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Sample records for duguetia furfuracea annonaceae

  1. Assessment of Duguetia furfuracea genotoxic and cytotoxic activity in bacteria and mice

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    Carolina R. Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Duguetia furfuracea (St. Hil. Benth & Hook f. (1862, popularly known as "sofre-do-rim-quem-quer" and "araticum-seco", is a shrub of the Annonaceae family that occurs in several regions of Brazil. In folk medicine the infusion of its leaves and twigs is used to treat rheumatism and renal colic, whereas the seed powder is mixed with water to treat pediculosis. Previous studies have described biological activities of this plant with cytotoxic, antitumoral, trypanocidal, leishmanicidal, antiplasmodial and antiprotozoal effects. In the present work, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Duguetia furfuracea lyophilized leaf extract were evaluated using the prophage λ induction test (SOS-Inductest and mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Our results showed that Duguetia furfuracea lyophilized leaf extract did not present an increase either in the induction of prophage λ (P>0.05 using the SOS-inductest or in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (P>0.05 using the micronucleus test, suggesting absence of genotoxicity in both tests. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the number of bacteria, (PDuguetia furfuracea (St. Hil. Benth & Hook f. (1862, popularmente conhecida como "sofre-do-rim-quem-quer" e "araticum-seco", é um arbusto da família Annonaceae que ocorre em várias regiões do Brasil. Na medicina popular a infusão de suas folhas e galhos é usada no tratamento de reumatismo e cólica renal, enquanto que o pó da semente é misturado com água para o tratamento de pediculose. Estudos anteriores têm descrito atividades biológicas desta planta com ação citotóxica, antitumoral, tripanomicida, leishmanicida, antiplasmódica e antiprotozoárica. No presente trabalho, a genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade do extrato liofilizado de folhas de Duguetia furfuracea foram avaliadas pelo teste de indução profago λ (Induteste-SOS e pelo teste do micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. Nossos resultados mostraram que o extrato

  2. Phytochemical Composition, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Duguetia furfuracea A. St.-Hill

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    Pinho, Francisca Valéria Soares de Araújo; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; Rodrigues, Nathane Rosa; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Souza, Celestina Elba Sobral; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Duguetia furfuracea is popular plant used in popular medicine. Hypothesis/Purpose. This claim evaluated the phytochemical composition of the hydroethanolic extract (HEDF), fractions of Duguetia furfuracea, and antioxidant and antifungal activity. Methods. The chemical profile was carried out by HPLC-DAD. The total phenolic contents and flavonoid components were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reaction. The antioxidant activity was measured by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) methods. The antifungal activity was determined by microdilution assay. Results. HPLC analysis revealed caffeic acid and rutin as major compounds (HEDF), caffeic acid and quercitrin (Mt-OH fraction), and quercitrin and isoquercitrin (Ac-OEt fraction). The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were found for Ac-OEt fraction, and the crude extract showed higher in vitro antioxidant potential. The antifungal activity showed synergic effect with fluconazole and EHDF against C. krusei, fluconazole and Mt-OH against C. krusei and C. tropicalis, and Ac-OE and fluconazole against C. albicans. Conclusion. The highest levels of phenols and total flavonoids were marked with antioxidant effect. This is the first report of bioactivity of the synergic effect of HEDF and fractions. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of synergic action. PMID:27127550

  3. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

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    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  4. Aspectos reprodutivos e visitantes florais de Duguetia marcgraviana Mart. (Annonaceae na região sudoeste de Mato Grosso

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    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p69 A biologia e os visitantes florais de Duguetia marcgraviana foram estudados em um fragmento florestal do Município de Tangará da Serra – MT. A fenologia de floração foi acompanhada em oito indivíduos adultos e neles foi contado o número de botões florais e de flores abertas. Para o estudo da biologia floral, flores foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação de frutos. Na morfometria floral, foram contados e medidos os verticilos protetores e reprodutores. A presença e comportamento dos visitantes foram acompanhados em todo o período de floração da espécie. A espécie apresentou período de floração do tipo anual, entre os meses de junho a outubro. A antese dura dois dias e é caracterizada por uma dicogamia sincronizada. As flores são hermafroditas, protogínicas, apresentam cálice e corola carnosos que formam uma câmara de polinização. Coleópteros do gênero Lobiopa sp., Colopterus sp. (Nitidulidae e Epitragus sp. (Tenebrionidae, foram considerados os principais visitantes florais da espécie.

  5. Floral scent compounds of Amazonian Annonaceae species pollinated by small beetles and thrips.

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    Jürgens, A; Webber, A C; Gottsberger, G

    2000-11-01

    Chemical analysis (GC-MS) yielded a total of 58 volatile compounds in the floral scents of six species of Annonaceae distributed in four genera (Xylopia, Anaxagorea, Duguetia, and Rollinia), Xylopia aromatica is pollinated principally by Thysanoptera and secondarily by small beetles (Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae), whereas the five other species were pollinated by Nitidulidae and Staphylinidae only. Although the six Annonaceae species attract a similar array of pollinator groups, the major constituents of their floral scents are of different biochemical origin. The fragrances of flowers of Anaxagorea brevipes and Anaxagorea dolichocarpa were dominated by esters of aliphatic acids (ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate), which were not detected in the other species. Monoterpenes (limonene, p-cymene, alpha-pinene) were the main scent compounds of Duguetia asterotricha, and naphthalene prevailed in the scent of Rollinia insignis flowers. The odors of X. aromatica and Xylopia benthamii flowers were dominated by high amounts of benzenoids (methylbenzoate, 2-phenylethyl alcohol).

  6. Antitumor Properties of the Essential Oil From the Leaves of Duguetia gardneriana.

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    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Neves, Sara P; Menezes, Leociley R A; Dias, Rosane B; Soares, Milena B P; Prata, Ana Paula N; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Duguetia gardneriana, popularly known in the Brazilian northeast as "jaquinha", is a species belonging to the family Annonaceae. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antitumor properties of the essential oil from the leaves of D. gardneriana in experimental models. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed via gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro cytotoxic activity was determined in cultured tumor cells, and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed in B16-F10-bearing mice. The identified compounds were β-bisabolene (80.99%), elemicin (8.04%), germacrene D (4.15%), and cyperene (2.82%). The essential oil exhibited a cytotoxic effect, with IC50 values of 16.89, 19.16, 13.08, and 19.33 µg/mL being obtained for B16-F10, HepG2, HL-60, and K562 cell lines, respectively. On the other hand, β-bisabolene was inactive in all of the tested tumor cell lines (showing IC50 values greater than 25 µg/mL). The in vivo analysis revealed tumor growth inhibition rates of 5.37-37.52% at doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg/day, respectively. Herein, the essential oil from the leaves of D. gardneriana presented β-bisabolene as the major constituent and showed cytotoxic and antitumor potential. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Revision of Oxandra (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junikka, L.; Maas, P.J.M.; Maas-van de Kamer, H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra (Annonaceae). Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few (6) are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies

  8. Synoptic revision of Stenanona (Annonaceae)

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    Schatz, G.E.; Maas, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of a treatment of the Annonaceae for the Flora Mesoamericana necessitates the description of five new species of Stenanona (S. carrillensis, S. hondurensis, S. monticola, S. tuberculata and S. tubiflora); three additional new species are described from Colombia (S. columbiensis and S.

  9. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

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    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  10. A concise bibliographic overview of Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.; Mennega, E.A.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    It is important that taxonomic knowledge is disseminated by those who possess it. This can be carried out via online databases, printed publications or training in taxonomic practice. For Annonaceae, the online database AnnonBase includes all published names of Annonaceae at any rank worldwide.

  11. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

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    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  12. Talaroxanthone, a novel xanthone dimer from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces sp. associated with Duguetia stelechantha (Diels) R.E. Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koolen, Hector H.F.; Universidade Estadual de Campinas; Menezes, Lais S.; Souza, Mayane P.; Silva, Felipe M.A.; Almeida, Fabiana G.O.; Souza, Afonso D.L. de; Souza, Antonia Q.L. de; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Silva, Flavio Henrique da; Evangelista, Danilo Elton

    2013-01-01

    DgCr22.1b, an endophytic isolate of Talaromyces sp., was collected in the Amazonian Rain forest from the medicinal plant Duguetia stelechantha. From the fractionation of the methanolic mycelial extract, a new xanthone dimer talaroxanthone was isolated. The structure of this new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses including 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. (author)

  13. Talaroxanthone, a novel xanthone dimer from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces sp. associated with Duguetia stelechantha (Diels) R.E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector H.F., E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Menezes, Lais S.; Souza, Mayane P.; Silva, Felipe M.A.; Almeida, Fabiana G.O.; Souza, Afonso D.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Silva, Flavio Henrique da; Evangelista, Danilo Elton [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao

    2013-05-15

    DgCr22.1b, an endophytic isolate of Talaromyces sp., was collected in the Amazonian Rain forest from the medicinal plant Duguetia stelechantha. From the fractionation of the methanolic mycelial extract, a new xanthone dimer talaroxanthone was isolated. The structure of this new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses including 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. (author)

  14. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  15. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

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    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  16. Assessing indoor air quality of school environments: transplanted lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a new tool for biomonitoring and bioaccumulation.

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    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Antonucci, Arianna; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the ability of transplanted lichen Pseudovernia (P). furfuracea to biomonitor and bioaccumulate in urban indoor environments. The elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb and 12 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess P. furfuracea as a biomonitoring tool for the indoor air quality of school environments. To achieve this purpose, lichen samples were exposed for 2 months in the outdoor and indoor environments of five school settings located in urban and rural areas. The results demonstrated that transplanted lichen P. furfuracea is a suitable biomonitoring tool for metals and PAHs in indoor settings and can discriminate between different levels of air pollution related to urbanisation and indoor conditions, such as those characterised by school environments. A transplanted lichen biomonitoring strategy is cost-effective, "green", educational for attending children and less "invasive" than traditional air sampling methods. The feasibility of indoor monitoring by P. furfuracea is a relevant finding and could be a key tool to improve air quality monitoring programmes in school scenarios and thus focus on health prevention interventions for children, who are one of the most susceptible groups in the population.

  17. METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS DE LAS FAMILIAS ANNONACEAE,

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    Luis Enrique Castillo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los problemas que ocasionan los insecticidas sintéticos tanto en el ambiente como en la salud humana existe un resurgimiento en investigaciones sobre los extractos de origen vegetal para el control de insectos. Se presenta una revisión de literatura especializada de los trabajos publicados de los diferentes extractos vegetales obtenidos de las familias Annonaceae, Meliaceae y Solanaceae, describiendo los compuestos o mezcla de compuestos obtenidos, así como sus mecanismos de acción que presentan sobre insectos. Las especies vegetales de las tres familias presentan compuestos muy polares. La familia Meliaceae es la más estudiada, con la azadiractina como el compuesto activo más importante. Las acetogeninas, squamocin y annonacin de la familia Annonacea, son las de mayor impacto, mientras que en la familia Solanaceae son los alcaloides y glicósidos esteroidales los principios con mayor bioactividad. La actividad biológica de los metabolitos secundarios ha sido mayor cuando se prueban los extractos, que son mezclas complejas de compuestos secundarios. La mayoría de las investigaciones revisadas han sido bioensayos in vitro para la actividad insecticida, por lo que se desconoce la efectividad de los extractos en campo.

  18. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae)

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    Endress, Peter K.; Armstrong, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with...

  19. Floral development and floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K; Armstrong, Joseph E

    2011-10-01

    Background and Aims Anaxagorea is the phylogenetically basalmost genus in the large tropical Annonaceae (custard apple family) of Magnoliales, but its floral structure is unknown in many respects. The aim of this study is to analyse evolutionarily interesting floral features in comparison with other genera of the Annonaceae and the sister family Eupomatiaceae. Methods Live flowers of Anaxagorea crassipetala were examined in the field with vital staining, liquid-fixed material was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and microtome section series were studied with light microscopy. In addition, herbarium material of two other Anaxagorea species was cursorily studied with the dissecting microscope. Key Results Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea is regularly whorled (with complex whorls) as in all other Annonaceae with a low or medium number of floral organs studied so far (in those with numerous stamens and carpels, phyllotaxis becoming irregular in the androecium and gynoecium). The carpels are completely plicate as in almost all other Annonaceae. In these features Anaxagorea differs sharply from the sister family Eupomatiaceae, which has spiral floral phyllotaxis and ascidiate carpels. Flat stamens and the presence of inner staminodes differ from most other Annonaceae and may be plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea. However, the inner staminodes appear to be non-secretory in most Anaxagorea species, which differs from inner staminodes in other families of Magnoliales (Eupomatiaceae, Degeneriacae, Himantandraceae), which are secretory. Conclusions Floral phyllotaxis in Anaxagorea shows that there is no signature of a basal spiral pattern in Annonaceae and that complex whorls are an apomorphy not just for a part of the family but for the family in its entirety, and irregular phyllotaxis is derived. This and the presence of completely plicate carpels in Anaxagorea makes the family homogeneous and distinguishes it from the closest relatives in Magnoliales.

  20. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Nidia C.; Siqueira, Joao M. de; Rodrigues, Ricardo P.; Correia, Rodolfo P.; Garcez, Walmir S.

    2013-01-01

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (–)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (–)-anonaine, (–)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (–)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  1. An azafluorenone alkaloid and a megastigmane from Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Nidia C., E-mail: nidiayoshida@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei, Divinpolis, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia; Rodrigues, Ricardo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Correia, Rodolfo P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Garcez, Walmir S., E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-04-15

    The azafluorenone alkaloid 5,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-methyl-4-azafluoren-9-one and the megastigman (-)-(5R*, 6S*)-megastigman-3-one-10,7-olide were isolated from aerial parts of Unonopsis lindmanii (Annonaceae), along with the known compounds (3S*,5S*,8R*)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (grasshopper ketone), N-trans-feruloyltyramine, (-)-anonaine, (-)-asimilobine, liriodenine and (-)-syringaresinol. This is the first description of the presence of megastigmanes in Annonaceae. The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. (author)

  2. Plants of the annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frausin, G.; Lima, R.B.S.; Hidalgo, A.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Pohlit, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of

  3. Studies in Annonaceae. IX. New species from the Neotropics and miscellaneous notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Heusden, van E.C.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Setten, van A.K.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1988-01-01

    This paper follows upon an earlier paper in the series “Studies in Annonaceae” (Maas et al. 1986). Twelve new species are described, viz. 2 in Duguetia, 1 in Ephedranthus, 5 in Guatteria, 2 in Hornschuchia, 1 in Tetrameranthus, and 1 in Unonopsis. A new combination is made in Enicosanthellum. Some

  4. Sulphur, nitrogen and carbon content of Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in the Naples urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation ability of the major elements sulphur, nitrogen and carbon by the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in Naples urban area,was investigated. Bags were exposed at the beginning of July 1999 and gathered in two subsequent moments: at the end of the dry season (after 10 weeks of exposure) and during the wet season (after 17 weeks of exposure), to include the effects of rainy conditions. Sulphur and N content of the lichen increased all over the exposure period, while the level of C did not change significantly either after 10 or 17 weeks of exposition. For the moss the S accumulation was limited to the dry period of exposure, whereas N and C content decreased with exposure. Results, in contrast with those obtained in a previous study on trace elements bioaccumulation [Adamo et al., Environmental Pollution, (2003) 122, 91-103], suggest that accumulation of gaseous pollutants is strongly influenced by biomonitor vitality and that lichen bags are a more reliable and effective tool for monitoring S, N and C atmospheric depositions in urban areas compared to moss bags, because of greater lichen resistance to dry and stressing conditions of urban environment. - The lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea is more effective than the moss Sphagnum capillifolium as S and N pollutants biomonitor

  5. Plants of the Annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Frausin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of malaria. Searches in scientific reference sites (SciFinder Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, ScienceDirect and ISI Web of Science and a bibliographic literature search for species of Annonaceae used traditionally to treat malaria and fever were carried out. This family contains 2,100 species in 123 genera. We encountered 113 articles reporting medicinal use of one or more species of this family including 63 species in 27 genera with uses as antimalarials and febrifuges. Even though the same species of Annonaceae are used by diverse ethnic groups, different plant parts are often chosen for applications, and diverse methods of preparation and treatment are used. The ethanol extracts of Polyalthia debilis and Xylopia aromatica proved to be quite active against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (median inhibition concentration, IC50 < 1.5 µg/mL. Intraperitoneal injection of Annickia chlorantha aqueous extracts (cited as Enantia chlorantha cleared chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis from the blood of mice in a dose-dependant manner. More phytochemical profiles of Annonaceous species are required; especially information on the more commonly distributed antimalarial compounds in this family.

  6. Hipanto e tubo estaminal em Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marilda C.; Castro, Marília de M.; Kinoshita, Luiza S.; Semir, João

    1998-01-01

    (Hipanto e tubo estaminal em Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae)). Observou-se, em corte longitudinal de flores de cinco espécies de Xylopia, um anel lenhoso ao redor dos carpelos e sobre ele, inserido de forma espiralada, o conjunto de estames e estaminódios. Para elucidar a natureza desta estrutura, foi realizado um estudo anatômico em flores adultas de Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart., particularmente da vascularização desde a base do receptáculo até os estames, estaminódios e carpel...

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf from the Karabük iron-steel factory in Karabük, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansaran-Duman, Demet; Atakol, Orhan; Atasoy, Ilknur; Kahya, Didem; Aras, Sümer; Beyaztaş, Taylan

    2009-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf lichen specimens were collected every 5 km starting from around an iron-steel factory located in the central area of Karabük province, up to Yenice Forest. Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr contents were analyzed in the samples collected from polluted and unpolluted areas. A Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf sample from Yenice Forest was used as a control. The reason for this choise was the abundance of species diversity, and therefore sample collection might cause a very low impact on natural population density. The forest is among the 100 forested areas that must be urgently taken under protection according to WWF (World Wildlife Fund) researches. Results of the current study manifested significant variations among the contents of these elements between stations. As expected, the pollution sources, such as iron-steel factory, roads and railroads, industry, heavy traffic, and waste treatment plants, have major impact on the heavy metal accumulation in P. furfuracea (L.) Zopf, and, in accordance to their location, samples 8 and 10 displayed high element accumulation. Surprisingly, although Yenice Forest is under protection, results of our study showed that the region is becoming polluted by the influence of many pollution sources in the area. The present study also confirms the efficient metal accumulation capacity of lichens.

  8. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  9. Anatomy of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is of great economic importance to the country, however, information on the anatomical and morphological aspects of Annonaceae family seeds is limited to a few species and the anatomical studies refer to very few seeds. Using histological techniques and microscopy, Annona squamosa L. seeds were studied with regard to their anatomical characteristics. In general, they presented the typical anatomical patterns of seeds of the Annonaceae family. The multilayered testa was comprised of exo-, meso- and endotestas, with the presence of longitudinal and oblique fibers. The embryo was small and straight with moderately developed embryonic axis, rudimentary plumule and flat and thin cotyledons, wherein one could observe the procambium. In particular, the perichalaza was observed in the medium longitudinal plane of the endotesta with more than two rows of vascular tissue. The tegmen or inner integument was collapsed. The micropylar plug was tapered, woody and composed of transverse fibers; a fracture line was also observed. The ruminate endosperm interfered with both the inner and external integuments. Oleiferous idioblasts were observed at the outer edges of the ruminations

  10. Phylogenomics and evolution of floral traits in the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, J.C.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mello-Silva, de R.; Rudall, P.J.; Sajo, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have

  11. Transformações químicas do (+-10b,14-diol-allo-aromadendrano, isolado de duguetia glabriuscula r. e. fries (r. e. fries (annonaceae e avaliações biológicas de alguns derivados obtidos Chemical modifications of (+-allo-aromadendrane-10b,14-diol isolated from duguetia glabriuscula r. e. fries (r. e. fries (annonaceae and biological evaluation of some obtained derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênis Pires de Lima

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpene (+-allo-aromadendrane-10b-14-diol 1 was the lead compound to the preparation of several derivatives in order to test their biological activity against A. salina, C. sphaerospermum, E. coli and S. aureus. In this way the monoalcohols (+-viridiflorol 4, 9 and 11 were synthesized from 1 together with the acetal 6, the ketal 7, and the ketone 8. The oxirane 3 and nitrile 5 were also prepared using as an intermediate the tosylate derivative 2.

