Meiotic anomalies induced by X-rays in Capsicum annuum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, K.; Nizam, J.

    1977-01-01

    Various types of meiotic anomalies in the M 1 generation such as multivalents, fragments, bridges, micronuclei, polyads and in particular multispindle formation, were observed after seed X-ray irradiation in Capsicum annuum L. With increasing dose the number of aberrations gradually increased. (author)

  9. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  10. First report of BLTVA phytoplasma in Capsicum annuum and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in Durango and Zacatecas, Mexico, in September and October, 2014, had small, chlorotic, curled leaves, plant stunting, and/or big bud symptoms characteristic of phytoplasma infection (Lee et al. 2004). Samples from symptomatic pepper fields included 33 collected near...

  11. Genome-wide diversity and association mapping for capsaicinoids and fruit weight in Capsicum annuum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of domesticated and wild C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. Principal component analysis and identity by state...

  12. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  13. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  14. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao

    2007-01-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO 3 2- ) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO 3 2- ions to Se 0 , but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se 0 , and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO 3 2- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract

  15. Genetic diversity, population structure, and heritability of fruit traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungenc...

  16. Pengaruh Waktu Aplikasi Pyraclostrobin terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muryasani, Ayu Ainullah; Sulistyaningsih, Endang; Susila Putra, Eka Tarwaca

    2018-01-01

    Pemberian pyraclostrobin yang merupakan fungisida dari jenis strobilurin memiliki kemampuan untuk memacu sintesis prekursor IAA yaitu L-tryptopha yang dapat memicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan waktu aplikasi pyraclostrobin terbaik terhadap pertumbuhan, hasil dan kesehatan tanaman cabai (Capsicum annuum L.). Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta pada bulan Februari-Agustu...

  17. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  18. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  19. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment studies of triazophos residues on capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) using GLC-FPD and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadwinder; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-10-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the dissipation pattern of triazophos on capsicum and risk assessment of its residues on human beings and to suggest a waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following two applications of triazophos (Truzo 40 EC) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), the average initial deposits were found to be 3.61 and 6.26 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 and 15 days at the recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The calculated values of half-life were 2.31 and 2.14 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) values were found to be 28.8 and 41.6 μg person(-1) day(-1) at 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively, and found to be below the maximum permissible intake on capsicum fruit on the 7th day. Therefore, a waiting period of 7 days is suggested for consumption of capsicum sprayed with triazophos at the recommended dosages.

  20. Shifts in Plant Chemical Defenses of Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Due to Domestication in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Luna-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that comparisons of wild and domesticated Capsicum species can serve as a model system for elucidating how crop domestication influences biotic and abiotic interactions mediated by plant chemical defenses. Perhaps no set of secondary metabolites (SMs used for plant defenses and human health have been better studied in the wild and in milpa agro-habitats than those found in Capsicum species. However, very few scientific studies on SM variation have been conducted in both the domesticated landraces of chile peppers and in their wild relatives in the Neotropics. In particular, capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruits and on their seeds differ in the specificity of their ecological effects from broad-spectrum toxins in other members of the Solanaceae. They do so in a manner that mediates specific ecological interactions with a variety of sympatric Neotropical vertebrates, invertebrates, nurse plants and microbes. Specifically, capsaicin is a secondary metabolite (SM in the placental tissues of the chile fruit that mediates interactions with seed dispersers such as birds, and with seed predators, ranging from fungi to insects and rodents. As with other Solanaceae, a wide range of SMs in Capsicum spp. function to ecologically mediate the effects of a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses on wild chile peppers in certain tropical and subtropical habitats. However, species in the genus Capsicum are the only ones found within any solanaceous genus that utilize capsaicinoids as their primary means of chemical defense. We demonstrate how exploring in tandem the evolutionary ecology and the ethnobotany of human-chile interactions can generate and test novel hypotheses with regard to how the domestication process shifts plant chemical defense strategies in a variety of tropical crops. To do so, we draw upon recent advances regarding the chemical ecology of a number of wild Capsicum species found in the Neotropics. We articulate three hypotheses regarding

  1. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  2. Representar la muerte : Un análisis de las técnicas narrativas en La voz dormida, de Dulce Chacón

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhall, Martin

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de esta tesina es ampliar los conocimientos sobre la narrativa de Dulce Chacón al analizar cómo la aplicación de técnicas narrativas en La voz dormida refuerza la impresión trágica y triste de la muerte de Hortensia, una de las protagonistas de la novela. Para llevar a cabo el objetivo se ha identificado las técnicas narrativas más frecuentes e importantes para la presentación de los sucesos relacionados con la trama de Hortensia. El análisis demuestra que La voz dormida tiene un...

  3. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  4. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher

  6. Comparative study on the composition of free amino acids and derivatives in the two botanical origins of an edible Chinese herb "Xiebai", i.e., Allium chinense G. Don and Allium macrostemon Bunge species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quan; Huang, Shaohui; Wu, Yuehong; Zhang, Wenqi; Wang, Fanchao; Cao, Jiawei; Sheng, Qing; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Lili; Ou, Wen-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Xiebai is an edible Chinese herb with various health and therapeutic benefits. To evaluate its nutritional and health values, the free amino acids and derivatives of its two botanical origins (i.e., Allium chinense G. Don and Allium macrostemon Bunge) were isolated using a solvent extraction method and analyzed using automatic amino acid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight (UPLC-Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. Our data show that both plants contain abundant free amino acids, and the amount of total free amino acids in A. chinense G. Don is higher than that in A. macrostemon Bunge. The free amino acid compositions in the two plants are qualitatively similar, including nineteen proteinogenic and four non-proteinogenic amino acids. The identified proteinogenic amino acids include eight essential amino acids and five semi-essential amino acids. The sum of essential and semi-essential amino acids accounts for 64.9% and 69.7% of the total free amino acids of the two plants, respectively. The principal amino acids of both plants, from highest concentration to lowest concentration, are arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and serine. A. chinense G. Don is also rich in citrulline and lysine. In addition, two amino acid derivatives were identified from the two plants, i.e., the proline analog N‑methyl‑proline and the dipeptide H-Glu-Tyr-OH. For the first time, the presence of N‑methyl‑proline in the plants of the Allium genus and the presence of H-Glu-Tyr-OH in unprocessed food sources are reported. The influences of the identified substances on the flavor, nutrition and health values of Xiebai are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  8. Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakiri, J.O.; Onofeghara, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays F7 and F27 and Capsicum frutescens were investigated. Crude oil was found to inhibit the germination of all the seed types used. The rate of germination decreased signficantly with increase in the length of the period of presoaking. The germination percentage of oil-soaked seeds of Zea mays also fell significantly with time. Seeds of Capsicum frutescens are most tolerant of crude oil in their germination response. The seeds were found to retain almost 100% viability after nearly 1 year of presoaking in crude oil. The lag phase preceding the germination of such seeds, however, increased threefold. Germination inhibition is attributed primarily to the physical surface characteristics of soil, which make it function as a physical barrier to water and oxygen. However, crude oil, where it penetrates, may be toxic to the embryos.

  9. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  10. Pengaruh Waktu Pemberian Pupuk Mikoriza Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Paprika (Capsicum Annum Var Grossum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Milla, Yulius Ndara; Widnyana, I Ketut; Pandawani, Ni Putu

    2016-01-01

    Paprika (Capsicum annum var grossum L.) adalah tumbuhan penghasil buah yang berasa manis dan sedikit pedas dari suku terong-terongan atau Solanaceae. Sama dengan jenis cabai lainnya. Paprika memiliki nilai jual yang bagus, permintaan pasar akan sayuran ini juga terus meningkat, terutama permintaan dari banyak restoran dan hotel berkembang di Bali. Kenyataan ini bisa dimanfaatkan dengan mengembangkan budidaya tanaman paprika untuk memasok kebutuhan pasar akan paprika yang kian hari kian me...

  11. Effect of gamma rays on the fruit characters and yield of Capsicum annum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.H.; Vasti, S.M.; Khanzada, S.; Sheikh, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of gamma rays on number of fruits per plant, fruit size and yield per plant. Number of fruits per plant was significantly (p=0.01) low in the radiated population. Fruit length increased significantly (p=0.05) at 15 kr. Fruit breadth also increased significantly (p=0.01) in yield at 250 R was also noted. The studies suggest that gamma rays can be successfully used for inducing mutations in Capsicum annum L. (authors)

  12. ANÁLISIS CARIOTÍPICO DE CAPSICUM PUBESCENS (SOLANACEAE "ROCOTO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guevara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis cariotípico de Capsicum pubescens R&P (Solanaceae. Los cromosomas han sido descritos, comparados y dibujados, usando una técnica de coloración modificada, C. pubescens tiene un número cromosómico diploide 2n = 24, de los cuales 11 pares son metacéntricos y 1 par submetacéntrico.

  13. Metode Pengusangan Cepat untuk Pengujian Vigor Daya Simpan Benih Cabai (Capsicum AnnuumL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ekowahyuni, Luluk Prihastuti; Sutjahjo, Surjono Hadi; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Suhartanto, Mohamad Rahmad; Syukur, Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    The ability of seed to maintain seed quality during storage is called seed vigor. Accurate method for seed vigor testing of pepper seeds is necessary to accurately determine seed storability during seed distribution. The aim of this research was to determine the best accelerated aging method (AAM) of pepper seed. Freshly harvested seeds of Capsicum annuumL., IPB C9 genotype were used in this study. The experiment used randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experi...

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN LIMBAH KULIT KOPI (Coffea robusta L. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN CABAI KERITING (Capsicum annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Berlian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Curly chili (Capsicum annum L. is a kind of vegetable commodities which very demand among the Indonesian because of its spicy taste that can be used as a flavoring dishes and has a high economic value. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of bark compost coffee (Coffea robusta in growing media on the growth and development of plants curly chili (Capsicum annum L. and severe skin compost coffee (Coffea robusta which gives the maximum growth of the plant curly chili (Capsicum annum L.. This research is conducted in the Laboratory Science UIN Raden Fatah Palembang by using experimental methods and completely randomized design (CRD consisting of 4 treatments and 6 replications treatment namely: P0 = Without the addition of compost the coffee (Coffea robusta (control, P1= Adding compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 30 grams, P2= Adding compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 60 grams , P3 = Addition of compost skin (Coffea robusta coffee 90 grams. Data are analyzed by F test followed by a test BJND (Difference Distance Real Duncan. The parameters of this study are plant height, number of leaves (pieces, the amount of fruit, and fruit weight. The results show that the addition of compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 90 grams (treatment P3 gives a very real effect on the growth of plant height, number of leaves, number of fruits, and also fruit weight. The conclusion is compost the coffee (Coffea robusta gives effect to the addition of compost and bark coffee (Coffea robusta 90 grams provides maximum growth and development of the plant curly chili (Capsicum annum L..

  15. Chromosome orientation and sterility in gamma-ray induced interchanges in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, O.A.; Panda, R.C.; Rao, K.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    After gamma irradiation (30 Kr) of seeds of Capsicum annuum cultivar cerasiformis (2 n = 24) two plants were recorded each carrying two interchanges. The nucleolus organiser chromosome appeared not to be involved. The interchange heterozygotes were weak and meiosis was irregular. At least one multivalent association per PMC was recorded. At metaphase I the predominant orientation was adjacent. The probable reasons for anaphase I and other meiotic irregularities and the incidence of high pollen sterility are discussed. (author)

  16. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable inIndonesia, but the yield is low, and the breeding programs are confined to the conventional methods and not efficient. To improve the efficiency of the breeding programs by speeding up the production of homozygous lines, studies were aimed at the introduction of haploid technology, which includes the regeneration and the production of doubled haploid plants from gametes. This technique is well developed in the model speciesBrass...

  17. Detection of gene expression changes in Capsicum annuum L. leaf foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. using qRT-PCR and leaf discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is responsible for multiple disease syndromes of Capsicum annuum but the resistance mechanism is still unknown. Evaluating gene expression during foliar blight can be used to identify expression patterns associated with resistance in Capsicum species. This study reports a direct...

  18. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-07-15

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test.

  19. Fruit Morphology as Taxonomic Features in Five Varieties of Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andrawus Zhigila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. Varieties studied include var. abbreviatum, var. annuum, var. accuminatum, var. grossum, and var. glabriusculum. The fruit morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with rounded surfaces in var. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. annuum, abbreviatum and accuminatum. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal in shape with straight and curved anticlinal walls in all the five varieties. The fruit of var. abbreviatum and var. grossum is trilocular, while that of var. accuminatum and annuum is bilocular, and that of var. glabriusculum is tetralocular. Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4 and var. annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3 per fruit. The fruit is conspicuously hollowed in var. glabriusculum, accuminatum, and annuum but inconspicuously hollowed in var. abbreviatum and var. grossum. These features are shown to be good taxonomic characters for delimiting the five varieties of Capsicum annuum.

  20. Exploración de la diversidad morfológica de chiles regionales en Yaxcabá, Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer los tipos y usos del chile, los criterios de selección, y obtener muestras de las variantes o poblaciones criollas. El sistema estudiado fue el policultivo maíz, frijol, chile y calabaza (milpa y se estableció en dos fases: a una encuesta a 60 familias de la comunidad, a fin de obtener información del cultivo y de los sistemas de cultivo que manejan en la milpa, pach pakal (área apta para hortalizas y solares. b una exploración etnobotánica para colectar material genético, y realizar una valoración in situ de los caracteres morfológicos de planta, fruto y flor. En la comunidad, se siembran un total de ocho tipos regionales de chiles, siete pertenecen a Capsicum annuum (yaax ic, xcat’ic, cha’hua, chile dulce, sucurre, pico paloma y maax, este último C. annuum var. aviculares y uno a Capsicum chinense (habanero. El chile yaax ic es el de mayor aceptación en la comunidad. Los agricultores basan la selección de su germoplasma en el tamaño del fruto, sabor, tolerancia a plagas y enfermedades, y usos culinarios. Los chiles regionales se siembran en asociación con otros cultivos tanto en la milpa como en los solares

  1. Del Adaja al Almendares. Santa Teresa de Jesús y Dulce María Loynaz: versos compartidos. Del misticismo renacentista al pietismo barroco y al panteísmo tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro González Acosta

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio intenta una comparación entre dos autoras geográfica y cronológicamente distantes, como la española Santa Teresa de Jesús (siglo XVI y la cubana Dulce María Loynaz (siglo XX en cuanto a un motivo poético dentro de una antigua tradición, en dos variantes, la divina y la profana: «la muerte es vida».

  2. 8293 EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION AND HARVESTING TIME ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without the use of fertilizer, as well as the assessment of the effect of fertilizer on their nutritional value. ... positive correlations were observed between the total phenolic compounds content ..... Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense).

  3. Plasticidad fenotípica de poblaciones de chile silvestre (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) en respuesta a disponibilidad de luz

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Verdugo, Sergio; González-Sánchez, Ramón A.; Porras, Flor; Parra-Terraza, Saúl; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Pacheco-Olvera, Antonio; López-España, Ricardo Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica permite a las plantas lidiar con ambientes heterogéneos. Capsicum annuum silvestre es un valioso recurso genético que habita en sitios que difieren en la disponibilidad de luz. Evaluamos la variación genética entre poblaciones, la plasticidad fenotípica y su variación en respuesta a tres niveles de luz (alto, 100%; medio, 50%; y bajo, 25% de luz solar) de cinco poblaciones de Capsicum annuum silvestre del noroeste de México. Las características medidas fueron: altura...

  4. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp.) en la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gladys; Peña-Venegas, Clara Patricia; arcos, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA) en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta...

  5. Nuevas hipótesis sobre La miel es más dulce que la sangre de Dalí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moure Pazos, Iván

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On 10 February 2011, the Gala-Salvador Dalí Foundation acquired at Christie’s the preparatory study for Dalí’s Honey is Sweeter than Blood (1926, currently in an unknown location. Iconographically, it is a complex painting and crucial in the development of the Catalan artist’s work. This article offers an updated view of the painting, based on recent discoveries that point to the Count of Lautréamont –pseudonym of Isidore Ducasse– as a possible inspirational element and protagonist of the work.El 10 de febrero de 2011, la Fundación Gala-Salvador Dalí adquiría en Christie’s el estudio para La miel es más dulce que la sangre (1926 de Dalí –actualmente desaparecido–. Se trata de una obra iconográficamente compleja, así como crucial en la trayectoria del pintor catalán. El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una visión actualizada del cuadro, en base a los últimos descubrimientos que apuntan al Conde de Lautréamont –pseudónimo de Isidore Ducasse– como posible elemento inspirador y protagonista en la obra.

  6. Cointegración y Simetrías en Precios. El Caso del Dulce de Leche en Santa Fe y Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Guiguet

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la forma en que están cointegrados los precios minoristas de un producto típico argentino como es el dulce de leche, y el de su insumo básico, la leche cruda, en los mercados de Santa Fe y Rosario en el período 1996-2005, y la simetría en su ajuste de corto plazo. Se utiliza un análisis de cointegración no lineal con los modelos TAR y MTAR. Los resultados confirman la existencia de cointegración en ambas ciudades, y asimetría en los ajustes en el corto plazo en Santa Fe. Además que la transmisión de los cambios de precios es más rápida cuando los márgenes de comercialización disminuyen que cuando se incrementan.

  7. Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Murga-Gutiérrez, Santos Nélida; Alvarado-Ibáñez, Juan Carlos; Vera-Obando, Nora Yessenia

    2013-01-01

    Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/...

  8. EcoTILLING in Capsicum species: searching for new virus resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EcoTILLING technique allows polymorphisms in target genes of natural populations to be quickly analysed or identified and facilitates the screening of genebank collections for desired traits. We have developed an EcoTILLING platform to exploit Capsicum genetic resources. A perfect example of the utility of this EcoTILLING platform is its application in searching for new virus-resistant alleles in Capsicum genus. Mutations in translation initiation factors (eIF4E, eIF(iso4E, eIF4G and eIF(iso4G break the cycle of several RNA viruses without affecting the plant life cycle, which makes these genes potential targets to screen for resistant germplasm. Results We developed and assayed a cDNA-based EcoTILLING platform with 233 cultivated accessions of the genus Capsicum. High variability in the coding sequences of the eIF4E and eIF(iso4E genes was detected using the cDNA platform. After sequencing, 36 nucleotide changes were detected in the CDS of eIF4E and 26 in eIF(iso4E. A total of 21 eIF4E haplotypes and 15 eIF(iso4E haplotypes were identified. To evaluate the functional relevance of this variability, 31 possible eIF4E/eIF(iso4E combinations were tested against Potato virus Y. The results showed that five new eIF4E variants (pvr210, pvr211, pvr212, pvr213 and pvr214 were related to PVY-resistance responses. Conclusions EcoTILLING was optimised in different Capsicum species to detect allelic variants of target genes. This work is the first to use cDNA instead of genomic DNA in EcoTILLING. This approach avoids intronic sequence problems and reduces the number of reactions. A high level of polymorphism has been identified for initiation factors, showing the high genetic variability present in our collection and its potential use for other traits, such as genes related to biotic or abiotic stresses, quality or production. Moreover, the new eIF4E and eIF(iso4E alleles are an excellent collection for searching for new resistance

  9. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  10. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  11. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  12. Cytological and morphological variations induced in Capsicum by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, K.; Venkat Rajam, M.

    1983-01-01

    Soaked seeds of Capsicum annuum L. cultivar G5 were subjected to different doses of X-rays in order to study the effect of irradiation, including 1, 3, 5 and 10 kR. Irradiated seeds were allowed to germinate and cytological preparations were made from the root tips in order to study the chromosomal anomalies. Gross chromosomal abnormalities, mostly indicating metaphase unoriented fragments in pairs, bridges at anaphase and telophase with or without fragments or laggards and micronuclei have been noticed. Somatic pairing and cell budding were also recorded. In addition, the frequency of chlorophyll mutations, variations in chlorophyll content and height of the seedlings have been recorded. (author)

  13. Cytological and morphological variations induced in Capsicum by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash, K.; Venkat Rajam, M. (Kakatiya Univ., Warangal (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1983-06-01

    Soaked seeds of Capsicum annuum L. cultivar G5 were subjected to different doses of X-rays in order to study the effect of irradiation, including 1, 3, 5 and 10 kR. Irradiated seeds were allowed to germinate and cytological preparations were made from the root tips in order to study the chromosomal anomalies. Gross chromosomal abnormalities, mostly indicating metaphase unoriented fragments in pairs, bridges at anaphase and telophase with or without fragments or laggards and micronuclei have been noticed. Somatic pairing and cell budding were also recorded. In addition, the frequency of chlorophyll mutations, variations in chlorophyll content and height of the seedlings have been recorded.

  14. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity in Stem of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Infected by Phytophthora capsici L.

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen Sulun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to the non-in...

  15. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins alter the intestinal microbiome and Necrotic Enteritis Severity in three commercial broiler breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compos...

  16. Potential for breeding sweet pepper adapted to cooler growing conditions : a physiological and genetic analysis of growth traits in Capsicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important greenhouse crop in theNetherlands. In 2005, the production area of sweet pepper in the

  17. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  18. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum

  19. Non-destructive estimation of leaf area for different plant ages and accessions of Capsicum annuum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Groenwold, R.; Kanne, H.J.; Stam, P.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurements of leaf area are important for agronomic and physiological studies. To be able to perform repeated measurements of leaf area on single (genetically unique) plants, a method was developed to estimate leaf area from non-destructive measurements in Capsicum annuum L. independent

  20. Characterization of capsaicin synthase and identification of its gene (csy1) for pungency factor capsaicin in pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. C. Narasimha; Kumar, Vinod; Gururaj, H. B.; Parimalan, R.; Giridhar, P.; Ravishankar, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid of the plant kingdom restricted to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is the pungency factor, a bioactive molecule of food and of medicinal importance. Capsaicin is useful as a counterirritant, antiarthritic, analgesic, antioxidant, and anticancer agent. Capsaicin biosynthesis involves condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl nonenoic acid, brought about by capsaicin synthase (CS). We found that CS activity correlated with genotype-specific capsaicin levels. We purified and characterized CS (≈35 kDa). Immunolocalization studies confirmed that CS is specifically localized to the placental tissues of Capsicum fruits. Western blot analysis revealed concomitant enhancement of CS levels and capsaicin accumulation during fruit development. We determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified CS, cloned the CS gene (csy1) and sequenced full-length cDNA (981 bp). The deduced amino acid sequence of CS from full-length cDNA was 38 kDa. Functionality of csy1 through heterologous expression in recombinant Escherichia coli was also demonstrated. Here we report the gene responsible for capsaicin biosynthesis, which is unique to Capsicum spp. With this information on the CS gene, speculation on the gene for pungency is unequivocally resolved. Our findings have implications in the regulation of capsaicin levels in Capsicum genotypes. PMID:16938870

  1. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. INDEKS MITOSIS UJUNG AKAR KECAMBAH CABE BESAR (Capsicum annuum L. SETELAH PERLAKUAN SUSPENSI Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetroneLa Deno Raja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indeks mitosis ujung akar kecambah cabe besar (Capsicum annuum L. setelah perlakuan suspensi Trichoderma sp. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Struktur Perkembangan Tumbuhan Jurusan Biologi FMIPA, Universitas Udayana dari Oktober 2013-November 2013. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode squash, biji cabe untuk kontrol direndam dalam air ± 6 jam, untuk perlakuan biji setelah direndam air, direndam lagi dalam suspensi Trichoderma sp. 10-7 selama ± 6 jam, selanjutnya dikecambahkan. Ujung akar kecambah 2 mm dipotong, difiksasi dalam larutan farmer ± 2-24 jam, dihidrolisis dalam larutan 3N HCL ± 2-5 menit dan kemudian pewarnaan dengan aceto orcein ± 5 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan mikroskop binokuler, data pembelahan tiap fase mitosis dihitung (%, dicatat dan difoto, dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji paired T tes.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma sp. berpengaruh terhadap indeks mitosis sel ujung akar Capsicum annuum L.,  pada fase metafase berbeda nyata antara kontrol dan perlakuan, sedangkan pada fase profase, anafase dan telofase berbeda tidak nyata.  Pada perlakuan persentase fase profase, metafase, anafase dan telofase (77,14%; 12,96 %; 5,88 % dan 5,23 % lebih tinggi dari kontrol (66,40 %; 5,44 %; 4,96 % dan 4,66 %.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  4. Carotenoid accumulation in orange-pigmented Capsicum annuum fruit, regulated at multiple levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Guzman, Ivette; Rajapakse, Wathsala; Richins, Richard D.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The pericarp of Capsicum fruit is a rich dietary source of carotenoids. Accumulation of these compounds may be controlled, in part, by gene transcription of biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid composition in a number of orange-coloured C. annuum cultivars was determined using HPLC and compared with transcript abundances for four carotenogenic enzymes, Psy, LcyB, CrtZ-2, and Ccs determined by qRT-PCR. There were unique carotenoid profiles as well as distinct patterns of transcription of carotenogenic enzymes within the seven orange-coloured cultivars. In one cultivar, ‘Fogo’, carrying the mutant ccs-3 allele, transcripts were detected for this gene, but no CCS protein accumulated. The premature stop termination in ccs-3 prevented expression of the biosynthetic activity to synthesize the capsanthin and capsorubin forms of carotenoids. In two other orange-coloured cultivars, ‘Orange Grande’ and ‘Oriole’, both with wild-type versions of all four carotenogenic enzymes, no transcripts for Ccs were detected and no red pigments accumulated. Finally, in a third case, the orange-coloured cultivar, Canary, transcripts for all four of the wild-type carotenogenic enzymes were readily detected yet no CCS protein appeared to accumulate and no red carotenoids were synthesized. In the past, mutations in Psy and Ccs have been identified as the loci controlling colour in the fruit. Now there is evidence that a non-structural gene may control colour development in Capsicum. PMID:21948863

  5. A novel Capsicum gene inhibits host-specific disease resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gregory; Monroy-Barbosa, Ariadna; Bosland, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety 'New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399' (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses.

  6. Induction of hairy roots by various strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in different types of Capsicum species explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Setamam, Nursuria; Jaafar Sidik, Norrizah; Abdul Rahman, Zainon; Che Mohd Zain, Che Radziah

    2014-06-30

    Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, also known as "chilies", belong to the Solanaceae family and have tremendous beneficial properties. The application of hairy root culture may become an alternative method for future development of these species by adding value, such as by increasing secondary metabolites and improving genetic and biochemical stability compared with normal Capsicum plants. Therefore, in this research, different types of explants of both species were infected with various Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains to provide more information about the morphology and induction efficiency of hairy roots. After 2 weeks of in vitro seed germination, young seedling explants were cut into three segments; the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radical. Then, the explants were co-cultured with four isolated A. rhizogenes strains in Murashige & Skoog culture media (MS) containing decreasing carbenicillin disodium concentrations for one month. In this experiment, thick and short hairy roots were induced at all induction sites of C. annuum while thin, elongated hairy roots appeared mostly at wound sites of C. frutescens. Overall, the hairy root induction percentages of C. frutescens were higher compared with C. annuum. Hairy root initiation was observed earliest using radicles (1st week), followed by cotyledons (2nd week), and hypocotyls (3rd week). Cotyledon explants of both species had the highest induction frequency with all strains compared with the other explants types. Strains ATCC 13333 and ATCC 15834 were the most favourable for C. frutescens while ATCC 43056 and ATCC 43057 were the most favourable for C. annuum. The interactions between the different explants and strains showed significant differences with p-values Capsicum species. Both Capsicum species were amenable to A. rhizogenes infection and hairy root induction is recommended for use as an alternative explants in future plant-based studies.

  7. Evaluación físico - químico del dulce de leche saborizado en barra a diferentes temperaturas de conservación Empresa de Productos Lácteos Bayamo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lucia Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló con el propósito de diagnosticar las causas de afectaciones microbiológicas en el dulce de leche saborizado en barra antes de los 7 días de garantía, conservado a temperatura ambiente en los puntos de venta, deteriorando los parámetros de calidad del producto, por lo que se procedió a la realización de un diagnóstico en estos puntos donde se comercializa el surtido, relacionando los factores temperatura – humedad, así como entrevistas realizadas a clientes y trabajadores que allí laboran. En la industria también se realizó un diagnóstico que incluyó desde el estudio minucioso y análisis físicos-químicos, organolépticos y microbiológicos de todas las materias primas y materiales que se utilizan en la elaboración del dulce de leche, hasta el control de calidad del producto terminado expuesto a diferentes valores de temperatura y humedad relativa, con observación diaria de la muestras en vida estate y análisis realizados en intervalos de 7 días, determinando que la exposición del producto a temperatura ambiente propicia el desarrollo microbiano y que el menor valor de temperatura estudiado 18 0C, garantiza una durabilidad en el dulce de leche saborizado en barra de 30 días.

  8. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad 5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  9. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad  5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  10. Biogeochemical controls on the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur distributions in the water column of Golfo Dulce: an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Thamdrup, Bo; Canfield, Donald E.; Noehr Glud, Ronnie; Kuever, Jan; Lillebaek, Rolf; Birger Ramsing, Niels; Wawer, Cathrin

    2006-01-01

    Chemical distributions, respiration rates, and bacterial distributions were measured in 1994 in the water column and sediments of a small, tropical, anoxic basin (Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica) to examine the biogeochemical controls on anoxia, sulfide, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and organic carbon consumption. As reported previously, the deepest 100 m of the water column were anoxic, and sulfide concentrations in the bottom waters were less than 7 μM and then only transiently. Both free-swimming sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and Beggiatoa sp. (containing large vacuoles) were observed in the anoxic bottom waters or at the sediment-water interface. Aerobic respiration dominated the decomposition of organic matter in the surface waters and pycnocline, whereas sulfate reduction was principally restricted to the sediments. Bacteria were distributed in discrete zones and exhibited the highest densities where oxygen decreased below 1 μM around 100 m depth, and near the sediment-water interface. The sub-oxic, sub-pycnocline water column was characterized by a dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deficit of 2.9 mole m -2 . With a water residence time of 35 - 57 d, estimated from a salt balance, this deficit corresponded to a DIN loss of 51 - 85 mmol m -2 d -1 , comparable to the sub-pycnocline oxygen consumption. Sulfide in the water column was maintained at low concentrations by frequent inputs of oxygenated water from the Pacific Ocean. Sulfide production in the sediments due to bacterial sulfate reduction was scavenged by frequent deposition of iron-rich turbidites. Based on 210 Pb distributions, the most recent emplacement of a turbidite in the basin sediments was determined to have occurred between 1989 and 1992. (author) [es

  11. Development and description of light functional dulce de leche with coffee Desenvolvimento e descrição de doce de leite light funcional com café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívina Catarina de Oliveira Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with development of a "dulce de leche" (DL with coffee, with low caloric content and functional properties. Through rotational central composite design, eleven DLs were formulated with different polydextrose and sucralose levels. The results were analyzed by means of response surface and ANOVA. The addition of polydextrose led to the increase in moisture and water activity and reduction in the ash and soluble solids contents. In the formulations with greater levels of sucralose and polydextrose, there was an increase in the ash, acid and fiber content. Greater yield was achieved with greater concentrations of polydextrose and less substitution of sucrose by sucralose, allowing development of a new functional product with low caloric content.Esta pesquisa trata do desenvolvimento de um doce de leite com café, de baixo valor calórico e funcional. Por meio do delineamento composto central rotacional, foram formulados onze doces de leite com diferentes níveis de polidextrose e sucralose. Os resultados foram analisados por meio de superfície de resposta e ANOVA. A adição da polidextrose influenciou no aumento da umidade e atividade de água e redução nos teores de cinza e sólidos solúveis. Nas formulações com maiores níveis de sucralose e polidextrose, houve incremento no teor de cinza, acidez e fibras. Maiores rendimentos foram alcançados com maiores concentrações de polidextrose e menor substituição de sacarose por sucralose, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de um novo produto de baixo valor calórico e funcional.

  12. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  13. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J.; Cano, M. Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (C...

  14. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  15. ESTRES HIDRICO EN DOS ESPECIES DE CAPSICUM CON DIFERENTES GRADOS DE DOMESTICACION

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    Alejandra Nieto Garibay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La germinación en semillas está comúnmente afectada por el estrés hídrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el efecto del estrés hídrico en el porcentaje final de germinación, tasa media de germinación, y longitud de epicotilo e hipocotilo, índice de radícula:tallo de las especies de chile semi-domesticado Capsicum frutescens L. y cultivado Capsicum annuum L. Las semillas fueron expuestas a ocho niveles de potencial hídrico (Ψ inducidas con polietilen glicol (PEG 8000. Capsicum annuum presentó el porcentaje final de germinación de 73%; sin embargo, se presentaron diferencias no significativas (P=0.01 entre tratamientos en cada especie. La tasa media de germinación fue menor en C. frutescens que en C. annuum. El índice de la relación radícula:tallo fue mayor para C. annuum que para C. frutescens. Las diferencias entre el índice radícula:tallo fue significativa entre tratamientos en el caso de C. annuum, mientras que para C. frutescens no. El índice radícula:tallo fue un indicador relevante de tolerancia a la sequía  en ambas especies de chile. Un incremento en el índice radícula:tallo como una función de los niveles de estrés hídrico sugiere un efecto promotor en C. annuum mejorando el crecimiento de plántula bajo estrés hídrico. En el caso de C. frutescens, no se evidenció una disminución en el índice radícula:tallo. Lo cual sugiere una característica adaptativa del crecimiento bajo condiciones climáticas aridas y semiaridas en Baja California Sur.

  16. Evolución del desarrollo del color en sistema modelo de composición similar al dulce de leche. Influencia del tiempo de calentamiento y del Ph

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    Analía Rodríguez Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El color es un atributo importante en la elección del producto dulce de leche por parte del consumidor. El mismo se desarrolla en el proceso de elaboración debido principalmente a las reacciones de pardeamiento no enzimático, las cuales se ven influenciadas por varios factores. En este trabajo se evaluó el desarrollo de color, con el tiempo de tratamiento térmico y el pH inicial como variables tecnológicas, en un sistema modelo compuesto de caseinato, lactosa, sacarosa y agua destilada cuya composición fue similar a la del dulce de leche comercial. El estudio del color se realizó utilizando los parámetros de medición de color del sistema CIELAB y el índice de Kubelka Munk (K/S. Con ambos métodos se constató un aumento significativo del dE*ab y del K/S con el tiempo de tratamiento térmico y el pH inicial. Con el sistema CIELAB además se observó una tendencia a disminuir la luminosidad con el tiempo y el aumento del pH inicial, y el aumento de a* con el tiempo.

  17. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo J; Cano, M Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; López, Zaira

    2018-01-01

    Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375  μ g/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094  μ g/ml), and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137  μ g/ml). The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC 50 = 45  μ g/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC 50 = 126  μ g/ml); interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC 50 = 563  μ g/ml) and bark of P. dulce (CC 50 = 347  μ g/ml) extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC 50 = 323  μ g/ml and CC 50 = 250  μ g/ml, resp.). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC 50 = 356  μ g/ml) and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC 50 = 342  μ g/ml). In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  18. In Vitro Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl. Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. Used in Traditional Medicine in Mexico

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    Peter Knauth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of eight methanolic extracts from five plants native to Mexico were inactive against ten bacterial strains of clinical interest. The fruit extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibited the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 4375 μg/ml, Escherichia coli (MIC = 1094 μg/ml, and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC = 137 μg/ml. The fruit extract of C. ambrosioides was with CC50 = 45 μg/ml most cytotoxic against the cell-line Caco-2, followed by the leaf extract from Pithecellobium dulce (CC50 = 126 μg/ml; interestingly, leaves of C. ambrosioides (CC50 = 563 μg/ml and bark of P. dulce (CC50 = 347 μg/ml extracts were much less cytotoxic. We describe for the first time the cytotoxic effect from extracts of the aerial parts and the flowers of Cirsium mexicanum (CC50 = 323 μg/ml and CC50 = 250 μg/ml, resp.. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated for both extracts high tannin and saponin and low flavonoid content, while terpenoids were found in the flowers. For the first time we report a cytotoxicological study on an extract of Eryngium carlinae (CC50 = 356 μg/ml and likewise the bark extract from Amphipterygium adstringens (CC50 = 342 μg/ml. In conclusion the fruit extract of C. ambrosioides is a potential candidate for further biological studies.

  19. The organic fertilizers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and the impact on yield and its components

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    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers in the fertilization of crops is an alternative to the problems generated by the intensive use of chemical fertilizers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the application to soil of organics fertilizers compared with a control treatment with chemical fertilization on the yield and its components in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. Treatments consisted in to apply worm humus, water hyacinth compost, a mixture with 50 % worm humus and 50 % of water hyacinth compost, and a chemical control. It was evaluated fruits quantity per harvest, fruit length, diameter and fruit weight per harvest and yield. Results showed that the plants that were supplemented with worm humus, followed by worm humus + water hyacinth they had significantly better response with respect to the length, diameter and weight of the fruits.

  20. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum on Capsicum by Trichoderma koningii in potting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A R

    1999-09-01

    Two isolates of Trichoderma koningii were evaluated for efficacy in control of damping-off diseases in seedlings of Capsicum annuum grown in pasteurized potting medium in a glasshouse. A selected isolate of binucleate Rhizoctonia and two fungicides were also included as standards for control of Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum. Both isolates of T. koningii reduced seedling death caused by R. solani in one of two experiments, and by P. u. sporangii-ferum in two of three experiments. Neither isolate of T. koningii suppressed damping-off caused by either pathogen as consistently as the binucleate Rhizoctonia or fungicides. The implications of these results for commercial disease management are discussed.

  1. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  2. Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes and inoculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasuk, Pitchayapa; Chinthaisong, Jittima; Mongkolporn, Orarat

    2013-09-01

    Chili anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is one of the major diseases to chili production in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Breeding for durable anthracnose resistance requires a good understanding of the resistance mechanisms to different pathotypes and inoculation methods. This study aimed to investigate the inheritances of differential resistances as responding to two different Colletotrichum pathotypes, PCa2 and PCa3 and as by two different inoculation methods, microinjection (MI) and high pressure spray (HP). Detached ripe fruit of Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80' derived F2 and BC1s populations was assessed for anthracnose resistance. Two dominant genes were identified responsible for the differential resistance to anthracnose. One was responsible for the resistance to PCa2 and PCa3 by MI and the other was responsible for the resistance to PCa3 by HP. The two genes were linked with 16.7 cM distance.

  3. Diallel Crossing Analyses of Resistance to Main Diseases in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xue-xiao; HOU Xi-lin; CHEN Wen-chao; LIU Rong-yun; ZHANG Zhu-qing; MA Yan-qing; DAI Xiong-ze; YANG Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen capsicum combinations were made with 6 parents by (1/2)n(n-1) diallel crossing. Genetic parameters in the resistance to TMV, CMV, phytophthora blight, bacterial spot of these combinations were studied by Hayman. The results indicated that the resistance to TMV, CMV and bacterial spot conformed genetically to the "additive-dominant" model but the resistance to phytophthora blight did not and significant epistatic dominance effect existed in it. F1 hybrid's resistance to CMV was controlled by homozygous dominant gene (s), but resistance to bacterial spot by heterozygous one (s). There were little, or no sum of dominant effect and genomes controlling the dominant expression of F1 hybrids in its phytophthora blight resistance.

  4. Metabolomic Characterization of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-11-04

    Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") was performed at six development stages [16, 25, 36, 38, 43, and 48 days post-anthesis (DPA)] to analyze biochemical changes. Distinct distribution patterns were observed in the changes of metabolites, gene expressions, and antioxidant activities by early (16-25 DPA), breaker (36-38 DPA), and later (43-48 DPA) stages. In the early stages, glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, shikimic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and putrescine were highly distributed but gradually decreased over the breaker stage. At later stages, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and kaempferol glycosides were significantly increased. Pathway analysis revealed metabolite-gene interactions in the biosynthesis of amino acids, capsaicinoids, fatty acid chains, and flavonoids. The changes in antioxidant activity were highly reflective of alterations in metabolites. The present study could provide useful information about nutrient content at each stage of pepper cultivation.

  5. Effect of 60Co and ethyl methane sulphonate on growth and fruit development of capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khupse, S.S.; Ugale, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Flowering was delayed to a remarkable extent following mutagen treatment both in M 1 and M 2 generations. Gamma radiation was found to be more effective as compared to E.M.S. in delaying flowering. Weight of 100 dry fruits increased with an increase in dose of radiation. No significant effect of E.M.S. in M 1 and M 2 generations was observed. Mohol-9, a variety of Capsicum annuum L. produced the heaviest seeds out of all the varieties treated with 100 KR gamma rays while C.A. 452-1 had comparatively heavier seeds than other varieties, when treated with 0.2% E.M.S. (author)

  6. Carotenoids from Capsicum annuum fruits: Influence of spectral quality of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Candela, M.E.; Sabater, F.

    1986-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L. cv. Ramillete fruits grown in the field were covered 60 d after flowering with “white”, yellow, red and blue cellophane filters. Two other sets were left in full sunlight and under cover, respectively. After 30 d of treatment, during the ripening period, the contents of individual carotenoids were analyzed. The red radiation was the most effective to increase the carotenoid biosynthesis, but the green and blue radiations inhibited their production. Either class of filters inhibited the formation of capsanthin, the most important carotenoid in the production of red colour of the maturation, but capsorubin, the other carotenoid responsible for the maturation colour, was more enhanced in the shade and under red radiation. Neither type of radiation was so efficient in increasing the total carotenoids content as the full sun radiation

  7. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Natural biostimulants reduce the incidence of BER in sweet yellow pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse pepper production should evolve towards more sustainable systems. The growing technique which combines soilless culture and biostimulants may reduce nutrient and water use with beneficial impact on the environment. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate effects of biostimulants application on hydroponically produced pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. in conditions of reduced fertilization. Positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed along with significant decrease in incidence of blossom-end rot (BER in two pepper cultivars. Biostimulants application resulted in overall increase in macro- and microelement content in fruits of treated pepper cultivars. Generally, biostimulants improved the yield of pepper plants grown hydroponically by increasing the nutrient uptake and decreasing the occurrence of BER. Thus, the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment.

  9. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

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    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  10. Effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli (Capsicum annum L.) quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoraga, S. B.; Sabarisman, I.; Ainuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) has significant price fluctuation. When the chilli price is declined, it causes food waste from unsold chilli. Therefore, drying chilli is a solution for this condition. Futhermore, it can be processed for various product like chilli powder, chilli sauce, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli quality. Chilli was blenched with hot water and steam before drying. The purpose of this pretreatments is to inactivate enzyme that prevents color and vitamin C losses. The quality parameters were moisture content, colour, vitamin C content, and capsaicin. Changes were observed by gravimetri method for moisture content, chromameter in L* a * b * colour model, and iodine titration for vitamin C. After drying for 20 hours at 60°C, chilli with steam blanching pretreatment dried rapidly than other samples. Unpretreated chilli had higher vitamin C content and better color than blanched chilli.

  11. Dos nuevas especies de cangrejos de agua dulce (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae de la Serranía de Los Paraguas, Cordillera Occidental de Colombia

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    Gabriel E Ramos-Tafur

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos nuevas especies de cangrejos de agua dulce del género Hypolobocera de la Serranía de Los Paraguas, Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. H. solimani n. sp. está estrechamente relacionada con H. alata Campos 1989, pero se puede distinguir de ésta por el margen superior del mero del tercer maxilípedo, el cual es liso; por la forma del ápice del primer gonópodo y la forma del lóbulo interno o papila del canal espermático, la cual es cóncava, levantada y termina bordeada por diminutas papilas o tubérculos redondeados. H. triangula n. sp. es muy similar a H. rotundilobata Rodríguez 1994, pero se diferencia de ésta por el tamaño y la forma del lóbulo lateral, una cresta basal de tubérculos y la superficie apical del gonópodo. Con estas dos nuevas descripciones se incrementa a 20 el número de miembros válidos del género Hypolobocera conocidos del occidente de Colombia o del Chocó biogeográfico.Two new species of fresh water crab (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from Serranía de Los Paraguas, Cordillera Occidental, Colombia. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Hypolobocera from Serranía de Los Paraguas, Cordillera Occidental, Colombia, are described. Hypolobocera solimani n. sp. is closely related to H. alata Campos 1989, but can be distinguished from it by smooth upper margin of third maxilliped merus, the size and shape of apex of first gonopod, and the internal lobe or papilla of spermatic channel, which is concave, raised, with ends with minute papillae or rounded tubercles. Hypolobocera triangula n. sp. is very similar to H. rotundilobata Rodríguez 1994, but differs from it by the shape and size of the lateral lobe, an oblique basal ridge of tubercles and by the apex of first gonopod. With the two new species, the total number of valid members of the genus Hypolobocera known from western Colombia or biogeographic Chocó is 20. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 1047-1056. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  12. Evaluación de 16 genotipos de quinua dulce (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en el municipio de Iles, Nariño (Colombia

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    Delgado P. Adriana I.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Debido a su alto potencial agrícola y nutritivo, el interés por la quinua se ha incrementado en los últimos años, convirtiéndola en alternativa de diversificación para la región andina. Sin embargo, se han detectado necesidades limitantes, así como buenas posibilidades de mejoramiento genético, aún escasamente exploradas. En la presente investigación, llevada a cabo en la vereda San Francisco del municipio de Iles, Nariño, se evaluaron 16 líneas de quinua dulce. Una parte de ellas fueron selecciones provenientes de los genotipos SL47, Piartal y Tunkahuan. El resto consistió en cuatro testigos comerciales (SL47, Piartal, Tunkahuan y Blanca de Jericó. El estudio fue conducido bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones, a través del cual se evaluaron algunos componentes de rendimiento (altura de la planta, longitud de panoja, peso de 1.000 granos, y rendimiento, la reacción al mildeo velloso y las características fenológicas. Posteriormente todas las variables fueron sometidas a análisis de varianza, prueba de Tukey (5% y evaluación del grado de asociación por medio del análisis de correlaciones de Pearson. Los resultados mostraron la precocidad del grupo SL47 (128,75 a 135 días a madurez fisiológica. Al comparar las líneas con sus testigos, se observa que el grupo Tunkahuan (S20, S39, S44 obtuvo ganancia genética en rendimiento (2.635,25 a 2.699,83 kg ha-1. El análisis de correlación mostró que hay asociación significativa entre las variables altura de la planta y longitud de panoja (0,739 por una parte, y por otra entre rendimiento y peso de 1.000 granos (0,647. SL47 testigo alcanzó el mayor índice de selección (0,960, mostrándose superior a las demás líneas.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Fractions for Unripe Fruits of Capsicum annuum L. var. Conoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Shen, Gao-Mai; Yu, Tzu-Jung; Liao, Yi-Shin; Jian, Ru-In; Wang, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-02-07

    Capsicum plant, especially for C. annuum, is an abundant resource for bioactive antioxidants, but few studies have examined the unripe fruit part of the Capsicum plant. MeOH extract of unripe fruits of C. annuum L. var. conoides (UFCA) was chromatographed over a silica gel column using a gradient of CH2Cl2/MeOH as eluent to produce 9 fractions. Antioxidant activities are evaluated along with cell viabilities of 9 fractions of UFCA. The antioxidant properties were analyzed in terms of total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. The cell viability of human oral cancer cells (Ca9-22) was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Except for TFC, fractions (Frs.) 1 and 2 showed the lowest level of these antioxidant properties. Frs. 3 to 9 showed dose-responsive induction for antioxidant effects. Fr. 8 and Fr. 5 respectively showed the highest levels of TPC and TFC for 1162 ± 11 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg)/UFCA (g) and 1295 ± 32 quercetin equivalents (QCE) (mg)/UFCA (g). The cell viability of Fr. 3 was moderately decreased (78.2%) while those of Frs. 4, 5, and 9 were dramatically decreased (55.6, 57.8, and 46.8%, respectively) in oral cancer Ca9-22 cells. UFCA-derived 14 compounds/mixtures derived from Frs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 displayed differential antioxidant performance for these analyses. Taken together, fractions of UFCA displayed diverse antioxidant and anticancer effects for oral cancer cells. Some fractions of UFCA may be potent natural antioxidant supplements for antioral cancer cell treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

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    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  15. Fine mapping of the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyumi; Choi, Doil; Lee, Jundae

    2018-01-01

    The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper. Previously, a CAPS marker, PmsM1-CAPS, located about 2-3 cM from the ms 1 locus, was reported. In this study, we constructed a fine map near the ms 1 locus using high-resolution melting (HRM) markers in an F 2 population consisting of 1118 individual plants, which segregated into 867 male-fertile and 251 male-sterile plants. A total of 12 HRM markers linked to the ms 1 locus were developed from 53 primer sets targeting intraspecific SNPs derived by comparing genome-wide sequences obtained by next-generation resequencing analysis. Using this approach, we narrowed down the region cosegregating with the ms 1 gene to 869.9 kb of sequence. Gene prediction analysis revealed 11 open reading frames in this region. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, was identified; this gene is a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 (MS1) gene, which encodes a PHD-type transcription factor that regulates pollen and tapetum development. Sequence comparison analysis suggested that the CA05g06780 gene is the strongest candidate for the ms 1 gene of paprika. To summarize, we developed a cosegregated marker, 32187928-HRM, for marker-assisted selection and identified a strong candidate for the ms 1 gene.