  12. Gas exchanges in annonaceae species under different crop protections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the gas exchanges of different species of Annonaceae due to environmental variations provided by different types of crop protection. 'Araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim', 'biribá' and atemoya seedlings were cultived in three different crop protections: nursery, greenhouse and warm house. Gas exchanges were obtained in six plants, from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, with IRGA, LI-6400, at 180 Days After Transplanting. The different types of crop protection had a direct influence on gas exchanges of these species. Thus, nursery provided suitable conditions for 'araticum-de-terra-fria', 'araticum-mirim' and 'biribá', increasing their gas exchanges. To atemoya the best crop protection was the greenhouse.

  13. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae) is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str.) is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies), including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes. We furthermore

  14. Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Morphological Diversification and Generic Delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui-Sze Li

    Full Text Available Taxonomic delimitation of Disepalum (Annonaceae is contentious, with some researchers favoring a narrow circumscription following segregation of the genus Enicosanthellum. We reconstruct the phylogeny of Disepalum and related taxa based on four chloroplast and two nuclear DNA regions as a framework for clarifying taxonomic delimitation and assessing evolutionary transitions in key morphological characters. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods resulted in a consistent, well-resolved and strongly supported topology. Disepalum s.l. is monophyletic and strongly supported, with Disepalum s.str. and Enicosanthellum retrieved as sister groups. Although this topology is consistent with both taxonomic delimitations, the distribution of morphological synapomorphies provides greater support for the inclusion of Enicosanthellum within Disepalum s.l. We propose a novel infrageneric classification with two subgenera. Subgen. Disepalum (= Disepalum s.str. is supported by numerous synapomorphies, including the reduction of the calyx to two sepals and connation of petals. Subgen. Enicosanthellum lacks obvious morphological synapomorphies, but possesses several diagnostic characters (symplesiomorphies, including a trimerous calyx and free petals in two whorls. We evaluate changes in petal morphology in relation to hypotheses of the genetic control of floral development and suggest that the compression of two petal whorls into one and the associated fusion of contiguous petals may be associated with the loss of the pollination chamber, which in turn may be associated with a shift in primary pollinator. We also suggest that the formation of pollen octads may be selectively advantageous when pollinator visits are infrequent, although this would only be applicable if multiple ovules could be fertilized by each octad; since the flowers are apocarpous, this would require an extragynoecial compitum to enable intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes

  15. Secondary metabolismin in Annonaceae: potencial source of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martínez-Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Annona (Annonaceae are used in traditional Mexican medicine by their anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant and tranquilizing properties. It has been reported that the alkaloids isolated from some species of the Annona have affinity to serotonergic 5-HT1A receptors and modulate dopaminergic transmission, which is involved in depressive disorders. In this review it is showed the results of the antidepressant-like effect of an alkaloid extract from the aerial parts of Annona cherimola (TA in mice. The antidepressant-like effect was evaluated in the forced swimming test. To elucidate a possible mechanism of action, experiments of synergism with antidepressant drugs, such as imipramine (IMI, clomipramine (CLIMI, and fluoxetine (FLX, were carried out. The neurotransmitter content (DA: dopamine, 5HT: serotonin and its metabolites, HVA: homovanillic acid and 5HIAA:5-hydroxyindoleacetic in the whole brain of mice were also determined by HPLC method. The results showed that repeated treatment with TA produced antidepressant-like effects in mice. This effect was not related to an increase in locomotor activity. Administration of TA facilitated the antidepressant effect of IMI and CLIMI as well as increased the turnover of DA and 5-HT. The alkaloids: 1,2-dimethoxy-5, 6.6 to 7-tetrahydro-4H-dibenzoquinoline-3,8,9,10-tetraol, anonaine, liriodenine, and nornuciferine were the main constituents of TA.

  16. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T.; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC 50 64.6 ± 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC 50 3.6 ± 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC 50 104.7 ± 0.2 and 34.7 ± 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  18. Cremastosperma (and other evolutionary digressions) : Molecular phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic studies in Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael David

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented of research on a family of flowering plants, the Annonaceae, species of which are found in tropical rainforest across the world. The project focussed on one group of species, the genus Cremastosperma, which is found in the South and Central American tropics. A taxonomic

  19. Historical biogeography of two cosmopolitan families of flowering plants: Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, J.E.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mols, J.B.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Pirie, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Annonaceae are a pantropically distributed family found predominantly in rainforests, so they are megathermal taxa, whereas Rhamnaceae are a cosmopolitan family that tend to be found in xeric regions and may be classified as mesothermal. Phylogenetic analyses of these families are presented based on

  20. Pollen morphology within the Monodora clade, a diverse group of five African Annonaceae genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.; Botermans, M.; Heuven, Van B.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pollen morphology has played a major role in elucidating infrafamiliar-level systematics and evolution within Annonaceae, especially within the African genera. The Monodora clade is composed of five genera, Asteranthe, Hexalobus, Isolona, Monodora and Uvariastrum, which are restricted to Africa and

  1. A new species of the lenticel fungal genus Claviradulomyces (Ostropales) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest tree Xylopia sericea (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, R.W.; Johnston, P.R.; Crous, P.W.; Evans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Claviradulomyces xylopiae sp. nov. is introduced for a fungus occurring in association with abnormal (enlarged, spongy) lenticels of Xylopia sericea (Annonaceae), a common tree of the Atlantic forest and Cerrado ecosystems in Brazil. This is the second species described in the genus and, although it

  2. Revealing the secrets of African annonaceae : systematics, evolution and biogeography of the syncarpous genera Isolona and Monodora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to study the evolution, systematics and biogeography of two African genera from the pan-tropical Annonaceae family: Isolona and Monodora. Both genera are unique within the family in that the female reproductive parts (or carpels) are fused into a single unit. All

  3. Dereplication of depsides from the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea by centrifugal partition chromatography combined to {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettl, Sarah K. [Institute of Pharmacy/Pharmacognosy, Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80–82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Hubert, Jane, E-mail: jane.hubert@univ-reims.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims (UMR CNRS 7312), SFR CAP' sANTE, UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Nuzillard, Jean-Marc [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims (UMR CNRS 7312), SFR CAP' sANTE, UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Stuppner, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacy/Pharmacognosy, Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80–82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Renault, Jean-Hugues [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Reims (UMR CNRS 7312), SFR CAP' sANTE, UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rollinger, Judith M. [Institute of Pharmacy/Pharmacognosy, Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80–82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • The major depsides of a lichen extract were directly identified within mixtures. • The initial extract was rapidly fractionated by CPC in the pH-zone refining mode. • Hierarchical clustering of {sup 13}C NMR signals resulted in the identification of depside molecular skeletons. • {sup 13}C chemical shift clusters were assigned to structures using a {sup 13}C NMR database. • Six depsides were unambiguously identified by this approach. - Abstract: Lichens produce a diversity of secondary metabolites, among them depsides comprised of two or more hydroxybenzoic acid units linked by ester, ether, or C-C-bonds. During classic solid support-based purification processes, depsides are often hydrolyzed and in many cases time, consuming procedures result only in the isolation of decomposition products. In an attempt to avoid extensive purification steps while maintaining metabolite structure integrity, we propose an alternative method to identify the major depsides of a lichen crude extract (Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Parmeliaceae) directly within mixtures. Exploiting the acidic character of depsides and differences in polarity, the extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography in the pH-zone refining mode resulting in twelve simplified mixtures of depsides. After {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the produced fractions, the major molecular structures were directly identified within the fraction series by using a recently developed pattern recognition method, which combines spectral data alignment and hierarchical clustering analysis. The obtained clusters of {sup 13}C chemical shifts were assigned to their corresponding molecular structures with the help of an in-house {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift database, resulting in six unambiguously identified compounds, namely methyl β-orcinolcarboxylate (1), atranorin (2), 5-chloroatranorin (3), olivetol carboxylic acid (4), olivetoric acid (5

  4. Background element content of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea: A supra-national state of art implemented by novel field data from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Elva; Incerti, Guido; Capozzi, Fiore; Adamo, Paola; Bargagli, Roberto; Benesperi, Renato; Candotto Carniel, Fabio; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Giordano, Simonetta; Puntillo, Domenico; Ravera, Sonia; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Tretiach, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    In biomonitoring, the knowledge of background element content (BEC) values is an essential pre-requisite for the correct assessment of pollution levels. Here, we estimated the BEC values of a highly performing biomonitor, the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, by means of a careful review of literature data, integrated by an extensive field survey. Methodologically homogeneous element content datasets, reflecting different exposure conditions across European and extra-European countries, were compiled and comparatively analysed. Element content in samples collected in remote areas was compared to that of potentially enriched samples, testing differences between medians for 25 elements. This analysis confirmed that the former samples were substantially unaffected by anthropogenic contributions, and their metrics were therefore proposed as a first overview at supra-national background level. We also showed that bioaccumulation studies suffer a huge methodological variability. Limited to original field data, we investigated the background variability of 43 elements in 62 remote Italian sites, characterized in GIS environment for anthropization, land use, climate and lithology at different scale resolution. The relationships between selected environmental descriptors and BEC were tested using Principal Component Regression (PCR) modelling. Elemental composition resulted significantly dependent on land use, climate and lithology. In the case of lithogenic elements, regression models correctly reproduced the lichen content throughout the country at randomly selected sites. Further descriptors should be identified only for As, Co, and V. Through a multivariate approach we also identified three geographically homogeneous macro-regions for which specific BECs were provided for use as reference in biomonitoring applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dereplication of depsides from the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea by centrifugal partition chromatography combined to 13C nuclear magnetic resonance pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettl, Sarah K.; Hubert, Jane; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Stuppner, Hermann; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The major depsides of a lichen extract were directly identified within mixtures. • The initial extract was rapidly fractionated by CPC in the pH-zone refining mode. • Hierarchical clustering of 13 C NMR signals resulted in the identification of depside molecular skeletons. • 13 C chemical shift clusters were assigned to structures using a 13 C NMR database. • Six depsides were unambiguously identified by this approach. - Abstract: Lichens produce a diversity of secondary metabolites, among them depsides comprised of two or more hydroxybenzoic acid units linked by ester, ether, or C-C-bonds. During classic solid support-based purification processes, depsides are often hydrolyzed and in many cases time, consuming procedures result only in the isolation of decomposition products. In an attempt to avoid extensive purification steps while maintaining metabolite structure integrity, we propose an alternative method to identify the major depsides of a lichen crude extract (Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Parmeliaceae) directly within mixtures. Exploiting the acidic character of depsides and differences in polarity, the extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography in the pH-zone refining mode resulting in twelve simplified mixtures of depsides. After 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the produced fractions, the major molecular structures were directly identified within the fraction series by using a recently developed pattern recognition method, which combines spectral data alignment and hierarchical clustering analysis. The obtained clusters of 13 C chemical shifts were assigned to their corresponding molecular structures with the help of an in-house 13 C NMR chemical shift database, resulting in six unambiguously identified compounds, namely methyl β-orcinolcarboxylate (1), atranorin (2), 5-chloroatranorin (3), olivetol carboxylic acid (4), olivetoric acid (5), and olivetonide (6)

  6. Nutritious tissue in petals of Annonaceae and its function in pollination by scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding of pollinating dynastid-scarab beetles on nutritious tissue of Annonaceae flowers results in macroscopically visible gnawing marks on petals. In the present paper, we present and discuss examples of such gnawing marks on Annonaceae from the Cerrado and the Amazon Forest in Brazil. The localization of gnawing marks on the petals and the histochemistry of the nutritious tissues are emphasized. In some species, nutritious tissue is apparently distributed among all petals, while in other species it is more or less diffusely localized. There are also cases in which nutritious tissue occurs only on clearly localized regions of the inner petals. Petals of selected Amazon species were stained, and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The nutritious tissue consists of cells with mucilage-rich walls, which contain starch, lipids and/or tannins. Starch and lipids are not only energy-rich food for the beetles but are apparently also “fuel” for metabolic heating of the flowers, which is a further benefit for the pollinators inside the pollination chamber.

  7. Phylogenomics and evolution of floral traits in the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J C; Chatrou, L W; Mello-Silva, R; Rudall, P J; Sajo, M G

    2018-01-01

    Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have arisen several times in different lineages. The majority of androdioecious species of Annonaceae belong to the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae. In addition to these species, Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti was recently confirmed to be androdioecious. Here, we describe the morphology of male and bisexual flowers of Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti, and investigate the evolution of androdioecy in Malmeeae. The phylogeny of tribe Malmeeae was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood of 32 taxa, using DNA sequences of 66 molecular markers of the chloroplast genome, sequenced by next generation sequencing. The reconstruction of ancestral states was performed for characters associated with sexual systems and floral morphology. The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed three main groups in Malmeeae, (Malmea (Cremastosperma, Pseudoxandra)) sister to the rest of the tribe, and (Unonopsis (Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum)) sister to (Mosannona, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus fragrans, Pseudomalmea, Ruizodendron ovale). Hermaphroditism is plesiomorphic in the tribe, with four independent evolutions of androdieocy, which represents a synapomorphy of two groups, one that includes three genera and 14 species, the other with a single genus of seven species. Male flowers are unisexual from inception and bisexual flowers possess staminodes and functional stamens. Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti is structurally androdioecious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavonoides em Annonaceae: ocorrência e propriedades biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara dos Reis Nunes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão descreve algumas propriedades biológicas e químicas, bem como os usos etnobotânicos e farmacológicos de algumas substâncias isoladas a partir do gênero Annona (família Annonaceae. As espécies dessa família possuem distribuição tropical e subtropical. A Annona muricata L., em especial, possui proeminência na economia de frutos tropicais, além de ser quimicamente caracterizada pela presença de substâncias fenólicas e terpênicas. Logo, este trabalho destaca a importância e ocorrência desses metabólitos, bem como suas atividades biológicas.

  9. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C.; Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S.; Matos, A.I.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI 50 ) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI 50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs

  10. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  11. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  12. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  13. Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics support the description of a second species of Tridimeris (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Escobar-Castellanos, Marcos Alberto; Pérez-Farrera, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on phylogenetic and morphological evidence, Tridimeris chiapensis Escobar-Castellanos & Ortiz-Rodr., sp. n. (Annonaceae), a new species from the karst forest of southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from Tridimeris hahniana, the only described species in the genus, in that the latter has flowers with sepals densely tomentose outside, one (rarely two) carpel(s) per flower and fruits densely covered with golden-brown hairs, while Tridimeris chiapensis has flowers with glabrous sepals outside, two to five carpels per flower and glabrous fruits. Furthermore, a shallow triangular white patch at the base of the inner petals is found in Tridimeris chiapensis, a morphological character shared with the sister genus Sapranthus but absent in Tridimeris hahniana. Geographically, both species occur allopatrically. With just one known locality and seven individuals of Tridimeris chiapensis recorded in one sampling hectare, and based on application of the criteria established by the IUCN, we conclude tentatively that the species is critically endangered. PMID:28127237

  14. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S.; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI 50 values lower than 20.0 μmol L - 1 (10.5and 16.2μmolL -1 , respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  15. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  16. Essential oil from the leaves of Xylopia langsdorfiana (Annonaceae) as a possible spasmolytic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana Carolina de C; Ferreira, Tamyris F; Martins, Italo Rossi R; Macêdo, Cibério L; Monteiro, Fabio de S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Rigoni, Vera L S; Nouailhetas, Viviane L A; Da Silva, Bagnólia A

    2015-01-01

    Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St.-Hil. &Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known in the northeast of Brazil as 'pimenteira da terra', and an essential oil (XL-OE) was extracted from its leaves. Since Xylopia species are cited in folk medicine and diterpenes from X. langsdorfiana have spasmolytic activity, this study aimed to investigate a possible spasmolytic action of XL-OE on smooth muscle models. XL-OE (243 and 729 μg/mL) showed low pharmacologic efficacy on guinea pig trachea and rat aorta and uterus. However, in guinea pig ileum, XL-OE (27-729 μg/mL) inhibited carbachol or histamine-induced phasic contractions (1 μM) in a significant and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, XL-OE (81 μg/mL) reduced fluorescence intensity in ileal myocytes stimulated by histamine, indicating a decrease in cytosolic calcium concentration, which could explain the spasmolytic activity. Thus, XL-OE proved to be a promising natural product to be used in gastrointestinal diseases acting by modulating the cytosolic calcium concentration.

  17. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  18. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  19. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  20. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and 13C NMR data of diterpenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Falcao, Emanuela Viana; Silva, Luana de Morais e; Soares, Gabriela Cristina da Silva; Scotti, Marcus Tullius

    2012-01-01

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from 13 C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  1. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA DO GÊNERO ANNONA (ANNONACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Annona L. pertence à família Annonaceae e compreende aproximadamente 162 espécies de árvores e arbustos. É considerado o principal gênero desta família, por apresentar espécies frutíferas de importante valor comercial, mas também por apresentar espécies com propriedades biológicas interessantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma prospecção tecnológica do gênero Annona, analisando a participação do país nos depósitos de pedido de patente em bases nacionais e internacionais até o momento. Para isso, a prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patentes, no banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual, no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes e no banco de dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial do Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que o Tratado de Cooperação de Patentes (PCT, os Estados Unidos e o Escritório Europeu de Patentes (EPO são os principais depositários de documentos envolvendo espécies de Annona. O maior número de patentes foi depositado em 2010. A classificação internacional mais abundante nessa prospecção foi C12N, seguida por A01H e A61K.

  2. Antitumor effect of the essential oil from leaves of Guatteria pogonopus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do N Fontes, José Eraldo; Ferraz, Rosana P C; Britto, Anny C S; Carvalho, Adriana A; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Guatteria pogonopus Martius, a plant belonging to the Annonaceae family, is found in the remaining Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In this study, the chemical composition and antitumor effects of the essential oil isolated from leaves of G. pogonopus was investigated. The chemical composition of the oil was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against three different tumor cell lines (OVCAR-8, NCI-H358M, and PC-3M), and the in vivo antitumor activity was tested in mice bearing sarcoma 180 tumor. A total of 29 compounds was identified and quantified in the oil. The major compounds were γ-patchoulene (13.55%), (E)-caryophyllene (11.36%), β-pinene (10.37%), germacrene D (6.72%), bicyclogermacrene (5.97%), α-pinene (5.33%), and germacrene B (4.69%). The essential oil, but neither (E)-caryophyllene nor β-pinene, displayed in vitro cytotoxicity against all three tumor cell lines tested. The obtained average IC50 values ranged from 3.8 to 20.8 μg/ml. The lowest and highest values were obtained against the NCI-H358M and the OVCAR-8 cell lines, respectively. The in vivo tumor-growth-inhibition rates in the tumor-bearing mice treated with essential oil (50 and 100 mg/kg/d) were 25.3 and 42.6%, respectively. Hence, the essential oil showed significant in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB además de recoger información con productores de comunidades rurales y recorridos de campo en estados del país donde las anonáceas se distribuyen. En México se encuentran 14 géneros y 63 especies de Annonaceae distribuidas principalmente en regiones tropicales del Sureste de México. La conservación in situ es esporádica, se está dando en huertos de traspatio para la guanábana (Annona muricata, chirimoya (A. cherimola, chincuya (A. purpurea y saramuyo (A. squamosa principalmente. La anona (A. reticulata, ilama (A. diversifolia y chincuya (A. purpurea son fomentadas pero no multiplicadas. La conservación ex situ se mantiene en bancos de germoplasma in vivo o colecciones de trabajo para guanábana (30 colectas, chirimoya (70 colectas e ilama (100 colectas solamente. Las semillas de estas especies no son ortodoxas y su conservación a mediano y largo plazo no está resuelta en México. El potencial de cultivo para este grupo de frutales es alto pero problemas de falta de variedades, fitosanidad, falta de tecnología y mercados reducidos limitan el cultivo comercial.

  4. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: a synergistic approach using multiple nitidulid lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Cline, Andrew R; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Atemoya, a hybrid between Annona squamosa (L.) and A. cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to fruit production throughout the world is low fruit-set because of inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We identified beetle visitors to atemoya flowers in an orchard in Puerto Rico and used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures. The most common visitors to atemoya flowers were an unidentified Europs species (Coleoptera: Monotomidae), followed by Loberus testaceus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), neither of which have been previously reported as visitors to Annona flowers. The commercial lures attracted few or no beetles when used separately, but attracted a large number of beetles, especially Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Europs, when used in combination. This attraction is synergistic and increases with dose at the doses assayed (0-4 lures), and decreases over time with >50% of trap captures occurring in the first week and no beetles collected after 5 wk. This is the first report of aggregation pheromone lures in nitidulids acting synergistically to attract other species, including beetles not in the Nitidulidae. The results are discussed as they pertain to increasing fruit set, as well as the potential for altering fruit size and shape in atemoya.

  5. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae), including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin Cheung; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2015-09-01

    Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015) [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers) of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated).