  16. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  17. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum L. with Rhizobium strains. 2. Changes in sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are consumed worldwide, imparting flavor, aroma, and color to foods, additionally containing high concentrations of biofunctional compounds. This is the first report about the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Generally, inoculation with strain TVP08 led to the major changes, being observed a decrease of sterols and triterpenes and an increase of fatty acids, which are related to higher biomass, growth, and ripening of pepper fruits. The increase of volatile compounds may reflect the elicitation of plant defense after inoculation, since the content on methyl salicylate was significantly increased in inoculated material. The findings suggest that inoculation with Rhizobium strains may be employed to manipulate the content of interesting metabolites in pepper leaves and fruits, increasing potential health benefits and defense abilities of inoculated plants.

  18. Fluoride-induced foliar injury in Solanum pseudo-capsicum: its induction in the dark and activation in the light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, D.C.; Schneider, R.C.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The differential responses of plants exposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) in continuous light or darkness were investigated in Jerusalem cherry Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. Plants exposed to HF in the dark develop few, if any, foliar symptoms by the end of the exposure period, but severe foliar injury develops rapidly upon transfer to the light after exposure. The results suggest that light is required for the expression of responses induced by exposure to HF in the dark.

  19. Fluoride-induced foliar injury in Solanum pseudo-capsicum: its induction in the dark and activation in the light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, D.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The differential responses of plants exposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) in continuous light or darkness were investigated in Jerusalem cherry Solanum pseudo-capsicum L. Plants exposed to HF in the dark develop few, if any, foliar symptoms by the end of the exposure period, but severe folia injury develops rapidly upon transfer to the light after exposure. The results suggest that light is required for the expression of responses induced by exposure to HF in the dark.

  20. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO 4 , Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P 2 O 2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  1. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-07

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum.

  2. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  3. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando relacionar a reação de Capsicum spp. resistentes e suscetíveis à Oidiopsis haplophylli com o padrão dos respectivos complexos estomáticos, foram analisados em dois ensaios, 5 e 15 genótipos de Capsicum spp. em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Avaliou-se a abertura do ostíolo, a morfometria do estômato (comprimento, largura e área, o número de estômatos.mm-2 e a freqüência de estômatos (unidades de estômatos por células da epiderme nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial da epiderme foliar de plantas cultivadas em casa-de-vegetação. A variável abertura ostiolar não explicou a reação dos genótipos ao oídio, nem na face adaxial (R²=0,16 nem na abaxial (R²=0,13. Entretanto, o número de estômatos.mm-2 explicou a reação ao oídio em 84 % (face adaxial ou 74 % (face abaxial. Para a freqüência de estômatos, o modelo ajustou-se melhor na face adaxial (R² = 0,76, do que na face abaxial (R²=0,48. Maiores números e freqüências de estômatos em ambas as faces foliares ocorreram em pimentão 'Magali' (altamente suscetível, com valores significativamente maiores do que em 'HV-12' (altamente resistente. Sugere-se que a suscetibilidade de genótipos de Capsicum a O. haplophylli está parcialmente relacionada a mecanismos de defesa estruturais pré-formados, como o número e freqüência de estômatos, os quais se relacionam com o número de sítios de infecção. Por outro lado, para alguns genótipos, esta relação não foi significativa, indicando que outros mecanismos de resistência também estejam envolvidos.This work reports the reaction of Capsicum genotypes to the powdery mildew pathogen with variables of the stomatal complex, from samples of five to 15 Capsicum genotypes in a complete randomized experiments. Ostiolum size, stomatal morphometry (length, width and surface area, the number of stomata.mm-2, and the frequency of stomata (stomatal units per unit of epidermal cells were evaluated on both leaf

  4. Prevalence, level and distribution of Salmonella in shipments of imported capsicum and sesame seed spice offered for entry to the United States: observations and modeling results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M; Blodgett, Robert J; Pouillot, Régis; Westerman, Ann; Kleinmeier, Daria; Ziobro, George C; Ma, Yinqing; Hammack, Thomas S; Gill, Vikas; Muckenfuss, Martin F; Fabbri, Linda

    2013-12-01

    In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated research to characterize the prevalence and levels of Salmonella in imported spices. 299 imported dried capsicum shipments and 233 imported sesame seed shipments offered for entry to the United States were sampled. Observed Salmonella shipment prevalence was 3.3% (1500 g examined; 95% CI 1.6-6.1%) for capsicum and 9.9% (1500 g; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 6.3-14%) for sesame seed. Within shipment contamination was not inconsistent with a Poisson distribution. Shipment mean Salmonella level estimates among contaminated shipments ranged from 6 × 10(-4) to 0.09 (capsicum) or 6 × 10(-4) to 0.04 (sesame seed) MPN/g. A gamma-Poisson model provided the best fit to observed data for both imported shipments of capsicum and imported shipments of sesame seed sampled in this study among the six parametric models considered. Shipment mean levels of Salmonella vary widely between shipments; many contaminated shipments contain low levels of contamination. Examination of sampling plan efficacy for identifying contaminated spice shipments from these distributions indicates that sample size of spice examined is critical. Sampling protocols examining 25 g samples are predicted to be able to identify a small fraction of contaminated shipments of imported capsicum or sesame seeds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Capsicum annum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Nowadays, it is almost impossible to imagine the dishes of Asia and Pacific region ... In addition to having major role in Ethiopians daily dish, it also plays an important role in ... oleoresin, is exported to different countries and the spiced ground is .... Island (the largest of Spain's seven Canary Islands) were reported to be ...

  6. Capsicum annuum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory ... pepper fruit during its stage of development in order to detect and identify the ... A group of genes belonging ... those of other plant species (Quinet et al., 2006; Carrari ... Several variables need to be controlled for gene-expression analysis,.

  7. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  8. Composição Nutricional e Teor de Carotenóides de Doces de Leite Adicionados de Extrato de Urucum/Nutritional Composition and Level of Carotenoids of Dulce de Leche Added of Extract Annatto (Bixa orellana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilson José da Silva Braga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O trabalho objetivou avaliar a composição centesimal, pH e teor de carotenóides de doces de leite tipo caseiro com diferentes concentrações de urucum. Materiais e Métodos: Os doces de leite foram elaborados com leite de vaca integral e sacarose, além da adição (0%; 1,0%; 1,5% e 2,0% de urucum. Foram realizadas análises de composição centesimal, pH e carotenóides, sendo estes últimos extraídos com acetona, para posterior leitura em espectrofotômetro a 450nm. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado e teste de Tukey (p<0,05 para as análises estatísticas. Resultados: Os teores de umidade, lipídeos, proteínas e cinzas apresentaram-se dentro dos parâmetros exigidos pela legislação brasileira. As amostras com 0% e 1% de urucum não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas diferiram das amostras com 1,5% e 2,0% de urucum (p<0,05. A adição de extrato de urucum no doce de leite interferiu na composição química do mesmo, entretanto, ainda permaneceu dentro dos limites exigidos pela legislação. Conclusão: Os teores de carotenóides nas amostras de doce de leite aumentou proporcionalmente ao acréscimo de extrato de urucum, variando de 0,0281 mg.100g-1 a 0,6030 mg.100g-1, ocorrendo beneficiamento do produto pelo incremento de carotenóides. Objective: the work aimed to evaluate the percent composition, pH and carotenoid content of home-made type dulce de leche with different concentrations of annato. Materials end Methods: The dulces de leche were made with whole cow milk and sucrose, besides the addition (0%; 1.0%; 1.5% and 2.0% of annatto. Analyses of percent composition, pH and carotenoids were performed, these latter ones being extracted with acetone for further reading in spectrophotometer at 450nm. Completely randomized design and Tukey test (p<0.05 were utilized for statistical analyses. Results: The contents of moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes lay within the parameters demanded by the Brazilian

  9. Vitamin D status among indigenous Mayan (Kekchi) and Afro-Caribe (Garifuna) adolescents from Guatemala: a comparative description between two ethnic groups residing on the Rio Dulce at the Caribbean coast in Izabal Province, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali; Solomons, Noel W; Campos, Raquel; Soto-Méndez, María José; Caplan, Emily; Armas, Laura; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2017-07-01

    To assess vitamin D status and the influence of risk factors such as skin pigmentation and time spent outdoors on hypovitaminosis D among Guatemalan Kekchi and Garifuna adolescents. Cross-sectional study, with convenient sampling design. Blood samples, anthropometric and behavioural data were all collected during the dry season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by RIA. Communities of Rio Dulce and Livingston, Izabal Province, Caribbean coast of Guatemala, with latitude and longitude of 15°49'N and 88°45'W for Livingston and 15°46'N and 88°49'W for Rio Dulce, respectively. Eighty-six adolescents, divided evenly by sex and ethnicity, with mean age of 14 years. Mean (sd) 25(OH)D value was 27·8 (7·2) ng/ml for the total group, with 25·8 (5·9) and 29·8 (7·9) ng/ml, respectively, in Kekchis and Garifunas (P=0·01). Use of vitamin D supplementation, clothing practices and sun protection were not statistically different between groups. Skin area exposed on the day of data collection ranged from 20·0 % minimum to 49·4 % maximum, with mean (sd) exposure of 32·0 (8.5) %. With univariate regression analysis, age (P=0·034), sex (P=0·044), ethnicity (P=0·010), time spent outdoors (P=0·006) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·001) were predictive. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only sex (P=0·034) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·044) remained as predictors of 25(OH)D. Despite residing in an optimal geographic location for sunlight exposure, nearly 65 % of study adolescents were either insufficient or deficient in vitamin D. Correction and long-term prevention of this nutritional problem may be instrumental in avoiding adverse effects in adulthood attributed to low 25(OH)D during adolescence.

  10. ACTIVIDAD FITOTÓXICA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R & P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de nuevos herbicidas de origen natural se ha realizado mediante los estudios de sustancias fitotóxicas debido a que no afectan el ambiente y son menos tóxicos que los sintéticos. En la literatura existen pocas evidencias de los efectos fitotóxicos de los capsaicinoides presentes en el género Capsicum , por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar in vitro el efecto fitotóxico de los extractos del fruto de chile manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R & P en la germinación y vigor de Amaranthus hybridus L., Lactuca sativa L., Ipomoea purpurea L. y Bidens odorata Cav. Se realizó una prueba de germinación de acuerdo con la metodología de la International Seed Testing Asociation. El efecto de seis concentraciones de extractos (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 % v/v, capsaicina (0.1 p/v y ABA (0.01 p/v fue evaluado en un experimento, usando un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una. El testigo fue agua destilada. Las variables evaluadas fueron el número de semillas germinadas (NSG y el vigor (longitud de radícula, LR; longitud de la parte aérea, LPA. Se realizaron análisis de varianza y comparaciones de medias de Tukey ( P ≤ 0.05. El extracto de diclorometano, comparado con el extracto etéreo, causó el mayor efecto fitotóxico sobre la germinación de A. hybridus y L. sativa , en las que el porcentaje se redujo hasta 100 %. También afectó en forma negativa el vigor de I. purpurea . El efecto fitotóxico de la capsaicina sobre la germinación y vigor sólo se manifestó en A. hybridus.

  11. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  12. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  13. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Gene Family in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wei-Ping; Snyder, John C; Wang, Shu-Bin; Liu, Jin-Bing; Pan, Bao-Gui; Guo, Guang-Jun; Wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper.

  15. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  16. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations.

  17. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  18. Estimation of capsaicin through scanning densitometry and evaluation of different varieties of capsicum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Arunava; Maji, Amal; Barman, Tapu; Banerji, Pratim; Venkatesh, P; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2012-01-01

    Capsicum annuum L. (family: Solanaceae) possesses therapeutic benefits for the treatment of rheumatism, neuropathy, psoriasis, flatulence and so on. In this study fruits of four different varieties of C. annuum from four different geographical regions in India were evaluated based on their total content of capsaicin. Ethanol extracts of the fruits were used. HPTLC plates were developed in a mobile phase containing benzene, ethyl acetate and methanol (75:20:5). Densitometric scanning was performed at a wavelength of 283 nm in the absorbance mode. The calibration curve was described by the equation Y=393.587+3.836*X with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99890. The content of capsaicin in Nagaland, Manipur, West Bengal and Shimla varieties was found to be 3.71%, 1.78%, 0.54% and 0.06%, respectively. The developed densitometric method was found to be specific, accurate and precise. A recovery study and precision showed low levels of %RSD values. The linearity range of the curve for capsaicin was found to be 300-900 ng per spot. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification values were determined to be 31 and 94 ng, respectively, proving the sensitivity of the method. Thus the method can be used to control the total content of capsaicin on an industrial scale.

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of jalapeño pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. Mendoza-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El chile jalapeño se consume en estado verde (inmaduro y rojo (maduro; por lo que es importante evaluar los componentes presentes en ambos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento (30 días a temperatura ambiente (25 °C, sobre los cambios fisicoquímicos, antioxidantes y los parámetros texturales de Capsicum annuum var. annuum. Durante este periodo, se produjo un aumento significativo (P ≤ 0.05 en el contenido de sólidos solubles, acidez y azúcares reductores; mientras que la humedad, las cenizas y el pH, disminuyeron. La firmeza del pericarpio varió de 5.17 a 2.88 N. La capsaicina en estado verde fue menor que la encontrada en estado rojo. Algunos de los compuestos antioxidantes mostraron incremento significativo (P ≤ 0.05 a partir del día 15 de almacenamiento. La captura de radical DPPH fue mayor (58.35 % en el estado rojo, en comparación con el estado verde de madurez (19.42 %. Algunas de las propiedades analizadas mostraron cambios significativos entre los días 15 y 20 de almacenamiento, coincidiendo con el cambio de color de verde a rojo. El chile jalapeño en estado rojo es una buena fuente de antioxidantes, incluyendo ácido ascórbico, carotenoides y polifenoles.

  20. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  1. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, A. P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 {mu}m were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T{sub M}-T{sub STOP} method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  2. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents.

  3. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  4. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  5. Effect of water irrigation volume on Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Dhahiyat, Y.; Zahidah; Subhan, U.; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Mawardiani, T.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to understand Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics culture. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments in triplicates comprising of treatment A (positive control using organic liquid fertilizer), B (negative control without fertilizer), C (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 100 ml/day/plant), D (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 150 ml/day/plant), E (drip irrigation with a water debit of 200 ml/day/plant), and F (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 250 ml/day/plant) was applied. The water used in treatments C, D, E, and F contained comet fish feces as fertilizer. C. frutescens growth and plankton abundance were observed. Analysis was conducted using analysis of variance for plant productivity and descriptive analysis for plankton abundance and water quality. The results of this study showed that the highest plant growth was seen in plants receiving F treatment with 50 ml/day drip irrigation. However, no significant difference was found when compared to the positive control with organic artificial fertilizer. Eleven types of phytoplankton and six types of zooplankton were found, with Stanieria sp. as the most abundant phytoplankton and Brachionus sp. and Epistylis sp. as the most abundant zooplanktons.

  6. Ontogenetic Variation of Individual and Total Capsaicinoids in Malagueta Peppers (Capsicum frutescens) during Fruit Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; de Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Martínez, Julián; Mallor, Cristina; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-05-03

    The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper ( Capsicum frutescens ) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns.

  7. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Antibacterial activity and phospholipid recognition of the recombinant defensin J1-1 from Capsicum genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Chable, Francisco; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Corzo, Gerardo; Martinez-Liu, Cynthia; Estrada, Georgina

    2017-08-01

    The gene of the four disulfide-bridged defensin J1-1 from Capsicum was cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-tag as fusion protein. This construct was transfected into Origami strain of Escherichia coli and expressed after induction with isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). The level of expression was 4 mg/L of culture medium, and the His-tagged recombinant defensin (HisXarJ1-1) was expressed exclusively into inclusion bodies. After solubilization, HisXarJ1-1 was purified by affinity and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The reverse-phase HPLC profile of the HisXarJ1-1 product obtained from the affinity chromatography step showed single main peptide fraction of molecular masses of 7050.6 Da and after treatment with DTT a single fraction of 7, 042.6 Da corresponding to the reduced peptide was observed. An in vitro folding step of the HisXarJ1-1 generated a distinct profile of oxidized forms of the peptide this oxidized peptide was capable of binding phosphatidic acid in vitro. Possible dimer and oligomer of HisXarJ1-1 were visible in gel electrophoresis and immunodetected with anti-His antibodies. Pure recombinant defensin HisXarJ1-1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract and its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Yu, Shuixin; Gui, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Biological synthesis approach has been regarded as a green, eco-friendly and cost effective method for nanoparticles preparation without any toxic solvents and hazardous bi-products during the process. This present study reported a facile and rapid biosynthesis method for gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract in a single-pot process. The aqueous pulp extract was used as biotic reducing agent for gold nanoparticle growing. Various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and quasi-spherical shapes) were observed within range of 6-37 nm. The UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak for the formed GNPs at 560 nm after 10 min incubation at room temperature. The possible influences of extract amount, gold ion concentration, incubation time, reaction temperature and solution pH were evaluated to obtain the optimized synthesis conditions. The effects of the experimental factors on NPs synthesis process were also discussed. The produced gold nanoparticles were characterized by transform electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the as-obtained GNPs were well dispersed and stable with good catalytic activity. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract were responsible for the capping and stabilization of GNPs.

  10. Growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frutescens varieties to copper stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Maziyah, Rizka; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi; Mubarokah, Nilna Rizqiyah

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient participating in various physiological processes. However, excessive uptake of this micronutrient could potentially affect plant growth and development as well as plant productivity. In this present work, growth and physiological responses of some Capsicum frustescens varieties to Cu stress were determined. Three C. frutescens varieties used in this work were var. Bara, CF 291, and Genie. In addition, these varieties were treated with different concentration of Cu (0, 30, 70, and 120 ppm). The growth and physiological responses measured in this work included plant height, root length, malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll. The result showed that all varieties tested relatively displayed plant growth reduction including plant height and root length. Likewise, an increase of MDA level, a major bioindicator for oxidative damage was also found in all varieties following exposure to elevated Cu concentration. Finally, the chlorophyll content was also affected indicated by a decreased amount of chlorophyll, especially in var. CF291. The overall results demonstrated that elevated Cu concentration might decrease C. frutescens productivity where among the three varieties tested, var CF 291 seemed to be the most sensitive varieties to Cu stress.

  11. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  12. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  13. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 μm were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a 60 Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T M -T STOP method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  14. Effect of LED light on seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra María Moreno-Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a crop of economic, nutritional and medicinal importance; so it is necessary to increase its production and improve its characteristics. The objective of this research was to evaluate the stimulatory effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs on serrano pepper seedlings. Germination percentage, stem length, leaf width, leaf length, number of leaves, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were analyzed. The seeds were exposed to white, blue and red LED light, using fluorescent light as a control and a photoperiod of 11/13 hours. Once germinated, the seedlings continued with exposure to light for 30 days. After the laboratory conditions, the seedlings were transferred to a greenhouse for 60 days. The results show that there were no significant differences between LED light treatments on seed germination. The variables stem length, leaf width and leaf length, were favored with red light. Blue and red LEDs highlighted by increasing the number of leaves. Seedlings treated with blue light showed the highest content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll= 0.84 mg g-1, carotenoid= 0.12 mg g-1. In conclusion, the red LED light is effective for the growth of serrano pepper seedlings, while the production of photosynthetic pigments was favored by blue LED light.   Keywords: peppers, light-emitting diodes, germination, growth, photosynthetic pigments

  15. Evaluation of the oxidative stability of Chipotle chili (Capsicum annuum L. oleoresins in avocado oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cerecedo-Cruz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. (Chipotle chili is a natural source of bioactive metabolites with antioxidant properties. The objective of this research was to obtain and characterize the oxidative stability under storage of Chipotle chili oleoresins extracted with cold-pressed avocado oil. The most efficient conditions obtained to extract carotenoids and phenolic compounds were at 1:3 ratio (chipotle chili: avocado oil; w:v at room temperature in darkness during 48 h. At the end of the harshest conditions (45 °C, 30 days, the extracts were stable to lipid oxidation with a final Totox value of 27.34, a carotenoid preservation of 85.6%, antioxidant activity retention of 80.66% and a color change (ΔE of 1.783. The kinetic constants obtained were higher for peroxide formation than for carotenoid degradation. The oleoresins obtained could be considered an economic and sustainable alternative to extract carotenoids with good oxidation stability that could be used in foodstuffs.

  16. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  17. Symptom and Resistance of Cultivated and Wild Capsicum Accessions to Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Heon Han

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred Capsicum accessions were screened for symptomatic response and resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus-pb1 (TSWV-pb1. Symptom and its severity rating were checked by visual observation at 9, 12, 14, and 45 days after inoculation, respectively. Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay was performed all tested individuals on non-inoculated upper leaves after the third rating to indentify viral infection. Leaf curling was predominant in almost susceptible individuals of each accession. Stem necrosis was most frequent in wild species while yellowing in commercial hybrids and Korean land race cultivars. Ring spot, a typical symptom of TSWV, was rarely detected in some of a few accessions. Different levels of resistance to TSWV-pb1 were observed among the tested accessions. High level of resistance was detected in 4 commercial cultivars of Kpc- 35, -36, -57, and -62, and 8 wild species of PBI-11, C00105, PBC076, PBC280, PBC426, PBC495, PBC537, and PI201238 through seedling test by mechanical inoculation.

  18. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher (<0.05) Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability than the bound polyphenols. In addition, both extracts significantly inhibited (P<0.05) basal and 25{mu}M Fe (II)- induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain and liver in a dose dependent. However, the free polyphenols caused a significantly higher inhibition in the MDA (Malondialdehyde) production in the brain and liver homogenates than the bound phenols. Furthermore, the polyphenols protected the liver more than the brain. In conclusion, free polyphenols from Capsicum annuum protects both the liver and brain from Fe{sup 2+} induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  19. Correlation study of resistance components in the selection of Capsicum genotypes resistant to the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracahipes, A C; Correa, J W S; Teodoro, P E; Araújo, K L; Barelli, M A A; Neves, L G

    2017-08-17

    Anthracnose is among the major diseases of the Capsicum culture. It is caused by different species of the genus Colletotrichum, which may result in major damages to the cultivation of this genus. Studies aiming to search for cultivars resistant to diseases are essential to reduce financial and agricultural losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the variables analyzed to select Capsicum genotypes resistant to the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with three replications, 88 treatments, four ripe fruits, and four unripe fruits per replication. Accessions of Capsicum from the Germplasm Active Bank of Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UNEMAT) were evaluated as for resistance to the fungus. Fruits were collected from each plot and taken to the laboratory for disinfestation. A lesion was performed in the middle region of the fruit using a sterile needle, where a spore suspension drop, adjusted to 10 6 spores/mL, was deposited. An ultrapure water drop was deposited into control fruits. The fruits were placed in humid chambers, and the evaluation was performed by measuring the diameter and the length of lesions using a caliper for 11 days. After data were obtained, analyses of variance, correlation, and path analysis were performed using the GENES software and R. According to the likelihood-ratio test, the effects of genotypes (G), fruit stage (F), and its interaction (G x F) were significant (P < 0.05). There were differences between the magnitudes of genotype correlations according to fruit stage. Different variables must be taken into account for an indirect selection in this culture in function of fruit stage since the variable AUDPC is an important criterion for selecting resistant accessions. We found through the path analysis that the variables DULRD and DULRL exerted the greatest effects on AUDPC.

  20. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BUNGA FLAMBOYAN (Delonix regia Hook Raf TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI MERAH BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royana Pakpahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reach aim to the effect of flamboyant (Delonix regia Hook Raf. flower extract on the growth of large red pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., for use a land under of flamboyant trees. The research design used was Random Block Design, with five treatments extract concentration, control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, each treatment was repeated five time. Observations were made during the 15 weeks. The results showed the percentage of germination and plant height are effect significant, while the number of leaves, root length and dry weight of the plant does not provide effect for the growth of large red pepper plant. Keywords : flamboyant, allelopathy, large red pepper

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on seed germination and organization of shoot apex in Solanum melongena and Capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Seeds of S. melongena and C. annum were irradiated with 10, 20 and 30 kR exposures of gamma rays. All doses bring about morphological and structural changes in the shoot apex. Cytohistological zonation is absent in the shoot apex of treated seeds. Tunica and corpus cells become inactive. The plastochron period between the two successive leaf primordia is shorter in irradiated shoot apices than in unirradiated ones. In Capsicum certain shoot apices showed arrested internodes between the cotyledon and next leaf. (author)

  2. Radiation induced genetic variability studies in M2 and F2M2 generation in chilli (Capsicum annum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Naik, Puttarama; Gangappa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) is an important commercial crop in India. Mutation breeding is one of the effective tool to create new variability. Since, yield and its component characters show polygenic inheritance, information on amount of heritable portion of variability created through mutation for these characters is needed to use the induced variability for crop improvement. To harness more variability mutation has been superimposed on hybridization in several crops. The present study is undertaken to estimate the genetic variability induced through gamma irradiation for the polygenically inherited productive traits of chilli in M 2 and F 2 M 2 generation

  3. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  4. Fermentación láctica en contínuo a partir de suero dulce de leche desproteinizado Continuous lactic fermentation of deproteinized sweet whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego D.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El suero de leche es un gran contaminante de aguas debido a su alta demanda bioquímica de oxígeno (DBO, principalmente causada por la lactosa (azúcar de la leche; en este trabajo se estudia la posibilidad de convertir el lactosuero en un producto útil de gran valor agregado. Para este subproducto han sido desarrollados muchos métodos de aprovechamiento; entre los más importantes se encuentra su deshidratación, producción de refrescos y conversión de su azúcar a ácidos orgánicos. El ácido láctico es un valioso producto en la industria de alimentos y también es materia prima en la industria química, lo mismo que sus sales, como el lactato de sodio, calcio, hierro y antimonio principalmente. Con el objeto de determinar la mejor velocidad de dilución (D, para obtener la máxima producción de ácido láctico posible, se efectúan 8 fermentaciones desde D=0,102 h-1 hasta que la producción de ácido es cero (D=3,0 h-1. Se fijaron condiciones de trabajo de: 45± 0,1ºC, 5,6 ± 0,2 de pH y una concentración celular de 30 ± 4,0 g/l. Se utilizó Lactobacillus bulgaricus y como sustrato se preparó una solución de suero dulce de leche desproteinizado. La producción como ácido láctico y lactato de sodio, en solución, está entre 24,37 y 0,51g/l. La estabilidad en la producción se alcanza en promedio a los 2 tiempos de retención. La mayor productividad se encuentra en D= 0,2 h

  5. Thermophysical and rheological properties of dulce de leche with and without coconut flakes as a function of temperature Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de doces de leite puro e adicionado de flocos de coco em função da temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Camarinha Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dulce de leche (DL, a dairy dessert highly appreciated in Brazil, is a concentrated product containing about 70% m/m of total solids. Thermophysical and rheological properties of two industrial Brazilian Dulce de leche formulations (classic Dulce de leche and Dulce de leche added with coconut flakes 1.5% m/m were determined at temperatures comprised between 28.4 and 76.4 °C. In general, no significant differences (p Doce de leite é uma sobremesa láctea concentrada (cerca de 70% de sólidos muito apreciada no Brasil. Propriedades termofísicas e reológicas de duas formulações de doce de leite brasileiro (puro e adicionado de coco ralado a 1,5% em massa foram determinadas a temperaturas compreendidas entre 28,4 e 76,4 °C. No geral, a presença de flocos de coco não acarretou diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 nestas propriedades das duas formulações. A capacidade calorífica variou entre (2633,2 e 3101,8 J/kg.°C; a condutividade térmica entre (0,383 e 0,452 W/m°C; a massa específica entre (1350,7 e 1310,7 kg/m³; e enfim, a difusividade térmica entre (1,082 × 10-7 e 1,130 × 10-7 m²/s. O modelo de Bingham descreveu adequadamente o comportamento não Newtoniano dos dois produtos, com tensão crítica de escoamento variando entre (27,3 e 17,6 Pa e a viscosidade plástica de (19,9 a 5,9 Pa.s.

  6. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying : an instrumental and sensory evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white)

  7. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem ...

  8. Detection of pathogens associated with psyllids and leafhoppers in Capsicum annuum L. in the Mexican States of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2014, five to seventy-five percent of chili and bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) in commercial fields located in the Mexican states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán, had various symptoms of deformed, small, mosaic, curled, and chlorotic leaves, shortened internodes and plant dwar...

  9. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  10. Biocontrol of certain soilborne diseases and promotion of growth of capsicum annuum using biofungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, A.; Abdelbacki, A.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Colored pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has great economic importance as a food vegetable crop in Egypt and all over the world. This crop is prone to infection with soilborne fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These mycopathogens were isolated from diseased pepper seedlings, identified; their virulence was confirmed in the greenhouse. Eight bacterial isolates mainly; (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), and many fungal isolates mainly, (Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride), were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pepper. They caused appreciable In vitro inhibition of the radial growth of the 3 pathogens in dual culture technique, in percentages ranging from (71-79%) and (80-87%), respectively. On infestation of pepper soil with these bioagents and the 3 pathogens separately in the greenhouse, they caused In vivo reduction of disease symptoms of pepper compared with the pathogens infested and non-infested control soils. In addition, they caused significant improvement of pepper growth compared with the control soil, however, promotion exerted by B. subtilis and T. harzianum was more than that of P. fluorescens and T. viride. These promoting activities could be attributed to the production of metabolites such as growth hormones; solubilization of phosphates and improvement of nutrient uptake. This is the first record of promoting the growth of pepper in greenhouse by B. subtilis and T. harzianum in Egypt. Thus these bioagents could be formulated then applied in the future in pepper fields of this country as safe, effective, ecofriendly biofungicides to control soilborne pathogens and also could be used as biofertilizers to promote the growth and productivity of this crop. (author)

  11. Resposta de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1885 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae frente ao extrato de Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferreira da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso desenfreado de agrotóxicos vem a ser um caso de saúde pública, pois prejudica a saúde do trabalhador do campo assim como do consumidor final desses produtos. O Sitophilus zeamais é uma praga de armazenamento que ataca o milho, e no combate a essa praga comumente é utilizado produtos tóxicos. Visando essa problemática, a busca por produtos alternativos vem a ser um campo de investigação promissor, pois esse método de controle não gera resíduos para o homem tão pouco ao meio ambiente. O extrato utilizado para avaliar o potencial de repelência foi o de Capsicum annuum L. popularmente conhecido como pimentão. Os testes foram realizados com a utilização de arenas, onde em cada arena foram liberados 30 adultos de S. zeamais, não sexados e após 24 horas, foram registrados o número de insetos em cada recipiente. Os grãos de milho foram tratados com volume de extrato correspondente a 1,0% da massa de grãos, nas concentrações 0,0 (álcool 70%; 25,0; 50,0; 75,0 e 100,0% (volume de extrato/volume álcool. O experimento foi organizado segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado e constou de cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As maiores repelências foram observadas nas concentrações de 25% e 100%, repelindo 72 e 70% dos insetos respectivamente. Sendo assim a utilização desse extrato pode ser empregado no tratamento de sementes armazenadas, evitando assim uma maior infestação desses insetos, preservando assim a integridade física e fisiológica das sementes.

  12. Status Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Cabai Rawit (Capsicum Frutescens L. di Banjarangkan, Klungkung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Status of wilt disease in pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. at Banjarangkan, Klungkung. Wilt disease in pepper , has led to a total yield loss in Banjarangkan, Klungkung regency. Until now the disease was still a threat to farmers in the area pepper. The purpose of research to study the disease includes symptoms, causes disease, the percentage of the disease and the rate of infection (r. Research using existing observations of the disease in three plots of local farmers. Each plot the observed number of diseased plants and entire plants. Samples of diseased plants put in a plastic bag, then placed in an ice box , to be observed macroscopically in the laboratory. The study was conducted in two places, namely surveys Banjarangkan disease in Klungkung , and isolation of the pathogen as well as pathogenicity test carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Jl. PB Sudirman Denpasar-Bali. The research was conducted from June to November 2013. The results showed that the pathogen that causes wilt disease in pepper at Banjarangkan, Klungkung regency was the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, with the disease incidence was 76.67%. Fusarium wilt disease epidemic in pepper indicated by the rate of infection, first gained 0.44 per unit per day, then decreases with time, 0.23, 0.12 and 0.11 per unit per day respectively. The rate of infection ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 per unit per day, this means that the moderate criteria.

  13. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Properties of Hot Pepper Flower (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-09-01

    At present, the various medical treatments of obesity involve side effects. The aim of the research is therefore to find natural compounds that have anti-obesity activity with minimum disadvantages. In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from Capsicum annuum L. was examined through the evaluation of inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Phytochemical analysis indicated that total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract was 128.7 ± 4.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent/g of crude extract and 17.66 ± 0.11 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited pancreatic lipase with IC50 value equal to 3.54 ± 0.18 mg/ml. It also inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 value of 27.61 ± 2.25 μg/ml after 30 min of incubation and 41.69 ± 1.13 μg/ml after 60 min of incubation. The IC50 value of radical scavenging activity was 51.90 ± 2.03 μg/ml. The extract was also able to inhibit NO production (IC50 = of 264.3 ± 7.98 μg/ml) without showing any cytotoxic effect.

  14. Breeding of a hybrid capsicum variety 'Hangjiao-6' and its RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jinying; Han Xinyun; Xue Huai; Pan Yi; Zhang Chunhua; Liu Min; Liang Fang; Bao Wensheng

    2008-01-01

    Dry seeds of two capsicum landraces 'Tianshuiyangjiaojiao (TSYJJ)' and 'Tianshuiniujiaojiao (TSNJJ)' were carried by 'Shenzhou-3' spaceship. Two mutant lines '021-7-1' and '024-3-1' were selected after four generations of self-cross, respectively by crossing these two lines (021-7-1 as female and '024-3-1' as male), a new variety 'Hangjiao-6' was selected. Agronomic characteristics evaluation of Hangjiao-6 and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis were carried out on '021-7-1', '024-3-1', 'Hangjiao-6', 'TSYJJ' and 'TSNJJ'. Compared with the originals 'TSNJJ', the new line '024-3-1' was bigger fruit size, with a single fruit weight 52.4 g, increased by 12.7%. The new line '021-7-1' observed the increase of fruit number per plant, the average fruit number per plant reached 10.4, and increased by 25.3%. 'Hangjiao-6' has obvious heterosis in its fruit yield. 'Hangjiao-6', which shows early maturity, takes about 50 days from planting to harvest. The fruit is long sheep-horn shaped of 26.3 cm length, 3.68 cm in diameter, and 0.32 cm in flesh thickness. Average fruit weight is 51 g. The average yield is 41225.5 kg/hm 2 and showed strong disease resistance. By RAPD analysis, seven different fragments were amplified between the ground control 'TSNJJ' and the new line '024-3-1', and one different fragment was amplified between the ground control 'TSYJJ' and the new line '021-7-1'. 'Hangjiao-6 amplified the same fragments and the special fragments of the male and female parents, and also has the variant fragments from space mutation. (authors)

  15. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  16. Genetic variability of a Brazilian Capsicum frutescens germplasm collection using morphological characteristics and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S I C; Bianchetti, L B; Ragassi, C F; Ribeiro, C S C; Reifschneider, F J B; Buso, G S C; Faleiro, F G

    2017-07-06

    Characterization studies provide essential information for the conservation and use of germplasm in plant breeding programs. In this study, 103 Capsicum frutescens L. accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortaliças, representative of all five Brazilian geographic regions, were characterized based on morphological characteristics and microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat - SSR) molecular markers. Morphological characterization was carried out using 57 descriptors, and molecular characterization was based on 239 alleles from 24 microsatellite loci. From the estimates of genetic distances among accessions, based on molecular characterization, a cluster analysis was carried out, and a dendrogram was established. Correlations between morphological and molecular variables were also estimated. Twelve morphological descriptors were monomorphic for the set of C. frutescens accessions, and those with the highest degree of polymorphism were stem length (14.0 to 62.0 cm), stem diameter (1.0 to 4.2 cm), days to flowering (90 to 129), days to fruiting (100 to 140), fruit weight (0.1 to 1.4 g), fruit length (0.6 to 4.6 cm), and fruit wall thickness (0.25 to 1.5 mm). The polymorphism information content for the SSR loci varied from 0.36 (EPMS 417) to 0.75 (CA49), with an overall mean of 0.57. The correlation value between morphological and molecular characterization data was 0.6604, which was statistically significant. Fourteen accessions were described as belonging to the morphological type tabasco, 85 were described as malagueta, and four were malaguetinha, a morphological type confirmed in this study. The typical morphological pattern of malagueta was described. Six similarity groups were established for C. frutescens based on the dendrogram and are discussed individually. The genetic variability analyzed in the study highlights the importance of characterizing genetic resources available for the development of new C. frutescens cultivars with the potential

  17. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  18. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  19. Adição de soro de leite e café na qualidade do doce de leite pastoso Addition of whey and coffe in the quality of dulce de leche paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Oliveira Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da substituição de leite por soro de leite e o efeito da adição de café na qualidade química e sensorial do doce de leite. Foi utilizado um fatorial completo 2², com dois níveis (±1 com a adição de três pontos centrais (0 e dois níveis de pontos axiais (±1,41. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados pela metodologia estatística de superfície de resposta e os dados do teste de aceitação foram analisados pela metodologia de mapa de preferência. Os resultados indicaram que o aumento da concentração de soro de leite aumentou o teor de umidade e diminuiu o teor de proteína e de gordura. A adição de café alterou somente a umidade dos doces. A análise da superfície de resposta para a composição dos doces mostrou que o teor máximo de substituição de leite por soro para se fabricar doce de leite seria de 37%. Pelo mapa de preferência, observou-se que os doces preferidos pelos consumidores foram os da formulação 1 e 2. O fator determinante na escolha dos doces foi a concentração de café, visto que os consumidores optaram pelas amostras com baixas concentrações de café independente da concentração de soro, possibilitando com isso a utilização do soro de leite e do café na fabricação do doce de leite, obtendo assim um novo produto.This research was carried out with the objective to verify the effect of substitution of milk for whey and the addition effect of coffee in the quality chemical and sensory of dulce de leche. A full factorial was used 2², with two levels (± 1 with the addition of three central points (0 and two levels of axial points (±1.41. The data were analyzed by statistical methodology of response surface and the data obtained with the acceptance testing was assessed using preference mapping. The results indicated that the increased concentration of whey increased the moisture content and yield of sweet and decreased protein and

  20. The transfer of natural Rhodamine B contamination from raw paprika fruit to capsicum oleoresin during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Lian, Yunhe; Du, Jingjing; Tie, Xiaowei

    2017-12-15

    Occurrence of Rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in paprika caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process has been reported. It may transfer during the process of active compounds extraction, and eventually exist in final products. Herein, the re-distribution of RhB during the extraction process was assessed in terms of RhB contents, as well as mass, color value and capsaicinoids yield of each process. Results revealed that natural RhB contamination at 0.55-1.11µg/kg originated from raw paprika fruit then transferred with the extraction proceeded. About 95.5% of RhB was found in red oleoresin. After separation of red oleoresin, 91.6% of RhB was remained in capsicum oleoresin, only 3.7% in paprika red. These results were consistent with total capsaicinoids recovery of each product. The RhB levels in edible capsicum oleoresin in our present study at 0.01-0.34µg/kg did not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) regulates hypersensitive response and defense response upon Tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher ( 2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  3. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

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    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  4. Variability among Capsicum baccatum accessions from Goiás, Brazil, assessed by morphological traits and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A L A; Araújo, J S P; Ragassi, C F; Buso, G S C; Reifschneider, F J B

    2017-07-06

    Capsicum peppers are native to the Americas, with Brazil being a significant diversity center. Capsicum baccatum accessions at Instituto Federal (IF) Goiano represent a portion of the species genetic resources from central Brazil. We aimed to characterize a C. baccatum working collection comprising 27 accessions and 3 commercial cultivars using morphological traits and molecular markers to describe its genetic and morphological variability and verify the occurrence of duplicates. This set included 1 C. baccatum var. praetermissum and 29 C. baccatum var. pendulum with potential for use in breeding programs. Twenty-two morphological descriptors, 57 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used. Genetic distance was calculated through the Jaccard similarity index and genetic variability through cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, resulting in dendrograms for both morphological analysis and molecular analysis. Genetic variability was found among C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions, and the distinction between the two C. baccatum varieties was evident in both the morphological and molecular analyses. The 29 C. baccatum var. pendulum genotypes clustered in four groups according to fruit type in the morphological analysis. They formed seven groups in the molecular analysis, without a clear correspondence with morphology. No duplicates were found. The results describe the genetic and morphological variability, provide a detailed characterization of genotypes, and discard the possibility of duplicates within the IF Goiano C. baccatum L. collection. This study will foment the use of this germplasm collection in C. baccatum breeding programs.

  5. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Akbar, M.; Shaukat, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  6. Dietary Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins increase intestinal microbiome and necrotic enteritis in three commercial broiler breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Hong, Yeong Ho; Kim, Geun Bae; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David M

    2015-10-01

    Three commercial broiler breeds were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with Capsicum and Curcuma longa oleoresins, and co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis (NE). Pyrotag deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA showed that gut microbiota compositions were quite distinct depending on the broiler breed type. In the absence of oleoresin diet, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was decreased in infected Cobb, and increased in Ross and Hubbard, compared with the uninfected. In the absence of oleoresin diet, all chicken breeds had a decreased Candidatus Arthromitus, while the proportion of Lactobacillus was increased in Cobb, but decreased in Hubbard and Ross. Oleoresin supplementation of infected chickens increased OTUs in Cobb and Ross, but decreased OTUs in Hubbard, compared with unsupplemented/infected controls. Oleoresin supplementation of infected Cobb and Hubbard was associated with an increased percentage of gut Lactobacillus and decreased Selenihalanaerobacter, while Ross had a decreased fraction of Lactobacillus and increased Selenihalanaerobacter, Clostridium, Calothrix, and Geitlerinema. These results suggest that dietary Capsicum/Curcuma oleoresins reduced the negative consequences of NE on body weight and intestinal lesion, in part, through alteration of the gut microbiome in 3 commercial broiler breeds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Bioengineering of the Plant Culture of Capsicum frutescens with Vanillin Synthase Gene for the Production of Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Marcus Jenn Yang; Lycett, Grantley W; Khoo, Teng-Jin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-01-01

    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.