  6. Molecular and morphological data supporting phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae, including a reassessment of previous infrageneric classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of the species-rich early-divergent angiosperm genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae (Tang et al., Mol. Phylogenetic Evol., 2015 [1], inferred using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences. The data includes a list of primers for amplification and sequencing for nine cpDNA regions: atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, psbM-trnD, rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G, and ycf1, the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers of 67 ingroup Goniothalamus accessions and 14 outgroup accessions selected from across the tribe Annoneae, and aligned data matrices for each gene region. We also present our Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions for Goniothalamus, with information on previous infrageneric classifications superimposed to enable an evaluation of monophyly, together with a taxon-character data matrix (with 15 morphological characters scored for 66 Goniothalamus species and seven other species from the tribe Annoneae that are shown to be phylogenetically correlated.

  7. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Falcao, Emanuela Viana; Silva, Luana de Morais e; Soares, Gabriela Cristina da Silva; Scotti, Marcus Tullius, E-mail: mtscotti@ccae.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente

    2012-07-01

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  8. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  9. Investigação do potencial químico e farmacológico de Xylopia sericea A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Renata de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Xylopia sericea, Annonaceae, espécie nativa do Brasil, é conhecida popularmente como “embiriba”, “banana-de-macaco”, “pindaíba”, “pimenta-de-macaco”. Além do uso das sementes como condimento, a espécie é utilizada no paisagismo, na indústria caseira de cordoaria e para fins medicinais no tratamento da dor, inflamação e desordens gastrointestinais. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram contribuir com o estudo de alguns dos usos medicinais da espécie e ampliar o conhecimento acerca de seu potencial...

  10. Insecticidal Effect of Fruit Extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Efecto Insecticida de Extractos de Fruta de Xylopia aethiopica y Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae contra Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A . Ukeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L., an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during Fi progeny emergence. The essential oils of both plants were also applied at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cm-2 filter paper in Petri dishes for toxicity bioassays at 24 h exposure. Repellence bioassay with 10 μL solution of essential oils on filter paper was performed in a Y-Tube airflow olfactometer. Results indicate that powders of both plants significantly (P La actividad insecticida y repelente de los extractos frutales de Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. y Dennettia tripetala (Baker f. G.E. Schatz pertenecientes a la familia Annonaceae fueron evaluados contra Sitophilus oryzae (L., plaga primaria de importancia económica en poscosecha de arroz y otros cereales. Granos de arroz (100 g infestados tratados con polvos de ambas plantas al 1, 2, 3, 4, y 5% (p/p fueron evaluados para la toxicidad contra S. oryzae cada 24 h por 3 d y durante la emergencia de la progenie F1. Los aceites esenciales de ambas plantas también fueron aplicados en papel filtro a 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 mg cm-2 en cajas de Petri para bioensayos de toxicidad con exposición de 24 h. Bioensayos de repelencia con 10 μL de solución de los aceites esenciales impregnados en papel filtro fueron realizados en un olfatómetro de flujo de aire Y-Tube. Los resultados indican que los polvos de ambas plantas causan una mortalidad significativa de estos insectos (P < 0,001 y una reducción en la emergencia de la progenie F1 con relación al control. Los aceites esenciales también mostraron un efecto adulticida significativo (P < 0,001 despu

  11. The reproductive biology of the early-divergent genus Anaxagorea (Annonaceae, and its significance for the evolutionary development of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Data of six studied Neotropical Anaxagorea species are analyzed and discussed with respect to the population structure, flowering phenology, flower morphology, anthesis, scent emission, thermogenesis, floral visitors, breeding system, fruit-set and seed dispersal. The probably reason for the patchy distribution of small populations of Anaxagorea species within lowland tropical forests is given. A novel explanation of the functional significance of ruminate endosperm is presented. Flowering of the species follows either the annual or the continuous flowering pattern. All studied species have diurnal, two-day lasting, protogynous anthesis; several species have thermogenic flowers. Self-compatibility appears to be the prevailing reproductive system in the genus. However, there is a strong tendency for effecting cross-pollination. Floral scent of Anaxagorea species contains fruit-like components, and the pollinators, primarily Nitidulidae (Colopterus spp. are attracted by deceit. Strong scenting pollination chambers occur also in most other cantharophilous Annonaceae. Novel floral developments are apparent mainly in fly-, cockroach- and bee-pollinated Annonaceae, which have patterns different from cantharophilous species and exhibit open flowers with reflexed petals, which allow their pollinators to reach and touch the reproductive organs.

  12. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.Primeiro registro e redescrição morfológica de Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae em Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae no Brazil. Este é o primeiro registro de um ataque severo de Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae em árvores de Annona squamosa L. (pinheira ou fruta-do-conde, resultando em perdas de aproximadamente 80% das plantas infestadas. Com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação deste inseto-praga, foi feita a redescrição da fêmea adulta de T. morio com base em espécimes coletados em Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brasil.

  13. Beetle pollination and flowering rhythm of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae in Brazilian cerrado: Behavioral features of its principal pollinators.

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    Marilza Silva Costa

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable management of Annona coriacea requires knowledge of its floral and reproductive biology, and of its main pollinators and their life cycles. In this work, we analyzed these aspects in detail. Floral biology was assessed by observing flowers from the beginning of anthesis to senescence. The visiting hours and behavior of floral visitors in the floral chamber were recorded, as were the sites of oviposition. Excavations were undertaken around specimens of A. coriacea to determine the location of immature pollinators. Anthesis was nocturnal, starting at sunset, and lasted for 52-56 h. The flowers were bisexual, protogynous and emitted a strong scent similar to the plant´s own ripe fruit. There was pronounced synchrony among all floral events (the period and duration of stigmatic receptivity, release of odor, pollen release and drooping flowers in different individuals, but no synchrony in the same individuals. All of the flowers monitored were visited by beetle species of the genera Cyclocephala and Arriguttia. Beetles arrived at the flowers with their bodies covered in pollen and these pollen grains were transferred to the stigmata while foraging on nutritious tissues at the base of the petals. With dehiscence of the stamens and retention within the floral chamber, the bodies of the floral visitors were again covered with pollen which they carried to newly opened flowers, thus promoting the cycle of pollination. After leaving the flowers, female beetles often excavated holes in the soil to lay eggs. Larvae were found between the leaf litter and the first layer of soil under specimens of A. coriacea. Cyclocephala beetles were the main pollinators of A. coriacea, but Arriguttia brevissima was also considered a pollinator and is the first species of this genus to be observed in Annonaceae flowers. Annona coriacea was found to be self-compatible with a low reproductive efficiency in the area studied. The results of this

  14. First fossil record of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. (Annonaceae from the Late Oligocene sediments of Assam, India and comments on its phytogeography.

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    Gaurav Srivastava

    Full Text Available A new fossil leaf impression of Alphonsea Hk. f. & T. of the family Annonaceae is described from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India. This is the first authentic record of the fossil of Alphonsea from the Tertiary rocks of South Asia. The Late Oligocene was the time of the last significant globally warm climate and the fossil locality was at 10°-15°N palaeolatitude. The known palaeoflora and sedimentological studies indicate a fluvio-marine deltaic environment with a mosaic of mangrove, fluvial, mire and lacustrine depositional environments. During the depositional period the suturing between the Indian and Eurasian plates was not complete to facilitate the plant migration. The suturing was over by the end of the Late Oligocene/beginning of Early Miocene resulting in the migration of the genus to Southeast Asia where it is growing profusely at present. The present study is in congruence with the earlier published palaeofloral and molecular phylogenetic data. The study also suggests that the Indian plate was not only a biotic ferry during its northward voyage from Gondwana to Asia but also a place for the origin of several plant taxa.

  15. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.S.; De Paula, J.E.; Dégallier, Nicolas; Molez, Jean-François; Espindola, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extracts from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 mu g/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (> 65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these, Duguetia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 mu g/ml, respectively. Annon...

  16. (annonaceae) leaves-a potential antimalarial drug

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia species are widely available in West Africa. Xylopia parviflora (Benth) plant is used in folk medicine in the management of a number of ailments, one of these is the use of the leaves in the treatment of malaria fever for which a number of patients have reported its beneficial effects. This study was designed to ...

  17. Alkaloids and other constituents from Xylopia langsdorffiana (Annonaceae); Alcaloides e outros constituintes de Xylopia langsdorffiana (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Queiroga, Karine Formiga; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: marcelosobral@ltf.ufpb.br; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Colegiado de Medicina; Silva, Samia Andricia Souza da [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Escola de Enfermagem e Farmacia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Xylopia langsdorffiana led to the isolation of corytenchine, xylopinine, discretamine, xylopine, ent-atisan-16{alpha}-hydroxy-18-oic acid, 13{sup 2} (S) hydroxy-17{sup 3}-ethoxyphaephorbide and quercetin-3-{alpha}-rhamnoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activities of discretamine were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl- 2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  18. In vitro acaricidal efficacy of plant extracts from Brazilian flora and isolated substances against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Paula Pimentel; Amorim, Juliana Mendes; Castilho, Rachel Oliveira; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus microplus causes significant losses in livestock cattle and has developed increasing resistance to the primary acaricides that are used to treat these infections. The objective of this study was to identify new biomolecules or isolated substances showing acaricidal activity from plants. Larval packet tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of 11 species of plants and three isolated substances (betulinic acid, eugenol, and nerolidol) on R. microplus. An adult female immersion test was performed with the substance that showed the highest larvicidal activity, which was evaluated for inhibition of reproduction. Tests using Licania tomentosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron obovatum, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Jacaranda ulei, Struthanthus polyrhizus, Chrysobalanus icaco, Vernonia phosphorea, Duguetia furfuracea, and Simarouba versicolor extracts as well as the isolated substance betulinic acid indicated lower acaricidal effects on R. microplus larvae. The extract displaying the best larvicidal activity was the ethanolic extract from L. tomentosa at a concentration of 60%, resulting in a mortality rate of 40.3%. However, nerolidol and eugenol showed larvicidal activity, which was highest for eugenol. Nerolidol caused a 96.5% mortality rate in the R. microplus larvae at a high concentration of 30%, and eugenol caused 100% mortality at a concentration of 0.3%. In the adult immersion test, 5% eugenol was identified as a good biomolecule for controlling R. microplus, as demonstrated by its high acaricidal activity and inhibition of oviposition.

  19. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  20. Feeding preference of Plutella xylostella for leaves treated with plant extracts

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    IRYS F.S. COUTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plutella xylostella L. is one of the main agents to cause damages to plants of Brassica genus, provoking negative impacts in cultures. The use of botanical extracts in plants protection has been related in literature, however, their use in the species analyzed in this study is not yet reported. We assessed the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the species: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Pink Pepper, Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum, Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil. Benth. & Hook. (Pindaúva do campo and Trichilia silvatica C. DC. (Catiguá-branco, occuring in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and whose feeding preference of P. xylostella larvae of 3rd instar. We intend to answer the following questions: (1 Are the plant species analyzed fagodeterrentes? (2 what type of extract produces the least food preferrence? To answer these questions, we treated cabbage disks with aqueous extracts stored in a refrigerator in periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and the methanolic extracts were treated at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 2.0mg/mL. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of T. silvatica presented the lowest values of feeding preference, 0.113 and 0.06, respectively, compared to other extracts.

  1. Anti-yeast potential of some Annonaceae species from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Taffou Taffou, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou, Elisabeth Zeuko'o Menkem, Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe, Alvine Ngoutane Mfopa, Marguerite Simo Kamdem, Vincent Ngouana, Ide Flavie Kenfack Tsague, Fabrice Fekam Boyom ...

  2. Studies in Annonaceae. XI. Monograph of Rollinia: preliminary notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1988-01-01

    In this precursory paper to the forthcoming Flora Neotropica monograph of Rollinia 12 new species are described. One new combination is made, and there is a note on the correct author citation for Rollinia dolabripetala. Mr. E. J. van Marle, a former student at the University of Utrecht, contributed

  3. Original Paper Anti-yeast potential of some Annonaceae species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIC values ranged from 0.625 mg/mL (for the leaf extract of Uvaria .... triterpenes, anthocyanins, essential oils and steroids .... parameters of promising extracts and ..... mback MNL, Menkem EZ, Fall AD,. Bassene E, Boyom FF. 2014. Optimized.

  4. Alkaloids and other constituents from Xylopia langsdorffiana (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcelo Sobral da; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Queiroga, Karine Formiga; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Silva, Samia Andricia Souza da

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Xylopia langsdorffiana led to the isolation of corytenchine, xylopinine, discretamine, xylopine, ent-atisan-16α-hydroxy-18-oic acid, 13 2 (S) hydroxy-17 3 -ethoxyphaephorbide and quercetin-3-α-rhamnoside. Their structures were assigned based on spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional NMR techniques. Antioxidant activities of discretamine were measured using the 1,2-diphenyl- 2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. (author)

  5. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  6. Alphonsea glandulosa (Annonaceae, a New Species from Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bine Xue

    Full Text Available Alphonsea glandulosa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan Province in south-west China. It is easily distinguished from all previously described Alphonsea species by the possession of glandular tissue at the base of the adaxial surface of the inner petals. Nectar was observed throughout the flowering period, including the pistillate phase and subsequent staminate phase. Small curculionid beetles were observed as floral visitors and are inferred to be effective pollinators since they carry pollen grains. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the placement of this new species within Alphonsea and the evolution of the inner petal glands and specialized pollinator reward tissues throughout the family.

  7. Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Stenanona Flagelliflora (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, L. X.; Castro, D. M. F.; Hernandez, A. R. A.; Villanueva, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Stenanona flagelliflora was described in 2004. There are no studies on its biology. The goal of this study was to document some aspects of its reproductive biology. The particular objectives were to: i) describe the variation on vegetative and floral traits; ii) establish the composition of the community of floral visitors; iii) estimate the mating system and reproductive success; and, iv) establish the relationship between vegetative traits and reproductive success. The study was conducted within the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Veracruz, Mexico. We quantified several vegetative and floral traits; conducted observations and collected floral visitors; and determined the mating system and reproductive success. Stenanona flagelliflora has relatively few stamens and carpels, but a relatively high viability of pollen grains. The most abundant floral visitors were dipterans from the Phoridae Family. Mating system is between xenogamous and facultative xenogamous; thus, pollination depends upon pollen vectors. Fruit-set was relatively high; but seed-set was very low, because most monocarps did not contain seeds. Our results suggest that reproduction of S. flagelliflora is not limited by resource availability, but by pollinator frequency and effectiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the reproductive biology of a species within the Stenanona genus. (author)

  8. Sesquiterpenos e hidrocarbonetos dos frutos de Xylopia emarginata (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Moreira

    Full Text Available O extrato hexânico dos frutos de Xylopia emarginata foi particionado entre hexano e MeOH/H2O. A fase hidroalcoólica foi submetida à separação cromatográfica fornecendo quatro sesquiterpenos: óxido de cariofileno, espatulenol, 1beta,6alfa-diidroxi-4(15-eudesmeno e 4-hidroxi-1,15-peróxieudesmano. A fase hexânica foi fracionada através de cromatografia em coluna fornecendo dois hidrocarbonetos (nonadecano e 1-nonadeceno e uma cetona alifática (hentriacontan-16-ona. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram estabelecidas através de análise espectroscópica, principalmente RMN e EM.

  9. A new species of Alphonsea (Annonaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, I.M.; Utteridge, T.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Alphonsea rugosa sp. nov. is described from eastern Peninsular Malaysia. It is similar to Alphonsea elliptica but has fruits that are dry wrinkled and glabrous rather than smooth and tomentose. A conservation assessment of Vulnerable based on collections from four locations is made.

  10. Karyotype studies in some species of the family annonaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pair of satellited chromosomes was observed in the genome of Greenwayodendron suaveolens and Cleistopholis patens. The centromeric positions in the species of ... The karyotypic patterns suggest that there is no evidence of chromosome rearrangement in their evolution. IFE Journal of Science Vol. 9 (2) 2007 pp.

  11. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  12. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids and other constituents from the stem of Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dayanne Meneses; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Socrates Cabral de Holanda [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Salvador, Marcos Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Bioquimica; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract from the stem of Xylopia laevigata led to the isolation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 4-epi-kaurenic acid, ent-16{beta}-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-kauran-19-al, ent-3{beta}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-16{beta},17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, as well as spathulenol and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The identification of the compounds was performed on the basis of spectrometric methods including GC-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR. Potent larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC{sub 50} of 62.7 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was found for ent-3{beta}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. This compound also showed significant antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis with MIC values of 62.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. (author)

  13. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells

  14. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga." This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  15. Chemical constituents isolated from the bark of Guatteria blepharophylla (Annonaceae) and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Emmanoel V.; Marques, Francisco de Assis; Maia, Beatriz H.L.N.S.; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B.; Braga, Raquel M.; Delarmelina, Camila; Duarte, Marta Cristina T.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical study of the bark of Guatteria blepharophylla (Mart.) Mart. afforded twelve compounds, namely two sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene oxide (1) and spathulenol (3), one xanthone, lichexanthone (2), a mixture of steroids, b-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5), and seven isoquinoline alkaloids, O-methylmoschatoline (6), lysicamine (7), nornuciferine (8), liriodenine (9), isocoreximine (10), subsessiline (11), and isomoschatoline (12). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-6, 11 and 12 were reported for the first time in this species. The 13 C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) data for the compounds 11 and 12 are described for the first time in the literature. The antiproliferative activity against human tumour cell lines and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the major compounds. Compound 9 showed significant activity against cell lines of breast (MCF-7, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7), superior to the positive control doxorubicin. Compound 12 presented antifungal activity similar to the positive control nystatin against Candida albicans. (author)

  16. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and Mosannona (Annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking Neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Maas, P.J.M.; Wilschut, R.A.; Melchers-Sharrott, H.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  17. Parallel diversifications of Cremastosperma and mosannona (annonaceae), tropical rainforest trees tracking neogene upheaval of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, Michael D.; Maas, Paul J.M.; Wilschut, Rutger A.; Melchers-Sharrott, Heleen; Chatrou, Lars W.

    2018-01-01

    Much of the immense present day biological diversity of Neotropical rainforests originated from the Miocene onwards, a period of geological and ecological upheaval in South America. We assess the impact of the Andean orogeny, drainage of Lake Pebas and closure of the Panama isthmus on two clades of

  18. Whither Polyalthia (Annonaceae in Peninsular Malaysia? Synopses of Huberantha, Maasia, Monoon and Polyalthia s.s.

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    Ian M. Turner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An updated classification of Polyalthia in Peninsular Malaysia is presented. A synopsis (listing of species with synonymy and typification, and keys to species is presented for the genera Huberantha, Maasia, Monoon and Polyalthia sensu stricto. One new species (Polyalthia pakdin I.M.Turner & Utteridge sp. nov. is described and a conservation assessment presented for it. Monoon xanthopetalum Merr. represents a new record for Peninsular Malaysia. Six new lectotypes are designated.

  19. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids and other constituents from the stem of Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dayanne Meneses; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valeria Regina de Souza; Cavalcanti, Socrates Cabral de Holanda; Salvador, Marcos Jose; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Barison, Andersson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract from the stem of Xylopia laevigata led to the isolation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoids, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 4-epi-kaurenic acid, ent-16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-kauran-19-al, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-16β,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid, as well as spathulenol and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. The identification of the compounds was performed on the basis of spectrometric methods including GC-MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR. Potent larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC 50 of 62.7 μg mL -1 was found for ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid. This compound also showed significant antifungal activity against Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis with MIC values of 62.5 μg mL -1 . (author)

  20. STUDI STRUKTUR EPIDERMIS DAUN Dasymaschalon blumei Finet & Ganep. (Annonaceae DI JAWA DAN SUMATERA

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    Subekti Nurmawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dasymaschalon blumei Finet & Gagnep. Is one of the species from the genus Dasymaschalon (Hook. F & Thomson Dalla Torre & Harms which can be recognized from its peculiar moniliform fruits. It widespread in Java and Sumatera. An anatomical of leaves from herbarium specimens of D. blumei collected from Java and Sumatera has been carried out by using light microscope in Herbarium Bogoriense. The objectives of this study is to observe the leaves anatomy of D. blumei and to support the classification of  the species concept of D. blumei.  The specimens are divided into three categories based on the elevation, those were: specimens collected from 500 m of sea level. The result showed that from the epidermal section, the type of the stomata from the three categories were similar, and also the number and the index of the stomata. Variations however exists because of the environment factors.