  8. Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, James; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Richins, Richard D; Arcos, Juan Manuel Garcia; Victorino, Jesus; O'Connell, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    The fruits of Capsicum spp. are especially rich sites for carotenoid synthesis and accumulation, with cultivar-specific carotenoid accumulation profiles. Differences in chromoplast structure as well as carotenoid biosynthesis are correlated with distinct carotenoid accumulations and fruit color. In the present study, the inheritance of chromoplast shape, carotenoid accumulation profiles, and transcript levels of four genes were measured. Comparisons of these traits were conducted using fruit from contrasting variants, Costeño Amarillo versus Costeño Red, and from F1 hybrids; crosses between parental lines with novel versions of these traits. Intermediate chromoplast shapes were observed in the F1, but no association between specific carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast shape was detected. Increased total carotenoid content was associated with increased β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Transcript levels for phytoene synthase (Psy) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ-2) were positively correlated with increased levels of specific carotenoids. No correlation was detected between transcript levels of capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) and carotenoid composition or chromoplast shape. Transcript levels of fibrillin, were differentially correlated with specific carotenoids, negatively correlated with accumulation of capsanthin, and positively correlated with violaxanthin. The regulation of carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts in Capsicum fruit continues to be a complex process with multiple steps for control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Gene-Specific Polymorphisms and Association with Capsaicin Pathway Metabolites in Capsicum annuum L. Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abburi, Venkata L.; Alaparthi, Suresh Babu; Unselt, Desiree; Hankins, Gerald; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important crop with added nutritional value. Production of capsaicin is an important quantitative trait with high environmental variance, so the development of markers regulating capsaicinoid accumulation is important for pepper breeding programs. In this study, we performed association mapping at the gene level to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with capsaicin pathway metabolites in a diverse Capsicum annuum collection during two seasons. The genes Pun1, CCR, KAS and HCT were sequenced and matched with the whole-genome sequence draft of pepper to identify SNP locations and for further characterization. The identified SNPs for each gene underwent candidate gene association mapping. Association mapping results revealed Pun1 as a key regulator of major metabolites in the capsaicin pathway mainly affecting capsaicinoids and precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids. Six different SNPs in the promoter sequence of Pun1 were found associated with capsaicin in plants from both seasons. Our results support that CCR is an important control point for the flux of p-coumaric acid to specific biosynthesis pathways. KAS was found to regulate the major precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids and may play a key role in capsaicinoid production. Candidate gene association mapping of Pun1 suggested that the accumulation of capsaicinoids depends on the expression of Pun1, as revealed by the most important associated SNPs found in the promoter region of Pun1. PMID:24475113

  10. Extraction and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin using an aqueous two-phase system combined with chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Lu, Yan-Min; Yu, Bin; Tan, Cong-Ping; Cui, Bo

    2017-09-15

    Capsaicin was extracted from capsicum oleoresin using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of an ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer, salt and ethanol. Capsaicin was concentrated in the top polymer-rich phase. To determine the optimal conditions, the partitioning of capsaicin in the ATPS was investigated, considering a single-factor experiment including the salt concentration, polymer concentration, buffer pH, ethanol concentration, sample loading and extraction duration. Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effects of the polymer concentration, buffer pH and sample loading on capsaicin partitioning. A capsaicin yield of 95.5% was obtained using the optimal extraction system, which consisted of 16.3% UCON 50-HB-5100/10% K 2 HPO 4 /1% ethanol, a buffer pH of 4.35 and 0.24g of capsicum oleoresin. Capsaicin was purified from the capsaicinoid extract using a two-step macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) method. After purification using non-polar MAR ADS-17, the recovery and purity of capsaicin were 83.7% and 50.3%, respectively. After purification using weakly polar MAR AB-8, the recovery and purity of capsaicin were 88.0% and 85.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Characterization of Volatile Compounds in the Essential Oil of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta Risso Caracterización de Compuestos Volátiles en Aceite esencial de Lima Dulce (Citrus limetta Risso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Colecio-Juárez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of citrus fruit contains components pleasant sensory characteristics that are appreciated in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. In the case of sweet lime (Citrus limetta Risso, is necessary to characterize the essential oil components, to identify potential uses of this fruit. The essential oil of sweet lime was obtained from lime flavedo in four different maturation stages. Steam distillation was employed and then compared with hexane extraction. The identification of the components in the essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A total of 46 components were found in the essence of lime, among which the highest concentration of compounds present were aldehydes such as limonene. Linalool, sabinene, and bergamol were more abundant than in other varieties. The best extraction method was steam distillation, and the concentrations in stage III from the main terpenic portion were d-limonene with 74.4%, bergamol with 8.23%, and β-pinene with 7.62%.El aceite esencial de frutos cítricos contiene componentes de características sensoriales agradables que son apreciadas en las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y de cosméticos. En el caso de la lima dulce (Citrus limetta Risso, es necesaria la caracterización de los componentes de su aceite esencial para identificar usos potenciales de este fruto. El aceite esencial de lima dulce se obtuvo a partir del flavedo de lima en cuatro etapas de maduración diferentes. Se utilizó destilación por arrastre de vapor y se comparó con la extracción con hexano. La identificación de los componentes en el aceite esencial se realizó por cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Se encontró un total de 46 componentes en el aceite esencial de lima, entre los cuales la mayor concentración de compuestos presentes son aldehídos como el limoneno. Linalol, sabineno y bergamol fueron más abundantes que en otras variedades. El mejor m

  12. Efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en las propiedades físicas y la actividad de deshidrogenasas en suelos cultivados con maíz dulce (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez Castillo Magda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en algunas propiedades físicas y en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas en un Entic dystropept y en un Fluventic haplustoll del Valle de Cauca, Colombia. Para suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo de maíz dulce (Zea mays L. se utilizaron seis tratamientos (T1 = 100% de K+ como vinaza, T2 = 100% de K+ con KCl; T3 = 50% de K+ como vinaza y KCl, T4 = 75% de K+ con vinaza y 25% de K+ como KCl, T5 = testigo absoluto sin planta, T6 = testigo más planta que fueron dispuestos en un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. En el Entic dystropept la densidad aparente disminuyó y en consecuencia la porosidad total aumentó, mientras que en el Fluventic haplustoll sucedió lo contrario. La actividad de las deshidrogenasas fue significativamente mayor (P < 0.05 en el Entic dystropept que en el Fluventic haplustoll que presentó valores bajos. Los resultados mostraron que los cambios que se generan como producto de la aplicación de vinazas son diferentes para ambos tipo de suelo.

  13. Efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en las propiedades físicas y la actividad de deshidrogenasas en suelos cultivados con maíz dulce (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Narváez Castillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en algunas propiedades físicas y en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas en un Entic dystropept y en un Fluventic haplustoll del Valle de Cauca, Colombia. Para suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo de maíz dulce (Zea mays L. se utilizaron seis tratamientos (T1 = 100% de K+ como vinaza, T2 = 100% de K+ con KCl; T3 = 50% de K+ como vinaza y KCl, T4 = 75% de K+ con vinaza y 25% de K+ como KCl, T5 = testigo absoluto sin planta, T6 = testigo más planta que fueron dispuestos en un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. En el Entic dystropept la densidad aparente disminuyó y en consecuencia la porosidad total aumentó, mientras que en el Fluventic haplustoll sucedió lo contrario. La actividad de las deshidrogenasas fue significativamente mayor (P < 0.05 en el Entic dystropept que en el Fluventic haplustoll que presentó valores bajos. Los resultados mostraron que los cambios que se generan como producto de la aplicación de vinazas son diferentes para ambos tipo de suelo.

  14. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO{sub 4}, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol [ripe (113.7mg/100g), unripe (70.5mg/100g)] content and ferric reducing antioxidant property than the unripe pepper. However, there was no significant difference in the vitamin C [ripe (231.5{mu}g/g), unripe (224.4{mu}g/g)] content and Fe (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the pepper extracts caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in 25{mu}M Fe(II), 7{mu}M Sodium Nitroprusside and 1mM Quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the Rat's brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ripe pepper inhibited MDA (Malondialdehyhide) production in the Rat's brain than the unripe pepper. Conversely, both extract did not significantly inhibit Fe (II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe

  15. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Góngora-Castillo Elsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery, has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV. Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock, symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the

  16. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern) was further supported by the pattern of spatial population structure. Conclusions

  17. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes

  18. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2015-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of pepper fruit is characterized by an enhancement of S

  19. Variabilidade em população base de pimenteiras ornamentais (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João José da Silva Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar progênies de uma população base de pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas 54 plantas de uma geração F2 de pimenteiras ornamentais, para se avaliarem os seguintes caracteres morfoagronômicos: altura da planta (AP, diâmetro da copa (DDC, altura da primeira bifurcação (APB, diâmetro do caule (DCL, comprimento da folha (CFL, largura da folha (LFL, comprimento da corola (CDC, comprimento de antera (CANT, comprimento do estilete (CES e largura da pétala (LAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância, com posterior agrupamento das médias para o teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,01. Com exceção do CANT, verificaram-se diferenças significativas para os demais descritores, pelo Teste F. O DCL foi o descritor com maior herdabilidade (99,49%, seguido de DDC (96,14% e APB (94,05%. O caractere DCL apresentou maior variabilidade entre as plantas, formando 13 classes, seguido de DDC, com oito e APB, com seis classes. Quando se utilizaram as técnicas multivariadas, foi possível agrupar as 54 plantas em oito grupos, sendo o grupo 1 o que reuniu maior número de plantas (35. A característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência genética foi o diâmetro do caule (68,97%, seguida pelo diâmetro da copa (9,22%, altura da primeira bifurcação (6,76% e altura da planta (4,58%. Já as características de flor foram as que menos contribuíram para a variabilidade (10,47%. Houve variabilidade entre as plantas estudadas, sendo possível praticar seleção dentro dessa família, dando continuidade ao Programa de Melhoramento de Pimenteiras.

  20. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

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    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  1. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  2. [Study on ethnic medicine quantitative reference herb,Tibetan medicine fruits of Capsicum frutescens as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Cui, Gan; Guo, Li-Nong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    High price and difficult to get of reference substance have become obstacles to HPLC assay of ethnic medicine. A new method based on quantitative reference herb (QRH) was proposed. Specific chromatograms in fruits of Capsicum frutescens were employed to determine peak positions, and HPLC quantitative reference herb was prepared from fruits of C. frutescens. The content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the quantitative control herb was determined by HPLC. Eleven batches of fruits of C. frutescens were analyzed with quantitative reference herb and reference substance respectively. The results showed no difference. The present method is feasible for quality control of ethnic medicines and quantitative reference herb is suitable to replace reference substances in assay. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  4. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiological and biochemical properties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Alpas, Hami

    2015-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology, which also has several successful applications in different areas besides food processing. In this study, Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) seeds are subjected to 50, 100, 200 and 300 MPa pressure for 5 min at 25°C and the seedlings of HHP processed seeds are used to compare percentage of seed germination and biochemical properties such as chlorophyll a, b and a/b, proline content, total protein, carotenoid, malondialdehyde, glucose, fructose and phenolic compounds concentrations. As a result of the study, it was observed that there are remarkable changes in terms of biochemical properties especially for seedlings, whose seeds were pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa. More detailed studies are needed to put forward the mechanism behind the changes in biochemical properties.

  5. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum (L.) with Rhizobium strains. 1. Effect on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important agricultural crop and an excellent dietary source of natural colors and antioxidant compounds. The levels of these compounds can vary according to agricultural practices, like inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this work we evaluated for the first time the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on C. annuum metabolites and bioactivity. The results revealed a decrease of organic acids and no effect on phenolics and capsaicinoids of leaves from inoculated plants. In the fruits from inoculated plants organic acids and phenolic compounds decreased, showing that fruits from inoculated plants present a higher ripeness stage than those from uninoculated ones. In general, the inoculation with Rhizobium did not improve the antioxidant activity of pepper fruits and leaves. Considering the positive effect on fruit ripening, the inoculation of C. annuum with Rhizobium is a beneficious agricultural practice for this nonlegume.

  6. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

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    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  7. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

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    Xue Lin B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development.

  8. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  9. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development. PMID:22018057

  10. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Race Characterization of Phytophthora root rot on Capsicum in Taiwan as a Basis for Anticipatory Resistance Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenger, Derek W; Sheu, Zong-Ming; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Shih-Wen; Burlakoti, Rishi R; Bosland, Paul W

    2018-02-27

    Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization. As a basis to develop a global anticipatory breeding program, New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines (NMRILs) functioned as a host differential for Phytophthora root rot to characterize the race structure of P. capsici populations in Taiwan. Using the NMRILs, 24 new races were identified, illustrating the utility and usefulness of the NMRILs for anticipatory breeding. Virulence of P. capsici was observed to be geographically specific and in two virulence clusters. Interestingly, all but two isolates collected in 2016 were the A2 mating type, which is a shift from the predominantly A1 mating type isolates collected prior to 2008. The NMRILs host differential provides an approach for scientists to work together on a global scale when breeding for resistance as well as on a local level for regional gene deployment. Additionally, we propose that the current race numbering system, which has no biological meaning, be supplemented with the virulence phenotype, based on the susceptible NMRILs to a given isolate. This work provides insights into the population dynamics of P. capsici and interactions within the highly complex Capsicum-Phytophthora pathosystem, and offers a basis for similar research in other crops.

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  13. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  14. Baseline study of morphometric traits of wild Capsicum annuum growing near two biosphere reserves in the Peninsula of Baja California for future conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-05-10

    Despite the ecological and socioeconomic importance of wild Capsicum annuum L., few investigations have been carried out to study basic characteristics. The peninsula of Baja California has a unique characteristic that it provides a high degree of isolation for the development of unique highly diverse endemic populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the growth type, associated vegetation, morphometric traits in plants, in fruits and mineral content of roots, stems and leaves of three wild populations of Capsicum in Baja California, Mexico, near biosphere reserves. The results showed that the majority of plants of wild Capsicum annuum have a shrub growth type and were associated with communities consisting of 43 species of 20 families the most representative being Fabaceae, Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Significant differences between populations were found in plant height, main stem diameter, beginning of canopy, leaf area, leaf average and maximum width, stems and roots dry weights. Coverage, leaf length and dry weight did not show differences. Potassium, sodium and zinc showed significant differences between populations in their roots, stems and leaves, while magnesium and manganese showed significant differences only in roots and stems, iron in stems and leaves, calcium in roots and leaves and phosphorus did not show differences. Average fruit weight, length, 100 fruits dry weight, 100 fruits pulp dry weight and pulp/seeds ratio showed significant differences between populations, while fruit number, average fruit fresh weight, peduncle length, fruit width, seeds per fruit and seed dry weight, did not show differences. We concluded that this study of traits of wild Capsicum, provides useful information of morphometric variation between wild populations that will be of value for future decision processes involved in the management and preservation of germplasm and genetic resources.

  15. Application and bioactive properties of CaTI, a trypsin inhibitor from Capsicum annuum seeds: membrane permeabilization, oxidative stress and intracellular target in phytopathogenic fungi cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marciele S; Ribeiro, Suzanna Ff; Taveira, Gabriel B; Rodrigues, Rosana; Fernandes, Katia Vs; Carvalho, André O; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Mello, Erica Oliveira; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2017-08-01

    During the last few years, a growing number of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds. Recent results from our laboratory have shown the purification of a new trypsin inhibitor, named CaTI, from chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of CaTI on phytopathogenic fungi and detect the presence of protease inhibitors in other species of this genus. Our results show that CaTI can inhibit the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. lindemuthianum. CaTI can also permeabilize the membrane of all tested fungi. When testing the inhibitor on its ability to induce reactive oxygen species, an induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) particularly in Fusarium species was observed. Using CaTI coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it was possible to determine the presence of the inhibitor inside the hyphae of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The search for protease inhibitors in other Capsicum species revealed their presence in all tested species. This paper shows the antifungal activity of protease inhibitors such as CaTI against phytopathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial peptides, among which the trypsin protease inhibitor family stands out, are present in different species of the genus Capsicum and are part of the chemical arsenal that plants use to defend themselves against pathogens. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Efecto de gelificantes en la formulación de dulce de yacón Efeito de gelificante na formulação do doce do yacon

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    Silvina Maldonado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius es un tubérculo andino cultivado en las laderas de los Andes. Es una planta perenne que llega a su madurez entre 6-7 meses hasta 1 año, según la altura sobre el nivel del mar. Este trabajo propone la formulación de un producto alimenticio a partir de yacón por agregado de solutos: glucosa y sacarosa y combinación de barreras de estrés. Se estudió el efecto de gelificantes: agar-agar, pectina y goma arábiga, en tres concentraciones: 0,30, 0,41 y 0,48%. Se agregó benzoato de sodio, metabisulfito de sodio y ácido cítrico. Se desarrolló un dulce tipo pan. Se registró la evolución de temperatura durante la cocción. Se empacó y envasó el dulce en bandejas. Se analizaron parámetros de textura principales y secundarios. La formulación que alcanzó valores de textura similares a la referencia fue: 0,48% de agar-agar; 12% de sacarosa; 17% de glucosa; 23% de agua; 996,75 ppm de metabisulfito; 498,50 ppm de ácido cítrico y 1435,7 ppm de benzoato de sodio. Se realizó una prueba sensorial a través de la evaluación de los parámetros más representativos de la textura, utilizando para ello una escala hedónica, determinando la aceptación de la formulación seleccionada.O yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius é um tubérculo andino cultivado nas encostas Dos Andes. É uma planta perene que chega a sua maduração entre 6 meses e 1 ano. Este trabalho propõe a formulação de um produto alimentício a partir do yacón agregando solutos: glicose, sacarose e combinação de barreiras de estresse. Estudou-se o efeito de gelificantes: ágar-ágar e arábica, em três concentrações 0.30, 0.41 e 0.48%. Agregou-se benzoato de sódio, metabisulfito de sódio, e ácido cítrico. Desenvolveu-se um doce tipo pão. Registrou-se a evolução da temperatura durate cozimento. Empacotou-se e envasou-se o doce em bandejas. Analisaram-se parâmetros de textura principais e secundários. A formulação que atingiu os

  17. Efecto de los metales sobre microcrustáceos de agua dulce. Avances metodológicos y potencialidad de cladóceros y copépodos como organismos test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gutierrez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de los metales en los cuerpos de agua dulce a causa de las actividades antropogénicas genera importantes alteraciones sobre la biota. Esta revisión analiza los efectos adversos de varios metales de relevancia ecotoxicológica sobre los microcrustáceos zooplanctónicos (cladóceros y copépodos, los avances experimentales en esta línea y las ventajas de cada grupo como organismos test. En general, la necesidad de obtener indicadores más sensibles y representativos que los tradicionales, promovió lineamientos hacia estudios subcrónicos, interspecíficos y multigeneracionales. Por otra parte, la tendencia actual hacia el estudio de mezclas de sustancias y los efectos indirectos permite adquirir una visión más integral del problema. El impacto sobre las poblaciones es muy variable, dependiendo de la naturaleza del metal, las características del medio, el tiempo de exposición, las condiciones de cultivo y aspectos genéticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los trabajos se centran en pocas especies, dejando vacancias en el conocimiento de las representantes de cada región particular. Si bien algunos atributos de los cladóceros y copépodos como el tamaño, la morfología y el rol ecológico los tornan buenos indicadores, las diferencias en el desarrollo, reproducción y estrategias de perpetuación confieren ventajas a un grupo sobre otro.

  18. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

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    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  19. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

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    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  20. After-Ripening of Red Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) as Affected by Ionizing Radiation; Effets des Rayonnements Ionisants sur le Murissement du Piment (Capsicum Annuum) Apres la Recolte; Vliyanie ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya na dozrevanie krasnogo pertsa (Capsicum Annuum); Efecto de las Radiaciones Ionizantes en la Postmaturacion del Pimiento Rojo (Capsicum Annuum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.; Kiss, I.; Andrassy, Eva [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1966-11-15

    duree de la maturation apres la recolte et augmente la teneur en pigments. Il serait necessaire de poursuivre les recherches afin de determiner les conditions d'emmagasinage les plus favorables a La maturation du piment apres la recolte ainsi que les causes de la diminution de la teneur en carotenoiedes de fruits irradies au cours de la deuxieme moitie de la periode de stockage. (author) [Spanish] Se ha investigado el efecto directo de los rayos X, en dosis de 0 a 800 krad, sobre pimientos rojos dulces iecien recolectados, y sobre la postmaturacion de estos pimientos, en dosis de 0 a 100 krad. La irradiacion entre 400 y 800 krad causo el ablandamiento del pericarpo, pero el contenido de carotenoides no disminuyo apreciablemente incluso a dosis de 800 krad. Durante un periodo de almacenamiento de nueve semanas a la temperatura ambiente y despues de la irradiacion, se observo en las muestras no tratadas un aumento de un 90fy del contenido total de pigmentos, expresado en capsantina. La formacion de pigmentos carotenoides presento una ligera aceleracion para dosis de 80 rad y una fuerte aceleracion para dosis de 2 krad. Las muestras tratadas con 2 krad alcanzaron en tres semanas el mismo contenido de pigmentos que las muestras testigo en ocho semanas. En cambio, el contenido de pigmentos de las muestras irradiadas disminuyo al cabo de la cuarta o quinta semana de almacenamiento. Las dosis superiores a 10 krad frenaron o impidieron la formacion de carotenoides durante el almacenamiento (postmaturacion). La disminucion del contenido de.azucares y el ritmo de desecacion permanecieron invariables para dosis de 0 a 100 krad. Como las dosis de radiaciones (varios centenares de kilorad) necesarias para impedir o inhibir en medida apreciable el desarrollo de los mohos causantes de la deterioracion del pimiento rojo de gran contenido de agua tienen efectos perjudiciales, no parece aconsejable el empleo de las radiaciones para reducir las perdidas por almacenamiento en los pimientos

  1. ANÁLISIS INTERNO DE LAS COOPERATIVAS AGROALIMENTARIAS CATALANAS DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA: LOS SECTORES DEL ACEITE Y LA FRUTA DULCE / INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF CATALAN AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES SINCE A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: THE OIL OLIVE SECTOR AND THE SWEET FRUIT SECTOR

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    Eduard CRISTÓBAL FRANSI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Para poder formular estrategias y llevar a cabo actuaciones que permitan mejorar la posición competitiva de las cooperativas, es necesario realizar un análisis de las mismas. Las cooperativas agrarias, al igual que el resto de empresas, también están sometidas a cambios y por ello es necesario conocer sus puntos fuertes y débiles con la finalidad de detectar tanto oportunidades como amenazas. Hasta ahora el objetivo principal de las cooperativas ha estado el de la comercialización de los productos. Sin embargo, la nueva situación socioeconómica plantea la necesidad de que dichas entidades asuman nuevos objetivos, tales como la mejora de la calidad y la conservación del medio ambiente, nuevas estrategias de ventas, diversificación de la producción, etc. En el presente artículo se analizan las características generales del sector cooperativo en Cataluña para ver en que grado dicho sector tiene protagonismo en las fases posteriores a la producción. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio comparativo basándose en diferentes aspectos de la estructura interna tanto de las cooperativas de fruta dulce como de las cooperativas de aceite. / With the aim to develop strategies that allow improving the cooperatives competitive position, is necessary to realize an analysis of these organizations. Agricultural cooperatives, as the rest of business, are affected for changes. Thus it is necessary to know his strong and weak points with the purpose to detect as their opportunities as their threats. Until now the main objective of the cooperatives has been the products commercialization. However, the new socioeconomic situation poses the need that these organizations assume new objectives, such as the quality improvement, the environment conservation, new sales strategies, production diversification, etc. This present paper analyses the general characteristics of the cooperative sector in Catalonia with the aim to see which degree of prominence has

  2. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

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    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  3. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

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    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  4. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

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    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  5. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  6. Evaluation of a New Mexico Landrace and Two Commercial Chile (Capsicum annuum Cultivars under Four Furrow Irrigation Schedules

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    Israel Joukhadar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial and landrace chile (Capsicum annuum cultivars are cultivated under furrow irrigation systems in Northern New Mexico. Yield and physiological differences between commercial and landrace chile cultivars under furrow irrigation systems have not been evaluated. In 2011 and 2012 two commercial chiles, ‘Sandia’ and ‘NuMex Big Jim’, with one landrace chile, ‘Chimayo’, were evaluated under four irrigation schedules, with irrigation once every 7, 9, 11, and 13-days. These four schedules represent possible water availability for farmers in Northern New Mexico. In 2011 there were inconsistent yield patterns; fresh red chile yield of ‘Chimayo’ at the seven-day interval was 90% more than at the nine-day interval. ‘Sandia’ had 138% better yields at the seven- than at the nine-day interval. ‘Chimayo’ fresh green chile yields at the nine-day interval were 47% better than the seven-day interval. ‘NuMex Big Jim’ fresh green yields were 40% greater at the seven-day interval than the 13-day interval. In 2012 no yield components were statistically different for cultivars across irrigation intervals. This data shows commercial green and landrace chile cultivars can be furrow irrigated as water becomes available on 7, 9, 11, or 13-day intervals with no yield effect.

  7. Reduction of aflatoxins in dundi-cut whole red chillies (capsicum indicum)by manual sorting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Asghar, M.A.; Ahmed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Shamsuddin, Z.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dundi-cut whole red chillies (Capsicum indicum) are the most revenue- generating commodity of Pakistan. Accordingly, the competence and magnitude of manual hand-picked sorting of red chillies on the reduction of total aflatoxins (AFs) content were assessed during the present study. AFs contents were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. On the basis of AFs content, red chilli samples were grouped as Group A with 1 to 20 mu g/kg, Group B with 20 to 30?g/kg, Group C with 30-100?g/kg and Group D quality samples with 100 to 150g/kg. Physically identified defects including midget/dwarfed, damaged, broken, dusty and dirty were looked for and such pods were removed. A reduction of 90-100% of AFs was achieved in Group A, 65-80% in B, 65-75% in C and 70% in D quality samples. An average of 78% reduction in AFs content was achieved. Hence, the non-destructive physical hand-picked sorting of red chillies can be applied as a rapid, safe and cost effective method for the reduction of AFs content in red chillies with preserved nutritional values. (author)

  8. Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during a dry season in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.