  1. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae seed germination: morphological and anatomical changes

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    Fabio Ernesto Martínez-Maldonado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anon or sugar apple is a species of the Annona genus, widely distributed in the world and in Colombia and a fruit with great potential in domestic and international markets. However, the technical information related to the aspects of propagation and production is limited. In the present study, the morphological and anatomical changes during seed germination of the sugar apple were determined using histological techniques and photographic records. The results show that seed germination is a process that takes place in two stages: testa rupture and endosperm rupture-radicle protrusion. In the post-germination stages, the induction and formation of lateral roots that were endogenously produced from the primary root from the pericycle were seen. The endosperm underwent morphological changes that increased its volume during imbibition and degraded in the final stages of germination, which could be indicative of endosperm weakening and reduction of mechanical strength imposed by embryo growth, which was required to complete germination in A. squamosa

  2. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

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    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  3. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  4. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutze�s method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  5. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutzes method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  6. Chemical constituents isolated from the bark of Guatteria blepharophylla (Annonaceae) and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel V.; Marques, Francisco de Assis; Maia, Beatriz H.L.N.S., E-mail: noronha@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (DQ/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (DQ/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braga, Raquel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Delarmelina, Camila; Duarte, Marta Cristina T.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Microbiologia e Div. Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2011-07-01

    Phytochemical study of the bark of Guatteria blepharophylla (Mart.) Mart. afforded twelve compounds, namely two sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene oxide (1) and spathulenol (3), one xanthone, lichexanthone (2), a mixture of steroids, b-sitosterol (4), and stigmasterol (5), and seven isoquinoline alkaloids, O-methylmoschatoline (6), lysicamine (7), nornuciferine (8), liriodenine (9), isocoreximine (10), subsessiline (11), and isomoschatoline (12). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-6, 11 and 12 were reported for the first time in this species. The {sup 13}C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) data for the compounds 11 and 12 are described for the first time in the literature. The antiproliferative activity against human tumour cell lines and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the major compounds. Compound 9 showed significant activity against cell lines of breast (MCF-7, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7), superior to the positive control doxorubicin. Compound 12 presented antifungal activity similar to the positive control nystatin against Candida albicans. (author)

  7. From morphological nightmare to molecular conundrum : phylogenetic evolutionary and taxonomic studies on Guatteria (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, R.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Neotropics (Mexico to South Brazil) contains c. 30% of the world's plant diversity, but the origin of this diversity remains unclear. Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of this diversity has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region. However, more data

  8. Two new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobao, A.Q.; Maas, P.J.M.; Mello-Silva, de R.

    2010-01-01

    Guatteria emarginata and G. stenocarpa, two new species from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil, are presented here. Guatteria emarginata is characterized by narrowly obovate, verruculose leaves, densely covered with cinereous hairs on the lower side and an emarginate apex.

  9. Two new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobão, A.Q.; Maas, P.J.M.; de Mello-Silva, R.

    2010-01-01

    Guatteria emarginata and G. stenocarpa, two new species from the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Bahia, Brazil, are presented here. Guatteria emarginata is characterized by narrowly obovate, verruculose leaves, densely covered with cinereous hairs on the lower side and an emarginate apex.

  10. Regeneração natural de cerrado sob plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A formação de paisagens homogêneas tornou-se um problema na biologia da conservação, já que essas plantações interferem diretamente na dinâmica das comunidades. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural de cerrado, no sub-bosque de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, e verificar se essa regeneração se diferencia, dependendo da distância em relação às bordas do talhão. O estudo foi realizado no município de Montes Claros, MG. Para o levantamento, foram demarcados dois blocos, cada um subdividido em nove parcelas de 10 m x 10 m, utilizando-se, como critério de inclusão, a altura > 0,30 m. Foram registrados 2.413 indivíduos. No bloco 1, foram amostrados 914 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e 26 famílias, sendo Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea stigonogocarpa, Calliandra sp. e Duguetia furfuracea as espécies mais importantes, segundo o Valor de Importância (VI. No bloco 2, foram registrados 1.499 indivíduos, distribuídos em 71 espécies e 30 famílias, sendo os maiores VIs alcançados por Cupania vernalis, Chamaecrista desvauxii, Pouteria ramiflora . Senna rugosa. A distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou a maioria dos indivíduos nas menores classes, demonstrando que a área ainda reflete um evento de regeneração recente. Entretanto, os resultados deste estudo indicam que existem comunidades distintas no local, estando o bloco 2 em estádio mais avançado de regeneração do que o primeiro. Esse fato foi confirmado pela análise de agrupamento entre as parcelas e as diferenças de diversidade e desenvolvimento estrutural da vegetação de cada bloco.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  12. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae using SOS-Inductest and Ames test

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    JB. Vilar

    Full Text Available Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05 positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work.

  13. Ancient paralogy in the cpDNA trnL-F region in Annonaceae: implications for plant molecular systematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirie, M.D.; Vargas, M.P.B.; Botermans, M.; Bakker, F.T.; Chatrou, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    The plastid trnL-F region has proved useful in molecular phylogenetic studies addressing diverse evolutionary questions from biogeographic history to character evolution in a broad range of plant groups. An important assumption for phylogenetic reconstruction is that data used in combined analyses

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Anaxagorea brevipes (Annonaceae) and evaluation of its bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Danielle Cardoso; Pinheiro, Maria Lúcia Belém; Pereira, José Lamak da Silva; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Serain, Alessandra Freitas; Tirico, Ricardo Brunelli; Hernández-Tasco, Alvaro José; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Salvador, Marcos José

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Anaxagorea brevipes was analysed by gas chromatography fitted with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty one components were identified, representing around 75.7% of total oil. The major components were β-eudesmol (13.16%), α-eudesmol (13.05%), γ-eudesmol (7.54%), guaiol (5.12%), caryophyllene oxide (4.18%) and β-bisabolene (4.10%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast with the MIC values between 25.0 and 100 μg/mL. The highest antiproliferative activity was observed for the oil against MCF-7 (breast, TGI = 12.8 μg/mL), NCI-H460 (lung, TGI = 13.0 μg/mL) and PC-3 (prostate, TGI = 9.6 μg/mL) cell lines, while against no cancer cell line HaCat (keratinocyte) the TGI was 38.8 μg/mL. The oil exhibited a small antioxidant activity assessed through ORAC-FL assay (517 μmol TE/g). This is the first report regarding the chemical composition and bioactivity of A. brevipes essential oil.

  15. Ephedranthus dimerus (Annonaceae), a new species from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, with a key to the species of Ephedranthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Lopes, de J.; Chatrou, L.W.; Mello-Silva, de R.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Ephedranthus from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is described and illustrated, and a preliminary key to the species of Ephedranthus is presented. Ephedranthus dimerus is the only species of the genus from the Atlantic Forest region and the first species of the genus with dimerous

  16. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  17. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  18. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae

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    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  19. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

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    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  20. Biologia floral e sistema de reprodução de Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae na região de Petrolina-PE

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    Kiill Lúcia Helena Piedade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Annona squamosa L. foram estudados em Petrolina-PE, nordeste do Brasil, no período de junho de 1999 a fevereiro de 2000, entre 6:00 e 18:00h. As flores de A. squamosa são hermafroditas, axilares, com cálice e corola carnosos, formando uma câmara floral, que funciona como abrigo, fonte alimentar e/ou local de acasalamento para os visitantes florais. As flores apresentam características da síndrome de cantarofilia, tais como pétalas carnosas, de coloração clara e emissão de odores fortes e desagradáveis. A antese é crepuscular, iniciando por volta das 17 horas e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente dois dias. As flores se apresentam em fase feminina nas primeiras 20 horas e em fase masculina nas 20 horas seguintes, caracterizando a dicogamia. Carpophilus hemipterus, Carpophilus sp e Haptoncus ochraceus (Nitidulidae são os principais visitantes, sendo considerados como polinizadores desta anonácea. A espécie é autocompatível, contudo, os testes de germinação indicam que as sementes obtidas por polinização cruzada apresentam maior viabilidade do que as resultantes de geitonogamia.

  1. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich (Annonaceae and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE and xylopic acid (XA, in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests, thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests, and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 , p.o. and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 , p.o. inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory, thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p. and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p., used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

  2. Florivory and sex ratio in Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae in the Pantanal at Nhecolândia, southwestern Brazil Florivoria e razão sexual em Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona dioica St. Hil. is a species that grows to approximately 2 m tall and is very widespread in the cerrados. Individual plants of this androdioecious species produce numerous hermaphroditic or male flowers, but few fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the sex ratio among the plants and to compare the frequency of herbivory between male and hermaphroditic flowers. The fieldwork was done by studying flowering plants in grasslands used as pasture for cattle at Fazenda Nhumirim. One hundred and forty-seven male plants and 71 hermaphroditic plants were examined and produced a total of 194 and 94 flowers, respectively, during the study period. The male:hermaphrodite sex ratio was 2.07:1, and was similar to the male:hermaphrodite flower ratio of 2.06:1. The frequency of florivory rate in hermaphrodites was significantly higher than in male flowers (33.0%, n = 31, and 25.7%, n = 50, respectively; G = 14.83; d.f. = 1; p Annona dioica é uma espécie arbustiva de até dois metros de altura, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados. Esta espécie é conhecida por oferecer muitas flores, mas produzir poucos frutos. Enquadra-se como androdióica, possuindo indivíduos machos e hermafroditas na população. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a razão sexual e comparar a taxa de florivoria entre flores masculinas e hermafroditas. A coleta de dados ocorreu em campos de pastagem da Fazenda Nhumirim, consistindo na observação de arbustos floridos. Foram registrados 147 indivíduos masculinos e 71 hermafroditas, os quais apresentavam um total de 194 e 94 flores durante o período de estudo, respectivamente. A razão sexual observada foi de 2,07 indivíduos masculinos para cada hermafrodita, bem como 2,06 flores masculinas para cada flor hermafrodita. A taxa de florivoria foi significativamente maior em flores hermafroditas que em masculinas, com 33,0% (n = 31 e 25,7% (n = 50, respectivamente (G = 14,83; 1gl; p < 0,001. A média do peso fresco de 50 flores de ambos os sexos foi de 8,38 ± 2,40 g (0 ± EP; n = 50 para flores masculinas e de 6,93 ± 2,68 g (0 ± EP; n = 50 para hermafroditas, sendo significativamente diferentes (t = 2,479; df = 49; p = 0.017. Portanto, o baixo número de frutos encontrados nesta espécie pode ser explicado pela razão sexual, maior herbivoria em flores hermafroditas e provavelmente, pela ausência de polinizadores.

  3. Uso de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to promote the growth of sugar apple seedlings (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Ribeiro Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem ser usados na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o seu efeito na pinheira não é conhecido. Foi investigado o papel de dois isolados de FMA (Acaulospora longula e Gigaspora albida na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira. O delineamento experimental foi tipo inteiramente casualizado em seis tratamentos: 1 Controle não inoculado em solo; 2 Controle não inoculado em solo adubado; 3 Inoculado com A. longula em solo; 4 Inoculado com A. longula em solo adubado; 5 Inoculado com G. albida em solo; 6 Inoculado com G. albida em solo adubado, em quatro repetições, totalizando 24 unidades. Plântulas com duas folhas foram inoculadas na região das raízes com solo-inóculo fornecendo 200 esporos de G. albida ou de A. longula. Após 140 dias em casa de vegetação avaliou-se: altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e radicular, colonização micorrízica e produção de esporos de FMA. Em solo não adubado, os benefícios da micorrização foram evidenciados nas mudas formando simbiose com G. albida. Em solo com vermicomposto, a micorrização não incrementou o crescimento da mudas. A micorrização com G. albida pode ser alternativa para produção de mudas de pinheira, dispensando a fertilização.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can be used to promote seedling growth of fruit trees, but their effect on sugar apple is not known. We investigated the role of two isolates of AMF (Acaulospora longula and Gigaspora albida in promoting the growth of sugar apple seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replicates (totaling 24 units: 1 uninoculated control; 2 uninoculated control in fertilized soil; 3 inoculated with A. longula in soil, 4 inoculated with A. longula in fertilized soil, 5 inoculated with G. albida in soil; 6 inoculated with G. albida in fertilized soil. Seedlings with two leaves were inoculated in the region of the roots with soil-inocula with 200 spores of G. albida or A. longula. After 140 days in a greenhouse the height, leaf number, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root colonization and production of spores were evaluated. The seedlings benefited from G. albida mycorrhiza when grown in unfertilized soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not increase the growth of seedlings in soil with vermicompost. The use G. albida is an alternative in the production of sugar apple seedlings, instead of fertilizers.

  4. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Annonaceae. Mr. J. Sinclair had begun collecting details for tackling Malesian Annonaceae. He left several notebooks of notes made in various herbaria of examined specimens, several envelopes containing slips bearing identifications, and a thick file with manuscript. It is not possible to say

  5. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Varón López

    2000-01-01

    outstanding categories we mention: Fiber 21.2%, medicinal 18.2%, construction 16.8% and nutritional 11.7%. The more recognized species for their use and potential are Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsis veneficiorum, Annona dolichophylla y Annona muricata.

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... CYTOTOXICITY AND ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA .... has been suggested that aqueous and ethanolic extracts from plants used in allopathic medicine .... muricata (Annonaceae): A review of its traditional uses, isolated ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    pendula (Annonaceae), on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats. Department of ... At 300 mg kg-1, all extracts exhibited activities higher than that of Acetylsalicyclic acid (Aspirin) whose per- .... -α and IL-β (Aronoff and Nelson, 2001).

  8. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...

  9. Fatty acid profile and bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... INTRODUCTION. The Annonaceae family consists of about 112 genera and ..... patients with cancer, diabetes, surgery, among, others, have increased risk of ... Strelkov S E, McLaren DL, Gossen BD. (2015). First report of.

  10. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic flora of conifers in the Stockholm region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, H

    1968-01-01

    Epiphytic flora (especially lichens) have been investigated in order to see how they respond to air pollution. The study was restricted to those occurring up to a height of 2.3 m from the ground, on trunks of the conifers Picea abies and Pinus silvestries. The area of investigation lies north of Stockholm. Wind diagrams show a slight predominance of winds from Stockholm. This means that polluted air is spread out over the area of investigation. All epiphytic vegetation on the station-trees for which the species were determined are listed. The distribution of lichen species is discussed, especially how air pollution has affected the distributions of the three lichens, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach.) Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulf) Nyl. Pseudevernia furfuraceae (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia furfuraceae (L.) Ach.). Maps of distributions have been made for the most common epiphytes.

  11. Trace element accumulation by moss and lichen exposed in bags in the city of Naples (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, P.; Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Castaldo Cobianchi, R.; Violante, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trace element accumulation by lichen in bags is more affected by meteorological conditions compared with moss. - This paper presents the results of a bioaccumulation study of trace elements in the Naples urban area based on the use of the moss Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. and the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf exposed in bags in 23 sites. Moss and lichen bags were exposed for 4 months starting from the beginning of July 1999. Bags gathering was carried out after 10 weeks of exposure, at the end of the dry season, and after 17 weeks, during the wet season. The elements Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS in both biomonitors. For the majority of the elements the total amounts found in S. capillifolium were higher than in P. furfuracea whether considering the whole period of exposure or the weekly uptake. It was observed that there was a much greater difference in metal accumulation by P. furfuracea between the dry and wet seasons compared with S. capillifolium. In the wet period, the lichen seems to accumulate a larger quantity of metals. With the exception of Mn, trace element concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the washing away of rainfall. K loss during exposure suggested cell membrane damage in both organisms. For P. furfuracea the K leakage was limited to the dry period of exposure. A clear distinction between 'lithophilic' and 'anthropogenic' elements was achieved by cluster analysis. Significant correlations were found among Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni, Pb-Cd-Co, V-Cr-Ni, Zn-Ni-Pb, suggesting a common source for each group of elements

  12. Fatty Acid Profile and Bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca Seeds Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants from Annona (Annonaceae) genus are present in tropical regions, where they have economic and medicinal potential. Information on the fatty acids profile and bioactivity from seed oil of Annona species are incipient. The objective of this work was to investigate Annona hypoglauca seeds oil in terms of its yield, ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiplasmodial, anti-trypanosomal, anti-leishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of selected Tanzanian medicinal plants ... Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais ...

  14. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of extracts from Polyalthia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of extracts from Polyalthia suaveolens, Uvaria angolensis and Monodora tenuifolia (Annonaceae). Alvine Ngoutane Mfopa, Cedric Derick Jiatsa Mbouna, Lauve Rachel Yamthe Tchokouaha, Marthe Aimée Tchuenmegne Tchuente, Rufin Marie Toghueo Kouipou, Patrick Valere ...

  15. Progress in Malesian botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    Acanthaceae. At C, Dr. Bertel Hansen took an interest in the family, and began by going through the many papers by C.E.B. Bremekamp. Annonaceae. Mr. Paul Kessler, Botanik, Universität, Box 3049, Kaiserslautern, W. Germany, has undertaken work on Orophea.

  16. Germination ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Mart. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Melo, de D.L.B.; Davide, A.C.; Bode, N.; Abreu, G.B.; Faria, J.M.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species

  17. Annona glabra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Annona glabra L. (MONKEY-APPLE) of Annonaceae is a medium-sized tree with spreading branches. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong in shape, 10 x 5 cm with an acute apex. Flowers are solitary and large. Sepals and petals are fleshy whereas stamens and pistils are small and numerous. Fruit is of apple's size and is ...

  18. New Glucopyranosylglyceryl-N-Octenyl Adipate and Bioactivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-(3-β-D-Glucopyranosylglycer-2-yl)-6-N-(oct-2-enyl)-adipate, [orientalin, 1] was isolated as a new metabolite from the polar leaf extracts of Toussaintia orientalis Verdc (Annonaceae), together with the glycoflavonoids afzelin and quercitrin, and the indolidinoids toussaintines A-C. The reversed chalcones 2-hydroxy-3,4 ...

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annona reticulata L. (English: Bullock's heart; Hindi: Ramphal) of Annonaceae is a medium-size tree that is often cultivated, but generally grows wild and yields an edible fruit. The leaves are shiny and dark-green. The branches are dark-brown. Flowers are unimpressive, both sepals and petals being sepal-like. The.

  20. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Annona vepretorum Mart (Annonaceae) leaf extracts. Mariana G e Silva, Ana P de Oliveira, Camila de S Araújo, Érica M de Lavor, Juliane C Silva, Rosemairy L Mendes, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Marcília P Costa, Jackson R G da S Almeida ...

  1. Essential oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (A. Rich) Engl. leaves from Benin : a new source of citral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Ayedoun, M.A.; Sossou, P.V.; Houngnon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The leaf oil of Hexalobus monopetalus (Annonaceae) from Benin was analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS. Forty components were identified, representing more than 95% of the oiL The main constituents were geranial (37,9'lAl), neral (30,9%), linalool (35%), (E)-anethole (2.6%), selin-ll-en-4a-ol

  2. The allelopathic effects of crude water extracts of Annona muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annona muricata (sour sop) belongs to the family Annonaceae. This plant inhibits the growth of other plants growing around it, a phenomenon called “allelopathic effect”. Allelopathy is the production of specific biomolecules by plant species mostly secondary metabolites that can induce suffering or give benefit to other plant ...

  3. Análise de extratos de plantas por CCD: uma metodologia aplicada à disciplina "química orgânica" Analysis of extracts of plants by tlc: a methodology applied in the "organic chemistry" discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana H. Chaves

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available extracts of the regional plants Annona squamosa and Annona muricata were analysed by silica gel thin-layer chromatography using adequate systems of solvents and spray reagents. Carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were detected in both species. These data agree with those on the literature about phytochemistry of the Annonaceae.

  4. Miscellaneous information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1955-01-01

    Flora of West tropical Africa. A new edition of Hutchinson and Dalziel’s useful work is being prepared by Mr R.W.J. Keay (assisted by Mr F.N. Hepper). Part 1, containing the introductory matter, Gymnosperms and families Annonaceae to Guttiferae appeared August 1954; obtainable from the Crown Agents

  5. 2236-IJBCS-Article-Stephen Samwell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Chemistry Department, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, ... observed high mosquito repellent activity for the essential oil fractions from A. hexapetalus could be attributed ... Keywords: Essential oils, mosquito repellent properties, Annonaceae, β-caryophyllene oxide, cadinol, cubenol.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magashi

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Annonaceae family that could reach up to 7 m in height. The leaves are oblong in shape with ovoid scattered ... leaf, bark, root, stem, and fruit seed extracts of ... inflammatory, analgesic effects and antileishmanial ... using an electric weighing machine and recorded ..... adenocarcinoma (MCF-&/adr) cells. J.