  9. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

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    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  10. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  11. The effects of cellulase on capsaicin production in freely suspended cells and immobilized cell cultures of capsicum annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islek, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of cellulase on the production of capsaicin in freely suspended cell and immobilized cell cultures of Kahramanmara pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) were studied. Calluses were obtained from in vitro germinated hypocotyl explants of pepper seedlings and cell suspensions were prepared from these calluses. Immobilized cell suspension cultures with calcium alginate and free cell suspension cultures were obtained by using cell suspensions. Elicitor such as cellulase (5-30 micro g/ml), was applied both for the free and immobilized cell suspensions and control group without elicitor was prepared. The concentration of capsaicin in freely suspended cells, immobilized cells and their filtrates were identified by HPLC after extraction with ethyl acetate. It was found that the immobilization process had an increasing effect on the capsaicin accumulation. The concentration of capsaicin in the immobilized cells for both control groups and elicitor added samples was higher than the free cells. In general, capsaicin concentration in the filtrate for free cells was higher than the immobilized cells. When all the cellulase and the sampling hours were compared, the highest capsaicin concentration for the immobilized cells was determined as 362,91 micro g/ml f.w. at the 24th hour for 30 micro g/ml cellulase applied samples. (author)

  12. Effect of four growth-promoting rhizobacteria on crown blight caused by Phytophthora capsici in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crown blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is the most important disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the world and causes great economic losses in Costa Rica. Alternatives to chemical control against this disease are crucial to prevent damage to human health and the environment. The antagonism of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on P. capsici, and its ability to reduce wilt in pepper plants were evaluated. PGPR strains previously isolated from sugarcane and rice were identified, using 16S RNA gene sequence, as Pseudomonas fluorescens PC4, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila PC9, Pseudomonas fragi PC11 and Azospirillum lipoferum PCJ2. The inhibition of P. capcisi growth was evaluated in vitro, in the presence of the PGPR. The effect of the four bacterial strains on pepper plants inoculated with P. capsici (100 zoospores.plant-1 was evaluated in the greenhouse. P. fluorescens PC4, S. rhizophila PC9 and A. lipoferum PCJ2, inhibited in vitro growth of the oomycete by 54%, 30% and 50 % respectively, while S. rhizophila PC9 increased by 14% shoot fresh weight of pepper plants at the greenhouse. Furthermore, PCJ2 and PC9 strains reduced the shoot and root severity of the disease, and PCJ2-inoculated plants showed no symptoms at all, indicating that PC9 and PCJ2 are promising rizobacteria for the control of crown blight in pepper.

  13. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides in the management of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Mariana O; Oliveira, José V; Esteves Filho, Alberto B; Barbosa, Douglas Rs; Santos, Andrezo A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects is of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. In this study, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L. and other crops. Abamectin had the highest lethal effect on P. latus, followed by spiromesifen, azadirachtin, neem oil and nitrogen fertiliser + citric acid. The sublethal effects of the products were indicated by the influence on mite population growth, affecting the numbers of females, males, larvae, pupae and eggs. Furthermore, a negative instantaneous rate of increase in P. latus and repellent effects were observed. The lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spiromesifen, azadirachtin and neem oil significantly affect P. latus population growth, as well as causing repellence to this mite on C. annuum, and they should be considered in the integrated pest management of this mite. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Foliar spray with vermiwash modifies the Arbuscular mycorrhizal dependency and nutrient stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum.

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    Mohammad Haneef Khan

    Full Text Available Vermiwash (VW, a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth.

  15. Effect of natural biostimulants on yield and nutritional quality: an example of sweet yellow pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parađiković, Nada; Vinković, Tomislav; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Žuntar, Irena; Bojić, Mirza; Medić-Šarić, Marica

    2011-09-01

    Modifications in growing techniques can affect the yield and nutritional quality of various cultivated plant species. Owing to its high nutritional value, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was used in this study as a model plant to investigate the effect of natural biostimulants on yield and fruit quality parameters under conditions of reduced fertilisation. A positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed. The overall increase in the pigment content of leaves after biostimulant application agreed well with the higher total and commercial yields of treated pepper cultivars compared with their controls. The results showed that natural biostimulants had a positive effect on the vitamin C and total phenolic contents in pepper fruits during the hot summer season. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (P hydroponically. Thus the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Changes in antioxidant and biochemical activities in castor oil-coated Capsicum annuum L. during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Jitendriya; Patel, Mansi; Patel, Niyati; Gheewala, Bhumi; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-06-01

    This study, for the first time, evaluates the efficiency of castor oil when used as an external coating on Capsicum annuum L., to increase postharvest storage-life at 4 ± 1 °C. The castor oil-coated fruits were successfully stored for 36 days, while the non-coated fruits could only sustain for 18 days. Throughout the storage period (at 9-day intervals), different antioxidants and biochemical assays (allied with storage) such as titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total sugar estimation, and enzymatic study of polyphenol oxidase and pectate lyase, were assessed. During storage, the castor oil-coated fruits showed a substantial decrease in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, including antioxidant activities such as reducing power and DPPH activity; however, an increase in ferrous ion chelating activity, total soluble sugar content, polyphenol oxidase activity and initial pectate lyase activity was observed, in contrast to that of the non-coated fruits. The application of castor oil proved to be effective in delaying the ripening process of fruits during storage.

  17. Preparative separation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from Capsicum frutescens by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihua; Ye, Haoyu; Li, Xia; Chen, Lijuan

    2009-09-01

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are two main bioactive components of Capsicum frutescens and are widely used as food additives and drugs in China and India. Due to their similarity in structures, isolation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with traditional methods such as silica gel column chromatography, normal-phase thin-layer chromatography (TLC) becomes difficult. This study involves separating capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with sufficient purity and recovery using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (20:20:20:20:2, v/v/v/v/v). Separation parameters such as sample volume, and sample concentration were first optimized on analytical HSCCC, and then scaled up to preparative HSCCC. 0.65 g capsaicin and 0.28 g dihydrocapsaicin were obtained from 1.2 g crude extract and their purities were 98.5 and 97.8%, respectively. The recoveries of the two compounds were 86.3 and 85.4%, respectively. The purity of the isolated compounds was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and their structures were identified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR analysis.

  18. Deciphering the role of the phenylpropanoid metabolism in the tolerance of Capsicum annuum L. to Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Marta; Silvar, Cristina; Merino, Fuencisla; Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Pomar, Federico

    2017-05-01

    Verticillium dahliae is an economically relevant soilborne pathogen that causes vascular wilt in several crops, including pepper (Capsicum annuum). Fungal infection is usually visualized as a vascular browning, likely due to the onset of phenylpropanoid metabolism, which also seems to play a crucial role in the tolerance of some pepper varieties. In the current work, the potential function of distinct phenylpropanoid derivatives (suberin, lignin and phenolic compounds) in the pepper tolerance response against V. dahliae, was investigated. Histochemical and biochemical analyses ruled out suberin as a key player in the pepper-fungus interaction. However, changes observed in lignin composition and higher deposition of bound phenolics in infected stems seemed to contribute to the reinforcement of cell walls and the impairment of V. dahliae colonization. Most importantly, this is the first time that the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloyltyramine was reported in pepper stems in response to a vascular fungus. Fungitoxic activity for that hydroxycinnamate-tyramine conjugate was demonstrated as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs for fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhoubin; Zhang, Yuping; Ou, Lijun; Kang, Linyu; Liu, Yuhua; Lv, Junheng; Wei, Ge; Yang, Bozhi; Yang, Sha; Chen, Wenchao; Dai, Xiongze; Li, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shudong; Zhang, Zhuqing; Ma, Yanqing; Zou, Xuexiao

    2017-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs which play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are involved in fruit development in model plants. However, the miRNAs related to fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) remains unknown. In this study, small RNA populations from different fruit ripening stages and different varieties were compared using next-generation sequencing technology. Totally, 59 known miRNAs and 310 novel miRNAs were identified from four libraries using miRDeep2 software. For these novel miRNAs, 656 targets were predicted and 402 of them were annotated. GO analysis and KEGG pathways suggested that some of the predicted miRNAs targeted genes involved in starch sucrose metabolism and amino sugar as well as nucleotide sugar metabolism. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. These results will provide an important foundation for future studies on the regulation of miRNAs involved in fruit development and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Back, Myung Hwa; Lee, Hae Youn; Lee, Young Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2{approx}50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group.

  1. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum 'Bugwang'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression.

  2. Non-thermal plasma modified growth and differentiation process of Capsicum annuum PP805 Godiva in in vitro conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Nasrin; Iranbakhsh, Alireza; Ardebili, Zahra Oraghi

    2017-05-01

    With the aim of evaluating the possible impacts of cold plasma on the structure and growth pattern of Capsicum annuum, the current study was carried out. The seeds were exposed to an argon-derived plasma (0.84 W cm-2 surface power densities) for 0, 1 or 2 minutes. Plasma-treated seeds were grown in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or MS medium supplemented with BA and IAA. The presence of purple stems was recorded in plasma-treated plants grown in the medium supplemented with hormones. The recorded morphological differences were dependent on the exposure time of plasma treatments and/or the presence of hormones in the culture media. Plasma treatment of 1 minute had an improving effect on the shoot and root lengths as well as total leaf area, whereas plasma treatment of 2 minutes had an adverse effect. In contrast to the 1 minute treatment, plasma treatment of 2 minutes significantly impaired growth and hence reduced the total biomass. Alterations in stem diameter and differences in tissue patterns (especially in the vascular system) occurred, and were mainly dependent on the plasma exposure time and/or the presence of hormones. This is a first report on the effects of cold plasma on plant growth in in vitro conditions.

  3. Oxidative and Molecular Responses in Capsicum annuum L. after Hydrogen Peroxide, Salicylic Acid and Chitosan Foliar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; de Dalia Durán-Flores, Flor; Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velázquez, Rosalía V.; Guevara-González, Ramón G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important ROS molecule (Reactive oxygen species) that serves as a signal of oxidative stress and activation of signaling cascades as a result of the early response of the plant to biotic stress. This response can also be generated with the application of elicitors, stable molecules that induce the activation of transduction cascades and hormonal pathways, which trigger induced resistance to environmental stress. In this work, we evaluated the endogenous H2O2 production caused by salicylic acid (SA), chitosan (QN), and H2O2 elicitors in Capsicum annuum L. Hydrogen peroxide production after elicitation, catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities, as well as gene expression analysis of cat1, pal, and pathogenesis-related protein 1 (pr1) were determined. Our results displayed that 6.7 and 10 mM SA concentrations, and, 14 and 18 mM H2O2 concentrations, induced an endogenous H2O2 and gene expression. QN treatments induced the same responses in lesser proportion than the other two elicitors. Endogenous H2O2 production monitored during several days, showed results that could be an indicator for determining application opportunity uses in agriculture for maintaining plant alert systems against a stress. PMID:23676352

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of a new anther-specific gene CaMF4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuefeng; Chen, Changming; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Lei, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    Our previous study on the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum indicated a diversity of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in fertile and sterile lines. In this study, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF), male fertile 4 (CaMF4) was chosen for further investigation to observe that this specific fragment accumulates in the flower buds of the fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF4 was 894 bp in length, containing two exons and one intron, and the complete coding sequence encoded a putative 11.53 kDa protein of 109 amino acids. The derived protein of CaMF4 shared similarity with the members of PGPS/D3 protein family. The expression of CaMF4 was detected in both the flower buds at stage 8 and open flowers of the male fertile line. In contrast to this observation, expression of CaMF4 was not detected in any organs of the male sterile line. Further analysis revealed that CaMF4 was expressed particularly in anthers of the fertile line. Our results suggest that CaMF4 is an anther-specific gene and might be indispensable for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

  5. Foliar Spray with Vermiwash Modifies the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Dependency and Nutrient Stoichiometry of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum assamicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Kalita, Mohan C.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiwash (VW), a liquid extract obtained from vermicomposting beds, is used as an organic fertilizer for crop plants. The current study investigated the effect of a vermiwash foliar spray on the response of bhut jolokia (Capsicum assamicum) exposed to two different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: Rhizophagus irregularis, RI and G. mosseae, GM) in acidic soil under naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. The VW spray significantly influenced the growth of plants receiving the dual treatment of AMF+VW. Plant growth was more prominent in the GM+VW treatment group than that in the RI+VW treatment group. The plant-AMF interactions in relation to growth and nutrient requirements were also significantly influenced by the application of VW. Interestingly, the VW treatment appeared to contribute more N to plants when compared to that under the AMF treatment, which led to changes in the C:N:P stoichiometry in plant shoots. Furthermore, the increased potassium dependency, as observed in the case of the dual treatments, suggests the significance of such treatments for improving crop conditions under salt stress. Overall, our study shows that the VW foliar spray modifies the response of a crop to inoculations of different AMF with regard to growth and nutrient utilization, which has implications for the selection of an efficient combination of nutrient source for improving crop growth. PMID:24651577

  6. Distributions of the Stereoisomers of β-Mercaptoheptanones and β-Mercaptoheptanols in Cooked Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Svenja; Kiske, Christiane; Burmann, Andrea; Poplacean, Iulia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-29

    2-Mercapto-4-heptanone, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, and the corresponding mercaptoalcohols, previously identified in cooked red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), were used as examples to determine the distributions of stereoisomers of naturally occurring polyfunctional thiols. The thiols were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction and enriched by affinity chromatography. Enantioselective analysis was performed via multidimensional gas chromatography. For the studied cultivar California Wonder, the investigation of different batches of cooked red bell pepper revealed consistent ratios of the stereoisomers independent of origin and date of purchase. Quantitative estimations showed that the stereoisomers were present in cooked red bell peppers at concentrations in the range of 0.04-10.2 μg/kg. Lower concentrations were observed in cooked green bell peppers. The change from green to red color was also accompanied by shifts in the proportions of stereoisomers in favor of the (S)-enantiomers of the mercaptoheptanones and of the (4S)-configured stereoisomers of 4-mercapto-2-heptanol.

  7. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa M.; Jiménez, Ana; Román, Paloma; Romojaro, Félix; Bacarizo, Sierra; Leterrier, Marina; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes. PMID:23644886

  8. The effect of cadmium on phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and lipid peroxidation in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Koç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect on differrent concentrations (20, 40, 80µM ve 100 µM CdCl2 of cadmium (CdCl2 on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and lipid peroxidation amount in leaf and stem of Kahramanmaraş- Hot (Capsicum annum L. pepper seedlings were researched. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, was increased at 2 and 4 days in KM-Hot plants exposed to CdCl2 stress. The highest PAL activity was detected in 20 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaves of KM-Hot pepper. Moreover, it was observed that treatment of pepper with Cd led to an increased the rate of lipid peroxidation (which is indicated by increasing MDA content in the leaf and stem tissues. The highest MDA content was detected in 80 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaf tissues. These results suggest that the activation of PAL may be associated with increased production of MDA

  9. Resilience of Penicillium resedanum LK6 and exogenous gibberellin in improving Capsicum annuum growth under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses.

  10. Spicing Up the N Gene: F. O. Holmes and Tobacco mosaic virus Resistance in Capsicum and Nicotiana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2017-02-01

    One of the seminal events in plant pathology was the discovery by Francis O. Holmes that necrotic local lesions induced on certain species of Nicotiana following rub-inoculation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was due to a specific interaction involving a dominant host gene (N). From this, Holmes had an idea that if the N gene from N. glutinosa was introgressed into susceptible tobacco, the greatly reduced titer of TMV would, by extension, prevent subsequent infection of tomato and pepper plants by field workers whose hands were contaminated with TMV from their use of chewing and smoking tobacco. The ultimate outcome has many surprising twists and turns, including Holmes' failure to obtain fertile crosses of N. glutinosa × N. tabacum after 3 years of intensive work. Progress was made with N. digluta, a rare amphidiploid that was readily crossed with N. tabacum. And, importantly, the first demonstration by Holmes of the utility of interspecies hybridization for virus resistance was made with Capsicum (pepper) species with the identification of the L gene in Tabasco pepper, that he introgressed into commercial bell pepper varieties. Holmes' findings are important as they predate Flor's gene-for-gene hypothesis, show the use of interspecies hybridization for control of plant pathogens, and the use of the local lesion as a bioassay to monitor resistance events in crop plants.

  11. Silicon Mitigates Salinity Stress by Regulating the Physiology, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Protein Expression in Capsicum annuum ‘Bugwang'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Silicon- (Si-) induced salinity stress resistance was demonstrated at physiological and proteomic levels in Capsicum annuum for the first time. Seedlings of C. annuum were hydroponically treated with NaCl (50 mM) with or without Si (1.8 mM) for 15 days. The results illustrated that saline conditions significantly reduced plant growth and biomass and photosynthetic parameters and increased the electrolyte leakage potential, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide level. However, supplementation of Si allowed the plants to recover from salinity stress by improving their physiology and photosynthesis. During salinity stress, Si prevented oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplementation recovered the nutrient imbalance that had occurred during salinity stress. Additionally, proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) revealed that Si treatment upregulated the accumulation of proteins involved in several metabolic processes, particularly those associated with nucleotide binding and transferase activity. Moreover, Si modulated the expression of vital proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated nucleosome pathway and carbohydrate metabolism. Overall, the results illustrate that Si application induced resistance against salinity stress in C. annuum by regulating the physiology, antioxidant metabolism, and protein expression. PMID:27088085

  12. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

  13. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  14. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  16. Increased availability of NADH in metabolically engineered baker's yeast improves transaminase-oxidoreductase coupled asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Hägglöf, Cecilia; Weber, Nora

    2016-01-01

    yeast for transamination-reduction coupled asymmetric one-pot conversion was investigated. RESULTS: A series of active whole-cell biocatalysts were constructed by over-expressing the (S)-selective ω-transaminase (VAMT) from Capsicum chinense together with the NADH-dependent (S)-selective alcohol...

  17. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp. en la Amazonia colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardona Gladys

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta de rizósferas y raíces de ají en diferentes rutas. La colonización se evaluó por medio de la metodología de Phillips y Hayman (1970, con modificaciones de Sieverding (1983. El aislamiento y cuantificación de esporas por la técnica de Gerdeman y Nicolson (1963, modificada por Sieverding (1983. La asignación de géneros se realizó a partir de la descripción morfológica de esporas. Todas las plántulas de ají muestreadas presentaron asociaciones con HFMA. Características químicas del suelo, presencia de otras especies vegetales en chagras, fuente de colecta y especies del género Capsicum incidieron en una alta o baja alta ocurrencia de la simbiosis micorrícica. Se identificaron nueve morfotipos de endomicorrizas; Glomus sp. fue el de mayor ocurrencia.

  18. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices.

  19. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Murga-Gutiérrez, Santos Nélida; Alvarado-Ibáñez, Juan Carlos; Vera-Obando, Nora Yessenia

    2012-01-01

    Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/...

  20. Procesos biol??gicos implicados en el control de la maduraci??n y calidad de frutos de pimiento (Capsicum Annuum L.): Prote??mica y antioxidantes

    OpenAIRE

    ??lvarez de Morales D??vila Ponce de Le??n, Mar??a de la Paz

    2015-01-01

    La maduraci??n de la mayor??a de las especies del g??nero Capsicum est?? caracterizada por un intenso metabolismo, emisi??n de compuestos vol??tiles, destrucci??n de las clorofilas y s??ntesis de nuevos pigmentos, formaci??n de pectinas, s??ntesis de prote??nas, alteraci??n en el sabor, etc. El proceso de maduraci??n ha sido objeto de inter??s de muchos investigadores, no solo por los espectaculares cambios que sufren los frutos, sino por la complejidad del mecanismo de bios??ntesis de capsan...

  1. Nutrição mineral e produtividade de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) em resposta a diferentes biofertilizantes líquidos no solo

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Gibran da Silva

    2006-01-01

    O pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.) é uma planta pertencente a família das solanáceas, de clima tropical e de origem latino americana. Nos últimos anos, sistemas de cultivo orgânico com a utilização de biofertilizantes líquidos tiveram um grande impulso no Brasil. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a produtividade do pimentão, as mudanças na fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional das plantas em resposta a diferentes biofertilizantes líquidos aplicados no solo. O experimento foi realizado...

  2. Distribución y condiciones ambientales asociadas al comportamiento del delfín bufeo (Tursiops truncatus y el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en el Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

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    Priscilla Cubero-Pardo

    2007-06-01

    variables ambientales particulares, sin embargo, los resultados mostraron información valiosa sobre tendencias muy interesantes. La falta de significancia, en relación con los aspectos ambientales, fue atribuida a tres aspectos: (a las transiciones entre actividades se dieron generalmente dentro de un área poco variable, (b fue común que los delfines se desplazaran cubriendo grandes áreas sin cambiar de actividad y (c las condiciones ambientales en el Golfo son bastante homogéneas. En ambas especies el mayor promedio en el número de individuos por grupo correspondió a la categoría de socialización activa, seguido en forma decreciente por el desplazamiento, la socialización pasiva y la alimentación. En el caso del bufeo, el menor tamaño promedio de grupo estuvo asociado a las actividades de alimentación (ANDEVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, gl= 4, mientras que en el manchado correspondió a los momentos de merodeo (ANDEvA, F= 3.817, p=0.009, gl= 4.Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. in this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata. The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive

  3. Aplicación de los clorofluorocarbonos y el hexafluoruro de azufre como trazadores hidrogeológicos en los acuíferos carbonatados del Parque Natural del Barranco del Río Dulce (Guadalajara

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    Martín-Loeches Garrido, M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on information from boreholes and springs of the aquifers associated with the Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate materials near the Natural Park of the Barranco del Río Dulce (PNBRD a conceptual groundwater flow model has been established whose dynamics was validated with the interpretation of the contents of CFC and SF6, never before used in Spain for these purposes. At all points there is a fraction of pre-1950 water that is greater in the recharge areas of the Jurassic units, where the interpretation of the data via the exponential model reflects ages up to 100 years. The interpretation of the contents of CFCs from binary mixture model reflects ages greater than 17 years for the young fraction that may correspond with water that flow through the spaces of intermediate size between the rock matrix and karst conduits. Although not belonging to the same aquifer unit, the points with the highest proportion of water “post-1950” are located in the river valleys of the Cretaceous units. The results are consistent with the existence of generally poor hydraulic gradients, because of the high apparent ages obtained, the existence of multiple inlets and at least a double porosity. In the Cretaceous aquifers there are karst conduits that raise the flow of springs quickly after rainfall and whose influence is not reflected in the samples. CFCs can be useful to indicate the existence of phenomena of current urban pollution. Age values derived from SF6 concentrations are lower than those derived from CFCs, probable due to contribution of this gas from the rock invalidating its use as tracer. The future use of CFCs is compromised by the decreasing tendency of its concentration in the atmosphere, although the comparison of CFC-113 with SF6 of no geological origin, will maintain its utility.A partir de la información procedente de los puntos de agua de los acuíferos asociados a los materiales carbonatados jurásicos y cretácicos próximos al

  4. PEMANFAATAN SEREH (Cymbopogon Cytratus DALAM MENURUNKAN BAU PADA PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR DAN POTENSINYA DALAM MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN CABAI (Capsicum Annum

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    Nurhasanah Nurhasanah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in the use of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus to reduce odors in liquid organic fertilizer has been conducted in Bogor for 6 months. This study begin with a liquid organic fertilizer produced from 1 kg of shrimp waste, 1 kg of maize, 1 kg of bean sprouts, 10 liters of coconut water, 500 ml of EM4 and 500 g of sugar through fermentation process for 6 weeks. Then the result of liquid organic fertilizer was added by an ingredient lemongrass as deodorizing with doses of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v. After that it is fermented for 2 weeks. The next stage was the application of liquid organic fertilizer as a foliar fertilizer at chillies (Capsicum annum planting using a completely randomized design (CRD 1 factors type of using liquid organic fertilizer (control, liquid organic fertilizer without lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 10% lemongrass, liquid organic fertilizer + 20% lemongrass and liquid organic fertilizer + 30% lemongrass respectively at doses of 0, 6, 12 and 18 ppm. The parameters measured were odor (NH3 and H2S, levels of macro nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S and micro nutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe after fermenting process, and the production of crops (fruit number and fruit weight after planting. Research results show that the higher dose of lemongrass added cause levels of odor (NH3 and H2S in the liquid organic fertilizer decreased and content of macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and phytohormones increased. The planting results indicate liquid organic fertilizer which added 20% lemongrass in a dose of 12 ppm was the optimal dose in increasing crop production. Penelitian penggunaan sereh (Cymbopogon citratus dalam menurunkan bau pada pupuk organik cair telah dilakukan di Bogor selama 6 bulan. Penelitian ini diawali dengan membuat pupuk organik cair yang dihasilkan dari 1 kg limbah udang, 1 kg jagung, 1 kg touge, 10 Liter air kelapa, 500 ml EM4 dan 500 g gula pasir melalui proses fermentasi selama 6 minggu. Kemudian pada