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akanmu, MA. Vol 5, No 4 (2008) - Articles Antinociceptive And Antiinflammatory Effects Of Essential Oil Of Dennettia tripetala G.Baker (Annonaceae) In Rodents Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles Neuropharmacological effects of Nigerian honey in mice. Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 3 (2011) - Articles

  8. Neuropharmacological evaluation of Annona senegalensis leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neuropharmacological activities of methanol leaf extract (ME) of Annona senegalensis Pers (Annonaceae) and its bioactive fractions (MF and F7) were studied in rodents using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, pentobarbitone-induced sleep, apomorphine-induced stereotypy, open field, elevated plus maze ...

  9. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  10. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  11. Heavy metal analysis in soils and vegetation for assessing emission fields near tunnel ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the environment of the ventilation system of the Tauern and Katschberg tunnels, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were determined in soil and vegetation samples in order to determine the emission fields. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea in addition were used as active monitors. The surface-level exhaust portals produce relatively small atmospheric pollution fields. Via the detached exhaust tower at Urbanalm/Mosermandl (2.000 msm), a long-distance transport: Lead concentrations in soils are above average as far away as 1.5 kms of distance. The solubility of heavy metals increases in the order Pb [de

  12. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  13. NIR spectroscopy as a tool for discriminating between lichens exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Monica; Bagnasco, Lucia; Giordani, Paolo; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Malaspina, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Lichens are used as biomonitors of air pollution because they are extremely sensitive to the presence of substances that alter atmospheric composition. Fifty-one thalli of two different varieties of Pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) were collected far from local sources of air pollution. Twenty-six of these thalli were then exposed to the air for one month in the industrial port of Genoa, which has high levels of environmental pollution. The possibility of using Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for generating a 'fingerprint' of lichens was investigated. Chemometric methods were successfully applied to discriminate between samples from polluted and non-polluted areas. In particular, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied as a multivariate display method on the NIR spectra to visualise the data structure. This showed that the difference between samples of different varieties was not significant in comparison to the difference between samples exposed to different levels of environmental pollution. Then Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was carried out to discriminate between lichens based on their exposure to pollutants. The distinction between control samples (not exposed) and samples exposed to the air in the industrial port of Genoa was evaluated. On average, 95.2% of samples were correctly classified, 93.0% of total internal prediction (5 cross-validation groups) and 100.0% of external prediction (on the test set) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Divergence of RNA polymerase ? subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP ? subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled an...

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P.; Chansouria, J.P.N.; Khosa, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats. PMID:22556909

  16. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Vega,Maria R. G.; Esteves-Souza,Andressa; Vieira,Ivo J. C.; Mathias,Leda; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Echevarria,Aurea

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3",6"-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6"-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid f...

  17. 769-IJBCS-Article-N'guessan Koffi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Verdc. (Annonaceae). Bulletin de liaison de l'Agence de Coopération Culturelle et. Technique. Méd. Trad. Pharm., 3(2):. 153-158. Anonyme. 1983. Médecine Traditionnelle et. Pharmacopée, Contribution aux Études. Ethnobotaniques et Floristiques à. Maurice (Îles Maurice et Rodrigue). Edition de l'Agence de Coopération.

  18. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  19. Patterns of traffic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in mountain areas can be revealed by lichen biomonitoring: a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Tretiach, Mauro; Corana, Federica; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Kodnik, Danijela; Dainese, Matteo; Mannucci, Barbara

    2014-03-15

    In mountain areas of touristic interest the evaluation of the impact of human activities is crucial for ensuring long-term conservation of ecosystem biodiversity, functions and services. This study aimed at verifying the biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions due to traffic along the roads leading to seven passes of the Dolomites (SE Alps), which were recently declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Thalli of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea, collected at increasing distances from the roads, were used as biomonitors. Our study revealed a gradient of decreasing PAH pollution within 300 m from the roads. Differences among passes were evident mainly for samples collected nearest to the roads, but PAH concentrations at 300 m were almost always higher than those of undisturbed reference sites, indicating that traffic PAH pollution may impact natural ecosystems and lichen diversity at relatively long distances from the emission source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  1. Keanekaragaman Jenis Rangkong dan Tumbuhan Pakannya di Harapan Rainforest Jambi (Species and Feed Diversity of Hornbill in the Harapan Rainforest, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Very ANGGRIAWAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hornbill has an important role in forest regeneration, but the limited variety andamount of food available to birds will eventually threaten the population of hornbills.Identification of feed plant and hornbil species diversity was conducted at the HarapanRainforest from March to April 2011. Hornbills plant feed samples were taken right after thebirds were eating. The results showed there are nine plant species of hornbills feed found in theHarapan Rainforest: Santiria apiculata, Elaeocarpus sphaericus, Sapium baccatum, Lithocarpusreinwardtii, Disoxylum excelsum, Ficus curtipes, Knema globularia, Knema furfuracea, andSantiria oblongifolia. Of these nine species, Ficus curtipes is the most preferred feed by thehornbills. Further research also notes that there are seven hornbill species inhabit the HarapanRainforest: crested hornbills (Aceros comatus, rhinoceros hornbills (Buceros rhinoceros, goldhornbill (Aceros undulatus, black kangkareng (Anthracaceros malayanus, black-crestedhornbill (Aceros corrugatus, khilingan hornbills (Anorrhinus galeritus and ivory hornbill(Rhinoplax vigil

  2. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  3. Estudo fitoqu?mico e biol?gico de guatteria citriodora ducke

    OpenAIRE

    Rabelo, Diego de Moura

    2008-01-01

    A Guatteria citriodora Ducke ? uma esp?cie amaz?nica da fam?lia Annonaceae, conhecida popularmente como envira-amarela ou laranjinha, a qual ocorre em floresta pluvial de terra firme com distribui??o nos estados do Amazonas e Par?, bem como nas Guianas, Suriname, Bol?via, Equador, Col?mbia, Peru e Venezuela. O estudo fitoqu?mico da casca do caule dessa planta resultou no isolamento de tr?s alcal?ides oxoaporf?nicos, O-metilmoshatolina, liriodenina e oxoputerina, essas subst?ncias foram previa...

  4. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  5. Identification of chemical compounds present in different fractions of Annona reticulata L. leaf by using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Soumya P; Kar, Durga M

    2014-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of fractions prepared from hydro-alcoholic extract of Annona reticulata Linn (Family Annonaceae) leaf revealed the presence of 9,10-dimethyltricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]decane-9,10-diol; 4-(1,5-dihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-enyl)but-3-en-2-one; 3,7-dimethyl-6-nonen-1-ol acetate; 9-octadecenamide,(Z)-; glycerine; D-glucose,6-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-; desulphosinigrin and α-methyl-D-mannopyranoside as few of the major compounds in different fractions. The presence of these compounds in the plant has been identified for the first time.

  6. Evaluación morfológica y molecular de accesiones de anonáceas (anón, chirimoya y atemoya) en condiciones in situ, de las regiones Andina y Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Garzón, Sandra Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A través de la prospección de los recursos fitogenéticos de especies de la familia Annonaceae en Colombia (2009 y 2011), se conformó una población in situ compuesta por 167 accesiones, de cinco especies y un híbrido interespecífico (Annona cherimola, A. glabra, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, Rollinia sp. y A. squamosa x A. cherimola), distribuidas en 13 departamentos y 48 municipios de las regiones Andina y Caribe. Estableciendo y enriqueciendo tres colecciones de trabajo, conform...

  7. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of 52 new polymorphic SSR markers from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): transferability to related taxa and selection of a reduced set for DNA fingerprinting and diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, P; Viruel, M A; Hormaza, J I

    2008-03-01

    Fifty-two single locus polymorphic microsatellites were developed using two genomic libraries digested with HaeIII and RsaI of cherimoya cv. Fino de Jete enriched in CT/AG repeats. A total of 222 alleles were detected with the selected simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.73 and from 0.20 to 0.84, respectively. Most of the SSRs were transferable to other species in the Annonaceae. A set of 20 microsatellites was selected to facilitate the exchange of data among laboratories. © 2007 The Authors.

  8. Atualidades e perspectivas das Anonáceas no mundo

    OpenAIRE

    São José,Abel Rebouças; Pires,Mônica de Moura; Freitas,Afonso Lúcio Gomes Estrela de; Ribeiro,Denis Pereira; Perez,Luis Alfonso Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Várias espécies da família Annonaceae produzem frutos comestíveis cultivados em pomares comerciais ou coletados de forma extrativista, em diversas partes do mundo. O gênero Annona possui elevado número de espécies nativas, no entanto poucas produzem frutos comestíveis. Algumas são cultivadas comercialmente, outras são obtidas de forma extrativista. As principais anonáceas cultivadas no mundo são: Annona muricata, Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola, com destaque também para a atemoia (híbrido ...

  9. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  10. A Third Species of Hemilecanium Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from the New World, with Keys to Species in the Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Hodgson, C

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Hemilecanium Newstead, Hemilecanium guanabana Kondo & Hodgson n. sp., is described and illustrated based on the adult female, adult male and first instar. The specimens were collected in the municipality of Palmira, state of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, on soursop, Annona muricata (Annonaceae). Updated identification keys are provided for the adult females of all 28 species of the genus Hemilecanium, and for known adult males and first instars. An updated list of the 23 species of soft scales (Coccidae) known from soursop worldwide is included.

  11. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Lago, Joao Henrique G.

    2014-01-01

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  12. Lichens and mosses in air quality monitoring: A biological model proposal; Licheni e briofite nella valutazione della qualita` ambientale: Proposta di un modello di bioaccumulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, A.; Minciardi, M. R. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Troiani, F.; Bonotto, F.; Paonessa, F.; Leone, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Piervittori, R.; Fossa, V.; Laccisaglia, A. [Turin, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Vegetale

    1997-09-01

    In the National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment`s environmental monitoring studies, a research about the biomonitoring of metal pollution (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) by lichens and mosses, in the extra-urban area of Saluggia (VC) was carried out in collaboration with University of Turin. The research, following a methodological approach, involved different plants and monitoring techniques. The mosses Grimmia pulvinata used as biomonitors were growing ``in situ`` on the contrary the lichens were transplanted. Several thallus of Pseudevernia furfuracea were collected from an uncontaminated area and exposed using two different techniques. The results confirmed the validity of such species as biomonitors of metal pollution. Although meaningful differences were pointed out between the different techniques, in many cases high accumulation rates were observed. A mathematical model of bioaccumulation was proposed, mainly to correlate the in-take of metals in the vegetal matrices with air metal concentrations and exposure time, obtaining a good experimental relationship.

  13. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  14. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Luca [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pirintsos, Stergios Arg.; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pisani, Tommaso [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Navakoudis, Eleni [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH{sub 3}) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 mug/m{sup 3} (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 mug/m{sup 3} (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 mug/m{sup 3} (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH{sub 3} is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PI{sub ABS}, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH{sub 3} than the F{sub V}/F{sub M} ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  15. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-11-01

    Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  17. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  18. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  19. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  20. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  1. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  2. A new flavonoid derivative from leaves of Oxandra sessiliflora R. E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Elcilene A. de; Silva, Armenio A.C.A. da; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas

    2014-04-15

    The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) phase obtained from the partition of the ethanol (EtOH) extract from leaves of O. sessiliflora R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) was subjected to several chromatographic steps, including high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC), to afford the flavonoids: quercetin- 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), unprecedented in the literature, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (3), and kaempferol- 3-O-rutinoside (4). The structures were elucidated by analysis of their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1D and 2D) spectra and mass spectrometry. (author)

  3. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  4. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zickel, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restinga vegetation occurs along the entire coast of Brazil. The 187 km of coastline of the state ofPernambuco demonstrates a diversity of habitats, such as beaches, dunes, and restingas. The present study sought toelaborate a checklist of the phanerogamic species found there. The species listed were compiled from surveysundertaken between 1951 and 2007, as well as from herbaria collections in that state. A total of 477 species distributedamong 303 genera and 95 families were encountered. The families with the greatest numbers of species were Poaceae(39 species, Fabaceae (34, Cyperaceae (26, Euphorbiaceae (25, Myrtaceae (24, Rubiaceae (20, Caesalpiniaceae(17, Mimosaceae (16, Asteraceae (14, Orchidaceae (14, Bromeliaceae (9, Boraginaceae (8, Malvaceae (8,Solanaceae (8, and Annonaceae, Araceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Melastomataceae (7 each.Approximately 60 % of the species were common to other restinga areas in northeastern Brazil, and 39.3 % wererestricted to the coast of Pernambuco.

  5. Determination of macro, essential trace elements, toxic heavy metal concentrations, crude oil extracts and ash composition from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables having medicinal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana R. Alzahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of essential elements (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Al, Ni, and Cu and toxic heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr, Cd, and Cr from Saudi Arabian fruits and vegetables were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP/OES. Two types of butters, Caralluma munbayana and Caralluma hesperidum, Vigna (Vigna unguiculata, common fig (Ficus carica, Annona seeds (Annonaceae seeds, Annona fruits (Annonaceae fruits, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Fennel flowers (Nigella sativa were investigated, because they are used by indigenous groups as traditional medicines with Soxhlet-extraction and dry-ashing protocol. The estimated daily dietary element intake in food samples was further calculated in order to evaluate the element dietary intake and fruit and vegetable consumption pattern of the indigenes of Saudi Arabia. The crude oil and ash compositions varied widely, but suggested that most of the foods were good sources of oils and minerals. The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES calibration curves were excellent with good linearity (R2 > 0.9921. The use of ICP-OES in this study allowed the accurate analysis and the detection of the elements at low levels. Essential elements (K, Ca, Na, and Mg had the highest concentrations while toxic heavy metals (As, Pb, and Cd had the lowest in the foods. Essential element pairs (Mg-Na, Mg-Ca, Fe-Al were highly correlated, suggesting that these foods are sources of multiple nutrients. Toxic element pairs (Pb-Cd, Pb-As, and Cd-As, however, were poorly correlated in the foods, suggesting that these elements do not have a common source in these foods. Average consumption of these foods should provide the recommended daily allowances of essential elements, but will not expose consumers to toxic heavy metals. The ICP-OES method was validated by determining method detection limits and percent recoveries of laboratory-fortified blanks, which were generally 90–100%.

  6. Attraction of Pollinators to Atemoya (Annona squamosa × Annona cherimola) in Puerto Rico Using Commercial Lures and Food Attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Millan-Hernandez, Christian; Cline, Andrew R; McElrath, Thomas C; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2015-08-01

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa L. and Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae) and has potential to be an important fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically, by beetles in the family Nitidulidae. We used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures in combination with various food attractants, including raw bread dough, apple juice, and malta beverage, a soft drink by-product of the brewing process. The most commonly trapped beetles were, in order of decreasing frequency, Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.), Brachypeplus mutilatus Erichson, Urophorus humeralis (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), and Europs fervidus Blatchley (Coleoptera: Monotomidae). All traps, except the unbaited control traps, caught beetles. In a previous study, we found that combining two commercial lures had a synergistic effect on the attraction of these beetle species. In this study, the addition of food attractants increased the number of beetles trapped compared with traps baited with only the commercial lures. Also, food attractants appear to be key in attracting U. humeralis; only one U. humeralis individual of the 206 caught during the experiment was trapped without a food attractant. The variation between the number of beetles caught in traps containing the same treatments was high and may explain the erratic results reported in other studies of pollination in Annona spp. The results are discussed with respect to the use of nitidulid lures and food attractants to increase fruit set in atemoya and other Annonaceae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Radioactivity measurements in epiphytic lichens of Uludag Mountain in Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayseguel Kahraman; Goekay Kaynak; Gizem Akkaya; Orhan Guerler; Sezai Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    Activity concentrations of gross-β, naturally occurring 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 7 Be and anthropogenic 137 Cs in epiphytic lichens collected from Uludag Mountain are presented and discussed with the aim of evaluating potential usability of lichens as a biomonitor. The activity concentrations of gross-β, 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb and 7 Be in the lichen samples were found to be in the range of 177-707, 4.05-94.26, 86-211, below detection limit (BDL)-19.2, BDL-14.0, 229-872, and 72.1-220.7 Bq kg -1 in dry weight, respectively. 137 Cs content in collected epiphytic lichens was in descending order: Parmelia sulcata > Lobaria pulmonaria > Pseudevernia furfuracea > Usnea filipendula. The best biomonitor for 137 Cs among the lichen species used in this study was determined as Parmelia sulcata. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between 137 Cs and 40 K activity concentrations using a statistical package program (SPSS ver. 17.0) and a negative correlation value (R = -0,323, p = 0,222) was obtained. The highest 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations were found in Bogazova Yaylasi which has a geological structure including granitic rocks. It was found that 137 Cs and 7 Be activity concentrations in species demonstrated an inverse behaviour. The effect of mean annual precipitation and temperature on 7 Be activity concentration was determined using multi regression analysis. Also, correlations between the 137 Cs and 7 Be, and 40 K and 7 Be were investigated. (author)

  8. Elemental analysis of lichen bioaccumulators before exposure as transplants in air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Cercasov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Lichen transplants from relatively unpolluted sites are successfully used as heavy metal bioaccumulators for long-term air pollution monitoring. Significant element accumulations are generally revealed after 6 to 12 months of exposure. The main objective of this interdisciplinary research is to get a low-price survey of the air pollution level in some critical areas of Romania by nuclear and atomic analytical methods, based on the element accumulating property of transplanted lichens. The lichen species Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea collected from the Prealps, northeast Italy, have been selected for this study. Experimental setup for standardized lichen exposure needs special plastic frames ('little traps': 15 · 15 · 1.5 cm, with 1cm 2 mesh) which are fixed horizontally on stainless steel posts at about 1.5 m above the ground. Prior to exposure, the lichen material is cleansed of some vegetal impurities and then shortly washed using de-ionised water. The initial (zero-level) contents of lichens were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA) methods. INAA was carried out at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest (IFIN) and while EDXRFA at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. The investigated elements were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V and Zn. From among them, Cd, Co and Sb can be determined only by INAA and ICP-MS, Pb only by EDXRFA and PIXE, and S only by EDXRFA. A statistical intercomparison of the results allowed a good quality control of the used analytical methods for these specific matrices. This work was supported in part by European Commission Center of Excellence Project ICA1-CT-2000-70023: IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics), Work Package 2 (Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure

  9. Baseline series fragrance markers fail to predict contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jack; McFadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L; White, Ian R; Banerjee, Piu

    2014-05-01

    Negative patch test results with fragrance allergy markers in the European baseline series do not always predict a negative reaction to individual fragrance substances. To determine the frequencies of positive test reactions to the 26 fragrance substances for which labelling is mandatory in the EU, and how effectively reactions to fragrance markers in the baseline series predict positive reactions to the fragrance substances that are labelled. The records of 1951 eczema patients, routinely tested with the labelled fragrance substances and with an extended European baseline series in 2011 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and eighty-one (14.4%) (71.2% females) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled-fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were cinnamyl alcohol (48; 2.46%), Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.26%), and isoeugenol (40; 2.05%). Of the 203 patients who reacted to any of the 26 fragrances in the labelled-fragrance substance series, only 117 (57.6%) also reacted to a fragrance marker in the baseline series. One hundred and seven (52.7%) reacted to either fragrance mix I or fragrance mix II, 28 (13.8%) reacted to Myroxylon pereirae, and 13 (6.4%) reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. These findings confirm that the standard fragrance markers fail to identify patients with contact allergies to the 26 fragrances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Composição florística do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de floresta estacional semidecidual na Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo das variações florísticas do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, floresta inicial e floresta madura, situados na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. As espécies arbóreo-arbustivas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, 10 parcelas em cada trecho de floresta, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP  4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostradas 55 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 27 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 10 espécies (18%, seguida de Euphorbiaceae (cinco espécies; 9%, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Salicaceae (três espécies; 6%. Na floresta madura foram amostradas 78 espécies distribuídas em 62 gêneros e 31 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 13 espécies (17%, seguida de Lauraceae e Myrtaceae (seis espécies; 8%, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae e Salicaceae (cinco espécies; 6%, Annonaceae e Meliaceae (quatro espécies, 5%, Rubiaceae e Moraceae (três espécies; 4%. O grupo ecológico que mais se destacou nos dois trechos de floresta foi o das secundárias iniciais, seguido pelas secundárias tardias na floresta madura e pelas pioneiras na floresta inicial. A variabilidade na composição florística e na proporção de espécies em cada grupo ecológico foi resultante das variações na intensidade da ação antrópica nestas florestas e do tempo de regeneração florestal.

  11. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lopez Encina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the traditional methods of vegetative propagation were inefficient and inadequate, due to the low morphogenetic potential of this species, and the low rooting rate. The in vitro tissue culture methods of micropropagation can be applied successfully to cherimoya and other Annona sp to overcome these problems. Most of the protocols of micropropagation and regeneration were developed using the cultivar Fino de Jete, which is the major cultivar in Spain. First it is developed the method to micropropagate the juvenile material of cherimoya (ENCINA et al., 1994, and later it was optimized a protocol to micropropagate adult cherimoya genotypes selected by outstanding agronomical traits (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2004 and further it was improved the process through micrografting (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2011.At the present time we are involved in inducing and obtaining new elite genotypes, as part of a breeding program for the cherimoya and other Annonas, using and optimizing different methodologies in vitro: a Adventitious organogenesis and regeneration from cellular cultures (ENCINA, 2004, b Ploidy manipulation of the cherimoya, to obtain haploid, tetraploid and triploid plants (seedless, c Genetic transformation

  12. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  13. Prospeccion biogeoquimica del oro en el yacimiento de Pau-a-Pique, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobral, M.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available During the dry season (July-August 1997 eleven samples of soil-plant pairs were collected in the Pau-a-Pique gold deposit, southwestern of Amazonic Craton, about 440 km NW of Cuiabá city. The area contains rocks of Aguapeí Group, Rondonian Belt and recent cover. The area has a steep relief covered by thin soils. The vegetation is sparse and predominantly composed of xerophitic shrubs. Two kinds of plant species were sampled, one belonging to the Annonaceae family and the other one to the Piperaceae family. The ashes of these plants and the soils were analysed by INAA and ICP. The highest gold contents are found in the ashes of plants collected in the colluvium soil (white mica, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxides covering the hydrothermal halo of the deposit. In the soil, the highest gold values are those from eluvium related to the quartz veins. The higher gold values in plants respect to the soils suggest that the plants could be useful to establish hydrothermal targets.Se recogieron once muestras de pares suelo-planta durante la estación seca (julioagosto 1997 en el yacimiento de oro de Pau-a-Pique al suroeste del cratón Amazónico, unos 440 km al NO de la ciudad de Cuiabá. La geología de esta zona presenta rocas pertenecientes al Gmpo Aguapeí y al Cinturón Rondónico, así como sedimentos recientes de cobertera. La topografía presenta relieves abruptos y los suelos forman una delgada lámina. La vegetación es escasa y predominan los arbustos xerófitos. Se muestrearon dos especies de plantas, una de ellas perteneciente a la familia Annonaceae, y la otra a la familia Piperaceae. Las cenizas de estas plantas y de sus suelos fueron analizadas mediante las técnicas de INAA y ICP. Los más altos contenidos en oro se encontraron en las cenizas de las plantas recogidas en los coluviones (mica blanca, arcillas y oxihidróxidos de Fe que recubren el halo hidrotermal de los depósitos. En el suelo, los valores más altos del oro corresponden

  14. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water extractable phytochemicals from some tropical spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen Adeniyi; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2012-07-01

    Spices have been used as food adjuncts and in folklore for ages. Inhibition of key enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) involved in the digestion of starch and protection against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in pancreas could be part of the therapeutic approach towards the management of hyperglycemia and dietary phenolics have shown promising potentials. This study investigated and compared the inhibitory properties of aqueous extracts of some tropical spices: Xylopia aethiopica [Dun.] A. Rich (Annonaceae), Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal (Annonaceae), Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merr. et Perry (Myrtaceae), Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae), Aframomum danielli K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) and Aframomum melegueta (Rosc.) K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas--in vitro using different spectrophotometric method. Aqueous extract of the spices was prepared and the ability of the spice extracts to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH radicals and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas--in vitro was investigated using various spectrophotometric methods. All the spice extracts inhibited α-amylase (IC(50) = 2.81-4.83 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC(50) = 2.02-3.52 mg/mL), DPPH radicals (EC(50) = 15.47-17.38 mg/mL) and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation (14.17-94.38%), with the highest α-amylase & α-glucosidase inhibitory actions and DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by X. aethiopica, A. danielli and S. aromaticum, respectively. Also, the spices possess high total phenol (0.88-1.3 mg/mL) and flavonoid (0.24-0.52 mg/mL) contents with A. melegueta having the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The inhibitory effects of the spice extracts on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, DPPH radicals and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in pancreas (in vitro) could be attributed to the presence of biologically

  15. Pengetahuan Tumbuhan Obat Dukun Sakai Desa Sebangar Duri Tiga Belas dan Desa Kesumbo Ampai Duri Kabupaten Bengkalis

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    Yulisa Resti Irawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi dengan 13.466 pulau yang termasuk kedalam 33 provinsi dengan berbagai suku dan budaya. Keanekaragaman tumbuhan yang tinggi, berpadu dengan budaya etnik yang ada menghasilkan sistem pengetahuan dan budaya yang terkait dengan pemanfaatan tumbuhan yang ada. Budaya pengobatan dan penggunaan tumbuhan obat sudah berkembang lama dan diwariskan secara turun-temurun. Modernisasi menggerus tradisi dan pengetahuan pengobatan tradisional dan penggunaan tumbuhan obat di Suku Sakai Duri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengetahuan tumbuhan obat secara tradisional di Suku Sakai. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif, wawancara dan survey langsung di lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada 250 jenis tumbuhan obat yang digunakan oleh suku Sakai yang berasal dari Desa Sebangar dan Desa Kesumbo Ampai. Berdasarkan familinya kelompok Zingiberaceae lebih banyak digunakan di Sebagar, sedangkan Famili Annonaceae lebih banyak digunakan di Desa Kesumbo Ampai. Berdasarkan bagian tanaman yang digunakan daun merupakan organ yang paling bayak digunakan di kedua tempat, sedangkan berdasarkan habitus tumbuhan berhabitus pohon lebih umum digunakan di kedua tempat.Indonesia have the high natural resources and biodiversity with 13.466 islands in 33 provinces with various of ethnics and cultures. The high plant diversity combined with the variety of ethnics might result in the diversity of knowledge system of relationship between the society cultures and their plants cultures. The traditional treatment cultures and use the medicinal plants have been evolving for centuries that have been conserved from generation to generation. The presence of culture modernization has caused erosion of traditional knowledge of the society especially in the medicinal plants knowledge of Sakai Duri and Duri 13 ethnics. The aim of this study was to collect the information about the

  16. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

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    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  17. Fossil wood flora from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India and its climatic and phytogeographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srikarni, C.

    2018-02-01

    The plant fossil records from the Siwalik Group of Arunachal Pradesh, India are far from satisfactory due to remoteness and dense vegetation of the area. We report seven fossil woods of which three belong to the Middle Siwalik (Subansiri Formation), while the rest are from the Upper Siwalik (Kimin Formation). The modern analogues of the fossils from the Middle Siwalik are Lophopetalum littorale (Celastraceae), Afzelia-Intsia and Sindora siamensis (Fabaceae) and from the Upper Siwalik are Miliusa velutina (Annonaceae), Calophyllum tomentosum and Kayea (Calophyllaceae) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Ebenaceae). The dominance of diffuse porosity in the fossil woods indicates a tropical climate with low seasonality (little variation) in temperature, while a high proportion of large vessels and simple perforation plates in the assemblage infer high precipitation during the deposition of the sediments. The aforesaid inference is in strong agreement with the previous quantitative reconstruction based on fossil leaves. Several modern analogues of the fossil taxa are now growing in low latitudes possibly due to an increase in seasonality (increased variation) in temperature caused by the rising Himalaya.

  18. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  19. Induction of Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells (T-47D) by Annona reticulata L. Leaves Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Pratiksha H; Kharat, Kiran R; Mungde, Priyanka; Jadhav, Mahadev A; Makhija, Surinder J

    2016-01-01

    Annona reticulata Linn. (Common name: Bullock's-heart) (Annonaceae family) is a semi-evergreen and small deciduous tree. The extracts of various parts of Annona reticulata L. have been reported as cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Annona reticulata L. leaves' methanolic extract (ARME) was prepared and used against the breast cancer cells. The breast cancer cells (T-47D) viability and IC50 were evaluated by Vybrant® MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Detection of phosphatidylserine on membranes of apoptotic cells was done by Attune flow cytometer. RNA transcripts were quantified in ARME treated and untreated cells. Finally, the Vybrant® FAM Poly Caspases assay kit was used for analysis of polycaspases activity in T-47D cells. The IC50 (5 ± 0.5 µg/mL) of the ARME was found against breast cancer cells (T-47D). The Paclitaxel was used as a control standard drug for the study. The downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and Bak, and caspases activation suggested induction of apoptosis in T-47D cells by ARME through mitochondrial pathway. The cell cycle halted at G2/M phase in the ARME treated cells. The ARME was found to be effective against Breast cancer cells (T-47D).

  20. Ex situ Conservation Effort through the Inventory of Plant Diversity in Mount Seblat, Bengkulu

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    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Seblat, as part a of Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP, is a pristine and natural mountain, particularly from disturbances and destructions by human activities. Nevertheless, the richness of biological resources especially plant diversity.in this area has not been more explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct an inventory of plant diversity and to determine the plant species composition. The inventory activities were conducted by plants collection along the ascent route. The results were then be maintained through ex situ conservation method in Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG. The study was conducted by exploratory method, from Seblat Ulu Village (641 m asl up to altitude of 1,037 m asl. There were 18 points of plant sample observation with an area of 5 x 5 square meters per point. Plant collection obtained 380 specimens. Five groups of most collected plants were Lauraceae (18 species, Rubiaceae (8 species, Anacardiaceae (6 species, Annonaceae (5 species, and Fagaceae (4 species. In order to enrich the plants collection as well as conduct the ex situ conservation effort, plants from Orchidaceae were also collected which resulted in 33 species. These results were an important initial inventory of plant diversity of Mount Seblat, considering that there was no record as well as very limited current information. When the environment disturbance tends to increase, this information may act as a reference and an initial database to develop plants conservation effort and strategy in the future.

  1. A review of the genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with description of five new species from Brunei, Hong Kong and Malaysia.

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    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Martin, Jon H

    2018-03-28

    The whitefly genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi is reviewed using types and determined specimens. The generic diagnosis is redefined together with description of five new species: T. bruneiensis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Brunei, T. crypta Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Hong Kong, and T. ordo Dubey Martin sp. nov., T. aequalis Dubey Martin sp. nov. and T. variabilis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Malaysia. New species descriptions are accompanied with camera lucida drawings and microphotographs of holotype and paratypes. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is elevated from its status as a variety of T. machili Takahashi to species level. Lectotypes are selected for T. actinodaphnis Takahashi Stat. nov. and T. bobuae Takahashi. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is a new record to Taiwan. A new combination, Tuberaleyrodes glutae (Corbett) Comb. nov. is proposed for Dialeurodes glutae Corbett. Two species, T. glutae (Corbett) and Tuberaleyrodes spiniferosa (Corbett) are re-described, and placement of T. spiniferosa in the genus Tuberaleyrodes is confirmed. The genus Tuberaleyrodes is newly recorded from Borneo and Sulawesi. An identification key to puparia of Tuberaleyrodes species so far described is provided along with the countries of present records. Four plants families viz., Annonaceae, Fabaceae, Myristicaceae and Pentaphylacaeae are recorded as new hosts for Tuberaleyrodes species. New host plant records are indicated.

  2. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

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    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  3. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  5. Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Costa, Marilza da Silva; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-07-30

    Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC 90 where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY IN Annona macroprophyllata AND Annona purpureaUSING PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

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    GISELA FERREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Some Annonaceae seeds are known to exhibit dormancy mechanisms ranging from possible seed coat impermeability to physiological dormancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gibberellin (GA GA3 and GA4+7 + benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA application in seeds of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm (papausa and Annona purpurea Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal (chincuya. The experiment was performed by the application of GA3 and GA4+7 + BA on seeds in concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 mg L-1. The regulators broke the dormancy of both species. However, application of the GA4+7 + BA mixture had more significant results, with greater increases in germination in A. macroprophyllata than in A. purpurea. Treatments that promoted the highest germinations were GA4+7 + BA at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 for A. macroprophyllata (77% and 200 mg L-1 of GA4+7 + BA and 500 mg L-1 of GA3 for A. purpurea (30% and 29%, respectively. Rate index, mean time and frequency of germination were distinct for both species and both treatments. Although both GA3 and GA4+7 + BA promote germination, the GA4+7 + BA mixture was more effective than GA3 to overcoming seed dormancy of both species, A. purpurea has a harder dormancy than A. macroprophyllata

  7. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities of edible and medicinal plants from the Peruvian Amazon

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    Jan Tauchen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among 23 extracts of medicinal and edible plants tested, Mauritia flexuosa L.f., Arecaceae, showed significant antioxidant ability (DPPH and ORAC = 1062.9 and 645.9 ± 51.4 µg TE/mg extract, respectively, while Annona montana Macfad., Annonaceae, demonstrated the most promising anti-proliferative effect (IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 = 2.7 and 9.0 µg/ml, respectively. However, combinatory antioxidant/anti-proliferative effect was only detected in Oenocarpus bataua Mart., Arecaceae (DPPH = 903.8 and ORAC = 1024 µg TE/mg extract; IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 at 102.6 and 38.8 µg/ml, respectively and Inga edulis Mart., Fabaceae (DPPH = 337.0 and ORAC = 795.7 µg TE/mg extract; IC50 for Hep-G2 and HT-29 at 36.3 and 57.9 µg/ml, respectively. Phenolic content was positively correlated with antioxidant potential, however not with anti-proliferative effect. None of these extracts possessed toxicity towards normal foetal lung cells, suggesting their possible use in development of novel plant-based agents with preventive and/or therapeutic action against oxidative stress-related diseases.

  8. Antitumour Activity of the Microencapsulation of Annona vepretorum Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Larissa M; Menezes, Leociley R A; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B C; Dias, Rosane B; Rocha, Clarissa A Gurgel; Soares, Milena B P; Neto, Albertino F S; Nascimento, Magaly P; Campos, Adriana F; Silva, Lidércia C R C E; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae), popularly known as 'bruteira', has nutritional and medicinal uses. This study investigated the chemical composition and antitumour potential of the essential oil of A. vepretorum leaf alone and complexed with β-cyclodextrin in a microencapsulation. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed using GC-MS and GC-FID. In vitro cytotoxicity of the essential oil and some of its major constituents in tumour cell lines from different histotypes was evaluated using the alamar blue assay. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of essential oil was demonstrated in mice inoculated with B16-F10 mouse melanoma. The essential oil included bicyclogermacrene (35.71%), spathulenol (18.89%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.46%), α-phellandrene (8.08%), o-cymene (6.24%), germacrene D (3.27%) and α-pinene (2.18%) as major constituents. The essential oil and spathulenol exhibited promising cytotoxicity. In vivo tumour growth was inhibited by the treatment with the essential oil (inhibition of 34.46%). Importantly, microencapsulation of the essential oil increased in vivo tumour growth inhibition (inhibition of 62.66%). © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  9. [Neurological syndromes linked with the intake of plants and fungi containing a toxic component (I). Neurotoxic syndromes caused by the ingestion of plants, seeds and fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    A wide range of plants, seeds and fruits used for nutritional and medicinal purposes can give rise to neurotoxic symptoms. We review the neurological pathology associated with the acute or chronic consumption of plants, seeds and fruits in human beings and in animals. Of the plants that can trigger acute neurotoxic syndromes in humans, some of the most notable include Mandragora officinalis, Datura stramonium, Conium maculatum (hemlock), Coriaria myrtifolia (redoul), Ricinus communis, Gloriosa superba, Catharanthus roseus, Karwinskia humboldtiana and Podophyllum pelatum. We also survey different neurological syndromes linked with the ingestion of vegetable foodstuffs that are rich in cyanogenic glycosides, Jamaican vomiting sickness caused by Blighia sapida, Parkinson dementia ALS of Guam island and exposition to Cycas circinalis, Guadeloupean parkinsonism and exposition to Annonaceae, konzo caused by ingestion of wild manioc and neurolathyrism from ingestion of Lathyrus sativus, the last two being models of motor neurone disease. Locoism is a chronic disease that develops in livestock feeding on plants belonging to Astragalus and Oxytropis sp., Sida carpinifolia and Ipomea carnea, which are rich in swainsonine, a toxin that inhibits the enzyme alpha mannosidase and induces a cerebellar syndrome. The ingestion of neurotoxic seeds, fruits and plants included in the diet and acute poisoning by certain plants can give rise to different neurological syndromes, some of which are irreversible.

  10. Trypanocidal activity of Brazilian plants against epimastigote forms from Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Renata Tomé Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in Latin America. Since the available treatments for this disease are not effective in providing cure, the screening of potential antiprotozoal agents is essential, mainly of those obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of the trypanocidal activity of 92 ethanol extracts from species belonging to the families Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Verbenaceae against the Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, cytotoxic activity on LLCMK2 fibroblasts was evaluated. Both the trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the MTT method, in the following concentrations: 500, 350, 250, and 100 µg/mL. Benznidazole was used for positive control. The best results among the 92 samples evaluated were obtained with ethanol extracts of Ocotea paranapiacabensis (Am93 and Aegiphila lhotzkiana (Am160. Am93 showed trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of the Bolivia strain and was moderately toxic to LLCMK2 cells, its Selectivity Index (SI being 14.56, while Am160 showed moderate trypanocidal activity against the Bolivia strain and moderate toxicicity, its SI being equal to 1.15. The screening of Brazilian plants has indicated the potential effect of ethanol extracts obtained from Ocotea paranapiacabensis and Aegiphila lhotzkiana against Chagas disease.

  11. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya.

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    Sethi, Pia; Howe, Henry F

    2009-06-01

    Hunting of hornbills by tribal communities is widespread in logged foothill forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We investigated whether the decline of hornbills has affected the dispersal and recruitment of 3 large-seeded tree species. We hypothesized that 2 low-fecundity tree species, Chisocheton paniculatus and Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) bearing arillate fruits, are more dispersal limited than a prolifically fruiting drupaceous tree Polyalthia simiarum (Annonaceae), which has potential dispersers other than hornbills. We estimated the abundance of large avian frugivores during the fruiting season along transects in 2 protected and 2 disturbed forests. We compared recruitment of the tree species near (Hornbills (Anthracoceros albirostris) were significantly lower in disturbed forests, but sites did not differ in abundances of the Mountain Imperial Pigeon (Ducula badia). Overall, tree species showed more severely depressed recruitment of seedlings (77% fewer) and juveniles (69% fewer) in disturbed than in protected forests. In disturbed forests, 93% fewer seedlings of C. paniculatus were beyond parental crowns, and a high number of all seedlings (42%) accumulated directly under reproductive adults. In contrast, D. binectariferum and P. simiarum were recruitment rather than dispersal limited, with fewer dispersed seedlings surviving in disturbed than in protected forests. Results are consistent with the idea that disturbance disrupts mutualisms between hornbills and some large-seeded food plants, with the caveat that role redundancy within even small and specialized disperser assemblages renders other tree species less vulnerable to loss of regular dispersal agents. ©2009 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  13. Time-Dependent Trapping of Pollinators Driven by the Alignment of Floral Phenology with Insect Circadian Rhythms

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    Jenny Y. Y. Lau

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several evolutionary lineages in the early divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae possess flowers with a distinctive pollinator trapping mechanism, in which floral phenological events are very precisely timed in relation with pollinator activity patterns. This contrasts with previously described angiosperm pollinator traps, which predominantly function as pitfall traps. We assess the circadian rhythms of pollinators independently of their interactions with flowers, and correlate these data with detailed assessments of floral phenology. We reveal a close temporal alignment between patterns of pollinator activity and the floral phenology driving the trapping mechanism (termed ‘circadian trapping’ here. Non-trapping species with anthesis of standard duration (c. 48 h cannot be pollinated effectively by pollinators with a morning-unimodal activity pattern; non-trapping species with abbreviated anthesis (23–27 h face limitations in utilizing pollinators with a bimodal circadian activity; whereas species that trap pollinators (all with short anthesis can utilize a broader range of potential pollinators, including those with both unimodal and bimodal circadian rhythms. In addition to broadening the range of potential pollinators based on their activity patterns, circadian trapping endows other selective advantages, including the possibility of an extended staminate phase to promote pollen deposition, and enhanced interfloral movement of pollinators. The relevance of the alignment of floral phenological changes with peaks in pollinator activity is furthermore evaluated for pitfall trap pollination systems.