  5. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Jinkwan Jo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum. Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1, using two mapping populations: 102 ‘VK515' F2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line ‘VK515R' and susceptible parental line ‘VK515S' and 80 ‘PM Singang' F2 plants (derived from the F1 ‘PM Singang' commercial hybrid. Genetic analysis of the F2:3 ‘VK515' and F2 ‘PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in ‘VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into ‘VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  6. Potential benefits and phytotoxicity of bulk and nano-chitosan on the growth, morphogenesis, physiology, and micropropagation of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari-Targhi, Ghasem; Iranbakhsh, Alireza; Ardebili, Zahra Oraghi

    2018-06-01

    Concerning environmental issues of metal based-nanomaterials and increasing demand for nano-based products; various strategies have been employed to find eco-friendly natural nano-compounds, among which nano-polymer chitosan is mostly considered. Herein, the various aspects of the way in which bulk or nano-chitosan may modify growth, morphogenesis, micropropagation, and physiology of Capsicum annuum L. were considered. Culture medium was manipulated with different concentrations of bulk chitosan or synthesized chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-particle. The supplementations of culture media led to changes in morphology (especially, the root architecture) and differentiation. Toxic doses of bulk (100 mgL -1 ) or nano-chitosan (5, 10, and 20 mgL -1 ) dramatically provoked cessation of plant growth and development. Plant growth and biomass accumulations were increased along with the suitable levels of bulk or nano-chitosan. Peroxidase and catalase activities in a dose and organ-dependent manners were significantly modified by the supplements. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase was induced by the mentioned supplements. Also, the contents of soluble phenols, proline, and alkaloid were found to be significantly increased by the elicitors, over the control. The nano-chitosan of 1 mgL -1 was found to be the most effective elicitor to trigger organogenesis via micropropagation. The huge differences between triggering and toxic concentrations of the supplements would be due to the physicochemical modifications of nano-polymeric. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefits (hormone-like activity) and phytotoxic impacts of nano-chitosan/TPP for in vitro manipulations. This is the first report on both the favorable and adverse effects of nano-chitosan/TPP, representing requirements for further investigation on such formulations for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. EFECTO DEL PROCESAMIENTO TÉRMICO SOBRE EL COLOR SUPERFICIAL DEL PIMENTÓN ROJO (Capsicum annuum VARIEDAD 'NATALY'

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    JADER MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available El color es uno de los parámetros más importantes a la hora de medir la calidad de productos que van a ser procesados a partir del pimentón rojo (Capsicum annuum, para la fabricación de condimentos, colorantes, conservas y aderezos. En este estudio, se evaluó el efecto del procesamiento térmico (freído y conserva con respecto al cambio de color y los carotenoides en frutos de pimentón rojo. Para el freído se utilizó aceite de soya a una temperatura de 175°C por 5 min; en la elaboración de la conserva, se realizó un proceso de escaldado y pasteurización a 100°C durante 15 min. Después de los tratamientos térmicos (freído y conserva la concentración de carotenoides totales y el color superficial en los frutos de pimentón rojo se afectaron significativamente. El proceso de freído obtiene los valores medios más altos de unidades ASTA (72,214, Carotenoides Totales (95,464, L* (38,26 y a* (34,13. La conserva registró los atributos más altos de color b* (21,81, h° (30,42, IP (145,40 y ΔE* (4,56-31,84. Estos resultados evidencian que el freído es una operación que mejora el atributo de color, al aumentar la disponibilidad de carotenoides e incrementar el color superficial a*.

  8. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  9. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jinkwan; Venkatesh, Jelli; Han, Koeun; Lee, Hea-Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2017-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica , is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper ( Capsicum annuum ). Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1 , using two mapping populations: 102 'VK515' F 2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line 'VK515R' and susceptible parental line 'VK515S') and 80 'PM Singang' F 2 plants (derived from the F 1 'PM Singang' commercial hybrid). Genetic analysis of the F 2:3 'VK515' and F 2 'PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in 'VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into 'VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  10. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  11. COLECTA Y CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE 'CHILE DE AGUA' (Capsicum annuum L. EN OAXACA, MÉXICO

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    David Martínez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Oaxaca, México, tiene zonas productoras de 'chile de agua' (Capsicum annuum L. que se diferencian por sus características fisiográficas y agroecológicas. Con el objetivo de generar conocimiento que contribuya a la conservación y mejoramiento genético del potencial productivo de esta especie, en ocho zonas se colectó germoplasma y caracterizó in situ durante 2006 y 2007 bajo un esquema de muestreo completamente aleatorio, con dos localidades por zona y diez plantas por localidad, para lo cual se empleó la guía del Instituto Internacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos. Durante 2008, para disminuir el efecto ambiental, se llevó a cabo una caracterización morfológica ex situ en condiciones de invernadero, para ello las ocho colectas (360 plantas fueron cultivadas bajo un sistema intensivo en hidroponía, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, la información se obtuvo de ocho muestreos efectuados cada quince días, en los cuales se identificaron descriptores de raíz, tallo, flor, fruto y semilla, que permitieron diferenciar (selección de variables las colectas e identificarlas en tres grupos (análisis de agrupamiento de mínima varianza de Ward y describir las características responsables de la agrupación (análisis de componentes principales. El germoplasma de la zona de Ocotlán, Oaxaca, resultó promisorio para un proceso de mejoramiento genético por presentar los frutos con los caracteres más deseables para el mercado.

  12. Antagonistas a Phytophthora capsici inoculados en sustratos de germinación de Capsicum annuum Leonian y Mucuna deeringiana Bort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bautista-Calles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen microorganismos benéficos a las plantas que se emplean de manera específica y aislada para favorecer la germinación y crecimiento. El beneficio es mayor si, en lugar de inocular un microorganismo específico al sustrato, se inoculan grupos de éstos para que disminuyan la incidencia de las enfermedades inducidas por fitopatógenos de la raíz; y, a su vez, favorezcan la emergencia y crecimiento de los cultivos. El objetivo de este trabajo, con enfoque holístico, fue evaluar las variables emergencia y altura de plántulas en almácigo, e incidencia en el invernadero al reintroducir antagonistas a Phytophthora capsici en grupos de 8, 16, 24 y 32 aislamientos de microorganismos, en los sustratos de germinación del chile (Capsicum annuum y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna deeringiana. Los tratamientos con grupos de antagonistas presentaron al menos uno de los efectos benéficos esperados (en comparación con el testigo, al incrementar la emergencia, la mayor altura de plántulas en el almácigo, y la menor incidencia por P. capsici en el invernadero. Los tratamientos que presentaron la mayor altura de plántulas en almácigo, fueron los tratamientos con grupos de 18, 24 y 32 antagonistas, que incluyeron el grupo de ocho actinomicetos. El mejor tratamiento fue con ocho aislamientos de actinomicetos, que presentó la mayor emergencia de plántulas para ambos cultivos en el almácigo y la menor incidencia de P. capsici en el cultivo de chile en invernadero.

  13. H2S AND NO SIGNALING INTERACTIONS IN THALE CRESS (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA L. AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. LEAVES

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    Miroslav Lisjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research comprehends a set of experiments with several thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana L. and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes in controlled conditions using growth chambers, with the aim of determining the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in plants, as well as its potential effect as a signaling compound, particularly in potential interaction with nitric oxide (NO signaling pathways. Special emphasis was focused on stomatal mechanisms and signaling in their opening and closing. Moreover, the effect of treatment of pepper plants with H2S was investigated in salt stress conditions. It was established that the applied H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, inhibit stomata closing in both plant species through the reduction of NO accumulation in stomata, which was proven to occur in SNP or ABA treatment. The effects of NO and H2S were opposite those in pepper plants response to salt stress as well, with increased antioxidative activity in leaf obtained after H2S treatments, and with NaHS in particular. In addition, GYY4137 could be considered as a convenient H2S donor for research into H2S functions in plants. The results point out the interactions of H2S and NO in plant cell signaling in both normal and salt stress conditions. Further research of this type should uncover H2S functions in plant metabolism more precisely, especially considering the potential practical value of this knowledge for plant stress resistance improvement and their productivity enhancement.

  14. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  15. Silencing of dehydrin CaDHN1 diminishes tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-gang; Jing, Hua; Guo, Wei-li; Wang, Shu-Bin; Ma, Fang; Pan, Bao-Gui; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-12-01

    We cloned a dehydrins gene CaDHN1 from pepper and the expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated by cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Dehydrins (DHNs) are a subfamily of group 2 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins that are thought to play an important role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a DHN EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) was obtained from 6 to 8 true leaves seedlings of pepper cv P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) by our laboratory. However, the DHN gene in pepper was not well characterized. According to this EST sequence, we isolated a DHN gene, designated as CaDHN1, and investigated the response and expression of this gene under various stresses. Our results indicated that CaDHN1 has the DHN-specific and conserved K- and S- domain and encodes 219 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaDHN1 belonged to the SKn subgroup. Tissue expression profile analysis revealed that CaDH N1 was expressed predominantly in fruits and flowers. The expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated in response to cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, but no significant change by abscisic acid (ABA) and heavy metals treatment. Loss of function of CaDHN1 using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique led to decreased tolerance to cold-, salt- and osmotic-induced stresses. Overall, these results suggest that CaDHN1 plays an important role in regulating the abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  16. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  17. BAC-derived markers converted from RFLP linked to Phytophthora capsici resistance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Nahm, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Yoon, Gi-Bo; Kim, Ki-Taek; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil; Kweon, Oh Yeol; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Han, Jung-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Minkyu; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Choi, Soon Ho; Her, Nam Han; Sung, Joo-Hee; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-12-01

    Phytophthora capsici Leonian, an oomycete pathogen, is a serious problem in pepper worldwide. Its resistance in pepper is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). To detect QTL associated with P. capsici resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed using 100 F(2) individuals from a cross between Capsicum annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho'. This linkage map consisted of 202 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 WRKYs and 1 simple sequence repeat (SSR) covering 1482.3 cM, with an average interval marker distance of 7.09 cM. QTL mapping of Phytophthora root rot and damping-off resistance was performed in F(2:3) originated from a cross between resistant Mexican landrace C. annuum 'CM334' and susceptible Korean landrace C. annuum 'Chilsungcho' using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis. Four QTL explained 66.3% of the total phenotypic variations for root rot resistance and three 44.9% for damping-off resistance. Of these QTL loci, two were located close to RFLP markers CDI25 on chromosome 5 (P5) and CT211A on P9. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from C. annuum 'CM334' was screened with these two RFLP probes to obtain sequence information around the RFLP marker loci for development of PCR-based markers. CDI25 and CT211 probes identified seven and eight BAC clones, respectively. Nine positive BAC clones containing probe regions were sequenced and used for cytogenetic analysis. One single-nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) for the CDI25 locus, and two SSRs and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) for CT211 were developed using sequences of the positive BAC clones. These markers will be valuable for rapid selection of genotypes and map-based cloning for resistance genes against P. capsici.

  18. Effect of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin on the growth performance, carcass quality and gut integrity of broiler chickens

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    M. H. H. Awaad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of a specific combination (SC of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin was investigated on productive performance and immune response in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Six hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated into two groups for 5 weeks. The SC was supplemented at 100 ppm of ration (presence or absence. Results: Treatment of broiler chickens with the SC improved productive performance variables as compared with the blank control birds. It decreased total mortality, increased final body weight, weight gain, production number and decreased final feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.05. The SC had a positive effect on carcass quality and enhanced HI titer against Newcastle disease (ND virus vaccine, as compared to their untreated control group (P<0.05. The SC treated birds had higher values of intestinal diameter than the control ones. Conclusion: It could be concluded that administration of a specific combination of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin to broiler chickens improved chicken zootechnical performance response variables, had a potent immuno-modulatory effect (potentiated immune response and improved gut integrity. Eventually, this combination could be used as a replacement to the controversial feed additives (antibiotic growth promoters.

  19. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA.

  20. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

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    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  1. Effectiveness of the native strain of Bacillus subtilis as a suppressant agent of the nematode Meloidogyne spp knot in cultures of Capsicum annuum “piquillo pepper chili”

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    Nancy Mercedes Soto Deza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In croping fields infested with nematodes, the RCBD complete blocks design was applied. 85% pure chicken manure was also incorporated, 15 t / ha and 30 t /. Spores of B. subtilis, 1 X106 eng / mL and 2 x 106 sperm / mL Capsicum annuum seeds in direct seeding were inoculated (experiment I and transplantation (experiment II. At 45 and 90 days analysis of nematode populations were determined, nodulation index, plant height and fruit number. The data was subjected to analysis of variance using the Statgraphics Plus 5.0 software. To estimate the significant differences between treatments, the Tukey test was applied. Initially, the study showed highly infested knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., 275 to 27720 soil nematodes/100 cm3, and in Trial II it was between 9 and 1 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, with significant difference (P & 0.05. The final population recorded after the application of Bacillus subtilis, was 13 and 0 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, the nematode  population levels, decreased significantly, showing significant difference (P & 0.05. Efficacy of B. subtilis on Meloidogyne spp., it was clear, reduced initial populations of the nematode, reaching a reproduction rate less than 1, non-galling index reached grade 3. The interaction of B. subtilis with poultry manure amendment favored the production achieved in the cultivation of Capsicum annuum.

  2. Estimation of genetic variability, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in M2 flower mutant lines of Capsicum annuum L. treated with caffeine and their analysis through RAPD

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    Rumana Aslam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation healthy and certified seeds of Capsicum annuum were treated with five concentrations of caffeine i.e. 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.0%. Germination percentage, plants survival and pollen fertility were decreased with the increase of caffeine concentrations. Similarly root length and shoot length were decreased as the concentrations increased in M1 generation. Different mutants were isolated in M1 generation. In M2 generation, various flower mutants with changes in number of sepals, petals, anther size colour i.e. Trimerous, tetramerous, pentamerous with fused petals, hexamerous etc were segregated. Heptamerous and anther change was not observed in lower concentration viz. 0.1%. All these mutants showed significant changes in morphological characters and good breeding values at lower and intermediate concentrations. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency was observed on the basis of M2 flower mutant frequency. It was generally decreased with the increase of mutagen concentrations. Cytological aberrations in mutants showed the decreasing trend at meiotic final stages. These mutants were further analysed through RAPD method and on the basis of appearance of polymorphic DNA bands, they distinguished these flower mutants genotypically. Among 93 bands 44 bands were polymorphic which showed great genetic variation produced by caffeine. As an outcome of that the above caffeine concentrations are good for the induction of genetic variability in Capsicum genotype.

  3. Purification and characterization of peptides from Capsicum annuum fruits which are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit high antimicrobial activity against fungi of agronomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Layrana de Azevedo; Taveira, Gabriel Bonan; Ribeiro, Suzanna de Fátima Ferreira; Pereira, Lídia da Silva; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosana; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Araújo, Jucélia da Silva; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Proteins extracted from Capsicum annuum L. fruits were initially subjected to reversed-phase chromatography on HPLC, resulting in eight peptide-rich fractions. All the fractions obtained were tested for their ability to inhibit porcine trypsin and amylase from both human saliva and from larval insect in vitro. All fractions were also tested for their ability to inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungi. Several fractions inhibited the activity of human salivary amylase and larval insect amylase, especially fraction Fa5. No fraction tested was found to inhibit trypsin activity, being Fa2 fraction an exception. Interestingly fraction Fa5 also displayed high antimicrobial activity against the species of the Fusarium genus. Fraction Fa5 was found to have two major protein bands of 17 and 6.5 kDa, and these were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Two peptides were obtained from the 6.5-kDa band, which showed similarity to antimicrobial peptides. Fraction Fa5 was also tested for its ability to permeabilize membranes and induce ROS. Fraction Fa5 was able to permeabilize the membranes of all the fungi tested. Fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium also showed an increase in the endogenous production of ROS when treated with this fraction. Antimicrobial peptides were also identified in the fruits from other Capsicum species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A low-pungency S3212 genotype of Capsicum frutescens caused by a mutation in the putative aminotransferase (p-AMT) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Matsushima, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic mechanism underlying capsinoid biosynthesis in S3212, a low-pungency genotype of Capsicum frutescens. Screening of C. frutescens accessions for capsaicinoid and capsiate contents by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that low-pungency S3212 contained high levels of capsiate but no capsaicin. Comparison of DNA coding sequences of pungent (T1 and Bird Eye) and low-pungency (S3212) genotypes uncovered a significant 12-bp deletion mutation in exon 7 of the p-AMT gene of S3212. In addition, p-AMT gene transcript levels in placental tissue were positively correlated with the degree of pungency. S3212, the low-pungency genotype, exhibited no significant p-AMT transcript levels, whereas T1, one of the pungent genotypes, displayed high transcript levels of this gene. We therefore conclude that the deletion mutation in the p-AMT gene is related to the loss of pungency in placental tissue and has given rise to the low-pungency S3212 C. frutescens genotype. C. frutescens S3212 represents a good natural source of capsinoids. Finally, our basic characterization of the uncovered p-AMT gene mutation should contribute to future studies of capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum.

  5. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunun-Perez, A Y; Guevara-Figueroa, T; Jimenez-Garcia, S N; Feregrino-Perez, A A; Gautier, F; Guevara-Gonzalez, R G

    2017-06-01

    Capsinoids are non-pungent analogues of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). The absence of pungency, in addition to their biological activities similar to that of capsaicinoids such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, makes capsinoids an excellent option for increasing use in human and animal nutrition, as well as health and pharmaceutical industries. There are only few sources of pepper producing capsinoids, and one of them (accession 509-45-1), Capsicum annuum L., is a potential source for increasing capsinoids content using strategies as controlled elicitation during plant production in the greenhouse. In this research we evaluated the effect of weekly and one-day-before-harvest foliar applications of hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on the concentration of capsiate in fruits of this pepper accession, as well as the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), putative aminotransferase (pamt), capsaicin synthase (at3) and β-keto acyl synthase (kas). Results showed that the two tested concentrations of H2O2 significantly increased capsiate content and gene expression associated with capsaicinoids (pamt, at3 and kas) and the phenylpropanoids (pal) pathways. Plant yield was not affected using this induction strategy. Our results indicated that the pre-harvest and weekly application of hydrogen peroxide and xyloglucan oligosaccharide improved production of capsiate in C. annuum L.

  6. Capsicum annuum transcription factor WRKYa positively regulates defense response upon TMV infection and is a substrate of CaMK1 and CaMK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Lee, Gil-Je; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yunsik; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-23

    Plants are constantly exposed to pathogens and environmental stresses. To minimize damage caused by these potentially harmful factors, plants respond by massive transcriptional reprogramming of various stress-related genes via major transcription factor families. One of the transcription factor families, WRKY, plays an important role in diverse stress response of plants and is often useful to generate genetically engineered crop plants. In this study, we carried out functional characterization of CaWRKYa encoding group I WRKY member, which is induced during hypersensitive response (HR) in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) upon Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. CaWRKYa was involved in L-mediated resistance via transcriptional reprogramming of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression and affected HR upon TMV-P0 infection. CaWRKYa acts as a positive regulator of this defense system and could bind to the W-box of diverse PR genes promoters. Furthermore, we found Capsicum annuum mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (CaMK1) and 2 (CaMK2) interacted with CaWRKYa and phosphorylated the SP clusters but not the MAPK docking (D)-domain of CaWRKYa. Thus, these results demonstrated that CaWRKYa was regulated by CaMK1 and CaMK2 at the posttranslational level in hot pepper.

  7. The N-glycan processing enzymes α-mannosidase and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase are involved in ripening-associated softening in the non-climacteric fruits of capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Kumar, Anil; Thakur, Archana; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2011-01-01

    Excessive softening of fruits during the ripening process leads to deterioration. This is of significant global importance as softening-mediated deterioration leads to huge postharvest losses. N-glycan processing enzymes are reported to play an important role during climacteric fruit softening: however, to date these enzymes have not been characterized in non-climacteric fruit. Two ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), have been identified and targeted to enhance the shelf life in non-climacteric fruits such as capsicum (Capsicum annuum). The purification, cloning, and functional characterization of α-Man and β-Hex from capsicum, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families 38 and 20, respectively, are described here. α-Man and β-Hex are cell wall glycoproteins that are able to cleave terminal α-mannose and β-D-N-acetylglucosamine residues of N-glycans, respectively. α-Man and β-Hex transcripts as well as enzyme activity increase with the ripening and/or softening of capsicum. The function of α-Man and β-Hex in capsicum softening is investigated through RNA interference (RNAi) in fruits. α-Man and β-Hex RNAi fruits were approximately two times firmer compared with the control and fruit deterioration was delayed by approximately 7 d. It is shown that silencing of α-Man and β-Hex enhances fruit shelf life due to the reduced degradation of N-glycoproteins which resulted in delayed softening. Altogether, the results provide evidence for the involvement of N-glycan processing in non-climacteric fruit softening. In conclusion, genetic engineering of N-glycan processing can be a common strategy in both climacteric and non-climacteric species to reduce the post-harvest crop losses. PMID:21030387

  8. Extración y cuantificación de capsacina a partir de cinco especies nativas del género Capsicum existentes en el Ecuador mediante cromatografía líquida de alta definición

    OpenAIRE

    Balseca Álvarez, Diana Aurelia; Rivadeneira Herrera, Lorena Anabel

    2013-01-01

    Pepper genetic resources are important for being a natural source of capsaicin. The information about the magnitude of this feature in chili are scarce native Ecuador. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify capsaicin oleoresin Capsicum species in populations collected in the provinces of Loja, Santo Domingo de la Tsáchilas, Esmeraldas, Los Ríos and Morona Santiago. A pharmacognosy study the dry fruit of the five representative species of the genus Capsicum (C. baccatum, C. chinens...

  9. Registro e proteção de cultivares pelo setor público: a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças Registration and protection of cultivars in Brazil: the experience of Embrapa Vegetables' Capsicum breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina IC de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O registro de cultivares permite a produção e comercialização de sementes no país. É um processo importante para os programas de melhoramento, pois assegura a identidade genética e a qualidade varietal das cultivares. Adicionalmente, a proteção de cultivares, que garante os direitos intelectuais aos obtentores, possibilita que empresas públicas e privadas de pesquisa possam ser beneficiadas com o ingresso de recursos decorrentes dos direitos sobre as cultivares que desenvolvem dando sustentabilidade parcial ou total à continuidade de programas de melhoramento e o subseqüente lançamento de novas cultivares de interesse para o agronegócio brasileiro. Este trabalho apresenta a experiência do programa de melhoramento de Capsicum da Embrapa Hortaliças e o resultado dos processos de registro e proteção de cultivares de pimentas do grupo jalapeño, denominadas BRS Sarakura e BRS Garça. Foram utilizados 48 descritores, sendo que quatro apresentaram potencial discriminatório para diferenciar as duas cultivares: altura e largura das plantas, intensidade da coloração verde dos frutos antes da maturação e espessura do pedúnculo. Ambas cultivares apresentam uniformidade de plantas, alta produtividade, alto teores de capsaicina, estabilidade quanto aos descritores avaliados durante os dois ciclos, bem como se mostraram distintas de outras cultivares de pimentas do gênero Capsicum. Para a obtenção do registro e proteção das cultivares de pimenta foram relevantes a experiência na caracterização morfológica do banco de germoplasma e aplicação dos descritores, o conhecimento da morfologia da planta, o auxílio de um profissional na área de botânica para identificar as diversas espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum e o conhecimento e cumprimento das exigências burocráticas para efetivação dos processos.The process of registration of new cultivars in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply is an

  10. Modelos matemáticos para estimar el crecimiento del fruto de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P

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    P. C. Rojas-Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El híbrido intervarietal de chile manzano (Capsicum pubescens R y P Puebla x Zongolica es de alto rendimiento por su volumen, grosor de pericarpio y peso de fruto. El rendimiento se explica principalmente por el tamaño del fruto, siendo recomendable conocer la dinámica del crecimiento del mismo. Normalmente su análisis se realiza por medio de muestreos destructivos, lo que hace imposible utilizar el mismo fruto durante el ciclo de cultivo, además la competencia entre los órganos de la planta disminuye su tamaño y peso, afectando negativamente la calidad y rendimiento. Por lo cual el estudio del crecimiento a través de modelos matemáticos utilizando variables no destructivas permite proponer un manejo adecuado del cultivo. Por esta razón se propuso evaluar e identificar modelos matemáticos que describan el crecimiento del fruto, sin realizar muestreos destructivos. Se evaluaron los modelos: regresión lineal simple, regresión lineal múltiple y cuatro modelos no lineales. Con la hipótesis de que alguno de los seis modelos estudiados, explica eficientemente dicho crecimiento por medio de la variable independiente volumen de agua desplazada. Las plantas de chile se cultivaron bajo un sistema de producción intensivo, en 2004 y 2005. La variable dependiente fue el peso fresco de fruto y las variables independientes fueron: tiempo de crecimiento del fruto, longitud, ancho promedio de los hombros del fruto, volumen de agua desplazada y volumen del mismo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las medias de las variables evaluadas en los dos periodos de muestreo (P<0.05. Los modelos que mejor explican el crecimiento del fruto son: regresión lineal simple (sólo en el 2004 en función del volumen de agua desplazada y el volumen de fruto, el modelo de regresión lineal múltiple describe adecuadamente dicho crecimiento utilizando además de las variables anteriormente mencionadas, el tiempo de crecimiento, la longitud y el ancho

  11. Seed dispersal as an ecosystem service: frugivore loss leads to decline of a socially valued plant, Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Monika H; Fricke, Evan C; Rogers, Haldre S

    2018-04-01

    Species interactions, both mutualistic and antagonistic, are widely recognized as providing important ecosystem services. Fruit-eating animals influence plant recruitment by increasing germination during gut passage and moving seeds away from conspecifics. However, relative to studies focused on the importance of frugivores for plant population maintenance, few studies target frugivores as ecosystem service providers, and frugivores are underappreciated as ecosystem service providers relative to other mutualists such as pollinators. Here, we use an accidental experiment to elucidate the role of seed dispersal by frugivores for maintaining a culturally and economically important plant, the donne' sali chili (Capsicum frutescens) in the Mariana Islands. One of the islands (Guam) has lost nearly all of its native forest birds due to an invasive snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas nearby islands have relatively intact bird populations. We hypothesized that frugivore loss would influence chili recruitment and abundance, which could have economic and cultural impacts. By using video cameras, we confirmed that birds were the primary seed dispersers. We used captive bird feeding trials to obtain gut-passed seeds to use in a seedling emergence experiment. The experiment showed that gut-passed seeds emerged sooner and at a higher proportion than seeds from whole fruits. Consistent with our findings that birds benefit chilies, we observed lower chili abundance on Guam than on islands with birds. In a survey questionnaire of island residents, the majority of residents reported an association between the wild chili and local cultural values and traditions. In addition, we identified a thriving market for chili products, suggesting benefits of wild chilies to people in the Marianas both as consumers and producers. Our study therefore documents seed dispersal as both a cultural and a supporting ecosystem service. We provide a comprehensive case study on how seed-dispersed plants

  12. Extensive structural variations between mitochondrial genomes of CMS and normal peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Deuk; Choi, Yoomi; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Dong; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-07-04

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an inability to produce functional pollen that is caused by mutation of the mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of lines with and without CMS in several species have revealed structural differences between genomes, including extensive rearrangements caused by recombination. However, the mitochondrial genome structure and the DNA rearrangements that may be related to CMS have not been characterized in Capsicum spp. We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the pepper CMS line FS4401 (507,452 bp) and the fertile line Jeju (511,530 bp). Comparative analysis between mitochondrial genomes of peppers and tobacco that are included in Solanaceae revealed extensive DNA rearrangements and poor conservation in non-coding DNA. In comparison between pepper lines, FS4401 and Jeju mitochondrial DNAs contained the same complement of protein coding genes except for one additional copy of an atp6 gene (ψatp6-2) in FS4401. In terms of genome structure, we found eighteen syntenic blocks in the two mitochondrial genomes, which have been rearranged in each genome. By contrast, sequences between syntenic blocks, which were specific to each line, accounted for 30,380 and 17,847 bp in FS4401 and Jeju, respectively. The previously-reported CMS candidate genes, orf507 and ψatp6-2, were located on the edges of the largest sequence segments that were specific to FS4401. In this region, large number of small sequence segments which were absent or found on different locations in Jeju mitochondrial genome were combined together. The incorporation of repeats and overlapping of connected sequence segments by a few nucleotides implied that extensive rearrangements by homologous recombination might be involved in evolution of this region. Further analysis using mtDNA pairs from other plant species revealed common features of DNA regions around CMS-associated genes. Although large portion of sequence context was

  13. 1H NMR-based metabolomic fingerprinting to determine metabolite levels in serrano peppers (Capsicum annum L.) grown in two different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Martínez, Elvia; Florentino-Ramos, Elideth; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo, L; Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Velázquez-Ponce, Manuel; García-Mendoza, Felipe; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel E

    2017-12-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is the most important and emblematic condiment in Mexican food. Serrano pepper is a variety of C. annuum that is traditionally cultivated in Mexico and commercialized in local markets. The aim of this study was to describe the 1 H NMR metabolomic profiling of the aqueous phase of serrano peppers harvested from two distinct regions, in the states of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. According to the current results, aspartate citrate, lactate, leucine and sucrose were found at higher amount in the serrano peppers from Veracruz. On the other hand, acetate, formate, fumarate, malonate, phosphocholine, pyruvate and succinate showed the highest abundance in this product from Oaxaca. These are the main metabolites that distinguish one group from the other. The spectrometric method reported presently is characterized by great simplicity, robustness and reproducibility. Thus, this technique can be used for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints of serrano peppers grown under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterogeneidad del color en formulaciones de merkén elaboradas a partir de ecotipos de ají (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. "Cacho de cabra"

    OpenAIRE

    Leonelli Cantergiani, Gina N; Díaz Becerra, Christian M; Tighe Neira, Ricardo M; Castillo Rubio, Claudia G; Pardo Díaz, Fernando L.; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluó la heterogeneidad del color en cinco muestras de merkén formuladas a partir de ecotipos de ají, Capsicum annuum L., cv. "Cacho de cabra" cultivados en la Región de La Araucanía y Región del Maule, Chile. La evaluación se realizó mediante la extracción y cuantificación del contenido de carotenoides. Las variables evaluadas en la cuantificación de carotenoides fueron carotenoides rojos (R) y carotenoides amarillo-naranja (A). Además, se utilizó el sistema de col...

  15. Separation and quantitation of colour pigments of chili powder (Capsicum frutescens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Morais, M H; Mota, T; Ramos, A

    2000-10-27

    The performance of reversed-phase thin-layer (RP-TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was compared for the separation and determination of the colour pigments of chili (Capsicum frutescens) powder using a wide variety of eluent systems. No separation of pigments was achieved in RP-TLC, however, it was established that tetrahydrofuran shows an unusually high solvent strength. RP-HPLC using water-methanol-acetonitrile gradient elution separated the chili pigments in many fractions. Diode array detection (DAD) indicated that yellow pigments are eluted earlier than the red ones and chili powder contains more yellow pigments than common paprika powders. It was established that the very different absorption spectra of pigments make the use of DAD necessary.

  16. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa fruits: possible role in prevention of diabetic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ibrar; Ahmad, Haroon; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycationend products (AGE's) in the body, due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is associated with several pathological conditions like aging and diabetes mellitus. Hence a plant having anti-glycation and anti-oxidation potentials may serve as therapeutic agent for diabetic complications and aging. In this study the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation properties of crude methanolic extracts of fruits of Capsicum frutescens and Curcuma longa were investigated. Among the two C. frutescens had more anti-glycation ability with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 90βg/mLas compared to 324βg/mL MIC50 of C. longa. Curcuma longa had the more anti-oxidation potential i.e. 35.01, 30.83 and 28.08% at 0.5mg, 0.25mg and 0.125mg respectively.

  17. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo growth monitoring of capsicum annuum seeds treated with different NaCl concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated as a plausible optical tool for in vivo detection of plant seeds and its morphological changes during growth. The experiment was carried out on Capsicum annuum seeds that were treated with different molar concentrations of NaCl to investigate the most optimal concentration for the seed growth. The monitoring process was carried out for 9 consecutive days. The in vivo 2D OCT images of the treated seeds were obtained and compared with seeds that were grown with sterile distilled water. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of using OCT for the proposed application. Normalized A-scan analysis method is utilized for supporting the concluded results.

  18. Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel α-amylase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2011-07-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of α-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian α-amylase activity in vitro. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  19. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

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    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  20. Detecção de capsaicina em extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica

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    Tamires de Souza RODRIGUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta dedo-de-moça (Capsicum baccatum L. é uma espécie utilizada no mundo inteiro pelo seu sabor picante e por possuir inúmeras atividades medicinais. Essas atividades farmacológicas são proporcionadas por um grupo de substâncias presentes, os capsaicinoides, além de taninos, flavonoides, vitamina C, entre outros. Dos capsaicinoides presentes, a capsaicina possui especial importância. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a presença da capsaicina nos extratos dos frutos verdes e maduros de Capsicum baccatum L. pelas metodologias de cromatografia em camada delgada e histoquímica. Os extratos foram preparados com acetona. A cromatografia foi realizada com placas de sílica gel G4, eluída com hexano:acetato de etila (60:40 e reveladas com reagente de Dragendorff. A capsaicina pode ser detectada somente no estágio imaturo (verde dos frutos de Capsicum baccatum L. pela metodologia de cromatografia em camada delgada e pelo teste histoquímico.

  1. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  2. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  3. Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y T; Wubs, A M; Mathieu, A; Heuvelink, E; Zhu, J Y; Hu, B G; Cournède, P H; de Reffye, P

    2011-04-01

    Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional-structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source-sink relationships. A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle. Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source-sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source-sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source

  4. Fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica

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    Paulo Cássio Alves Linhares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas são todas as espécies e variedades do gênero Capsicum com frutos geralmente menores que os pimentões, com diferentes formatos, frequentemente de paladar pungente, embora existam pimentas doces. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho analisar a fitomassa de pimenta doce-italina (capsicum em função de adubação orgânica. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo no setor de agroecologia da UEPB, no município de Catolé do Rocha- PB, no ano de 2012. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, sendo estudados os efeitos de 5 fontes de matéria orgânica e foram testados 4 tipos de biofertilizantes. Avaliaram-se as seguintes variáveis: Fitomassa Seca da Folha (FSF, Fitomassa Seca do Caule (FSC e Fitomassa Seca da Raiz (FSR. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos estudados sobre a massa seca de plantas de pimenta doce italiana. As fontes de matéria orgânica se comportaram de maneira semelhante em relação à fitomassa seca do caule de pimenteira doce-italiana. O biofertilizante à base de esterco bovino enriquecido com farinha de rocha + cinza de madeira (T4, desempenhou um maior acúmulo de massa seca da pimenta.  Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizae under CuSO4 stress in Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, A.; Chaudhry, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Community structure and ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was studied in the present study using two host plant species i.e. Capsicum annuum L. and Zea mays L. under CuSO4 stress. Five levels of copper sulfate (CuSO4) i.e. 0 ppm (control), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 75 ppm, and 100 ppm were used to elucidate their influence on mycorrhizal community. Results showed that some spores disappeared with increased metal content while other spores were abundant even at a high level of stress. Present studies supported the stress tolerance mechanism conferred by AMF spore density and diversity. Value of Simpson index was shown to decrease from 3.58 to 2.42. Shannon index value was changed from 0.27 to 0.51. Similar rise in the values was observed for spore diversity i.e. 20.94 to 79.13. However, it may be concluded that spore ecotypes might vary in their abundance depending upon the host plant and soil physical-chemical characters that control the metal availability to plants. Among all the four plant varieties, ghotki chilli seemed to have less species associated with it. It can be concluded that when compared to the control, more mycorrhizal types were found to be associated with plants under stress which could prove the tolerance of mycorrhizae against the heavy metals and their positive role in protecting plant from the toxicity of heavy metals. (author)

  6. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

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    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  7. Changes in the free amino acid composition of Capsicum annuum (pepper) leaves in response to Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) infestation. A comparison with water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Ortiz, Victoria; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Zubcoff-Vallejo, José; Jander, Georg; Casas, José L

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.

  8. Evaluación agronómica de accesiones de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

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    Catherine Pardey Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un diseño de bloques incompletos 10 x 10 con tres repeticiones se estudiaron descriptores cuantitativos relacionados con producción por planta, contenido de capsaicina y presencia de virus en 100 accesiones de Capsicum pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Las diferencias entre las accesiones fueron explicadas por el contenido de capsaicina, características asociadas con la producción por planta y características del fruto. Se encontró correlación inversa entre el contenido de capsaicina y producción; número de frutos por planta con peso de fruto. La dispersión de las accesiones en el plano cartesiano situó las variedades comerciales Cayenne, Tabasco y Habanero, en función de producción, peso y cantidad de frutos, en posiciones desventajosas con respecto a los promedios generales de las características de las otras accesiones. Cuatro accesiones superaron a Tabasco en contenido de capsaicina. Cuatro tipos de virus (potyvirus, geminivirus y cucumovirus y virus del mosaico del tabaco TMV se presentaron en el lote de evaluación. Los virus actuaron en forma conjunta; los potyvirus con los cucumovirus y TMV; los geminivirus con TMV.

  9. Impact of salt stress (NaCl on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.

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    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (AW and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment of five months was carried out under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress is induced by NaCl at 7 concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, had a negative impact on roots (length, fresh and dry weights and leaves (number and area. Also, chlorophyll (a and b amount in addition to quantium yield (Fv/Fm decreased significantly. However, biosynthesis of proline in leaves is activated. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more proline in leaves and maintaining usually higher values in all parameters in opposition to Souk jedid cultivar. Taken together, our data partly explain the mechanism used to ovoid salt stress by pepper plants when excessive in the culture medium.

  10. Study of the effect of uranium and thorium on the growing of pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.; Yildirim, Y.; Tokucu, G.; Uenak, G.; Oecal, J.; Konyali, D.; Kilic, S.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation rate of uranium and thorium to different plants grown in soils having high level of these elements varies closely with the plant characteristics. In this study, the pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were chosen as vegetables which are commonly consumed over different regions by different populations. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) High uranium concentration in the soil prevents the growing of the plants. Only the plants in the pot having the uranium concentration of about 263 ppm grew significantly. The plants in other pots having a higher concentration turned pale and died in a few weeks. (2) In the pot having thorium level of about 263 ppm, the plants were well grown and fruited in comparison to the control plants, but the increase of thorium concentration inversely influenced their growing. (3) The gross activities measured in different parts of the plants were not particularly high, however, in both cases the maximum activities were measured in the stems rather than in the fruits and leaves. (4) The plants grown in soils having thorium content lived longer than the control plants and at the greenhouse conditions indicated above, all plants lived more than one whole year flowering and fruiting. (author)

  11. Vicilin-like peptides from Capsicum baccatum L. seeds are α-amylase inhibitors and exhibit antifungal activity against important yeasts in medical mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Bard, Gabriela C; Nascimento, Viviane V; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir A; Rodrigues, Rosana; Da Cunha, Maura; Dias, Germana B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Carvalho, Andre O; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum baccatum seeds and evaluate their antimicrobial activity and inhibitory effects against α-amylase. Initially, proteins from the flour of C. baccatum seeds were extracted in sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.4, and precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 90% saturation. The D1 and D2 fractions were subjected to antifungal tests against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Kluyveromyces marxiannus, and tested against α-amylases from Callosobruchus maculates and human saliva. The D2 fraction presented higher antimicrobial activity and was subjected to further purification and seven new different fractions (H1-H7) were obtained. Peptides in the H4 fraction were sequenced and the N-terminal sequences revealed homology with previously reported storage vicilins from seeds. The H4 fraction exhibited strong antifungal activity and also promoted morphological changes in yeast, including pseudohyphae formation. All fractions, including H4, inhibited mammalian α-amylase activity but only the H4 fraction was able to inhibit C. maculatus α-amylase activity. These results suggest that the fractions isolated from the seeds of C. baccatum can act directly in plant defenses against pathogens and insects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem ii in seedlings of two varieties of Capsicum annuum L. inoculated with rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Azareel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Alarcón, Alejandro; Almaraz-Suárez, Juan José; Delgadillo-Martínez, Julián; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel; García-Barradas, Oscar

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]. In addition, a fertilized treatment (Steiner nutrient solution at 25%) and an unfertilized control were included. Seedlings of "Caloro" jalapeno pepper and "California Wonder" bell pepper were inoculated with AMF at seed sowing, and PGPR were inoculated after 15 days of seedling emergence; seedlings were grown under plant growth chamber conditions. P61 bacterium and H1 AMF consortia were the most effective microorganisms for jalapeno pepper whereas R44 bacterium and AMF H3 and H1 were the most effective for bell peppers, when compared to the unfertilized control. Furthermore, P61 and R44 bacteria showed beneficial effects on PSII efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and mycorrhizal on Capsicum annuum L. var. aviculare ([Dierbach] D'Arcy and Eshbaugh) germination under stressing abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Castellanos-Cervantes, T; García-Hernández, José Luís; Tarazòn-Herrera, Mario Antonio; Moreno Medina, Salomòn; Gerlach Barrera, Luis Ernesto

    2010-08-01

    Capsicum annuum var. aviculare to Tarahumara and Papago Indians and farmers of Sonora desert is a promising biological and commercial value as a natural resource from arid and semiarid coastal zones. Traditionally, apply synthetic fertilizers to compensate for soil nitrogen deficiency. However, indiscriminate use of these fertilizers might increase salinity. The inoculation by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represents an alternative as potential bio fertilizer resources for salty areas. Seeds ecotypes from four areas of Sonora desert (Mazocahui, Baviacora, Arizpe, La Tortuga), in order to inoculate them with one species of PGPB and AMF. Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB and AMF growth factors measured on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length, and produced biomass (fresh and dry matter). The results indicated that from four studied ecotypes, Mazocahui was the most outstanding of all, showing the highest germination under saline and non-saline conditions. However, the PGPB and AMF influenced the others variables evaluated. This study is the first step to obtain an ideal ecotype of C. a. var. aviculare, which grows in the northwest of México and promoting this type of microorganisms as an efficient and reliable biological product. Studies of the association of PGPB and AMF with the C. a. var. aviculare-Mazocahui ecotype are recommended to determine the extent to which these observations can be reproduced under field conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Penggunaan Streptomyces sp. Sebagai Biokontrol Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L. yang Disebabkan Oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici

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    ANINDA OKTAVIA RAHARINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to find out Streptomyces bacteria at Bukit Jimbaran, to inhibitionpotency of Streptomyces sp. to pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, and to find outantifungal activity of Streptomyces filtrate to F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici in chili (Capsicum annuumL. plants. Streptomyces sp. isolation was done by platting method with selective media YMA (ISP4.Identification of Streptomyces sp. used Bergey’s book entitled Manual Determinative Bacteriology.Test inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and in vivo test used by dying the roots of the chili(C.annuum L. plant with F.oxysporum f.sp. capsici and after 30 seconds the roots were dying withStreptomyces sp. culture, furthermore sterile soil on polybag watered by F.oxysporum f.sp. capsicispore and Streptomyces sp. culture at the same time. The result found five isolates Streptomyces sp.with different morphological. The antagonis test showed Streptomyces sp. 4 had ability (82% againstFusarium, Streptomyces sp.1 (72%, Streptomyces sp.2 (64%, Streptomyces sp.3 (76%, andStreptomyces sp. 5 (32%. All Streptomyces suppressed the growth of Fusarium on chili plants inglass house (p<0,05. Streptomyces sp.4 suppressed Fusarium wilt disease in chili from 80% in controlto 8%.

  16. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

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    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  17. Optical sensing method to analyze germination rate of Capsicum annum seeds treated with growth-promoting chemical compounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    Seed germination rate differs based on chemical treatments, and nondestructive measurements of germination rate have become an essential requirement in the field of agriculture. Seed scientists and other biologists are interested in optical sensing technologies-based biological discoveries due to nondestructive detection capability. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful method for biological and plant material discoveries. We report an extended application of OCT by monitoring the germination rate acceleration of chemically primed seeds. To validate the versatility of the method, Capsicum annum seeds were primed using three chemical compounds: sterile distilled water (SDW), butandiol, and 1-hexadecene. Monitoring was performed using a 1310-nm swept source OCT system. The results confirmed more rapid morphological variations in the seeds treated with 1-hexadecene medium than the seeds treated with SDW and butandiol within 8 consecutive days. In addition, fresh weight measurements (gold standard) of seeds were monitored for 15 days, and the obtained results were correlated with the OCT results. Thus, such a method can be used in various agricultural fields, and OCT shows potential as a rigorous sensing method for selecting the optimal plant growth-promoting chemical compounds rapidly, when compared with the gold standard methods.

  18. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  19. Effects of fertigation with purified urban wastewater on soil and pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) production, fruit quality and pollutant contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Delgado, C.; Eymar, E.; Contreras, J. I.; Segura, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    The effects, in greenhouse conditions, of Purified Urban Wastewater (PW) from Almeria (Spain), in the fertigation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on sandy mulch soil, were evaluated. Primary, secondary (active sludges) and tertiary (Chlorination + ozonation) purification treatments were applied to wastewater. Irrigation treatments applied were PW, natural Ground Water (GW), Fertilizer PW (FPW) and Fertilizer GW (FGW). The vegetal biomass, yield and fruit quality were controlled. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu and Zn), arsenic (As) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in water, soil, leaf, and fruit were analysed. The PW presented heavy metal, As and PAH contents acceptable for its use in drip irrigation. In the soil, fertigated with PW, the concentration of heavy metals and As did not increase, whilst the PAH concentration decreased. The PW treatment supplied enough nutrients to obtain yield and fruit quality equal to that of GW with fertilization. A significant saving on N, P and K fertilizers (37%, 66% and 12% respectively) was achieved by using PW. The Cd, Pb and As contents of the fruit did not show risk for human consumption. The total PAH concentrations in the fruit were low, the highest of which was phenathrene, with no carcinogenic signification. (Author) 39 refs.

  20. Developmental landmarks during floral ontogeny of jalapeño chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the effect of gibberellin on ovary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, R; Guevara-Olvera, L; Beltrán, J P; Gómez-Mena, C; Acosta-García, G

    2017-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud. We established a correlation among external flower development and the time and pattern of reproductive organogenesis. Male and female gametogenesis progression was used to define specific landmarks during flower maturation. The pattern of expression of key genes involved in gibberellin metabolism and response was also evaluated in the nine flower stages. The proposed development framework was used to analyze the effect of gibberellin treatments in the development of the flower. We observed both an effect of the treatment in the histology of the ovary tissue and an increase in the level of expression of CaGA2ox1 and CaGID1b genes. The developmental stages we defined for this species are very useful to analyze the molecular and morphological changes after hormonal treatments.