  14. Phytochemicals Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Annona muricata Aqueous Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosniza Razali; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Arapoc, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Annona Muricata belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and many other bio activities. Leaves, twig, fruit and seed of A. muricata were collected from Suhan Biotech and dried. Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared for the preliminary screening of phytochemicals and aqueous extracts of A. muricata were evaluated for total phenolic, scavenging assay (DPPH; 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and cytotoxic activities. Phytochemicals screening of leaves extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoid, reducing sugar, carbohydrate and anthocyanins. While for twig extracts it revealed the presence of coumarine. Antra quinones, terpenoid, flavonoid, reducing sugar, lipids and coumarine were found in fruit and seed extracts. The total phenolic content was found to be 2.372±0.922 μg GAE/ g, 85.85±6.23 μg GAE/ g, 53.56±8.39 μg GAE/ g and 54.67±13.33 μg GAE/ g for leaves, twig, fruit and seed respectively. On the other hand, all extract have showed IC_5_0 value more than 500 μg/ mL in DPPH scavenging assay. Cytotoxic evaluation of all extracts against HTB43, MCF-7 and MDAMB231 cell lines showed IC_5_0 value more than 250 μg/ mL. In conclusion, the results showed that aqueous extract of A.muricata was inappropriate as anticancer agen (author)

  15. Uso y competición por plantas alimenticias entre Pithecia aequatorialis (Primates: Pitheciidae y otros animales en la Amazonía peruana

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    Elvis J. Charpentier J. Charpentier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En este reporte proporcionamos información sobre plantas alimenticias del huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis y sus competidores en bosque de altura de la microcuenca del río Itaya, Amazonía peruana. De mayo a noviembre del 2009 y de enero a abril del 2010 seguimos silenciosamente a dos grupos familiares con el propósito de registrar las plantas cuyos frutos forman parte de su dieta. Durante los contactos tuvimos 90 eventos alimenticios en 48 especies de plantas agrupadas en 24 familias. De ellas, 36 habitan en bosque de colina baja y el resto en bosque de terraza alta. La mayor diversidad de plantas alimenticias está agrupada en siete familias que en conjunto representaron el 60.4%, sobresaliendo entre ellas las familias Moraceae (8 especies, Fabaceae (6 especies y Annonaceae (4 especies. Los frutos en su mayoría fueron consumidos en estado maduro, siendo el mesocarpio el más apreciado (40%. Entre los mamíferos, siete de los competidores fueron primates, siendo el principal el pichico pardo (Saguinus lagonotus y entre las aves el tucán de cuello blanco (Ramphastos tucanus. Finalmente, los frutos de Pseudolmedia laevigata (Moraceae fueron los más preferidos por los competidores (7 especies de mamíferos y 2 de aves.

  16. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-01-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  17. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  18. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

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    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  19. Plantas do Gênero Xylopia: Composição Química e Potencial Farmacológico

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    L.E. SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A família Annonaceae possui representantes de grande interesse medicinal e o gênero Xylopia é um dos que merecem destaque. Composta por aproximadamente 160 espécies distribuídas na América do Sul, América central, África e Ásia, as espécies desse gênero podem ser arbustivas ou arbóreas. No Brasil são encontradas nas regiões Norte, Nordeste, Centro-Oeste e Centro Sul. Este gênero produz uma variedade de metabólitos incluindo alcalóides, amidas, lignóides, acetogeninas e terpenóides e têm sido investigados como fonte potencial de acetogeninas, compostos esses que apresentam uma ampla variedade de propriedades biológicas com destaque para: citotóxica, antitumoral, antiparasitária, antimicrobial, inseticida e antimalarial. Neste estudo, efetuou-se uma revisão das principais espécies de Xylopiaencontradas no Brasil, já estudadas e descritas na literatura, abordando os aspectos químico-farmacológicos, destacando os constituintes químicos isolados bem como a ação farmacológica evidenciada.

  20. L'ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson] : une plante à huile essentielle méconnue dans une filière en danger

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    Benini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson]: a barely known essential oil plant in an industry at risk. Cananga odorata is a tropical tree from the Annonaceae family, native of Indonesia. Only the forma genuina can be called ylang-ylang. Nowadays, it is mainly cultivated in the Indian Ocean Islands in order to extract the ylang-ylang essential oil for the cosmetic industry. Ylang-ylang develops on many types of soils, under high temperatures and average precipitations of 1,500 mm per year. The pollarding, the maintenance, the elimination of water sprouts and the weeding must be performed to insure a high flower yield and facilitate harvesting. Flower harvest takes place all year long but flowers and essential oils yields are higher during the dry season. Mature and fresh flowers are then distillated and fractionated to obtain essential oil. Generated incomes are important for the economy of the three main producers: Union of Comoros, Madagascar and Mayotte. However, this plant is still poorly known despite its great economic value. This lack of information is a bottleneck for solving the ylang-ylang industry problems which endanger it. Moreover, there is no improvement program of this plant despite the high added value of its essential oil, probably due to the fact that its reproduction biology is far from being known. A thorough study of the plant and its essential oil could generate information necessary to solve the aforementioned problems, maintain and develop the ylang-ylang industry.

  1. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K i = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K i = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  2. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica

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    RSR. Benites

    Full Text Available AbstractThe antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2 for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents.

  3. Flight patterns and sex ratio of beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae

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    Larissa Simões Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dynastinae is one of the most representative subfamilies of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeoidea and has considerable ecological importance due mainly to interactions with plants of the families Araceae and Annonaceae. This relationship has led to the evolution of nocturnal activity patterns, which are influenced by environmental conditions. In the present study, abiotic factors were investigated to comprehend the influence on the flight patterns and identify the sex ratio of beetles from this subfamily. A study was conducted at Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti in northeastern Brazil between December 2010 and November 2011. Thirteen species of Dynastinae were identified, most of which were from the genus Cyclocephala. Abundance and richness were greater in the dry season. Six species exhibited peak flight activity at specific periods of the night. More females than males were recorded for Cyclocephala distincta and C. paraguayensis. The present findings suggest that rainfall reduces the flight activity of these beetles and different time schedules may be related to mating behavior, foraging behavior and the avoidance of interspecific resource competition.

  4. Fragrance contact allergens in 5588 cosmetic products identified through a novel smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennike, N H; Oturai, N B; Müller, S; Kirkeby, C S; Jørgensen, C; Christensen, A B; Zachariae, C; Johansen, J D

    2018-01-01

    More than 25% of the adult European population suffers from contact allergy, with fragrance substances recognized as one of the main causes. Since 2005, 26 fragrance contact allergens have been mandatory to label in cosmetic products within the EU if present at 10 ppm or above in leave-on and 100 ppm or above in wash-off cosmetics. To examine exposure, based on ingredient labelling, to the 26 fragrances in a sample of 5588 fragranced cosmetic products. The investigated products were identified through a novel, non-profit smartphone application (app), designed to provide information to consumers about chemical substances in cosmetic products. Products registered through the app between December 2015 and October 2016 were label checked according to International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) for the presence of the 26 fragrance substances or the wording 'fragrance/parfum/aroma'. The largest product categories investigated were 'cream, lotion and oil' (n = 1192), 'shampoo and conditioner' (n = 968) and 'deodorants' (n = 632). Among cosmetic products labelled to contain at least one of the 26 fragrances, 85.5% and 73.9% contained at least two and at least three of the 26 fragrances, respectively. Linalool (49.5%) and limonene (48.5%) were labelled most often among all investigated products. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC/Lyral ® ) was found in 13.5% of deodorants. Six of the 26 fragrance substances were labelled on less than one per cent of all products, including the natural extracts Evernia furfuracea (tree moss) and Evernia prunastri (oak moss). A total of 329 (5.9%) products had one or more of the 26 fragrance substances labelled but did not have 'parfum/fragrance/aroma' listed on the label. Consumers are widely exposed to, often multiple, well-established fragrance contact allergens through various cosmetic products intended for daily use. Several fragrance substances that are common causes of contact allergy were rarely

  5. Estrutura fitossociológia de um fragmento natural de floresta inundável em área de orizicultura irrigada, município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins Phytosociologial structure of a natural fragment of floodplain forest in area of irrigated rice cultivation, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, Brazil

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    Elizabeth Rodrigues Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos naturais de florestas inundáveis conhecidos como ipucas localizam-se na planície do Araguaia, sob a forma de depressões naturais, que no Estado do Tocantins estão situados em áreas de planícies de inundação, que favorece seu alagamento e, conseqüentemente, o maior tempo de retenção da água em épocas de elevada precipitação. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido na fazenda Lago Verde, Município de Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins, situado entre as coordenadas UTM: 643586 e 644060 leste e 8792795 e 8799167 norte. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a estrutura de um fragmento de floresta inundável de aproximadamente um hectare, inserido em área de orizicultura irrigada. Para o levantamento fitossociológico, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com perímetro a 1,30 m do solo (PAP > 15 cm. Ao todo, foram encontrados 807 indivíduos, 35 famílias e 70 espécies. As espécies com maior VC, em ordem decrescente, foram Hirtella racemosa Lam., Qualea multiflora Mart. e Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Fabaceae (9, Vochysiaceae (6, Annonaceae e Malvaceae (4. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,44. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe.The natural fragments of floodplain forests known as "ipucas" are located in the Araguaia plain, in form of natural depressions, which are located in areas of floodplains in the State of Tocantins, favoring its flooding and, consequently, the largest period of water retention during periods of high precipitation. The present study was developed at Lagoa Verde farm, municipal district of Lagoa da Confusão, Tocantins between the coordinates UTM: 643586 and 644060 east and 8792795 and 8799167 north. The objective of the work was to characterize the structure of a floodplain forest fragment of approximately one-hectare area

  6. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

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    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  7. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

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    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  8. Composição florística de dois trechos em diferentes etapas serais de uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Floristic composition of two sites different seral stages of semideciduous seasonal montane forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Rogério Ferreira Ribas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em dois trechos de floresta semidecídua, com diferentes estádios de sucessão secundária, localizada no município de Viçosa-MG, objetivando verificar variações qualitativas na composição florística. Foram demarcadas, em cada trecho, dez parcelas de 10 x 20 m, nas quais foram inventariados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com circunferência à altura de 130 cm do solo maior ou igual a 5 cm. A similaridade florística entre as parcelas foi avaliada por meio de análise de agrupamentos, utilizando o índice de Sørensen. Foram amostradas 67 espécies no trecho com 15 anos e 69 no trecho com 30 anos. Dentre as espécies exclusivas, 38 foram para o trecho com 15 anos e 40 para o trecho com 30 anos. As famílias Annonaceae, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae e Sapindaceae, com cinco, quatro e quatro espécies cada, respectivamente, e o gênero Nectandra, com duas espécies, foram os taxa mais bem representados no trecho com 15 anos. Por outro lado, as famílias Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae e Myrtaceae, com quatro, três e quatro espécies, respectivamente, e o gênero Ocotea, com três espécies, foram mais bem representados no trecho com 30 anos. A similaridade florística entre parcelas de um mesmo trecho foi considerada alta, tendo sido relacionada à proximidade espacial, o que implica históricos de perturbação e regeneração semelhantes, resultando, conseqüentemente, em composições florísticas mais similares e mesmo estádio de sucessão secundária.This study was carried out in two sites of a semideciduous forest, under different stages of secondary succession in Viçosa, MG to verify qualitative variations in floristic composition. In each site, ten plots of 10 m x 20 m were delimited, with all woody individuals with circumference at 130 cm height from the soil larger than or equal to 5 cm being listed. Floristic similarity among parcels was evaluated through clustering analysis, using the S

  9. Composição florística do estrato arbóreo de floresta Atlântica Interiorana em Araponga - Minas Gerais Tree strtum floristc composition of an Inland Atlantic forest in Araponga - MG

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a composição florística de um fragmento de Floresta e analisar a sua similaridade com outras áreas de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, com o intuito de classificar a tipologia florestal da área de estudo. O levantamento foi realizado em uma trilha interpretativa na Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S e 42º29'47"W, 1.100 m de altitude, região de entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Município de Araponga, MG. A listagem florística foi obtida a partir do levantamento fitossociológico, no qual foram demarcados 150 pontos quadrantes. Foram relacionadas 147 espécies, 98 gêneros e 50 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram: Melastomataceae (14, Leguminosae (11, Myrtaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Annonaceae (7, Flacourtiaceae (7, Lauraceae (7 e Meliaceae (6. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento revelaram que os aspectos de proximidade geográfica e altitude são os principais responsáveis pela similaridade florística de muitas áreas. A vegetação da área de estudo pode ser classificada como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, pelo fato de a sua composição florística mostrar alta similaridade com outras áreas dessa mesma tipologia.The objective of this work was to determine the floristic composition of a forest fragment and to analyze its similarity with other areas of the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and Dense Ombrophylous Forest, in order to classify the forest typology of this area. The survey was carried out in an interpretative trail at the Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S and 42º29'47"W, 1100 m altitude, in the region around the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB, municipality of Araponga, MG. The floristic list was obtained from the phytosociological survey in which 150 quarter-centered-points were established. A total of 147 species, 98 genera and 50 families were found. The families with the greatest

  10. Análisis florístico del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayucu e Isla Mocagua, Amazonas (Colombia

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    Rudas L. Agustín

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study of the Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu and Isla Mocagua shows 1348 species, 574 genera and 128 families of vascular plants; 82% of the species are dicotyledons, 14% monocotyledons, 3.7% ferns and ca. 0.2% gymnosperms. Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae and Annonaceae represent 33% of the dicotyledonous species, whereas Araceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae are the main monocotyledonous families. Most families are Gondwanaland elements with sorne Laurasian elements; others are of unknown origino The main habit is represented by trees and shrubs (47% and 19% of the species, 25% are vines and herbs, 9% epiphytes and hemiepiphytes, and En un estudio florístico en cinco sectores del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu y en la Isla Mocagua, se encontraron 1348 especies de plantas vasculares, distribuidas en 574 géneros y 128 familias; 82% de las especies corresponden a dicotiledóneas, 14% a monocotiledóneas, 3.7% a pteridófitos y ca. de 0.2% a  gimnospermas. Las principales familias fueron Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae y Annonaceae  (dicotiledóneas, y Araceae, Arecaceae y Poaceae (monocotiledóneas. La mayoría de las familias corresponde a elementos de Gondwana con algunos elementos Laurásicos y otros sin origen asignado. El mayor número de las especies tienen hábito arbóreo o arbustivo (47% y 19% respectivamente, ca. del 25% de las especies son lianas y hierbas, 9% epífitas y hemiepífitas, mientras que las parásitas y saprófitas apenas representan < 1%. Los bosques de tierra firme presentan casi el doble de especies de arbustos, hierbas y epífitos que las planicies inundables. Algunos sectores del Parque relativamente distantes entre sí presentan una gran similaridad en cuanto a composición florística, hecho que puede atribuirse principalmente al tipo de agua (blanca, negra o mixta que los irriga. Una comparación con regiones similares en el corredor pacífico, el piedemonte amaz

  11. Análise da estrutura e do estoque de fitomassa de uma floresta secundária da região de Manaus AM, dez anos após corte raso seguido de fogo Biomass stock and structural analysis of a secondary forest in Manaus (AM region, ten years after clear cutting followed by fire

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    Adriano José Nogueira Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, o fogo é ainda o principal trato cultural utilizado no preparo de solo para agricultura e pecuária, tanto pelos pequenos como pelos grandes fazendeiros. Combinando à baixa fertilidade do solo e ao baixo preço da terra, assim que as fontes naturais de nutrientes são exauridas, as áreas são abandonadas e novas florestas primárias são derrubadas e queimadas. Por conta disso, grandes extensões de área da Amazônia são cobertas por florestas secundárias originadas de áreas abandonadas pela agricultura ou pastagem. Este estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental usada em uma pesquisa sobre eficiência de combustão e emissão de gás carbônico da floresta amazônica, localizada aproximadamente 50 km ao norte de Manaus. A vegetação da área experimental foi derrubada e queimada em 1991, simulando as condições em que o pequeno agricultor prepara o solo para plantios de subsistência. Dez anos após a queimada, a floresta secundária ainda é bastante diferente da floresta original. As espécies vegetais dominantes são, principalmente, das famílias botânicas Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Burseraceae, Cecropiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Melastomataceae, Mimosaceae, Sapindaceae e Sterculiaceae. O estoque de biomassa recuperado, dez anos após a formação da capoeira estudada, é de aproximadamente 16%, ou seja, a capoeira apresenta um estoque médio de 56,2 t.ha-1 ± 12 (IC 95%, enquanto que o estoque da floresta primária é de 339,7 t.ha-1 ± 66,7 (IC 95 %.In Amazonia, fire is widely used for soil preparation in the agriculture and cattle ranching, either by small or big farmers. The combination of low fertility of the soil and low price of the land usually leads to typical shift cultivation as soon as the natural sources of nutrients are exhausted, when new primary forests are felled and burned. Due to that, secondary forests originated from abandoned agriculture or pasture activity projects cover huge

  12. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of

  13. Florística da vegetação arbustivo - arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG Floristic of shrub - tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining, in Brás Pires, MG

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    Fernanda Squizzatto de Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos analisar a composição florística da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG, compará-la com outros fragmentos florestais e caracterizar aspectos de auto-ecologia das espécies e o solo da área. O levantamento florístico abrangeu uma área de 0,5 ha, subdividida em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 m x 10 m. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. A composição florística é o resultado desse levantamento acrescida de coletas fora da área de amostragem, totalizando 64 espécies, distribuídas em 50 gêneros e 30 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, enquanto o gênero mais rico foi Machaerium (3. A análise do substrato, nas condições em que se encontrava, revelou que este não impedia o estabelecimento da vegetação. A síndrome de dispersão preponderante era a zoocórica, destacando-se a importância de indivíduos remanescentes, fragmentos próximos e sua fauna associada. A maior similaridade florística ocorreu com o fragmento em Cruzeiro, SP, estando ambas as áreas em início de sucessão.This study aimed to analyze the floristic composition of shrub-tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, compare it with other forest fragments and characterize ecological aspects of species and soil of the area. The sampled area was 0.5 ha subdivided in 50 grid plots of 10x10 meters each. All individuals included had CAP equal or larger than 10cm. The floristic composition is the result of the sampled area plus species collected outside of it. A total of 64 species was obtained, distributed in 50 genera and 30 families. The families with the greater number of species were Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, while the richest genus was Machaerium (3. The soil

  14. In vitro screening of Amazonian plants for hemolytic activity and inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood Testes in vitro de plantas Amazônicas para atividade hemolítica e inibição da agregação plaquetária em sangue humano

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    Viviana Maria Araújo de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different aerial parts from twelve Amazonian plant species found in the National Institute for Amazon Research's (INPA's Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were collected. Separate portions of dried, ground plant materials were extracted with water (by infusion, methanol and chloroform (by continuous liquid-solid extraction and solvents were removed first by rotary evaporation, and finally by freeze-drying which yielded a total of seventy-one freeze-dried extracts for evaluation. These extracts were evaluated initially at concentrations of 500 and 100 µg/mL for in vitro hemolytic activity and in vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation in human blood, respectively. Sixteen extracts (23 % of all extracts tested, 42 % of all plant species, representing the following plants: Chaunochiton kappleri (Olacaceae, Diclinanona calycina (Annonaceae, Paypayrola grandiflora (Violaceae, Pleurisanthes parviflora (Icacinaceae, Sarcaulus brasiliensis (Sapotaceae, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards human platelet aggregation. A group of extracts with antiplatelet aggregation activity having no in vitro hemolytic activity has therefore been identified. Three extracts (4 %, all derived from Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae, exhibited hemolytic activity. None of the plant species in this study has known use in traditional medicine. So, these data serve as a baseline or minimum of antiplatelet and hemolytic activities (and potential usefulness of non-medicinal plants from the Amazon forest. Finally, in general, these are the first data on hemolytic and inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation for the genera which these plant species represent.No presente estudo, partes aéreas obtidas de doze (12 espécies vegetais da Amazônia encontradas na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (localizada na cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia foram coletadas, secadas e mo

  15. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

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    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  16. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

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    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  17. Autecology of the tailed jay butterfly Graphium agamemnon (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

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    Ramana, S P Venkata; Atluri, J B; Reddi, C Subba

    2003-07-01

    The Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon is one of the attractive papilionid butterflies that enliven the environment of Visakhapatnam. It occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae). The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 15-16 days. The pupal period is 13-14 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 33-36 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly can be multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures being 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar pattern with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value is with fifth instar. Adults frequently visited flowers (12-35 flowers in a min) spending 1.0 to 3.2 seconds on a flower. The nectar concentration ranged between 16 and 58%. Peak foraging activity mostly fell between 0900-1000 h. The proboscis received pollen in most of the floral species visited, thus satisfying one of the characteristics of butterfly pollination. Being a fast and strong flier it is treated as "high energy" pollinator promoting cross-pollination.

  18. Annickia affinis and A. chlorantha (Enantia chlorantha)--A review of two closely related medicinal plants from tropical Africa.

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    Olivier, D K; Van Vuuren, S F; Moteetee, A N

    2015-12-24

    Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

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    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Palikur traditional roundwood construction in eastern French Guiana: ethnobotanical and cultural perspectives.

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    Ogeron, Clémence; Odonne, Guillaume; Cristinoi, Antonia; Engel, Julien; Grenand, Pierre; Beauchêne, Jacques; Clair, Bruno; Davy, Damien

    2018-04-24

    Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species

  1. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw from Brunei Darussalam

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    Erum Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus velutinus Airy Shaw belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, antitumor and many other bioactivities. Natives of Sabah and Sarawak use root decoction of G. velutinus for the treatment of headache and food poisoning while the bark was used as a mosquito repellent. Bark and leaf extracts of this plant, obtained from Brunei Darussalam, were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and various in vitro antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of methanolic extract was carried out using colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per gram of extract, was found to be 68 mg GAE/g and 78 mg GAE/g for bark and leaves respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of EC50 (effective concentration of extract in μg/mL that reduces DPPH absorbance to 50% as compared to negative control, for leaf and bark extracts was found to be 155 μg/mL and 204 μg/mL respectively. Standards trolox and ascorbic acid show EC50 value of 5 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was measured using the ABTS and FRAP method. Result for bark and leaf extracts was 79 mg and 106 mg trolox equivalent (TE/g respectively for the ABTS method. For FRAP assay, results for bark and leaf extracts were 80 and 89 mg TE/g respectively.

  2. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.

  3. Huertos familiares en la bahía de Cispatá, Córdoba, Colombia

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    Néstor David Jiménez-Escobar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios etnobotánicos relacionados con las comunidades que habitan los alrededores de las zonas estuarinas y aprovechan los bosques de mangle en Colombia son escasos. Por esto, con el fin de apoyar futuros proyectos de manejo y conservación se realizó un primer acercamiento al conocimiento de los huertos familiares de las comunidades campesinas que habitan en la bahía de Cispatá en el Caribe colombiano. Se analizó la estructura, la composición florística y los usos de las especies leñosas presentes en los huertos familiares. En un área total de 29950 m2, correspondiente a doce huertos familiares, se registraron 1798 individuos (DAP > 2,5 cm, correspondientes a 83 especies de árboles y palmas, asociadas a 32 familias botánicas. La familia Leguminosae s. l. presentó el mayor número de especies (12, seguida de Annonaceae, Arecaceae y Moraceae (6. La categoría que presentó mayor número de especies fue Comestible (46, seguida de Medicinal (34 y Construcción (33. Según el índice de Saliencia la palmera Cocos nucifera es la especie más importante en los huertos. Se encontró una relación positiva entre el número de individuos por especie y su importancia cultural. Por otra parte, se recomienda incluir en futuros planes de conservación a las especies nativas que presentan un manejo dentro de los huertos.

  4. Characterizing the phylogenetic tree community structure of a protected tropical rain forest area in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Stéphanie; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world.

  5. Characterizing the Phylogenetic Tree Community Structure of a Protected Tropical Rain Forest Area in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, François; Couteron, Pierre; Hardy, Olivier J.; Sonké, Bonaventure

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests, the richest terrestrial ecosystems in biodiversity on Earth are highly threatened by global changes. This paper aims to infer the mechanisms governing species tree assemblages by characterizing the phylogenetic structure of a tropical rain forest in a protected area of the Congo Basin, the Dja Faunal Reserve (Cameroon). We re-analyzed a dataset of 11538 individuals belonging to 372 taxa found along nine transects spanning five habitat types. We generated a dated phylogenetic tree including all sampled taxa to partition the phylogenetic diversity of the nine transects into alpha and beta components at the level of the transects and of the habitat types. The variation in phylogenetic composition among transects did not deviate from a random pattern at the scale of the Dja Faunal Reserve, probably due to a common history and weak environmental variation across the park. This lack of phylogenetic structure combined with an isolation-by-distance pattern of taxonomic diversity suggests that neutral dispersal limitation is a major driver of community assembly in the Dja. To assess any lack of sensitivity to the variation in habitat types, we restricted the analyses of transects to the terra firme primary forest and found results consistent with those of the whole dataset at the level of the transects. Additionally to previous analyses, we detected a weak but significant phylogenetic turnover among habitat types, suggesting that species sort in varying environments, even though it is not predominating on the overall phylogenetic structure. Finer analyses of clades indicated a signal of clustering for species from the Annonaceae family, while species from the Apocynaceae family indicated overdispersion. These results can contribute to the conservation of the park by improving our understanding of the processes dictating community assembly in these hyperdiverse but threatened regions of the world. PMID:24936786

  6. Arqueobotânica de um sambaqui sul-brasileiro: integrando indícios sobre o paleoambiente e o uso de recursos florestais

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    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available Resumo Madeiras in natura são testemunhos raros em sítios arqueológicos de tipologia sambaqui. A partir da evidência de estacas encharcadas de madeira na base do sítio, objetivou-se conhecer as espécies vegetais e a sua funcionalidade no contexto arqueológico do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado na região norte de Joinville, Santa Catarina, e com base datada de 3480 ± 60 AP. A caracterização da madeira foi realizada por meio de preparações histológicas e seguiu a terminologia proposta pela International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA. A determinação dos táxons deu-se mediante comparação em coleção de referência. Foram reconhecidas diferentes espécies madeiráveis de ocorrência natural nos ambientes de manguezal, floresta de terras baixas e restinga. Destacaram-se os seguintes táxons: Andira sp. (Fabaceae, Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae, Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae, Buchenavia sp. (Combretaceae, Handroanthus sp. (Bignoniaceae, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, Schinus sp. (Anacardiaceae e Xylopia (Annonaceae. Entre as propriedades físicas que conferem qualidade às madeiras identificadas, destaca-se a densidade básica, com valores médios a altos em sua maioria, indicando seu uso potencial em elementos com função estrutural. Dentre as possíveis interpretações, os resultados evidenciam o uso de madeiras para a construção de uma plataforma projetada para dar sustentação ao sítio, possivelmente em função das características plásticas dos solos de manguezal.

  7. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  8. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  9. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E.; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries. PMID:29258279

  10. Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Jahan, Rahat; Chaudhary, Sanjib; Walker, Larry A; Sayed, Zafar; Jones, Dwight T; Batra, Surinder K; Macha, Muzafar A

    2018-04-05

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the USA and around the world. Although the current synthetic inhibitors used in targeted therapies have improved patient prognosis, toxicity and development of resistance to these agents remain a challenge. Plant-derived natural products and their derivatives have historically been used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Several leading chemotherapeutic agents are directly or indirectly based on botanical natural products. Beyond these important drugs, however, a number of crude herbal or botanical preparations have also shown promising utility for cancer and other disorders. One such natural resource is derived from certain plants of the family Annonaceae, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the best known of these is Annona muricata, also known as soursop, graviola or guanabana. Extracts from the fruit, bark, seeds, roots and leaves of graviola, along with several other Annonaceous species, have been extensively investigated for anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Phytochemical studies have identified the acetogenins, a class of bioactive polyketide-derived constituents, from the extracts of Annonaceous species, and dozens of these compounds are present in different parts of graviola. This review summarizes current literature on the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of these constituents from A.muricata against cancer and many non-malignant diseases. Based on available data, there is good evidence that these long-used plants could have both chemopreventive and therapeutic potential. Appropriate attention to safety studies will be important to assess their effectiveness on various diseases caused or promoted by inflammation.

  11. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.

  12. Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahman, Mashitoh Abd; Hassan, Zalila; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression

  13. PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI FORMULASI INSEKTISIDA NABATI UNTUK PENGENDALIAN HAMA SAYURAN DALAM UPAYA MENGHASILKAN PRODUK SAYURAN SEHAT

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    Dadang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticide for pest management to protect insect attacking the holticulture product have been done intensivelly and seems not wise which predicted could cause a negative impact to the environmental and human health. Due to that reason then the research prepared to know the pest management technology especially for holticultural product through the use of material or something that come from the agricultural planting material as natural insecticide which could be developed as commercial products that practice and safe to produce healty holticultural product. Three species of fruits and holticultural plant used for the research namely Annona squamosa (Annonaceae/seed, Piper retrofractum (Piperaceae/fruit and Tephrosia vogelii (Leguminosae/Leaves extracted with methanol. Every extract product tested with larva of Cricidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera : Crambidae, that is one of the pest for holticultural product which treated with direction the planting and in the leaves. The extract was tested also to the food barrier of C. Pavonana. The extract of A. Squamosa was contact toxic than abdomen toxic, while on the contrary the extract of P. retrofractum have more impart to the abdomen toxic than contact toxic. The extract of P. Retrofractum and A. Squamosa at the concertation of 0.2 % could protect food activities of the larvas that was about 80 %. The mixed extract of T. Vogelii and A. Squamosa more toxic or more effective than the mixed extract of T. Vogelii and P. Retrofractum. In the developing natural insecticide formula, the using of agristic adjuvant was better tahan tween and miracle especially in formulation establishization. The treatment of P. Retrofractum and T. Vogelii in the field could reduce the development of C. Pavonana which finally those both extract could be used wider as combined with A. Squamosa extract in order to increase the effectiveness

  14. LA ABUNDANCIA, LA DOMINANCIA Y SUS RELACIONES CON EL USO DE LA VEGETACIÓN ARBÓREA EN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

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    Jiménez-Escobar Néstor David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documentó el conocimiento tradicional de los árboles útiles en la comunidadcampesina que habita en la bahía de Cispatá y se evaluó su relación con la dominanciade especies en los bosques de mangle. Se realizaron 31 entrevistas semiestructuradaspara obtener los índices relativos de importancia cultural de cada una de las especies. Seevaluó la abundancia y la dominancia de los árboles en áreas naturales para tres zonasclasificadas según la proximidad que presentan para los pobladores. Se registraron 120especies asociadas a 152 nombres comunes. Los árboles conocidos por la comunidadcorresponden a 97 géneros de 38 familias. Las Leguminosae s.l. presentaron elmayor número de especies útiles (19, seguidas de Malvaceae (9, Arecaceae (8,Anacardiaceae (6, Annonaceae (6 y Moraceae (6. En total se encontraron 58 usosdiferentes clasificados en doce categorías. Rhizophora mangle fue la especie másabundante, dominante y con el mayor valor relativo de importancia cultural en la regiónde estudio. Se encontró una correlación positiva entre las especies más dominantesen la vegetación natural y el conocimiento sobre su uso. Las zonas más cercanas a lacomunidad fueron las que presentaron mayor riqueza de especies, aunque la cercaníacon los pobladores podría estar generando presión sobre los recursos vegetales

  15. Bioatividade de três espécies vegetais nativas da Floresta Atlântica brasileira frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina

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    W.M Pompilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae, Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae, e Bathysa australis (St Hill Hooz (Rubiaceae, bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos, Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.

  16. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  17. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

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    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  18. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  19. Polyalthia longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extracts (PLME) induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarization by possibly modulating the redox status in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Oon, Chern Ein; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been accepted as a gold mine, with respect to the diversity of their phytochemicals. Many medicinal plants extracts are potential anticancer agents. Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia Thw. (Annonaceae) is one of the most significant native medicinal plants and is found throughout Malaysia. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the anticancer properties of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) and its underlying mechanisms. The Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis showed that PLME induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner whereas the PI flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle demonstrated the accumulation of cells at sub G0/G1, G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Investigation with JC-1 flow cytometry analysis indicated increase in mitochondria membrane potential depolarisation corresponding to increase in PLME concentrations. PLME was also shown to influence intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by exerting anti-oxidant (half IC 50 ) and pro-oxidant (IC 50 and double IC 50 ) affect against HeLa cells. PLME treatment also displayed DNA damage in HeLa cells in concentration depended fashion. The proteomic profiling array exposed the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins upon PLME treatment at IC 50 concentration in HeLa cells. Pro-apoptotic proteins; BAX, BAD, cytochrome c, caspase-3, p21, p27 and p53 were found to be significantly up-regulated while anti-apoptotic proteins; BCL-2 and BCL-w were found to be significantly down-regulated. This investigation postulated the role of p53 into mediating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarisation by modulating the redox status of HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Gas exchange, phisiological indexes and ionic accumulation in Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings in nutrients solution

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    Daniel Baron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available "Araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer has been consider a good alternative in rootstock production for the main commercial Annonaceae species. Although this species develops in different soil and climate conditions, there is no understanding by the physiological responses of this species at different nutritional levels. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ionic strengths on development of vegetative species known as "Araticum-de-terra-fria". It was evaluated in seedlings grown in different ionic strengths (25% I, 50% I, 75% I and 100% I of the complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, for 140 days, the following characteristics: Gas Exchange (CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, Rubisco carboxylation efficiency; Vegetative growth characteristics (diameter, leaf number, dry matter; Physiological Indexes (leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf weight ratio and Ionic Accumulation (nutrients leaf analysis. Seedlings grown under 50% I showed the highest values of Leaf CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, growth, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and ionic accumulation in the total dry matter. So it is concluded that "Araticum-de-terra-fria" seedlings grown under intermediate nutrient concentrations of complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, explored more adequately their physiological potential that justify their adaptation in different nutritional conditions and allow reducing the amount of mineral nutrition of seedlings production.

  1. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

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    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  2. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

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    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  3. Estrutura comunitária e amplitude ecológica do componente lenhoso de uma floresta de restinga mal drenada no sudeste do Brasil Woody-layer structure and ecological amplitude of a poorly drained beach-ridge forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos a estrutura de uma floresta mal drenada na Restinga da Marambaia, RJ, e a amplitude ecológica das espécies quanto à tolerância à inundação do solo. Foram amostrados em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 X 10m (0,5 ha, indivíduos com diâmetro do caule a altura do peito (DAP >2,5 cm. Registramos 1.223 indivíduos vivos (distribuídos em 24 famílias, 43 gêneros e 57 espécies. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 2,87 e a equabilidade (J' foi de 0,68. A densidade total foi de 2.446 ind. ha-1 e a área basal de 25,14 m². ha-1. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Myrtaceae (13, Leguminosae (5, Annonaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrsinaceae e Sapindaceae (4. Dez espécies apresentaram valor de importância (VI acima de nove, correspondendo o somatório de seus valores a 75% do VI total. As espécies com maiores valores de VI foram Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (42,42, Amaioua intermedia Mart. ex Roem. & Schult. (40,77 e Chaetocarpus myrsinites Baill. (39,98, que juntas detiveram 41% do VI total. A comunidade arbórea analisada foi composta principalmente por espécies preferenciais de áreas secas, ou seja, espécies com preferência por alagamento periódico do solo ou solos mais secos, mas não com alagamento permanente ou quase permanente do solo. A maior similaridade da floresta mal drenada da Marambaia foi observada com as florestas inundáveis do Parque Nacional de Jurubatiba, RJ (21,4 e 23,8%. Nossos resultados permitiram concluir que não existe uma flora particular para as formações inundáveis nas restingas do sul e sudeste brasileiro e que mudanças do padrão florístico da vegetação dessas áreas ocorrem em função da proximidade da fonte de propágulos de espécies com alta tolerância à inundação do solo e secundariamente relacionada a questões fitogeográficas, ligadas à limitação da distribuição de espécies pelas condições climáticas das regiões subtropicais.We analyzed the structure of a

  4. Produção integrada de Anonáceas no Brasil

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    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os conceitos técnicos e operacionais contidos na Produção Integrada (PI vêm atender de forma direta às exigências dos órgãos nacionais e internacionais que fiscalizam o comércio de "commodities", dando ênfase à segurança e a qualidade dos alimentos produzidos e consumidos pela população. A garantia da produção de um alimento seguro e rastreável é alcançada mediante o esforço harmônico de todos os integrantes da cadeia produtiva. Esse sistema pressupõe o cumprimento das Normas Técnicas Específicas (NTE para cada produto, permitindo o controle efetivo do sistema produtivo agropecuário por meio do monitoramento de todas as etapas na cadeia produtiva. Esse conceito teve início com o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP e, posteriormente, expandiu-se para uma visão holística, estruturada em quatro pilares de sustentação: organização da base produtiva; sustentabilidade do sistema; monitoramento dos processos; e formação de um banco de dados. Dentro desta visão, insere-se a Produção Integrada de Anonáceas, projeto iniciado em 2010, com apoio do CNPq/MAPA/EMBRAPA e instituições parceiras. As anonáceas representam um nome genérico para designar as plantas da família Annonaceae constituída por cerca de 120 gêneros e em torno de 2.300 espécies. No Brasil, estão registrados 29 gêneros, dentro dos quais cerca de 260 espécies. Entre as espécies de maior importância comercial, destacam-se a graviola (Annona muricata L., pinha (Annona squamosa L., cherimólia (Annona cherimólia, Mill. e a atemoia, hibrido de A. cherimólia e A. squamosa. Essas frutas têm alta aceitação pelo seu sabor e possibilidade de uso para consumo in natura, sucos e geleias. As áreas comercialmente cultivadas são concentradas nos Estados do Nordeste do Brasil. Os Estados de maior concentração: Bahia para graviola e pinha, Alagoas para pinha e São Paulo para atemoia. Os resultados de pesquisa envolvendo toda a cadeia produtiva dessas

  5. Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa and its compounds against blood-feeding parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, Gunabalan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Priya, Kanagaraj Mohana; Saral, Antoneyraj Mary; Khan, Fazlur Rahman Nawaz; Khanna, Venkatesh Gopiesh; Velayutham, Kannaiyaram; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-11-01

    Plant products may be alternative sources of parasitic control agents, since they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are eco-friendly and nontoxic products. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, fruit peel aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) extracted by immersion method exhibited adulticidal activity against Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae) and the hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and larvicidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), Anopheles subpictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of A. squamosa fruit peel aqueous extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent of peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa was identified as 1H- cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-[1ar-(1aα,4aα, 7β, 7 a, β, 7bα)] (28.55%) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The other major constituents present in the aqueous extract were retinal 9-cis- (12.61%), 3,17-dioxo-4-androsten-11alpha-yl hydrogen succinate (6.86%), 1-naphthalenepentanol decahydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-y,2-bis(methylene)-(1α,4aβ,5α,8aα) (14.83%), 1-naphthalenemethanol decahydro -5-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 1,4a-di methyl - 6-methylene -(1S-[1α, 4aα, 5α(E), 8aβ] (4.44%), (-)-spathulenol (20.75%), podocarp-7-en-3-one13β-methyl-13-vinyl- (5.98%), and 1-phenanthrene carboxaldehyde 7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4,5,6,7,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,4a,7-trimethyl-[1R-(1α,4aβ.4bα,7β, 10aα)]-(5.98%). The adult and larval parasitic mortalities observed in fruit peel aqueous extract of A. squamosa were 31, 59, 80, 91, and100%; 27, 42, 66, 87, and 100%; and 33, 45, 68, 92, and 100% at the concentrations of 250, 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 ppm, respectively, against

  6. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

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    A.F. SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  7. An Evaluation Of Anti Cancer Potential Of Annona Muricata Linn (Durian Belanda) Tea Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Fakhrurazi Ahmad Fadzil; Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis

    2014-01-01

    Though the number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the improvements in early detection, cancer incidence and deaths still escalating each year. Even though there are major advancement in medicine technology such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, people in developing countries especially in Asian countries are looking towards natural product as an alternative medicine especially in cancer treatment and prevention; primarily because of the general belief that herbal drugs are without any side effects besides being cheap and locally available. One of them is the leaves of Annona Muricata L. from the Annonaceae family is well known for their anti cancer activity by the local people in Malaysia and is commonly known as Soursoup or in local name of Durian Belanda. In the local market the most of the product of Annona Muricata L. is in the form of tea bag. This present study was aimed to evaluate the anti cancer potential of the extract of Annona Muricata L. The tea bag of Annona Muricata L. was obtain from a local market and was physically identified and confirmed by botanist as the leaves of Annona Muricata L. Sequential extraction was done using hexane, chloroform, methanol and hot aqueous. All of these extracts will be screen for alkaloid, saponin, cardiac glucoside and flavonoid. Then quantitative estimation of phenolics adn flavonoid content was conducted. These extract are also being tested on MDPA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HTB-43 (head and neck cancer) by MTT assay. These extract was also evaluated for their reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The parameters obtained from the test was IC50 values, a value that produce inhibitory cancer cells by 50 % and a value that produce radical scavenging at 50 % for both MTT assay and DPPH assay. Results revealed that the IC50 of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract for MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) was 35.1μg/ml, 26.8 μg/ml, 19.1

  8. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ({sup 3}H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC{sub 50} values >100 {mu} g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase

  9. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ( 3 H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC 50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2